The Twelve Imams: Wikis

  
  

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The Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, in the Twelver or Ithna-‘ashariyyah branch of Shī‘ah Islam.[1] According to the theology of Twelvers, the successor of Muhammad is an infallible human individual who not only rules over the community with justice, but also is able to keep and interpret the Divine Law and its esoteric meaning. The Prophet and Imams' words and deeds are a guide and model for the community to follow; as a result, they must be free from error and sin, and must be chosen by divine decree, or nass, through the Prophet.[2][3] It is believed by Twelver Shi'a Muslims that the Twelve Imams were foretold in the Hadith of the Twelve Successors.

It is believed in Twelver and Ismaili Shī‘ah Islam that ‘aql, divine wisdom, was the source of the souls of the Prophets and Imams and gave them esoteric knowledge called ḥikmah and that their sufferings were a means of divine grace to their devotees.[1][4][5] Although the Imam was not the recipient of a divine revelation, he had a close relationship with God, through which God guides him, and the Imam in turn guides the people. Imamate, or belief in the divine guide is a fundamental belief in the Twelver and Ismaili Shī‘ī branches and is based on the concept that God would not leave humanity without access to divine guidance.[6]

According to Twelvers, there is always an Imam of the Age, who is the divinely appointed authority on all matters of faith and law in the Muslim community. ‘Alī was the first Imam of this line, and in the Twelvers' view, the rightful successor to the Prophet of Islam, followed by male descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah Zahra. Each Imam was the son of the previous Imam, with the exception of Husayn ibn Ali, who was the brother of Hasan ibn Ali.[1] The twelfth and final Imam is Muhammad al-Mahdi, who is believed by the Twelvers to be currently alive, and hidden till he returns to bring justice to the world.[6]

Contents

List of imams

Number Modern depiction Name
(Full/Kunya)
Title
(Arabic/Turkish)[7]
Date of
Birth
Death
(CE/AH)[8]
Importance Place of birth Reason & place of death
and place of burial[9]
1 Imamali.png Ali ibn Abu Talib
علي بن أبي طالب
Abu al-Hasan
أبو الحسن
Amir al-Mu'minin


(Commander of the Faithful)[10]


Birinci Ali[11]
600–661[10]
23(before Hijra)–40[12]
The first Imam and the rightful successor of the Prophet of all Shi'a; however, the Sunnis acknowledge him as the fourth Caliph as well. He holds a high position in almost all Sufi Muslim orders (Turuq); the members of these orders trace their lineage to Muhammad through him.[10] Mecca,
Saudi Arabia[10]
Assassinated by Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam, a Kharijite in Kufa, who slashed him with a poisoned sword while he was praying.[10][13]
Buried at the Imam Ali Mosque in Najaf,
Iraq.
2 Imamhassan.png Hasan ibn Ali
حسن بن علي
Abu Muhammad
أبو محمد
al-Mujtaba


(The Chosen)


Ikinci Ali[11]
624–670[14]
3–50[15]
He was the eldest surviving grandson of Muhammad through Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah az-Zahra. Hasan succeeded his father as the caliph in Kufa, and on the basis of peace treaty with Muawiya I, he relinquished control of Iraq following a reign of seven months.[16] Medina,
Saudi Arabia[14]
Poisoned by his wife in Medina, Saudi Arabia on the orders of the Caliph Muawiya, according to Twelver Shi'ite belief.[17]
Buried in Jannat al-Baqi, Medina,
Saudi Arabia.
3 Husayn ibn Ali
حسین بن علي
Abu Abdillah
أبو عبدالله
Sayyid ash-Shuhada


(Master of the Marytrs)


Ūçüncü Ali[11]
626–680[18]
4–61[19]
He was a grandson of Muhammad and brother of Hasan ibn Ali. Husayn opposed the validity of Caliph Yazid I. As a result, he and his family were later killed in the Battle of Karbala by Yazid's forces. After this incident, the commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali has become a central ritual in Shi'a identity.[18][20] Medina,
Saudi Arabia[18]
Killed and beheaded at the Battle of Karbala.[18]
Buried at the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala,
Iraq.
4 Imamalsajjad.png Ali ibn Husayn
علي بن الحسین
Abu Muhammad
أبو محمد
al-Sajjad, Zayn al-'Abidin


(One who constantly Prostrates, Ornament of the Worshippers) [21 ]


Dorduncu Ali[11]
658/9[21 ] – 712[22]
38[21 ]–95[22]
Author of prayers in Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya, which is known as "The Psalm of the Household of the Prophet."[22] Medina,
Saudi Arabia[21 ]
According to most Shi'a scholars, he was poisoned on the order of Caliph al-Walid I in Medina, Saudi Arabia.[22]
Buried in Jannat al-Baqi, Medina,
Saudi Arabia.
5 Imamalbaqir.png Muhammad ibn Ali
محمد بن علي
Abu Ja'far
أبو جعفر
Baqir al-Ulum


(The Revealer of Knowledge) [23 ]


Besinci Ali[11]
677–732[23 ]
57–114[23 ]
Sunni and Shi'a sources both describe him as one of the early and most eminent legal scholars, teaching many students during his tenure.[23 ][24] Medina,
Saudi Arabia[23 ]
According to some Shi'a scholars, he was poisoned by Ibrahim ibn Walid ibn 'Abdallah in Medina, Saudi Arabia on the order of Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik.[22]
Buried in Jannat al-Baqi, Medina,
Saudi Arabia.
6 Imamalsadiq.png Ja'far ibn Muhammad
جعفر بن محمد
Abu Abdillah
أبو عبدالله
as-Sadiq[25]


(The Honest)


Altinci Ali[11]
702–765[25]
83–148[25]
Established the Ja'fari jurisprudence and developed the Theology of Shi'a. He instructed many scholars in different fields, including Abu Hanifah and Malik ibn Anas in fiqh, Wasil ibn Ata and Hisham ibn Hakam in Islamic theology, and Geber in science and alchemy.[25][26][27] Medina,
Saudi Arabia[25]
According to Shi'a sources, he was poisoned in Medina, Saudi Arabia on the order of Caliph Al-Mansur.[25]
Buried in Jannat al-Baqi, Medina,
Saudi Arabia.
7 Imamalkadhim.png Musa ibn Ja'far
موسی بن جعفر
Abu al-Hasan I
أبو الحسن الاول[28]
al-Kazim[29]


(The Calm One)


Yedinci Ali[11]
744–799[29]
128–183[29]
Leader of the Shi'a community during the schism of Ismaili and other branches after the death of the former Imam, Jafar al-Sadiq.[30] He established the network of agents who collected khums in the Shi'a community of the Middle East and the Greater Khorasan.He holds a high position in Mahdavia; the members of these orders trace their lineage to Muhammad through him.[31] Medina,
Saudi Arabia[29]
Imprisoned and poisoned in Baghdad, Iraq on the order of Caliph Harun al-Rashid, according to Shi'ite belief.
Buried in the Kazimayn shrine in Baghdad,
Iraq.[29]
8 Imamalrida.png Ali ibn Musa
علي بن موسی
Abu al-Hasan II
أبو الحسن الثانی[28]
ar-Rida, Reza[32]


(The Pleasing One)


Sekizinci Ali[11]
765–817[32]
148–203[32]
Made crown-prince by Caliph Al-Ma'mun, and famous for his discussions with both Muslim and non-Muslim religious scholars.[32] Medina,
Saudi Arabia[32]
According to Shi'a sources, he was poisoned in Mashad, Iran on the order of Caliph Al-Ma'mun.
Buried in the Imam Reza shrine in Mashad,
Iran.[32]
9 Imamaltaqi.png Muhammad ibn Ali
محمد بن علي
Abu Ja'far
أبو جعفر
al-Taqi, al-Jawad[33]


(The God-Fearing, The Generous)


Dokuzuncu Ali[11]
810–835[33]
195–220[33]
Famous for his generosity and piety in the face of persecution by the Abbasid caliphate. Medina,
Saudi Arabia[33]
Poisoned by his wife, Al-Ma'mun's daughter, in Baghdad, Iraq on the order of Caliph Al-Mu'tasim, according to Shi'ite sources.
Buried in the Kazmain shrine in Baghdad,
Iraq.[33]
10 Imamalhadi.png Ali ibn Muhammad
علي بن محمد
Abu al-Hasan III
أبو الحسن الثالث[34]
al-Hadi, al-Naqi[34]


(The Guide, The Pure One)


Onuncu Ali[11]
827–868[34]
212–254[34]
Strengthened the network of deputies in the Shi'a community. He sent them instructions, and received in turn financial contributions of the faithful from the khums and religious vows.[34] Surayya, a village near Medina,
Saudi Arabia[34]
According to Shi'a sources, he was poisoned in Samarra, Iraq on the order of Caliph Al-Mu'tazz.[35]
Buried in the Al Askari Mosque in Samarra,
Iraq.
11 Imamalaskari.png Hasan ibn Ali
الحسن بن علي
Abu Muhammad
أبو محمد
al-Askari[36]


(The Citizen of a Garrision Town)


Onbirinci Ali[11]
846–874[36]
232–260[36]
For most of his life, the Abbasid Caliph, Al-Mu'tamid, placed restrictions on him after the death of his father. Repression of the Shi'ite population was particularly high at the time due to their large size and growing power.[37] Medina,
Saudi Arabia[36]
According to Shi'a, he was poisoned on the order of Caliph Al-Mu'tamid in Samarra, Iraq.
Buried in Al Askari Mosque in Samarra,
Iraq.[38]
12 Muhammad ibn al-Hasan
محمد بن الحسن
Abu al-Qasim
أبو القاسم
al-Mahdi, Hidden Imam, al-Hujjah[39]


(The Guided One, The Proof)


Onikinci Ali[11]
868–unknown[40]
255–unknown[40]
According to Twelver Shi'ite, doctrine, he is an actual historical personality and is the current Imam and the promised Mahdi, a messianic figure who will return with Christ. He will reestablish the rightful governance of Islam and replete the earth with justice and peace.[41] Samarra,
Iraq[40]
According to Shi'a doctrine, he has been living in the Occultation since 872, and will continue as long as God wills it.[40]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c "Shi'ite". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 2007. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9067367/Shiite. Retrieved 2007-11-06.  
  2. ^ Nasr (1979), p.10
  3. ^ Momen (1985), p.174
  4. ^ Nasr (1979), p.15
  5. ^ Corbin (1993), pp.45–51
  6. ^ a b Gleave, Robert. "Imamate". Encyclopaedia of Islam and the Muslim world; vol.1. MacMillan. ISBN 0028656040.  
  7. ^ The Imam's Arabic titles are used by the majority of Twelver Shi'a who use Arabic as a liturgical language, including the Usooli, Akhbari, Shaykhi, and to a lesser extent Alawi. Turkish titles are generally used by Alevi, a fringe Twelver group, who make up around 10% of the world Shi'a population. The titles for each Imam literally translate as "First Ali", "Second Ali", and so forth. Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Gale Group. 2004. ISBN 9780028657691.  
  8. ^ The abbreviation CE refers to the Common Era solar calendar, while AH refers to the Islamic Hijri lunar calendar.
  9. ^ Except Twelth Imam
  10. ^ a b c d e Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Ali". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9005712/Ali. Retrieved 2007-10-12.  
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Gale Group. 2004. ISBN 9780028657691.  
  12. ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp.190–192
  13. ^ Tabatabae (1979), p.192
  14. ^ a b "Hasan". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9039439/Hasan. Retrieved 2007-11-08.  
  15. ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp.194–195
  16. ^ Madelung, Wilferd. "Hasan ibn Ali". Encyclopedia Iranica. http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v12f1/v12f1024.html. Retrieved 2008-03-23.  
  17. ^ Tabatabae (1979), p.195
  18. ^ a b c d "al-Husayn". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9041622/al-Husayn-ibn-Ali. Retrieved 2007-11-08.  
  19. ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp.196–199
  20. ^ Calmard, Jean. "Husayn ibn Ali". Encyclopedia Iranica. http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v12f5/v12f5036c.html. Retrieved 2008-03-23.  
  21. ^ a b c d Madelung, Wilferd. "'ALÈ B. AL-HUOSAYN". Encyclopedia Iranica. http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v1f8/v1f8a052.html. Retrieved 2007-11-08.  
  22. ^ a b c d e Tabatabae (1979), p.202
  23. ^ a b c d e Madelung, Wilferd. "AL-BAQER, ABU JAFAR MOHAMMAD". Encyclopedia Iranica. http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v3f7/v3f7a043.html. Retrieved 2007-11-08.  
  24. ^ Tabatabae (1979), p.203
  25. ^ a b c d e f Tabatabae (1979), p.203–204
  26. ^ Research Committee of Strasburg University, Imam Jafar Ibn Muhammad As-Sadiq A.S. The Great Muslim Scientist and Philosopher, translated by Kaukab Ali Mirza, 2000. Willowdale Ont. ISBN 0969949014.
  27. ^ "Wasil ibn Ata". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9076198/Wasil-ibn-Ata. Retrieved 2007-11-08.  
  28. ^ a b Madelung, Wilferd. "'ALÈ AL-HAÚDÈ". Encyclopedia Iranica. http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v1f8/v1f8a117.html. Retrieved 2007-11-09.  
  29. ^ a b c d e Tabatabae (1979), p.205
  30. ^ Tabatabae (1979) p. 78
  31. ^ Sachedina (1988), pp.53–54
  32. ^ a b c d e f Tabatabae (1979), pp.205–207
  33. ^ a b c d e Tabatabae (1979), p. 207
  34. ^ a b c d e f Madelung, Wilferd. "'ALÈ AL-HAÚDÈ". Encyclopedia Iranica. http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v1f8/v1f8a117.html. Retrieved 2007-11-08.  
  35. ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp.208–209
  36. ^ a b c d Halm, H. "'ASKARÈ". Encyclopedia Iranica. http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v2f7/v2f7a081.html. Retrieved 2007-11-08.  
  37. ^ Tabatabae (1979) pp. 209–210
  38. ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp.209–210
  39. ^ "Muhammad al-Mahdi al-Hujjah". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9054165/Muhammad-al-Mahdi-al-Hujjah. Retrieved 2007-11-08.  
  40. ^ a b c d Tabatabae (1979), pp.210–211
  41. ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp. 211–214

References

  • Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc..  
  • Encyclopædia Iranica. Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University. ISBN 1568590504.  
  • Martin, Richard C.. Encyclopaedia of Islam and the Muslim world; vol.1. MacMillan. ISBN 0028656040.  
  • Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Gale Group. 2004. ISBN 9780028657691.  
  • Corbin, Henry (1993 (original French 1964)). History of Islamic Philosophy, Translated by Liadain Sherrard, Philip Sherrard. London; Kegan Paul International in association with Islamic Publications for The Institute of Ismaili Studies. ISBN 0710304161.  
  • Momen, Moojan (1985). An Introduction to Shi`i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelve. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300035314.  
  • Sachedina, Abdulaziz Abdulhussein (1988). The Just Ruler (al-sultān Al-ʻādil) in Shīʻite Islam: The Comprehensive Authority of the Jurist in Imamite Jurisprudence. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0195119150.  
  • Tabatabae, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn; Seyyed Hossein Nasr (translator) (1979). Shi'ite Islam. SUNY press. ISBN 0-87395-272-3.  

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