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Thirteenth Air Force
13th Air Force.png
Thirteenth Air Force emblem
Active 13 January 1943
Country United States of America
Branch United States Air Force
Part of Pacific Air Forces
Garrison/HQ Hickam Air Force Base
Nickname Jungle Air Force
Commanders
Current
commander
Lieutenant General Loyd "Chip" Utterback
Notable
commanders
Nathan F. Twining
Hubert R. Harmon
Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.
Boeing C-17A Lot XVII Globemaster III 05-5150 of the 15th Airlift Wing, Hickam AFB
A B-52 Stratofortress currently deployed to Andersen AFB, Guam from the 23rd Expeditionary Bomb Squadron, leads a formation Feb. 10 of Japanese Air Self Defense Force F-2s from the 6th Squadron, Tsuiki Air Base, USAF F-16 Fighting Falcons from the 18th Aggressor Squadron, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska, and Navy EA-6B Prowlers from VAQ-136 Carrier Air Wing Five, Atsugi, Japan over Guam during Cope North 09-1 at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam
A Japan Air Self Defense Force F-2 fighter taxi's to join nine other F-2s which arrived at Andersen AFB, Guam Jan. 30 for the 2009 Cope North Exercise. The F-2s are from the 6th Squadron, Tsuiki Air Base, Japan.

The Thirteenth Air Force (13 AF) is a numbered air force of the United States Air Force Pacific Air Forces (PACAF). It is headquartered at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii. 13 AF has never been stationed in the continental United States. It is one of the oldest, continuously active, numbered air forces in the United States Air Force.

The command plans, commands and controls, delivers, and assesses air, space, and information operations in the Asia-Pacific region--excluding the Korea theater of operations--across the security spectrum from peacetime engagement to major combat operations.

Established on 14 December 1942 at Plaine Des Gaiacs Airfield, on New Caledonia, 13 AF was a United States Army Air Forces combat air force deployed to the Pacific Theater of World War II. It engaged in operations primarily in the South Pacific, attacking enemy forces in the Solomon Islands, Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaigns; Mariana and Palau Islands campaigns and the Philippines campaign (1944–45).

During the Cold War, 13 AF remained in the Philippines, providing air defense of the nation and becoming one of the Numbered Air Forces of Pacific Air Forces (PACAF). During the Korean War, its units provided staging areas for people and equipment destined for the war zone. As the Vietnam War escalated during the late 1960s and early 1970s, 13th AF provided command and control for USAF units stationed in Thailand, it's units conducting combat missions throughout Indochina until August 1973. 13 AF units last engaged in combat during the SS Mayaguez Incident in May 1975.

Returning to the Philippines after the Vietnam War ended in 1975, the command remained there until the 1991 evacuation of Clark Air Base after the Mount Pinatubo eruption and the United States withdrawal of military forces afterward.

Contents

Overview

The command is charged with planning, executing, and assessing operations in support of the U.S. Pacific Command commander's objectives. On behalf of the Pacific Air Forces commander, the 13th AF commander is positioned to command Air Force forces, combined or joint force air components, or a joint task force. Thirteenth AF also commands the only Air Force-led standing joint task force, Joint Task Force Support Forces Antarctica, a collaborative Department of Defense and National Science Foundation effort supporting the U.S. Antarctic Program through Operation Deep Freeze.

Headquarters, 13 AF is made up of an A-staff (the Air Force Forces staff), personal staff, 613th Air and Space Operations Center (AOC), known as the Maj Richard Bong AOC, and the 613th Support Group. The 613th AOC is one of the U.S. Air Force’s five full capability AN/USQ-163 FALCONER weapon systems with the ability to plan, task, execute, monitor and assess full spectrum air, space, and information operations for the COMAFFOR and/or C/JFACC. The AOC serves as the nerve center of air operations during any campaign.

In June 1991, Mount Pinatubo buried Clark Air Base, Phillipines, in volcanic ash, leading to the evacuation of military personnel and their families in Operation Fiery Vigil, eventually forcing the base to close Nov. 26, 1991. Thirteenth AF relocated and officially established its headquarters at Andersen AFB, Guam, on Dec. 2, 1991. The command was moved from Guam to Hickam AFB in May 2005.

Units

Two wings are permanently assigned to 13 AF:

  • 15th Airlift Wing, Hickam AFB Hawaii
    Partnered with the Hawaii Air National Guard, the 15th AW provides strategic and tactical airlift with its eight C-17 Globemaster III aircraft and command airlift with one specially configured C-40 and one C-37. It also serves as an important en-route location for transient aircraft.
  • 36th Wing, Andersen AFB, Guam
    The 36th WG has an expansive mission to support global projection and reach from its strategic location in the Pacific.

On Jan. 5, 2007, Detachment 1, 13 AF was activated at Yokota AB, Japan. Det 1 is responsible for planning, coordinating and executing air operations around Japan in coordination with the Japan Air Self Defense Force, through the Fifth Air Force staff at Yokota, and the 613th Air and Space Operations Center (AOC) at Hickam.

The 613th Support Group maintains a consolidated commander’s support staff providing personnel support for the entire headquarters; an operational support flight providing facility, training, readiness, and security management; and has two subordinate units: the 56th Air and Space Communications Squadron and the 17th Operational Weather Squadron.

The 13th Air Expeditionary Group, and formerly the 500th Air Expeditionary Group is activated seasonally to support Operation Deep Freeze in the Antarctic.

History

Thirteenth Air Force has never been stationed in the continental United States; it is also one of the oldest, continuously active, numbered air forces. It engaged in combat in the Pacific Theater during World War II. Since World War II, it has provided air defense in the Far East, primarily the Philippines, until the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo forced the closure of Clark AB. Numerous Thirteenth Air Force organizations participated in Southeast Asia combat operations in the 1960s and 1970s.

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Lineage

  • Established as Thirteenth Air Force on December 14, 1942
Activated on January 13, 1943

Assignments

Stations

World War II

Commands

During World War II, 13th AF consisted of two major commands, XIII Fighter Command and XIII Bomber Command.

XIII Fighter Command

Activated on 13 January 1943. Served in combat with Thirteenth AF until the end of the war. Inactivated in the Philippines on 15 March 1946. Disbanded on 8 October 1948.

Groups

  • 18th Fighter Group (1943-47) (P-40F, P-39, P-38, P-61, P-70)
    (Transferred from Fifth Air Force, Hickam Field, Hawaii in March 1943).
  • 347th Fighter Group (1942-45) (P-39, P-38, P-40, P-400)
    (Established on New Caledonia on 3 October 1942)
  • 4th Reconnaissance Group (1943-45) (F-4 (P-38))
  • 403d Troop Carrier Group (1943-46) (C-46, C-47)
  • Unattached Units:
    • Det B 6th Night Fighter Squadron (February - September 1943) (P-70,P-38)
      Reassigned to 7th Air Force, 1943.
    • 419th Night Fighter Squadron (April - November 1943) (P-38,P-61)
      Activated April 1943 with P-38s, Reassigned to 18th Fighter Group, November 1943. Reequipped with P-61s May 1944. Served in New Guinea, Philippines. Inactivated February 1947.
    • 550th Night Fighter Squadron (1944-46) (P-61)
      Activated June 1944. Received P-61s January 1945. Served in New Guinea, Philippines. Inactivated January 1946.
    • 7th Radio Squadron, Mobile (J)
XIII Bomber Command

Activated on 13 January 1943. Served in combat with Thirteenth AF until the end of the war. Inactivated in the Philippines on 15 March 1946. Disbanded on 8 October 1948.

Groups

  • 5th Bombardment Group (1943-46) (B-17, B-24)
    (Deployed to Espiritu Santo in November 1942, reassigned from Seventh Air Force in January 1943).
  • 11th Bombardment Group (1943) (B-17, B-24)
    (Deployed to New Hebrides in July 1942, reassigned from Seventh Air Force in January 1943. Reassigned back to Seventh Air Force, May 1943 and transferred to Hawaii)
  • 42d Bombardment Group (1943-45) (B-25, B-26)
    (Reassigned from Second Air Force antisubmarine patrol duty, March 1943)
  • 307th Bombardment Group (1943-45) (B-17, B-24)
    (Reassigned from Seventh Air Force, February 1943)
  • 868th Bombardment Squadron (Unattached) (1944-45) (B-24)
    Formerly 349th Bomb Squadron, 5th Bomb Group. The planes flown by the 868th were often called SB-24s and sometimes LABs (Low Altitude Bomber). They were equipped with SRC-717-B search and navigation radar. Formed into 868th Bomb Squadron in January 1944 and operated independently within the 13th AF.

Operational History

13thaf-patch.jpg
The Headquarters of the Thirteenth Air Force on Clark Air Base in 1956

Thirteenth Air Force began operations in November 1942 as an organization composed of many widely separated Seventh Air Force and independent units scattered in the South Central Pacific during the Solomon Islands campaign.

Initially charged with taking a defensive stand against advancing enemy forces, Thirteenth Air Force later took the offensive flying a variety of aircraft, including the B-17 Flying Fortress, B-24 Liberator, B-25 Mitchell, B-26 Marauder, P-38 Lightning, P-39 Airacobra, P-40 Warhawk, P-61 Black Widow, C-46 Commando, C-47 Skytrain, and L-5 Sentinel.

It was Thirteenth Air Force P-38Gs of the 339th Fighter Squadron of the 347th Fighter Group which, on 18 April 1943, flew the mission which resulted in the death of Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto.

From 1942-1945, Thirteenth Air Force staged out of tropical jungles on more than 40 remote islands including the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign; Mariana and Palau Islands campaign and the Philippines campaign (1944–45), thus earning the nickname, "The Jungle Air Force." The command's units participated in a total of five different operation areas and 13 campaigns.

Thirteenth Air Force along with Fifth Air Force in Australia and Seventh Air Force in Hawaii were assigned to the newly-created United States Far East Air Forces (FEAF) on August 3, 1944. FEAF was subordinate to the U.S. Army Forces Far East and served as the headquarters of Allied Air Forces Southwest Pacific Area. By 1945, three numbered air forces -- 5th, 7th and 13th -- were supporting operations in the Pacific. FEAF was the functional equivalent in the Pacific of the United States Strategic Air Forces (USSTAF) in the European Theater of Operations.

After hostilities ended in 1945, Thirteenth Air Force established its headquarters at Clark Field, Philippines, in January 1946. In May of that year, it moved to Fort William McKinley, Luzon. By August 1947, 13AF returned to Clark Field. In December 1948, the unit moved to Kadena, Okinawa, where it remained for only a few months before returning to Clark in May 1949.

Korean War

During the Korean War, 13AF units provided staging areas for people and equipment destined for the war zone. During the decade of peace that followed the war, the command concentrated on training and surveillance activities to maintain a high state of readiness for contingencies.

Vietnam War

As the Vietnam War escalated during the late 1960s and early 1970s, 13AF again served as a staging base and logistics manager for units fighting in Southeast Asia. As more American aircraft and people were poured into the war effort, combat units and facilities under 13AF in Thailand increased. At its peak, 13AF was composed of seven combat wings, nine major bases, 11 smaller installations and more than 31,000 military members.

With the buildup and execution of Operations Desert Shield and Storm, 13AF provided aircraft and support staff vital to the United Nations victory in Southwest Asia.

Post Cold War

In June 1991, Mount Pinatubo buried Clark in volcanic ash, forcing the base to close on 26 November and leading to the evacuation of assigned military members and their families in Operation Fiery Vigil. The Thirteenth Air Force relocated and officially established its headquarters at Andersen Air Force Base on December 2, 1991.

In 2005, the Jungle Air Force stood down as a traditional Numbered Air Force and moved to Hickam Air Force Base to assume the role of the new Kenney Warfighting Headquarters for PACAF, which was activated in provisional status in June, 2005.

On Oct. 6, 2006, after a one-year transformation of command and control of air, space and information operations in the Pacific, Thirteenth Air Force officially began operations as a component numbered air force headquarters and welcomed a new commander. Former Pacific Air Forces Deputy Commander, Lt. Gen. Loyd S. “Chip” Utterback, assumed command of the unit Oct. 6, replacing Maj. Gen. Edward A. Rice, Jr., who had commanded Thirteenth Air Force from Andersen Air Force Base, Guam, and Hickam since January 2005. Previously designated as a management headquarters, Thirteenth Air Force is now one of 10 organizations designed to enhance the operational level support, planning, command, control and execution of air, space and information operations capabilities across the full range of military operations throughout the U.S. Pacific Command’s area of responsibility (minus the Korea theater of operations).

References

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical Research Agency. Much of this text in of this article was taken from pages on the Pacific Air Forces website, which as a work of the U.S. Government is presumed to be a public domain resource.

Notes

Bibliography

  • Lippincott, Lt. Col. Benjamin E. From Fiji Through the Philippines with the Thirteenth Air Force. San Angelo, Texas: Newsfoto Publishing Company, 1948.
  • Maurer, Maurer. Air Force Combat Units Of World War II. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History, 1983. ISBN 0-89201-092-4.
  • Rohfleisch, Kramer J. Guadalcanal and the Originas of the Thirteenth Air Force (USAAF Historical Study No.35). Air Force Historical Research Agency, 1945.
  • Rohfleisch, Kramer J. The Thirteenth Air Force, March-October 1943 (USAAF Historical Study No.120). Air Force Historical Research Agency, 1946.
  • Rust, Kenn C. and Dana Bell. Thirteenth Air Force Story...in World War II. Temple City, California: Historical Aviation Album, 1981 (republished in 1992 by Sunshine House of Terre Haute, Indiana). ISBN 0-911852-990-5.
  • Smith, Stanly E. 13 Against the Sun. New York: Belmont Books, 1961.
  • Wolf, William. 13th Fighter Command in World War II: Air Combat over Guadalcanal and the Solomons. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing, 2004. ISBN 0-76432-067-X.

External links


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