From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Third Sacred War (356 BC- 346 BC) was
fought between the forces of Thebes and Phocis for control of Delphi. Compared to the Second Sacred
War it was longer, more bitter and more violent.
Philomelus takes control of
After the Second Sacred War Thebes dominated the Amphictyonic League. They fined
Phocis heavily for a trivial offense, which enraged Philomelus, the
current leader of Phocis, who took control of Delphi. The army of
Phocis was relatively small and weak, so Philomelus recruited a mercenary army from the
neighboring Greek states. The mercenary army was said to have had
problems with loyalty and morale. Philomelus was using the temple's
treasures at Delphi to support the mercenaries until he was
defeated at the Neon by Boetia in 354 BC and committed suicide.
Onomarchus becomes leader
After Philomelus was defeated Phocis found a new leader,
Onomarchus. Onomarchus defeated Boetai and allied himself with the
Pheraeans. However, this alliance was defeated by King Philip II of
Macedon, who had allied with Thebes. Philip's professional army
crushed Onomarchus at the Battle of Crocus Field in 352
BC, and after the battle Onomarchus committed suicide.
After the defeat at the Crocus Field, Phocis was left with a
greatly reduced army. While King Philip II of Macedon was preparing
to attack at Thermopylae, Onomarchus's brother Phayllus
took command of Thermopylae and began the defense. Phayllus managed
to keep Philip out with a heroic stand. The successor of Phoecis
was Phalaecus, but he stood little chance of turning the war around
as the fatal alliance of King Philip and Thebes was formed.
By the year 347 BC, the temple treasures were starting to run
out, and Phalaecus could no longer afford to keep his army to a
high standard. Nine years had passed since the start of the war,
and both sides were exhausted. Philip announced that he would end
the war in the following year, 346 BC. Despite Athenian efforts to keep
Philip out by using the Peace of Philocrates, he came
against no military opposition. Phalaecus was said to have arranged
a secret deal with Macedon. Philip ended the Third Sacred War in
346 BC as he had promised, by destroying almost every Phokian
reality Philip had also established Macedon as the dominant power
in Greece and brought the Golden age of Greek history to a close.
 For an account of the destruction see: Diodorus Siculus XVI
59-60; Pausanias Χ 3.1-3. Among the destroyed Phokian cities were:
Ambryssos, Antikyra, Daulis, Elateia, Lilaia, Panopeus and others.
For an account of the destruction see: Diodorus Siculus XVI 59-60;
Pausanias Χ 3.1-3
- J. Buckler. The Theban Hegemony. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1980.
- H. W. Park and D. W. Wormell. The Delphic Oracle.
Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1956.
|Ancient Greek and Roman wars
|Wars of ancient Greece
|Wars of the Roman
with the Latin League · Samnite
Wars · Latin War ·
Pyrrhic War ·
Punic Wars (First, Second, Third) ·
Wars with Greece (Illyrian, First
Macedonian, Second Macedonian, Seleucid, Third
Macedonian) · Jugurthine
War · Cimbrian
War · Roman Servile Wars (First, Second,
War · Civil wars of Lucius Cornelius
Sulla (First, Second) ·
Mithridatic Wars (First, Second, Third) ·
Gallic Wars ·
civil war · End
of the Republic (Post-Caesarian, Liberators', Sicilian, Fulvia's, Final)
|Wars of the Roman