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Amendment XIII in the National Archives
.The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished and continues to prohibit slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.^ Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as .
  • John Brooks Henderson by Kirby Ross 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.civilwarstlouis.com [Source type: Original source]

^ My enquiry is about the original thirteenth amendment to the Constitution for the united States of America.
  • ARIZONA REFERENDUM ON THE ORIGINAL 13TH AMENDMENT 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.rumormillnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States.
  • IMA Hero: Reading Program U.S. Constitution 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.imahero.com [Source type: Original source]

It was adopted on December 6, 1865, and was then declared in a proclamation of Secretary of State William H. Seward on December 18.
.President Abraham Lincoln and others were concerned that the Emancipation Proclamation would be seen as a temporary war measure and so, besides freeing slaves in those states where slavery was still legal, they supported the amendment as a means to guarantee the permanent abolition of slavery.^ Lincoln reads the Emancipation Proclamation .
  • Ghost Amendment: The Thirteenth Amendment That Never Was 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC ghostamendment.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing slaves in the seceded states.
  • Missouri Digital Heritage: Collections : African American Initiative - Timeline 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.sos.mo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln's directive freeing all slaves in states rebelling against the United States.
  • United States History at a Glance 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.eduplace.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Thirteenth Amendment is the first of the Reconstruction Amendments.^ The Supreme Court's first articulation of the scope of the Thirteenth Amendment is consistent with a modern interpretation of its scope.
  • Mail Order Brides and the Abuse of Immigrant Women 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.nostatusquo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ ALMA argued that sealed records violate the First, Fourth, Ninth, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments.
  • The Basic Bastard 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.bastards.org [Source type: Original source]
  • BASTARD NATION: Media Room 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.bastards.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A long term leader in the Republican party, Senator Howard drafted the first Republican party platform which called for the abolition of slavery, and was instrumental in passing the Thirteenth Amendment.
  • PERSONAL SECURITY, PERSONAL LIBERTY, AND "THE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS": VISIONS OF THE FRAMERS OF THE FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.guncite.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Text

.Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.^ United States, and shall be maintained and protected .
  • In re SAH QUAH. District Court, D. Alaska. May 8,1886. In re SAH QUAH. District Court, D. Alaska. May 8,1886. | Alaska Inter-Tribal Council : Advocating for Alaska Tribal Governments 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC aitc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ States, or any place subject to its jurisdiction.
  • In re SAH QUAH. District Court, D. Alaska. May 8,1886. In re SAH QUAH. District Court, D. Alaska. May 8,1886. | Alaska Inter-Tribal Council : Advocating for Alaska Tribal Governments 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC aitc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The authority to prosecute racist individuals, he argued, was in the Thirteenth Amendment, which provides that, “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime where of the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” Trieber found that the Amendment authorized Congress to punish individuals who enslaved others.
  • Law & Politics Book Review: Reviews Home 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.bsos.umd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.^ Section 1 of this amendment outlawed slavery, while Section 2 gave Congress the power to enforce the former with legislation.
  • 94.01.02: Racism, Discrimination, and the Law 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.cis.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislature.
  • CGSA - Constitution of the United States 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.theroadtoemmaus.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Congress shall have power by appropriate legislation to enforce the provisions of this article.
  • From Revolution to Reconstruction: Documents: Bill of Rights 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC odur.let.rug.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Supreme Law Library : Reference : White House Constitution : whuscons 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.supremelaw.org [Source type: Original source]

[1]

History

.The first twelve amendments were adopted within fifteen years of the Constitution’s adoption.^ Delaware adopts its first state constitution.
  • Delaware History Online - Timeline 2000 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.hsd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was held that the first amendment of the constitution .
  • Sources on the Second Amendment and Rights to Keep and BearArms in State Constitutions 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.law.ucla.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These amendments represented the first changes to the constitution in 20 years.
  • Tennessee Constitution - Ballotpedia 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC ballotpedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The first ten (the Bill of Rights) were adopted in 1791, the Eleventh Amendment in 1795 and the Twelfth Amendment in 1804. When the Thirteenth Amendment was proposed there had been no new amendments adopted in more than sixty years.^ What are the five freedoms listed in the first amendment (part of Bill of Rights)?
  • Davenport University > Home > Press Room > Constitution Day > Trivia Quiz 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.davenport.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no constitutional "right to vote".
  • Boy Scout Troop 780 - Citizenship in the Nation 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.bsatroop780.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Students will identify and explain the first 10 amendments as the Bill of Rights.
  • Washington State Courts - Lesson Plans 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.courts.wa.gov [Source type: Original source]

.During the secession crisis, but prior to the outbreak of the Civil War, the majority of slavery-related bills had protected slavery.^ During the crisis of secession and prior to the outbreak of the Civil War , the majority of slavery-related bills had protected slavery.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Was the Civil War about slavery?
  • The Thirteenth Amendment: Slavery and the Constitution 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The secession movement led to the Civil War.
  • Jesus should run for President | ItsYourTimes.com 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.itsyourtimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.The United States had ceased slave importation and intervened militarily against the Atlantic slave trade, but had made few proposals to abolish domestic slavery.^ The United States had ceased slave importation and intervened militarily against the Atlantic slave trade, but had made few proposals to abolish domestic slavery.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (This proclamation did not abolish slavery, but did free the slaves in the territory that was rebelling against the United States.
  • Freedom Shrine - Jacksonville Public Library 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC jpl.coj.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It made slavery illegal in the United States.

.Representative John Quincy Adams had made a proposal in 1839, but there were no new proposals until December 14, 1863, when a bill to support an amendment to abolish slavery throughout the entire United States was introduced by Representative James Mitchell Ashley (Republican, Ohio).^ On December 14, 1863, Congressman James Ashley, Republican of Ohio, introduced a bill in support of a constitutional amendment to prohibit slavery in the entire United States.

^ But the Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery.
  • Wake Up America! - Does the U.S. Constitution Guarantee the Right to Practice Prostitution? 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.buildfreedom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Amendment 13 - Slavery Abolished.
  • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.This was soon followed by a similar proposal made by Representative James F. Wilson (Republican, Iowa).^ Representative Myers proposed the following: .
  • PERSONAL SECURITY, PERSONAL LIBERTY, AND "THE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS": VISIONS OF THE FRAMERS OF THE FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.guncite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Soon after, Congressman James Wilson, Republican of Iowa, introduced a similar proposal to end slavery by constitutional amendment.

^ Representative Bingham's proposal read as follows: .
  • PERSONAL SECURITY, PERSONAL LIBERTY, AND "THE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS": VISIONS OF THE FRAMERS OF THE FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.guncite.com [Source type: Original source]

.Eventually the Congress and the public began to take notice and a number of additional legislative proposals were brought forward.^ Eventually the Congress and the public began to take notice and a number of additional legislative proposals were brought forward.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As the number of proposals and the extent of their scope began to grow, the Senate Judiciary Committee presented the Senate with an amendment proposal combining the drafts of Ashley, Wilson and Henderson.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Brought together by their common opposition to the taxing policies of the British Parliament, the colonies began sending delegates to a Continental Congress in 1774.
  • The Dynamic Constitution - Cambridge University Press 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: Original source]

.Senator John B. Henderson of Missouri submitted a joint resolution for a constitutional amendment abolishing slavery, January 11, 1864. The abolition of slavery had, historically, been associated with Republicans, but Henderson was one of the War Democrats.^ On January 11, 1864, Senator John Henderson of Missouri, a War Democrat, submitted a joint resolution for a constitutional amendment abolishing slavery.

^ But the Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery.
  • Wake Up America! - Does the U.S. Constitution Guarantee the Right to Practice Prostitution? 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.buildfreedom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Amendment 13 - Slavery Abolished.
  • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Senate Judiciary Committee, chaired by Lyman Trumbull (Republican, Illinois), became involved in merging different proposals for an amendment.^ The Senate Judiciary Committee, headed by Illinois Republican Lyman Trumbull, began considering the various versions of the abolition amendment.

^ The next day, Senator Lyman Trumbull moved that the House amendments to S. 60 be referred to the Senate Committee on the Judiciary.
  • PERSONAL SECURITY, PERSONAL LIBERTY, AND "THE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS": VISIONS OF THE FRAMERS OF THE FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.guncite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Senate Judiciary Committee , chaired by Lyman Trumbull (Republican, Illinois ), became involved in merging different proposals for an amendment.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Another Republican, Senator Charles Sumner (Radical Republican, Massachusetts), submitted a constitutional amendment to abolish slavery as well as guarantee equality on February 8 the same year.^ But the Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery.
  • Wake Up America! - Does the U.S. Constitution Guarantee the Right to Practice Prostitution? 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.buildfreedom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Amendment 13 - Slavery Abolished.
  • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Thirteenth Amendment (1865) Abolishes slavery.
  • United States Constitution 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.4lawschool.com [Source type: Original source]

.As the number of proposals and the extent of their scope began to grow, the Senate Judiciary Committee presented the Senate with an amendment proposal combining the drafts of Ashley, Wilson and Henderson.^ As the number of proposals and the extent of their scope began to grow, the Senate Judiciary Committee presented the Senate with an amendment proposal combining the drafts of Ashley, Wilson and Henderson.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Two days later, spurred partly in reaction to Sumners more radical proposal, the Senate Judiciary Committee reported to the full Senate an abolition amendment combining the drafts by Ashley, Wilson, and Henderson.

^ Amendment XVII: Senator election and number.

[2]
.Originally the amendment was co-authored and sponsored by Representatives James Mitchell Ashley (Republican, Ohio) and James F. Wilson (Republican, Iowa) and Senator John B. Henderson (Democrat, Missouri).^ On January 11, 1864, Senator John Henderson of Missouri, a War Democrat, submitted a joint resolution for a constitutional amendment abolishing slavery.

^ According to a Lincoln biographer, the Republicans (who sponsored the 14th Amendment) viewed Chief Justice Taney's death in 1864 as "the removal of a barrier to human progress."
  • The Supreme Court, judicial activism, and fraudulent interpretation of the 14th Amendment. 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC ttokarnak.home.att.net [Source type: Original source]

^ On December 14, 1863, Congressman James Ashley, Republican of Ohio, introduced a bill in support of a constitutional amendment to prohibit slavery in the entire United States.

.While the Senate did pass the amendment in April 1864, by a vote of 38 to 6, the House declined to do so.^ Wrong, the amendment fell short of passing the House and the Senate.

^ The amendment was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, but did not pass in the House until Jan.
  • Thirteenth Amendment (United States Constitution) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Senate concurrence in the House amendments by voice vote).
  • PERSONAL SECURITY, PERSONAL LIBERTY, AND "THE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS": VISIONS OF THE FRAMERS OF THE FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.guncite.com [Source type: Original source]

.After it was reintroduced by Representative James Mitchell Ashley, President Lincoln took an active role to ensure its passage through the House by ensuring the amendment was added to the Republican Party platform for the upcoming Presidential elections.^ The 1864 election gave Lincoln and his party enough seats in the House to guarantee passage of the amendment.
  • The Congress that Passed the Thirteenth Amendment 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.sethkaller.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After it was reintroduced by Representative James Mitchell Ashley , President Lincoln took an active role to ensure its passage through the House by ensuring the amendment was added to the Republican Party platform for the upcoming Presidential elections.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Republican party is not the Republican party of Abraham Lincoln.
  • Jan. 6 Letters to the Editor - Bangor Daily News 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.bangordailynews.com [Source type: General]

His efforts came to fruition when the House passed the bill in January 1865, by a vote of 119 to 56. The Thirteenth Amendment's archival copy bears an apparent Presidential signature, under the usual ones of the Speaker of the House and the President of the Senate, after the words "Approved February 1, 1865".[3]
The Thirteenth Amendment completed the abolition of slavery, which had begun with the Emancipation Proclamation issued by President Abraham Lincoln in 1863.[4]
The Thirteenth Amendment was followed by the Fourteenth Amendment (civil rights in the states), in 1868, and the Fifteenth Amendment (which bans racial voting restrictions), in 1870.

Interpretation

Involuntary servitude

In Selective Draft Law Cases, 245 U.S. 366 (1918), the Supreme Court ruled that the military draft was not "involuntary servitude".
Offenses against the Thirteenth Amendment have not been prosecuted since 1947.[5][6]
.Prior to 1988, inflicting involuntary servitude through psychologically coercive means was included in the interpretation of the Thirteenth Amendment.^ Prior to 1988, inflicting involuntary servitude through psychologically coercive means was included in the interpretation of the Thirteenth Amendment.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Thirteenth Amendment also prohibits the holding of a person in involuntary servitude.
  • 1994 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Thirteenth Amendment reads, Neither slavery or involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
  • 94.01.02: Racism, Discrimination, and the Law 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.cis.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

In United States v. .Kozminski, 487 U.S. 931 (1988), the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the Thirteenth Amendment did not prohibit compulsion of servitude through psychological coercion.^ Would not the Supreme Court have to admit to and acknowledge the original thirteenth amendment?
  • ARIZONA REFERENDUM ON THE ORIGINAL 13TH AMENDMENT 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.rumormillnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Court - United States Supreme - clippings, 1923-1937 .
  • Victor A. Olander PapersAn inventory of the collection at the University of Illinois at ChicagoInventory prepared by Mary Ann Bamberger. 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Constitutional amendments -- united States.
  • ASA Library Resources on the U.S. Constitution 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.asa.edu [Source type: Academic]

[7][8] .Psychological coercion had been the primary means of forcing involuntary servitude in the case of Elizabeth Ingalls in 1947.[9] However, the Court held that there are exceptions.^ However, there are numerous exceptions to this rule.
  • Amendments to Constitution, Bill of Rights, Civil War Amendments, Progressive Era Amendments 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]
  • AMENDMENTS To The U.S. Constitution FOR DUMMIES: Presidential Succession, Women's Suffrage, Equal Protection, Due Process, Just Compensation, Income Tax, Abolition Of Slavery. E-Z-READ! - RI10 [tabacco.blog-city.com] 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC tabacco.blog-city.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the Court held that there are exceptions.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, there is now a case before the Supreme Court, McDonald v.
  • Islam and The Left Make Common Cause…Look Back To 1922 « Centurean2’s Weblog 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

The court decision circumscribed involuntary servitude to be limited to those situations when the master subjects the servant to
  1. threatened or actual physical force,
  2. threatened or actual state-imposed legal coercion or
  3. fraud or deceit where the servant is a minor, an immigrant or mentally incompetent.
.The federal anti-slavery statutes were updated in the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, P.L. 106-386, which expanded the federal statutes' coverage to cases in which victims are enslaved through psychological, as well as physical, coercion.^ The federal anti-slavery statutes were updated in the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 , P.L. 106-386, which expanded the federal statutes' coverage to cases in which victims are enslaved through psychological, as well as physical, coercion.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Morrison, 529 U.S. 598 (2000) (striking down federal Violence Against Women Act as applied to private acts of gender violence).
  • Abraham Lincoln Was a Framer of the Constitution - Washington University Law Review 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC lawreview.wustl.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The act also requires any company or institution receiving federal funds to comply with all federal anti-discrimination laws.
  • Reclaim Civil Rights: Civil Rights FAQs 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC reclaimcivilrights.org [Source type: Original source]

[10][11]
Federal Courts of Appeals rulings, in Immediato v. .Rye Neck School District, Herndon v.^ Rye Neck School District , Herndon v.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Chapel Hill
, and Steirer v.^ Chapel Hill , and Steirer v.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Bethlehem School District
, have upheld the using of community service as a high school graduation requirement against Thirteenth Amendment challenges.^ Some schools and government officials have attempted to force high-school students to perform community service in non-emergency situations.
  • Untitled Document 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.quaqua.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Finally, the Government dismissed the thirteenth amendment argument by pointing out that the sole purpose of the amendment was to abolish chattel slavery, not to eliminate compulsory governmental service.
  • Conscription and the Constitution 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.potowmack.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Provisions of law requiring, or construed to require, racial separation in the schools of the District of Columbia, held to violate the equal protection component of the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment.
  • Acts of Congress Held Unconstitutional in Whole or in Part by the Supreme Court of the United States - United States Constitution 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC law.onecle.com [Source type: Original source]

[12]

Free versus unfree labor

.Labor is defined as work of economic or financial value.^ Enslaved children were worth little economically at birth but increased in value as they matured enough to enter the work place, where they were subjected to arduous labor and arbitrary power.
  • Slavery, United States - Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood in History and Society 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfree labor or labor not willingly given can be defined as causing or threatening to cause financial harm [using financial control over] to any person.
  • Obama’s Imperial Decree: Target Oklahoma | Tenth Amendment Center 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.tenthamendmentcenter.com [Source type: Original source]

Unfree labor or labor not willingly given, is obtained in a number of ways:
  • causing or threatening to cause serious harm to any person;
  • physically restraining or threatening to physically restrain another person;
  • abusing or threatening to abuse the law or legal process;
  • knowingly destroying, concealing, removing, confiscating or possessing any actual or purported passport or other immigration document, or any other actual or purported government identification document, of another person;
  • blackmail;
  • causing or threatening to cause financial harm to any person—i.e., using financial control over a person.

Definitions of conditions addressed by Thirteenth Amendment

Peonage[13]
Refers to a person in "debt servitude," or involuntary servitude tied to the payment of a debt. Compulsion to servitude includes the use of force, the threat of force, or the threat of legal coercion to compel a person to work against his or her will.
Involuntary servitude[14]
Refers to a person held by actual force, threats of force, or threats of legal coercion in a condition of slavery – compulsory service or labor against his or her will. This also includes the condition in which people are compelled to work against their will by a "climate of fear" evoked by the use of force, the threat of force, or the threat of legal coercion (i.e., suffer legal consequences unless compliant with demands made upon them) which is sufficient to compel service against a person's will. The first U.S. Supreme Court case to uphold the ban against involuntary servitude was Bailey v. Alabama (1911).
.Requiring specific performance as a remedy for breach of personal services contracts has been understood to be a form of involuntary servitude.^ Requiring specific performance as a remedy for breach of personal services contracts has been understood to be a form of involuntary servitude.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Debt peonage, in his view, was a form of slavery or involuntary servitude.
  • Law & Politics Book Review: Reviews Home 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.bsos.umd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The question seems to come down to whether "involuntary servitude" extends to a condition where one is forced to perform a particular type of labor for a fair wage .
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Why Mandatory National Service is Unconstitutional under the Thirteenth Amendment: 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

[15]
Forced labor[16]
Labor or service obtained by:
  • threats of serious harm or physical restraint;
  • any scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause a person to believe they would suffer serious harm or physical restraint if they did not perform such labor or services:
  • the abuse or threatened abuse of law or the legal process.

Enforcement

.Section 2. Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.^ Section 1 of this amendment outlawed slavery, while Section 2 gave Congress the power to enforce the former with legislation.
  • 94.01.02: Racism, Discrimination, and the Law 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.cis.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislature.
  • CGSA - Constitution of the United States 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.theroadtoemmaus.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Congress shall have power by appropriate legislation to enforce the provisions of this article.
  • From Revolution to Reconstruction: Documents: Bill of Rights 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC odur.let.rug.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Supreme Law Library : Reference : White House Constitution : whuscons 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.supremelaw.org [Source type: Original source]

Threat of legal consequences

.Victims of human trafficking and other conditions of forced labor are commonly coerced by threat of legal actions to their detriment.^ Victims of human trafficking and other conditions of forced labor are commonly coerced by threat of legal actions to their detriment.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Victims of forced labor and trafficking are protected by Title 18 of the U.S. Code [ 18 ] .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The question seems to come down to whether "involuntary servitude" extends to a condition where one is forced to perform a particular type of labor for a fair wage .
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Why Mandatory National Service is Unconstitutional under the Thirteenth Amendment: 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

.A leading example is deportation of illegal immigrants.^ A leading example is deportation of illegal immigrants.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

."The prospect of being forced to leave the United States, no matter how degrading the current living conditions, sometimes serves as a deterrent to reporting the situation to law enforcement."^ Educational law and legislation-- United States.
  • ASA Library Resources on the U.S. Constitution 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.asa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Enlistment to serve against United States .

^ No matter how fair that is.
  • Newsvine - Poll. Does President Barack Obama have any balls at all? 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC rdonaldsnyder.newsvine.com [Source type: Original source]

[17] Victims of forced labor and trafficking are protected by Title 18 of the U.S. Code[18]
  • Title 18, U.S.C., Section 241 - Conspiracy Against Rights:[19]
Conspiracy to injure, oppress, threaten, or intimidate any person's rights or privileges secured by the Constitution or the laws of the United States
  • Title 18, U.S.C., Section 242 - Deprivation of Rights Under Color of Law:[20]
.It is a crime for any person acting under color of law (federal, state or local officials who enforce statutes, ordinances, regulations, or customs) to willfully deprive or cause to be deprived the rights, privileges, or immunities of any person secured or protected by the Constitution and laws of the U.S. This includes willfully subjecting or causing to be subjected any person to different punishments, pains, or penalties, than those prescribed for punishment of citizens on account of such person being an alien or by reason of his/her color or race.^ Any State action that denies this immunity to a colored man is in conflict with the Constitution."
  • Buchanan v. Warley (1917) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.blackpast.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Did the federal government have the right to impose such legislation on the States?

^ The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.
  • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution Day Materials, US Constitution, Pocket Constitution Book, Declaration of Independence, Bill of Rights 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.constitutionfacts.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Supreme Law Library : Reference : White House Constitution : whuscons 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.supremelaw.org [Source type: Original source]
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution Of The United States 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC ron.dotson.net [Source type: Original source]

Proposal and ratification

.The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed by the Thirty-Eighth United States Congress, on January 31, 1865. The amendment was adopted on December 6, 1865, when Georgia ratified the amendment.^ My enquiry is about the original thirteenth amendment to the Constitution for the united States of America.
  • ARIZONA REFERENDUM ON THE ORIGINAL 13TH AMENDMENT 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.rumormillnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ratified December 6, 1865.
  • The Constitution of the United States: Amendments 11-27 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • From Revolution to Reconstruction: Documents: Bill of Rights 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC odur.let.rug.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Avalon Project - U.S. Constitution : Amendments XI - XXVII 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Proposal and Ratification The thirteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Thirty-eighth Congress, on the 31st day of January, 1865, and was declared, in a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 18th of December, 1865, to have been ratified by the legislatures of twenty-seven of the thirty-six States.
  • Amendments to the United States constitution 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.immihelp.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC users.idworld.net [Source type: Original source]
  • You The People-Empowering Citizens, Building Communities 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.youthepeople.com [Source type: Original source]
  • constitution 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]
  • New RFID travel cards could pose privacy threat | TalkBack on ZDNet 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC talkback.zdnet.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Passports to get RFID chip implants | TalkBack on ZDNet 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC talkback.zdnet.com [Source type: Original source]

.In a proclamation of Secretary of State William Henry Seward, dated December 18, 1865, it was declared to have been ratified by the legislatures of twenty-seven of the then thirty-six states.^ Ratified December 6, 1865.
  • The Constitution of the United States: Amendments 11-27 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • From Revolution to Reconstruction: Documents: Bill of Rights 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC odur.let.rug.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Avalon Project - U.S. Constitution : Amendments XI - XXVII 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Proposal and Ratification The thirteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Thirty-eighth Congress, on the 31st day of January, 1865, and was declared, in a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 18th of December, 1865, to have been ratified by the legislatures of twenty-seven of the thirty-six States.
  • Amendments to the United States constitution 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.immihelp.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC users.idworld.net [Source type: Original source]
  • You The People-Empowering Citizens, Building Communities 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.youthepeople.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Amendments 11-27 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC illinoisconservative.com [Source type: Original source]
  • constitution 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]
  • New RFID travel cards could pose privacy threat | TalkBack on ZDNet 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC talkback.zdnet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ {Proposal and Ratification: The thirteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Thirty-eighth Congress, on the 31st day of January, 1865, and was declared, in a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 18th of December, 1865, to have been ratified by the legislatures of twenty-seven of the thirty-six States.
  • Amendments to the Constitution of the United States / Enmiendas a la Constituci�n de los Estados Unidos 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

The dates of ratification were:[21]
  1. Illinois (February 1, 1865)
  2. Rhode Island (February 2, 1865)
  3. Michigan (February 3, 1865)
  4. Maryland (February 3, 1865)
  5. New York (February 3, 1865)
  6. Pennsylvania (February 3, 1865)
  7. West Virginia (February 3, 1865)
  8. Missouri (February 6, 1865)
  9. Maine (February 7, 1865)
  10. Kansas (February 7, 1865)
  11. Massachusetts (February 7, 1865)
  12. Virginia (February 9, 1865)
  13. Ohio (February 10, 1865)
  14. Indiana (February 13, 1865)
  15. Nevada (February 16, 1865)
  16. Louisiana (February 17, 1865)
  17. Minnesota (February 23, 1865)
  18. Wisconsin (February 24, 1865)
  19. Vermont (March 8, 1865)
  20. Tennessee (April 7, 1865)
  21. Arkansas (April 14, 1865)
  22. Connecticut (May 4, 1865)
  23. New Hampshire (July 1, 1865)
  24. South Carolina (November 13, 1865)
  25. Alabama (December 2, 1865)
  26. North Carolina (December 4, 1865)
  27. Georgia (December 6, 1865)
Ratification was completed on December 6, 1865. The amendment was subsequently ratified by the following states:
  1. Oregon (December 8, 1865)
  2. California (December 19, 1865)
  3. Florida (December 28, 1865, reaffirmed on June 9, 1869)
  4. Iowa (January 15, 1866)
  5. New Jersey (January 23, 1866, after having rejected it on March 16, 1865)
  6. Texas (February 18, 1870)
  7. Delaware (February 12, 1901, after having rejected it on February 8, 1865)
  8. Kentucky (March 18, 1976, after having rejected it on February 24, 1865)
  9. Mississippi (March 16, 1995, after having rejected it on December 5, 1865)

Earlier proposed Thirteenth Amendments

.Each of two amendments proposed by the Congress would have become the Thirteenth Amendment if it had been ratified when originally proposed.^ Would not the Supreme Court have to admit to and acknowledge the original thirteenth amendment?
  • ARIZONA REFERENDUM ON THE ORIGINAL 13TH AMENDMENT 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.rumormillnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Fourteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress in 1866 and ratified by the states in 1868.
  • Fourteenth Amendment – FREE Fourteenth Amendment information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Fourteenth Amendment research 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Each of two amendments proposed by the Congress would have become the Thirteenth Amendment if it had been ratified when originally proposed.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.
  • Titles of Nobility Amendment, proposed by the Congress in 1810 and ratified by twelve states, would have revoked the citizenship of anyone either (1) accepting a foreign title of nobility or (2) accepting any foreign payment without Congressional authorization.
  • The Corwin Amendment was passed by the House on March 1, 1861 and the Senate on March 3, 1861. President Buchanan signed it the same day, which was also his last full day in office; it was later ratified by three states: Ohio, Maryland and Illinois.^ The Eighteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress on December 18, 1917, when it passed the Senate, Cong.
    • FindLaw: U.S. Constitution: Amendments 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Fourteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress on June 13, 1866, when it passed the House, Cong.
    • FindLaw: U.S. Constitution: Amendments 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Fourteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress in 1866 and ratified by the states in 1868.
    • Fourteenth Amendment – FREE Fourteenth Amendment information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Fourteenth Amendment research 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    [22] .This proposed amendment would have forbidden the adoption any constitutional amendment that would have abolished or restricted slavery, or permitted the Congress to do so.^ Amendment 13 - Slavery Abolished.
    • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thirteenth Amendment (1865) Abolishes slavery.
    • United States Constitution 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC www.4lawschool.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The proposed constitutional amendment would change that, however.
    • FindLaw's Writ - Dorf: Three Bad Reasons--and One Very Good Reason--to Oppose a Constitutional Amendment Barring Same-Sex Marriage 9 January 2010 15:51 UTC writ.news.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

    This proposal was an unsuccessful attempt to convince the Southern states not to secede from the Union.
Abraham Lincoln, in his first inaugural address on March 4, 1861, specifically endorsed this amendment:[23][24]
I understand a proposed amendment to the Constitution...has passed Congress, to the effect that the Federal Government shall never interfere with the domestic institutions of the States, including that of persons held to service.
I have no objection to its being made express and irrevocable.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.amendmentxiii.html
  2. ^ Congressional Proposals and Senate Passage Harper Weekly. The Creation of the 13th Amendment. Retrieved Feb. 15, 2007
  3. ^ Charters of Freedom - The Declaration of Independence, The Constitution, The Bill of Rights
  4. ^ Primary Documents in American History: The Thirteenth Amendment Library of Congress. Retrieved Feb. 15, 2007
  5. ^ "The 13th Amendment and the Lost Origins of Civil Rights" Risa Goluboff (2001) Duke Law Journal Vol 50 p. 1609. See section on Elizabeth Ingalls and Dora Jones. Refer to United States v. Ingalls, 73 F. Supp. 76, 77 (S.D. Cal. 1947) Southern District Court California
  6. ^ U.S. v. Ingalls, 73 F.Supp. 76 (1947) as cited by Traver, Robert (1967). The Jealous Mistress. Boston: Little, Brown. 
  7. ^ "Thirteenth Amendment--Slavery and Involuntary Servitude" GPO Access, U.S. Government Printing Office, p. 1557
  8. ^ "The 13th Amendment and the Lost Origins of Civil Rights" Risa Goluboff (2001) Duke Law Journal Vol 50 p. 1609, n. 228
  9. ^ United States v. Ingalls, 73 F. Supp. 76, 77 (S.D. Cal. 1947)
  10. ^ Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Fact Sheet
  11. ^ Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act 2000 U.S. Department of State
  12. ^ Loupe, Diane (August 2000). "Community Service: Mandatory or Voluntary? - Industry Overview". School Administrator: 8. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0JSD/is_7_57/ai_77204744/pg_8/. 
  13. ^ Peonage Section 1581 of Title 18 U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division Involuntary servitude, forced labor and sex trafficking statutes enforced
  14. ^ Involuntary Servitude Section 1584 of Title 18 U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division Involuntary servitude, forced labor and sex trafficking statutes enforced
  15. ^ Oman, Nathan B.,Specific Performance and the Thirteenth Amendment. Minnesota Law Review, Forthcoming Available at SSRN: [1]
  16. ^ Forced Labor Section 1589 of Title 18 U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division Involuntary servitude, forced labor and sex trafficking statutes enforced. NB According to the Dept. of Justice, "Congress enacted § 1589 in response to the Supreme Court’s decision in United States v. Kozminski, 487 U.S. 931 (1988), which interpreted § 1584 to require the use or threatened use of physical or legal coercion. Section 1589 broadens the definition of the kinds of coercion that might result in forced labor."
  17. ^ The Color of Law FBI Miami Civil Rights Program
  18. ^ Involuntary Servitude and Human Trafficking Initiatives National Workers Exploitation Task Force FBI Miami Civil Rights Program
  19. ^ Title 18, U.S.C., Section 241 - Conspiracy Against Rights
  20. ^ Title 18, U.S.C., Section 242 - Deprivation of Rights Under Color of Law
  21. ^ Mount, Steve (January 2007). "Ratification of Constitutional Amendments". http://www.usconstitution.net/constamrat.html. Retrieved February 24 2007. 
  22. ^ http://13thamendment.harpweek.com/HubPages/CommentaryPage.asp?Commentary=02CorwinAmend
  23. ^ http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/lincoln1.asp
  24. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=T0IGUhxqUuYC&pg=PA118&lpg=PA118&dq=%22The+Corwin+Amendment+in+the+Secession+Crisis%22+%22Ohio+Historical+Quarterly%22&source=bl&ots=UTc9bFKRFF&sig=_dJGSX-qqXguLdYNL_YQQZv2g4k&hl=en&ei=XKK0StWfNp2G6wPXi5HKCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5#v=onepage&q=&f=false

External links


Simple English

The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was an amendment to the United States Constitution, meaning that it was a change to the basic and most important laws that govern the United States. It abolished (stopped) slavery in the United States. It was passed in 1865, at the end of the Civil War.

Text

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2. Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

History

Prior to the Civil War, the Constitution allowed slavery. However, many groups sought to end slavery in the United States. The groups became the Republican Party in 1856, and gained power in 1860 with the election of Abraham Lincoln. In 1863, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed slaves only in certain parts of the United States, and did not actually make slavery illegal. Near the end of the Civil War, Republicans, who controlled Congress, introduced an amendment to abolish (stop) slavery in the United States. (In order for an amendment to happen, it first must be passed by both houses of Congress, and then passed by three-quarters of the states.) It was passed by three-quarters of the states and became law in late 1865.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 30, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which are similar to those in the above article.








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