Thiruvananthapuram: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

































Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Thiruvananthapuram
View towards the Kerala Legislative Assembly in Trivandrum
Thiruvananthapuram
Location of Thiruvananthapuram
in Kerala and India
Coordinates 8°29′15″N 76°57′07″E / 8.4874°N 76.952°E / 8.4874; 76.952
Country  India
State Kerala
District(s) Thiruvananthapuram
Mayor C. Jayan Babu
Population
Density
744,739 (2001)
5,284 /km2 (13,685 /sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Area
Elevation
Coastline
141.74 km2 (55 sq mi)
5 m (16 ft)
78 km (48 mi)
Climate
Precipitation
Am/Aw (Köppen)
     1,700 mm (66.9 in)
Website trivandrum.gov.in

About this sound Thiruvananthapuram (Malayalam: തിരുവനന്തപുരം; IPA: [t̪iruʋən̪ɨn̪t̪əpurəm]), also known as Trivandrum, is the capital of the Indian state of Kerala and the headquarters of the Thiruvananthapuram District. It is located on the west coast of India near the extreme south of the mainland. Referred to by Mahatma Gandhi as the "Evergreen city of India", the city is characterized by its undulating terrain of low coastal hills and busy commercial alleys. With almost 745,000 inhabitants per the 2001 census, it is the largest and most populous city in Kerala; the wider urban agglomeration has a population of more than one million. Apart from being the IT hub of the state with over 80% of the state's software exports, Thiruvananthapuram ranks first in the number of international tourists in Kerala also.

The city is the state capital and houses many central and state government offices, organizations and companies. Apart from being the political nerve centre of Kerala, it is also a major academic hub and is home to several educational institutions including the University of Kerala, and to many science and technology institutions, the most prominent being the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Technopark, the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST) and the Indian Institute of Science, Education and Research (IISER). It is also considered as one of the cleanest cities in India.

Contents

Origin of name

Thiruvananthapuram means "Abode of Lord Ananta" in Sanskrit and Malayalam.[1] The name derives from the deity of the Hindu temple at the centre of the city. Anantha is the serpent Shesha on whom Padmanabhan or Vishnu reclines. The temple of Vishnu reclining on Anantha, the Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple remains the iconic landmark of the city. The city was officially referred to as Trivandrum in English until 1991, when the government decided to reinstate the city's original name Thiruvananthapuram in all languages.

History

Headquarters of the Nair Brigade of Travancore. The building is now the Legislative Museum

Thiruvananthapuram is an ancient city with trading traditions dating back to 1000 BCE.[2][3] It is believed that the ships of King Solomon landed in a port called Ophir (now Poovar) in Thiruvananthapuram in 1036 BCE.[4] The city was the trading post of spices, sandalwood and ivory.[5] However, the ancient political and cultural history of the city was almost entirely independent from that of the rest of Kerala. The early rulers of the city were the Ays. With their fall in the 10th century, the city was taken over by the rulers of Venad.[6]

The rise of modern Thiruvananthapuram began with accession of Marthanda Varma in 1729 as the founding ruler of the princely state of Travancore (Thiruvithamkoor in the local vernacular). Thiruvananthapuram was made the capital of Travancore in 1745 after shifting the capital from Padmanabhapuram of Kanyakumari district. The city developed into a major intellectual and artistic centre during this period. The golden age in the city's history was during the mid 19th century under the reign of Maharaja Swathi Thirunal and Maharaja Ayilyam Thirunal. This era saw the establishment of the first English school (1834), the Observatory (1837), the General Hospital (1839), the Oriental Research Institute & Manuscripts Library and the University College (1873). The first mental hospital in the state was also started during the same period. Sanskrit College, Ayurveda College, Law College and a second grade college for women were started by Moolam Thirunal (1885–1924).

The early 20th century was an age of tremendous political and social changes in the city. The Sree Moolam Assembly, established in 1904 was the first democratically elected legislative council in any Indian state. Despite not being under direct control of the British Empire at any time, the city however featured prominently in India's freedom struggle. The Indian National Congress had a very active presence in the city. A meeting of the Indian National Congress presided by Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramaiah was held here in 1938.

The period of Chitra Thirunal Bala Rama Varma, who took over in 1931, witnessed many-sided progress. The promulgation of "Temple Entry Proclamation" (1936) was an act that underlined social emancipation. This era also saw the establishment of the University of Travancore in 1937, which later became the Kerala University.

With the end of the British rule in 1947, Travancore chose to join the Indian union. The first popular ministry headed by Pattom Thanu Pillai was installed in office on 24 March 1948. In 1949, Thiruvananthapuram became the capital of Thiru-Kochi, the state formed by the integration of Travancore with its northern neighbour Kochi. The king of Travancore, Chitra Thirunal Bala Rama Varma became the Rajpramukh of the Travancore-Cochin Union from July 1, 1949 until October 31, 1956. When the state of Kerala was formed on November 1, 1956, Thiruvananthapuram became the capital of the new state.

With the establishment of Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) in 1962, Thiruvananthapuram became the cradle of India's ambitious space programme. The first Indian space rocket was developed and launched from the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) located in the outskirts of the city in 1963. Several establishments of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) were later established in Thiruvananthapuram.[7]

A major milestone in the city's recent history was the establishment of Technopark—India's first IT park—in 1995.[8] Technopark has developed into the largest IT Park in India and third largest in Asia and is home to MNC giants like Infosys, TCS, Ernst & Young, IBS Software Services, UST Global, etc; employing around 30,000 people in close to 160 companies.[9] This placed Thiruvananthapuram on the IT map of India and it is today one of the most promising in the country in terms of competitiveness and capability.[10]

Geography and climate

A view from Ponmudi hills

Thiruvananthapuram is built on hills by the sea shore and is located at 8°30′N 76°54′E / 8.5°N 76.9°E / 8.5; 76.9 on the west coast, near the southern tip of mainland India. The city and the suburbs covers an area of about 250 square kilometers, sandwiched between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. The average elevation of the city is 16 ft above sea level.

The area can be divided into two geographical regions, the midlands and the lowlands. The midland region comprises low hills and valleys adjoining the Ghats. The lowland is a narrow stretch comprising shorelines, rivers and deltas, dotted with coconut palms. Vellayani Lake, the largest freshwater lake in the district, is in the suburbs of the city. The major rivers that flow through the city are the Karamana river and the Killi river.

There are highlands, which form the eastern suburbs of the city. The highest point in the district is the Agasthyarkoodam which rises 1869 m above sea level. Ponmudi and Mukkunimala are hill-resorts near the city.

Advertisements

Climate

Thiruvananthapuram
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
23
 
32
22
 
 
24
 
32
23
 
 
40
 
33
24
 
 
117
 
33
25
 
 
230
 
32
25
 
 
321
 
30
24
 
 
227
 
29
23
 
 
138
 
29
23
 
 
175
 
30
23
 
 
282
 
30
23
 
 
185
 
30
23
 
 
66
 
31
23
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: IMD

The city has a climate that borders between a tropical wet and dry climate and a tropical monsoon climate. As a result it does not experience distinct seasons. The mean maximum temperature 34 °C and the mean minimum temperature is 21 °C. The humidity is high and rises to about 90% during the monsoon season.[11] Thiruvananthapuram is the first city along the path of the south-west monsoons and gets its first showers in early June. The city gets heavy rainfall of around 1700 mm per year. The city also gets rain from the receding north-east monsoons which hit the city by October. The dry season sets in by December. December, January and February are the coldest months while March, April and May are the hottest. The winter temperature comes down to about 15 °C and Highest temperatures recorded 37 °C.[12]

Economy

A View of a Technopark building

The economy of Thiruvananthapuram city was earlier based on the tertiary sector with about 60% of the workforce being employed as government servants. Large scale industrial establishments are low compared to other south Indian state capitals like Chennai and Bangalore. At present the economy is growing with the contributions from more professionals in the fields of IT, and Medical/Bio-Technology. The city contributes 80% of software exports from the state. The opening of many private Television channels in the state made Thiruvananthapuram the home of several studios and related industries. India's first and only animation park is situated here.

Since the establishment of Technopark in 1995, Thiruvananthapuram has steadily grown into a competitive IT centre. The city was rated as the best 2nd tier metro with IT/ITES infrastructure, and second in terms of availability of human talent.[10][13] Technopark houses global majors like IBS Software Services, NeST Software, Infosys, TCS, McKinsey & Co., Ernst & Young, Allianz Cornhill, Tata Elxsi, UST Global, etc. The park has around 110 companies employing over 19,500 professionals.[14] With the expansion plans to be completed in 2008–09, this figure is to rise to about 40,000. With the completion of the 600,000 ft² Thejaswini, Technopark has become the largest IT Park in India. Work on the 460,000 ft² Leela IT building, Infosys Campus, IBS Campus, NEST Campus and Tata Elxsi R&D Centre has commenced while that on the UST-Global Campus is due to commence shortly.[15] Work on the mammoth Technocity project is also due to commence shortly.

Tourism has also contributed heavily to the economy of Thiruvananthapuram. Foreign tourists generally use Thiruvananthapuram as a hub to explore the highly promoted tourism industry of the state of Kerala.[16][17] Thiruvananthapuram is ranked first in the number of foreign tourists visiting Kerala.[18] It is also a major destination for chartered flights to India for medical tourism, as there are more than fifty recognised Ayurveda centres in and around the city. This is primarily due to Ayurveda's immense popularity in the West. Medical tourism is further promoted by the recuperation facilities available at the beach resorts and hill stations nearby.

There are around 20 government owned and 60 privately owned medium and large scale industrial units in Thiruvanathapuram. The major employers are the Kerala State Industrial Development Corporation (KSIDC), Milma, Keltron, Travancore Titanium and Hindustan Latex, all government owned. There are also about 30,000 small scale industrial units employing around 115,000 people. Traditional industries include handloom and coir.[19]

Vizhinjam Port site

Commercial activity is quite low mainly due to the under-development of ports. However, this is expected to change with the construction of the proposed mega Deep Water Container Transshipment Port at Vizhinjam.[20] Situated close to the city, Vizhinjam is very close to international shipping routes and the East-West shipping axis and hardly require maintenance dredging.[21] Other major organizations of economic interest are the Chithranjali Film Complex, Kinfra Apparel Park, Kinfra Film and Video Park, Kerala High-tech Industries (KELTECH), Kerala Automobiles Limited and the English Indian Clays Ltd.

Government and politics

The District Administration is headed by the District Collector, an officer of the elite Indian Administrative Service.

The city is administered by the Thiruvananthapuram Corporation headed by the Mayor. The city council is democratically elected and comprises 84 members representing the different city wards. Several agencies work under or in partnership with the Corporation including the Trivandrum Development Authority (TRIDA) and Trivandrum Road Development Corporation.

Kerala Legislative Assembly Building

The city comes under the Thiruvananthapuram Lok Sabha constituency. The city contributes to four legislative assembly seats namely Kazhakuttam, Thiruvananthapuram, Nemom and Kovalam.[22]

The city police is headed by a Police Commissioner, an officer of Deputy Inspector General rank in the Indian Police Service. The city is divided into three police sub-divisions headed by Assistant Commissioners. There are also two traffic sub-divisions. A women's cell and a narcotics control cell also operate in the city. The other units of Thiruvananthapuram city police include Crime Detachment, City Special Branch, Dog Squad, Mounted Police, District Crime Records Bureau, Foreigners Registration Office (FRO), Tourist Police and District Armed Reserve.[23] There are two state Armed Police Battalions and a unit of the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) based in Thiruvananthapuram. The CRPF has a Group Head Quarters (GHQ) located at Pallipuram. There is also a large army cantonment in Pangode where some regiments of the Indian Army are based.

Thiruvananthapuram is the capital of Kerala and hence the state legislative assembly and Secretariat are located here. The city is also the headquarters of the Thiruvananthapuram district. The foreign missions in the city are the Consulate of Maldives[24] and Honarary Consulate of Russia.

Infrastructure

The city is fully electrified by Kerala State Electricity Board (KSEB). The district is divided into three circles: Transmission circle, Thiruvananthapuram city and Kattakkada. Domestic consumers account for 43% of the total power consumption, or 90 million units per month. Thiruvananthapuram district has one 220 kV, nine 110 kV and six 66 kV electrical substations. A 400 kV substation has just been commissioned by the Power Grid Corporation and will ensure high-quality power supply to the city.[25]

The water supply schemes cover 100% within the city limits. It is 84% of the urban and 69% of the rural population, when the district is considered. Peppara and Aruvikkara dams are the main sources of water for distribution in the capital city. The new project plan for improving the water supply with Japanese aid covers Thiruvananthapuram city and six suburban panchayats having urban characteristics.[25]

The sewerage system in the city was implemented at the time of the Travancore Kingdom, and modernised in 1938. This scheme for the disposal of sullage and sewage is an underground system. The whole system is controlled by Kerala Water Authority now. The city area is divided into seven blocks for the execution of the sewerage system, two commissioned in the 1990s and two after 2000. The sewerage is pumped to a stilling chamber at the Sewerage Treatment Plant (STP) located at Valiyathura, and is disposed through sewage farming. The Dairy Development Department maintains this sewage farm, and fodder cultivation is done here. There is no revenue generation from this scheme, and the sewerage system in the city is a service provided to the residents.[26]

Transport

Trivandrum Central Railway Station

Within the city, city buses, taxis and autorickshaws provide means of transportation. Scooters, motorcycles and regular bicycles are the favoured means of personal transportation.

The intra-city public transport is dominated by the state-owned KSRTC (Kerala State Road Transport Corporation). There are also private bus services, but are limited in number. The city services of KSRTC operate from six depots namely, the City depot, Vikas Bhavan, Peroorkada, Pappanamcode, Kaniyapuram and Vellanad. These services were revamped in 2005 with the introduction of modern buses and electronic ticketing mechanisms. The central city bus terminal is located at East Fort (Kizhakke kotta), near the Padmanabha Swamy temple. The Central and Inter State bus station is located 1 km away at Thampanoor, opposite Thiruvananthapuram Central (Railway) Station. Buses from it go to all major towns and villages in the State as well as big South Indian cities such as Bangalore and Chennai.

The Central railway station is also located at Thampanoor in the heart of the city, 8 km from the airport. It is a very important terminus which handles over 50 trains daily. The city is well connected by rail to almost all major cities in India such as New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Pune, Ahmedabad, Indore, Bhopal, Gwalior, Lucknow, Jaipur etc. Thiruvananthapuram is the first major South Indian city on the second longest train route in the world, Kanyakumari to Jammu. A second satellite station was opened in 2005 at Kochuveli, near the International Airport.

Thiruvananthapuram's International Airport, with direct flights from the Middle East, Singapore, Maldives and Sri Lanka is the gateway to the tourism-rich state of Kerala. There are also two military airports, one near the civilian airport and the other at the Southern Air Command headquarters of the Indian Air Force at Akkulam. Apart from regular scheduled flights, many chartered flights from Europe like First Choice Airways from London Gatwick and Monarch, operating with big jets, land here during the peak tourist season (around December) with Kerala fast becoming a prime tourist destination in India. Thiruvanthapuram airport's importance is also due to the fact that it is the southernmost airport in India and also the closest to (and thus cheapest option for) neighbouring countries like Sri Lanka and Maldives.

Double Decker Buses, which were a major attraction of the city

The construction of the mega Deep Water Container Trans-shipment Port at Vizhinjam was expected to begin in 2007. But a dispute over the tenders has stalled the project for the time being. It is to be built in three phases, and expected to be a key competitor in the ports business (especially for container transshipments), with the international shipping lanes between Europe and the Far East very close to the port, and also with major ports like Colombo, Kochi and Tuticorin in close proximity.[27]

The exponential growth of the services and IT-based sectors coupled with its prominence as the state capital and tourist centre has caused considerable strain on the transport infrastructure of the city. To ease the strain, several multi-million dollar construction projects are now underway including the construction of several new underpasses and flyovers, scheduled to be completed by early 2007. In the first phase, 42 km of six-lane and four-lane dual carriage ways are being built.

Demographics

Gandhi Park in East Fort

The city has a population of 744,739 according to the 2001 census[28] (nearly 1.1 million in Nov 2006). Within the city, the density of population is about 5,284 people per square kilometer. The district has a literacy rate of 89.36%.[29] With the sex ratio of 1,037 females to every 1,000 males, there are more women in Thiruvananthapuram than men. The wider urban agglomeration registered a population of about one million in 2001.[30]

Hindus comprise of 65% of the population, Christians are about 18% and Muslims about 15%. The major language spoken is Malayalam. English, Tamil and Hindi are also widely understood. There is also a prominent minority of Tamil speakers and a few Tulu and Konkani speakers.

Unemployment is a serious issue in Thiruvananthapuram, as it is in the whole of Kerala. The increase in the unemployment rate was from 8.8% in 1998 to 34.3% in 2003, thus registering a 25.5% absolute and a 289.7% relative increase in five years.[31] Thiruvananthapuram taluk ranks third in Kerala with 36.3% of its population unemployed. The in-migration of the unemployed from other districts also boosts this high unemployment rate.[31] Thiruvananthapuram has a high suicide rate, which went up from 17.2 per lakh in 1995 to 38.5 per lakh in 2002.[32] In 2004, the rate came down slightly to 36.6 per lakh.[33]

This apparent paradox—high human development and low economic development—is visible in the entire state of Kerala, and is often dubbed as the Kerala phenomenon or the Kerala model of development.[34][35]

Culture

Kovalam beach, a popular tourist destination

The citizens of Thiruvananthapuram are sometimes referred to as "Trivandrumites" by some tourism sites and blogging community, though the term is not in common use. Thiruvananthapuram has a rich cultural background thanks to the rulers of erstwhile Travancore, who took an active interest in the development of arts and culture. Thiruvananthapuram has produced several great artists, the most famous ones being Maharaja Swathi Thirunal[36], Irayimman Thampi and Raja Ravi Varma.

Maharaja Swathi Thirunal was a great composer and played a vital role in the development of Carnatic music[37]. There is a music college in his name in the city - Swathi Thirunal College of Music. Raja Ravi Varma was an illustrious painter of international renown. His contributions to Indian art are substantial. Most of his famous paintings are preserved at the Sree Chithra Art Gallery in the city. The Padmanabha Swamy Temple and the fort surrounding it, the Napier Museum and Zoo, the VJT hall, Palayam Mosque and Church are among the prominent heritage buildings in the city. The Veli lake and Shankumugham beach are home to various sculptures of the noted sculptor Kanayi Kunhiraman.

Thiruvananthapuram easily disguises itself as a laid back quiet city to a casual observer. However, beneath it there is a hum of cultural activities. The city comes to life during the festival season of Onam in August/September, and during the tourist season later in the year. The state government organises the tourism week celebrations every year during the Onam with cultural events conducted at various centres in the city. The other major events include the annual flower show, the Attukal Pongala, the Aaraat of Padmanabha Swamy Temple, the Beemapally Uroos, Vettucaud Perunaal etc.[38] The CVN Kalari at East Fort is world renowned centre for training in Kerala's own martial art—the Kalaripayattu. The Margi centre offers training in many of Kerala's traditional arts including Kathakali.

The general cuisine of the people is Keralite cuisine, which is characterised by an abundance of coconut and spices. Other South Indian cuisines, as well as Chinese and North Indian cuisines are popular. Fast food culture is also very prominent in the city.

Thiruvananthapuram has numerous libraries, the prominent ones being the State Central Library (Trivandrum Public library, Est. 1829),[39] the University Library, Thiruvananthapuram Children's Library, Manuscripts Library and the Centre for Development Studies Library. The British Library (Est. 1964)[40] was located very near to the Government Secretariat adjacent to the YMCA Hostel.

Education

Kerala University Administrative Building

Thiruvananthapuram is a major academic hub. The University of Kerala is located here. There are many professional education colleges including fifteen engineering colleges, three medical colleges, three Ayurveda colleges, two Homeopathy colleges, six other medical related colleges, and two law colleges in the city and its suburbs.[41] Trivandrum Medical College, the premier health institute of the state is also one of the finest in the country. It is being upgraded to the status of an All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS). The College of Engineering, Trivandrum and Sree Chitra Thirunal College of Engineering are the main engineering colleges in Trivandrum . The Asian School of Business and IIITM-K are two of the management study institutions in the city, both situated inside Technopark. The Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, the unique and first of its kind in India, is situated here. Centre for Development Studies, one of the foremost development economics research centers in the country, and Centre for Development of Imaging Technology (C-DIT) which does research, development and training in imaging technology are located here.

The schools in the city are classified as Aided, Unaided and Government schools.[42] The government schools are run directly by the state government and follow the syllabus prescribed by the state government. The aided schools also follow the state syllabus. In addition to this, there are four Kendriya Vidyalayas run directly by the Central government, which follow the CBSE syllabus, and private schools run by educational trusts or boards which follow CBSE and/or ICSE syllabus and/or state syllabus. The first International school in Kerala, The Trivandrum International School, was started in the outskirts of the city in August 2003.[43] The literacy rate in Thiruvananthapuram, according to the 2001 census, is 89.36 percent; 92.68 percent among males and 86.26 percent among females.[29]

Science and Technology

Thiruvananthapuram is a Research and Development hub in the fields of space science, information technology, bio-technology, medicine and so on. It is home to a cluster of research centres, which include the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS), Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST), Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, RGCB, Tropical Botanical Garden and Research Institute, ER&DC – CDAC, CSIRNational Institute of Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Free Software Foundation (FSF), Regional Cancer Centre (RCC), Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology (SCTIMST), Centre for Earth Science Studies (CESS), Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (CTCRI), Priyadarsini Planetarium, The Oriental Research Institute & Manuscripts Library, Kerala Highway Research Institute, Kerala Fisheries Research Institute, etc.

Media

Daily newspapers are available in English and Malayalam. The English newspapers with editions from Thiruvananthapuram are The New Indian Express and The Hindu. The major Malayalam newspapers are Mathrubhumi, Malayala Manorama, Kerala Kaumudi, Deshabhimani, Veekshanam and Madhyamam.

Most Malayalam TV channels are based in Thiruvananthapuram. The government owned Doordarshan began broadcasting from here in 1981. Asianet, the first private Malayalam channel, began its telecasts in 1991. The other channels now based in Thiruvananthapuram are Surya TV, Amrita TV, Kairali TV, Kiran TV (Youth channel of Surya TV) Asianet Plus (Youth channel of Asianet) and People (News and current affairs channel of Kairali TV). The local cable services are provided by Asianet Satellite Communications Limited, Trivandrum Cable Network Pvt Ltd and Siti Cable and they provide a bouquet of local channels in addition to all the Indian channels. DTH services are available through Doordarshan Direct Plus, Tata Sky, SUN Direct,Big TV and Dish TV.

All India Radio has an AM (1161 MHz) and an FM (Ananthapuri FM; 101.9 MHz) station for the city. FM radio channels broadcast from Thiruvananthapuram are Ananthapuri FM (AIR) 101.9 MHz, Big FM 92.7 MHz, Club FM 94.3 MHz , Radio Mirchi 98.3 MHz, Red FM 93.5 MHz and Radio DC(Low power CRS) 90.4 MHz.

There are over 18 cinema halls which screen films in Malayalam, Tamil, English and Hindi. There are also two film studios in the city—Chithranjali and Merryland. The Kinfra Film and Video Park, located near the Technopark, is one of the most advanced film and animation production centres in India. Leading firms like Prasad Labs have set up their facilities here. The International Film Festival of Kerala (IFFK) is held in November/December every year and is acknowledged as one of the leading events of its kind in India.

The basic telephone services are provided by BSNL, Reliance and Tata Indicom. The cellular networks operating in the city are BSNL CellOne, Airtel, Aircel, Idea Cellular, Vodafone (all GSM) and also Reliance and Tata Indicom (both CDMA). The number of mobile phone connections has increased exponentially since the late 90s. Major broadband internet services are provided by BSNL DataOne, Asianet Dataline and Siti Cable. Private providers like Reliance, VSNL, Airtel and Satyam also have their presence in the city. The major dial-up internet providers are BSNL NetOne, Kerala Online and KelNet among others. Thiruvananthapuram also holds the distinction of having been the first 100% Digital SSA (Secondary Switching Area) in India.

Sports

Chandrashekaran Nair Football Stadium

The most popular games are Football and Cricket.[44] Basketball, Badminton and Volleyball are also popular, mostly in schools. The Kerala Cricket Association (KCA) is headquartered in Thiruvananthapuram. The HQ complex of KCA, has advance facilities including two practice turfs with nets, bowling machines, gymnasium with multi-gym and equipment for aerobic training, lecture hall and library, an astro-turf indoor coaching facility, fully furnished accommodation for coaches and players, a physiotherapy clinic, functional office facilities and guest rooms. The Chandrasekharan Nair Stadium, in the heart of the city, is a prominent football stadium and has hosted both national and international level matches. The University Stadium has hosted two international cricket matches. This stadium is under the University of Kerala and is equipped with synthetic tracks for athletics games. The Central Stadium, which has facilities for athletics, football, basketball, volleyball and cricket practice nets, is situated on the eastern side of the Government Secretariat. The Jimmy George Sports Complex, the GV Raja Sports School and Lakshmi Bhai National College for Physical Education (LNCPE) are the other major sports establishments in the city. The city also has a Golf Club, one of the oldest in India, and a Tennis Club (Trivandrum Tennis Club/TTC) both located at Kawdiar. The city fields two football clubs--SBT-Thiruvananthapuram and Titanium—in the second division of the National Football League. The city also has a fully equipped modern swimming pool located near the Jimmy George Sports Complex at Vellayambalam. Many state level and national level swimming competitions are held in this complex. It also holds coaching camps for those who are interested in learning swimming.

Strategic Importance

Apart from being the capital of India’s most literate[45] and socially developed state,[46][47] Thiruvananthapuram is a strategically important city in Southern India. Being the largest city in India’s deep south, it is important for both military logistics and civil aviation in the southern part of the country. It is the headquarters of the Southern Air Command (SAC) of the Indian Air Force.[48] The city is very close to the international shipping route and East-West shipping axis.[21] Also, it falls under the international air route.[49] Due to the strategic importance of the city, the Indian Air Force authorities have planned to establish an aerospace command in SAC.[50] The plan for setting up a new "Tri-Service Command", which will integrate all the three forces under a single command, is also in the pipeline.[51]

Being the Indian city with the closest air link to the small island-country of Maldives and also Sri Lanka,[52] the city’s medical and health infrastructure caters to the needs of the patients from both countries, especially Maldives.[53] Exports of perishables and medicines from Trivandrum International Airport run to full capacity on the daily flights to Maldives and Sri Lanka. Thiruvananthapuram also provides a key link in the movement of goods and passengers to and from southern parts of Tamilnadu into Kerala, the state border being just 30 km away from the city centre. The city is also important for people around the world seeking help through Ayurveda medicine and therapy. Ayurveda resorts are coming up at a rapid pace along the International Beach of Kovalam and Varkala coast.

Sister Town / Twin Cities

Thiruvananthapuram is twinned with the following cities:(in chronological order)

Gallery

Notes

  1. ^ http://thiruvananthapuram.net/
  2. ^ De Beth Hillel, David (1832). Travels (Madras publication).
  3. ^ Lord, James Henry (1977). The Jews in India and the Far East; Greenwood Press Reprint; ISBN 0-8371-2615-0.
  4. ^ "Ancient Trade in Thiruvananthapuram". Facts You Never Knew about India. University of Stanford. http://www.stanford.edu/~ctj/keralfor.html. Retrieved 2006-10-17. 
  5. ^ "Ancient Trade in Trivandrum". About Trivandrum. Technopark Kerala. http://www.technopark.org/abttvm01.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-17. 
  6. ^ "History of Thiruvananthapuram". Kerala PRD. http://www.kerala.gov.in/knowkerala/tvm.htm. Retrieved 2006-05-23. 
  7. ^ "VSSC Trivandrum". Indian Space Research Organisation. http://www.isro.org/centers/cen_vssc.htm. Retrieved 2006-05-23. 
  8. ^ "First IT Park in Kerala". Kerala State IT Mission. http://www.keralaitmission.org. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  9. ^ "IT Companies in Kerala". Kerala State IT Mission. http://www.keralaitmission.org. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  10. ^ a b "Thiruvananthapuram offers best IT infrastructure: Survey". ciol. http://www.ciol.com/content/news/2006/106072505.asp. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  11. ^ "Trivandrum Climate". Weatherbase. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=017334&refer=. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  12. ^ http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=17334&refer==&units=metric Trivandrum Climate - Weatherbase
  13. ^ "First IT Park in Kerala". Kerala State IT Mission. http://www.keralaitmission.org. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  14. ^ "IT companies in Technopark". Kerala State IT Mission. http://www.keralaitmission.org/web/sec4/?action=0&what=100014. Retrieved 2006-05-24. \
  15. ^ "Technopark - Greenest Tech Park". Technopark. http://www.technopark.org. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  16. ^ "Trivandrum tops in the number of International tourists." (PDF). Statistics of Tourists in 2007.. Tourism Dept, Kerala. http://www.keralatourism.org/tourismstatistics/Microsoft%20Word%20-%20Tourist_statistics_for_Internet.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-08. 
  17. ^ "Trivandrum tops in the number of International tourists." (PDF). Statistics of Tourists in 2005.. Tourism Dept, Kerala. http://www.keralatourism.org/php/media/data/tourismstatistics/TOURISTSTATISTICS2005.pdf. Retrieved 2006-10-02. 
  18. ^ "Kerala: Earnings cross Rs.10,000 crore from Tourism.". Tourism on a growth trajectory. The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/2008/04/15/stories/2008041553690400.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-08. 
  19. ^ "Statistical data". Kerala Government. http://www.kerala.gov.in/statistical/panchayat_statistics2001/thiru_cont.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  20. ^ "Vizhinjam terminal will reduce movement cost - Boost the economy". The Hindu Business Line. 2005-08-29. http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2005/08/30/stories/2005083000410700.htm. Retrieved 2006-09-18. 
  21. ^ a b "Features of Vizhinjam Port" (PDF). Kerala Government. http://kerala.gov.in/transshipment/salient.pdf. Retrieved 2006-09-22. 
  22. ^ "Assembly Constituencies - Corresponding Districts and Parliamentary Constituencies" (PDF). Kerala. Election Commission of India. http://archive.eci.gov.in/se2001/background/S11/KL_Dist_PC_AC.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-21. 
  23. ^ "City Police of Thiruvananthapuram". General Information.. Thiruvananthapuram City Police. http://www.tvmcitypolice.org/generalinformation.jsp. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  24. ^ "Consulate / Embassy in Thiruvananthapuram". Embassies and Consulates in India .. High Commission of the Republic of Maldives. http://www.maldiveshighcom.co.in/maldives/Tiruvananthapuram/AboutCosulate.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  25. ^ a b "Electricity and Water supply in Thiruvananthapuram". Infrastructure. Government of Kerala. http://kerala.gov.in//tvmnew/infrastracture.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-02. 
  26. ^ "Thiruvananthapuram Sewerage Scheme". Sewage Treatment in Thiruvananthapuram. Government of Kerala. http://keralawater.org/sewer.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-16. 
  27. ^ "Vizhinjam - Data Sheet". Dept of ports, Kerala Government. http://www.keralaports.gov.in/vizhinjm.htm. Retrieved 2006-09-22. 
  28. ^ "Population of Trivandrum City". Kerala city populations. City Population. http://www.citypopulation.de/India-Kerala.html. Retrieved 2006-05-23. 
  29. ^ a b "Literacy rate in Thiruvananthapuram". Education status in Kerala. Kerala Government. http://www.kerala.gov.in/education/status.htm. Retrieved 2006-09-26. 
  30. ^ "Population of Trivandrum UA". City Population. http://www.citypopulation.de/World.html. Retrieved 2006-05-23. 
  31. ^ a b K. C. Zachariah and S. Irudaya Rajan (2005) (PDF Format). Unemployment in Thiruvananthapuram. K. C. Zachariah and S. Irudaya Rajan. http://www.sacw.net/Labour/uneployementkerala.pdf. Retrieved 2006-10-02. 
  32. ^ "Kerala - Suicide rates". Suicide. Kerala State Mental Health Authority. http://www.ksmha.org/suicide.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-02. 
  33. ^ "Suicide rate going up in district". The Hindu. 2006-03-13. http://www.hindu.com/2006/03/13/stories/2006031320990300.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-02. 
  34. ^ Tharamangalam 2005, p. 1.
  35. ^ Brenkert & Malone 2003, p. 48
  36. ^ "Life of HH Swathi Thirunal". Swathi Thirunal's life. C-Dit. http://www.swathithirunal.in/. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  37. ^ "Swathi Thirunal; Musician and ruler.". Swathi Thirunal's reign. Kerala Government. http://www.kerala.gov.in/music/music4.pdf#search=%22swathi%20thirunal%22. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  38. ^ "Festivals". A look in to the Festivals in Thiruvananthapuram .. Kerala Government. http://www.tvm.kerala.gov.in/festivals.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  39. ^ "Trivandrum Public Library". State Central Library .. Government of Kerala. http://www.kerala.gov.in/public_library/index.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  40. ^ "British Library in Thiruvananthapuram city". Libraries in India under the British council. Kerala State IT Mission. http://www.britishcouncil.org/india-regional-thiruvananthapuram.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  41. ^ "Technical Education in Kerala - Department of Technical education". Professional Colleges in Thiruvananthapuram. Kerala Government. http://www.kerala.gov.in. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  42. ^ "Education in Thiruvananthapuram". Schools in Thiruvananthapuram. Kerala Government. http://www.tvm.kerala.gov.in/education.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  43. ^ "Trivandrum International School opens doors". The Hindu Business Line. 2003-10-08. http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2003/08/04/stories/2003080400591300.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-08. 
  44. ^ "Football and Cricket - the Most Popular Games". Games in Kerala. Informations and Public relations office of Kerala. http://www.prd.kerala.gov.in/sportsmain.htm. Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  45. ^ "Literacy rate in Indian states and Union Territories". Number of Literates & Literacy Rates (Excluding J & K).. Census Department. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/. Retrieved 2006-09-16. 
  46. ^ "Kerala: Human Development Fact Sheet" (PDF). "Kerala: Human Development Fact Sheet". United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). http://www.undp.org.in/programme/undpini/factsheet/kerala.pdf. Retrieved 2006-09-16. 
  47. ^ "Kerala Model" (PDF). "EFA (Education for All) Global Monitoring Report",(2003). UNESCO. http://www.unesco.org/education/efa_report/chapter4.pdf. Retrieved 2006-09-16. 
  48. ^ "Southern Air Command, Akkulam, Thiruvananthapuram". Air Commands in India .. Indian Air Force. http://indianairforce.nic.in/show_page.php?pg_id=32&page_type=command&comm_id=5. Retrieved 2006-08-29. 
  49. ^ "Refuelling destination". The Hindu. 2006-08-04. http://www.hindu.com/2006/08/04/stories/2006080423940300.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-09. 
  50. ^ "SAC to be made aerospace command soon". The Hindu. 2005-10-09. http://www.thehindu.com/2005/10/09/stories/2005100910170400.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  51. ^ "Tri-service command likely at Thiruvananthapuram". WebIndia. 2006-08-30. http://news.webindia123.com/news/Articles/India/20060830/436340.html. Retrieved 2006-09-15. 
  52. ^ "Connectivity". Maps of India.. Maps of India. http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/kerala/thiruvananthapuram.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-09. 
  53. ^ "Maldivian embassy - Independence day celebration". Embassy news (High Commission of the Republic of Maldives). 2006-07-26. http://www.maldiveshighcom.co.in/maldives/news/jul2006/jul2006%5B14%5D.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  54. ^ "Barcelona team arrives" (in English). The Hindu. 2009-01-10. http://www.thehindu.com/2009/10/01/stories/2009100158750300.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-13. 
  55. ^ "Kerala capital to get a cousin in Europe" (in English). arabnews. 2009-01-10. http://www.arabnews.com/?page=4&section=0&article=125013&d=31&m=7&y=2009. Retrieved 2009-07-31. 
  56. ^ "Galveston-Trivandrum sister city society" (in English). © www.gtscsociety.com. http://www.webdigi.com/gtscsociety/home.asp. Retrieved 2009-10-13. 

References

  • Manorama Yearbook 1995 (Malayalam Edition) ISSN 0970-9096
  • Manorama Yearbook 2003 (English Edition) ISBN 81-900461-8-7
  • Frank Modern Certificate Geography II ISBN 81-7170-007-1
  • Growing Populations, Changing Landscapes - Studies from India, China and United States 2001 (National Academy Press, Washington DC)

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Trivandrum Central Railway station at the heart of the city
Trivandrum Central Railway station at the heart of the city
Located near the southern tip of mainland India, Thiruvananthapuram (Malayalam: തിരുവനന്തപുരം Tiruvanantapuraṁ), [1] (formerly and often still known as Trivandrum) is the capital and biggest city (pop. 744,739 as of 2001) of Kerala in Southern India. The city is shares the same name with its district, Thiruvananthapuram, which is one of the 14 districts of Kerala. Referred to by Mahatma Gandhi as the "Evergreen city of India", the city is characterized by its undulating terrain of low coastal hills and busy commercial alleys.

Thiruvananthapuram is built on hills by the sea shore and sandwiched between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, Thiruvananthapuram is ranked first in the number of foreign tourists visiting Kerala and is a fascinating destination for holidaymakers.

Understand

Thiruvananthapuram, with a tradition dating back to 1000BC, lies on a small strip of land with plenty of coconut & palm trees, and it name means "City of Lord Anantha" in Sanskrit and Malayalam. It was a trading post for spices, sandalwood and ivory. The city is the state capital and houses many central and state government offices, organizations and companies. Apart from being the political nerve centre of Kerala, it is also a major academic hub and is home to several educational institutions including the University of Kerala, and to many science and technology institutions, the most prominent being the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Technopark, the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST) and the Indian Institute of Science, Education and Research (IISER).

The arterial road of Thiruvananthapuram is the MG Road or the Mahatma Gandhi Road which lies in the north-south direction and connects almost all important attractions in the city.

Climate

The city has a tropical climate and therefore does not experience distinct seasons. The mean maximum temperature is 34 °C and the mean minimum temperature is 21 °C. Humidity is high, and rises to about 90% during the monsoon season.

Thiruvananthapuram is the first city along the path of the south-west monsoon and gets its first showers in early June. However, pre-monsoon showers are common in April and May, accounting to about 35 cm on average. Annual rainfall is not very high compared to other districts of Kerala, but it is still a substantial 180 cm. The rainiest months are May, June, July, August, and October, but there are frequent showers in other months too between April and November. For travelers who wish to avoid the rain, the best period to visit is from December to March.

The winter temperature comes down to about 18 °C at some places at high altitudes and summer temperatures can sometimes go as high as 35 °C.

  • The best time to visit Trivandrum is between October and February, the perfect time for beach vacations. February to May is summer, which is very hot and humid while June to September is the monsoon season. The second rainy season, the North-East monsoon, is equally strong and occurs during the months of October and November.
  • The festival of Onam which occurs towards the end of August or early September is a good time to soak up the carnival atmosphere. There are usually many cultural programs during the official Onam celebrations lasting 10 days.
  • The Monsoon season starts from June every year and is a time of heavy rains in the area. Recently as a result of the campaigning by State Tourism Board, tourists have started coming in to enjoy the Monsoon.

Talk

The native language of kerala is Malayalam, which is a Dravidian language like Tamil and Kannada. Most locals can communicate in Hindi and English owing to a high literacy rate. The people are generally very helpful and friendly but do keep an eye out for people trying to take you for a ride (not common, but it pays to be careful). South Indian languages like Tamil are generally understood, though people may not be too fluent in the language.

  • Trivandrum International Airport (IATA: TRV) with direct flights from the Middle East, Singapore, Maldives, Sri Lanka as well as seasonal charter flights to Europe. It is linked with many major cities in India by domestic flights. The airport is a convenient point for hopping onto neighbouring SAARC countries like Srilanka and Maldives as well as to the Middle East and South East Asian countries. It is therefore considered as the doorway to Kerala.
  • Kochi International Airport, [2], which is around 230 km from Thiruvananthapuram, and travel to Thiruvananthapuram by road/rail. It is 4-5 hour journey.

By train

The central railway station is located at Thampanoor in the heart of the city, 8 km from the airport. It is very well connected and serviced by rail to all major cities in India. Thiruvananthapuram is the first major city along the second longest train route in the world, Kanyakumari to Jammu.

By bus

The long distance bus station is located next door to the railway station. Buses ply to all major towns and villages in the state as well as to big cities like Cochin, Bangalore, Kozhikode, Coimbatore and Chennai. The city bus stand is located 1 km away at East Fort, near the Padmanabha Swamy Temple. Both state-run and private short distance buses connect the various important urban and suburban centres. City bus depots are also located at Peroorkada, Vikas Bhavan, Pappanamcode, Kaniyapuram and Vellanad.

By car

Thiruvananthapuram is well connected to other cities like Kochi (230 km), Kozhikode (420 km), Chennai (780 km), Bangalore(791 km), Coimbatore(400 km) by road.

Get around

By bus

The local bus service system is the cheapest way to get around Thiruvananthapuram. There are city buses run by government(KSRTC) and private companies. Most of these are very crowded especially during peak hours. Route descriptions on the buses are mainly in Malayalam. Route numbers are displayed. Pick pocketing is not very common. Women of foreign origin can some times be the subject of verbal harassment or the occasional groping. The government city buses are painted red with an yellow patch , and the private city buses are blue in colour. Fast passenger buses run by KSRTC are also painted blue and is named "Ananthapuri Fast". The city services of KSRTC operate from six depots namely, the City depot, Vikas Bhavan, Peroorkada, Pappanamcode, Kaniyapuram and Vellanad. The central city bus terminal is located at East Fort(Kizhakkekotta), near the Padmanabha Swamy temple. The Central and Inter State bus station is located 1 km away at Thampanoor.KSRTC operates AC Volvo services connecting various important places. If you have a little time to spent you can try the new mode of transportaion.

By auto rickshaw

Autorickshaws (or simply Autos) is a cheap way of transport between attractions. It is always possible to get an auto rickshaw from a bus stand, railway station or special auto rickshaw stand. All the city auto-rikshaws are possessing fare meters, and fare is calculated by the taximeter affixed to every licensed rickshaw. So, make sure that the driver turns on the meter before the start of the journey. Most auto drivers unlawfully tend to charge more from foreigners. The driver may quote a price first, but just insist him to use the meter. The minimum charge for the autorickshaw is Rs.10. Running charge per km is Rs.6; and charge for waiting for over ten minutes is Rs.5 for every 15 minutes, subject to a maximum of Rs.200 per day. There are pre-paid autorickshaw counters available near the airport and the railway station. Complaints related to the autorickshaws in Trivandrum can be made to the phone number : 0471-2469223 (RTO Trivandrum). Online complaints are accepted in the traffic police website also [3].

By taxi

Taxis are convenient and cheap, especially if you travel in groups. Taxis can be hired not only for short distances, but also for a few days at a stretch. Most of the taxis are Ambassador cars which are more suited for stuffing passengers at the expense of comfort or safety.

When you hire the taxi with a driver over a few days, a minimum charge is usually paid which covers the hiring charge for the car, the driver's fees and a certain distance. If the car covers more than that distance, additional charges are levied according to the extra distance covered as per kilometre. Most of the drivers expect to be paid for their meals during the day. If staying overnight, this will include the hotel charges as well.

The present taxi charges in the city are as follows : minimum charge – Rs.65; running charge per km – Rs.7.50; and charge for waiting – Rs.25 per hour, subject to a maximum of Rs.300 per day.

By car

There are many car rental companies offering cars with drivers and very few, hard to find "self drive". Many of them are unreasonably expensive by local standards. Ask someone with the local know how before you rent a car.

Kowdiar road
Kowdiar road

You can easily visit Thiruvananthapuram through Car. There are many car rental companies available which Provide good services.

By two wheelers

Scooters and motorcycles are the favoured means of personal transport on the roads. Renting or buying the motorcycle is not for the faint hearted. The mix of fast and slow traffic makes it especially dangerous. Like all the Indian cities, lane discipline is not well followed.

There are companies arranging tours on Enfield Bullet motorcycles out of Thiruvananthapuram . Most of the locals zip around in modern motorcycles like the Hero Honda, Yamaha, Suzuki or Kawasaki Bajaj.

Bicycle

Before 10 years, cycles were a major mode of transportation used by the residents. Now, the use of cycles are relatively very low. The tourists also prefer little cycling because of the hilly shape of the city. Moreover, the absence of cycling lanes and hot weather will make the day exhausting.

However, for hard-hearters cycles are available on rent with some companies.

  • Vacation India Ph: 2312028 Fax: 2314561
Gandhi Park in East Fort
Gandhi Park in East Fort

Many places of attractions within the city are nearby, so you could walk between them. Crossing roads often involves wading across heavy traffic during peak hours. The zebra lanes are used by the locals for road crossing only in major junctions. Other than the major junctions, do not expect the vehicles to stop for you in the zebra lines. Try your best to move in a predictable straight line, so vehicles can weave around you. (Better yet, latch onto a group of locals and cross in their shadow.) The recommended walk areas in the city are as follows:

  • Walk from Over bridge towards East Fort. Visit the Padmanabhaswami Temple premises. End up your walk in the Gandhi Park in East Fort.
  • Walk from Secratariate towards Palayam. Walk and see the Connemera market and do window shopping.
  • Walk from Museum Junction towards Vellayambalam. Alternatively, you can also walk inside the Museum compounds.
  • Walk from Vellayambalam Junction up to Kowdiar palace. This road is called the Royal Road, as it leads to the palace. There are good coffee shops and snack bars in this area.

See

Visit the official website of Kerala Tourism [4].

  • The Napier Museum Named after a former Madras governor, General John Napier, this museum is a beautiful building in the museum compound near Kanaka Kunnu Palace. English architect Chrisholm created this building combining many architectural styles. This museum displays rare archaeological and historical artifacts including bronze idols and ivory carvings.(Open 10AM-5PM, closed on Mondays and before noon Wednesday.)
  • Sree Chithra Art Gallery is an art gallery located in the Museum compound and displays a rare collection of mainly Indian paintings. The main attractions are paintings by Raja Ravi Varma, Raja raja Varma and Nicholas Roerich. Also featured are miniature paintings from around the world, Kerala mural paintings and Tanjore miniature paintings.
  • The Zoological Park Closed M, Tu-Su 10AM-5PM. This is one of the first zoos in India. Situated in the Museum compound, this area is a rich botanical garden. There is a wide variety of animals, plants and birds. Not world class, but certainly with its own attraction.
  • Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple This is a beautiful & old temple which stands by a pond,the Padmatheertham. The deity is Vishnu in a rare reclining posture.
  • Palace museum East entrance of the the sreepadmanabhaswamy temple. - Has a good collection of many antique items from the travancore era kings. Thrones, paintings and many belongings kept in a very good condition housed in an erstwhile royal building.
  • The Padmanabhapuram Palace is entirely made of wood and was the erstwhile home of the Travancore princes. It is 65 km from Trivandrum City and is in the Kanniyakumari district of Tamil Nadu.
  • Shanghumukham Beach This beach is 8 km outside the city, adjacent to the airport. Local people flock there to watch the sunset. There is an indoor recreation club nearby. Matsyakanyaka a gigantic sculpture of a mermaid by Kanai Kunjiraman arouses mixed reaction. There is also a peaceful temple nearby.
  • Science and Technology Museum There is a Planetarium within the campus. A 40 minute show costs Rs. 15/-. There are several galleries on Electrical Engineering, Biomedical, Mechanical Engineering, etc.
  • The Kanakakunnu Palace. Venue for many cultural meets and exhibitions.
  • Veli Tourist Village. A lake blending into the beach, almost as if it were teasing the sea. Boating, Horse Riding on the beach, a floating bridge, a shallow pond where you can feed the fish, beautifully maintained gardens.
  • Kovalam Beach - 17 km from Thiruvananthapuram City, famous for its stretch of beaches
  • See Trivandrum on foot. Get public transport to Kanaka Kunnu Palace. See this public building on top of a hill, used for cultural programs. Walk down to Napier Museum and Zoo. See the building, walk around the park and visit the zoo if you are interested. Also pay a visit to the Sree Chitra Art Gallery, Natural History museum and the Reptile House. Then walk towards Palayam along the MG road absorbing the roadside buzz of activities and shopping at the roadside shops. Usually there are cultural programs at VJT Hall which may be open to the public. Continue along MG road towards the Secretariat. The area around the secretariat is known locally as Statue, due to a few neglected statues of important figures. There are sometimes political protests or demonstrations along this place. Sample the food from some of the local restaurants. SMS Institute on a side road near Secretariat sells authentic Kerala handicrafts and gift items. Prices start from Rs.25 to a few thousands. Continue along the MG road. There are many local book shops including Paico[5], Modern Book House and Prabhat book store. The Ayurveda college , which teaches the traditional ayurvedic medicine will be on the right side. Opposite this, there is another handicraft store.Walk along the MG road and you will reach the junction with traffic signals known as the Over bridge locally. There are a few movie theatres nearby. The railway station and Bus station are towards the left, about half a mile. If you continue straight, you will eventually reach Pazhavangadi. You will see the remains of a fort (well hidden) on the right side (known as Kottakakam/East fort). The famous Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple is nearby, complete with a temple lake (Padmatheertham). The architecture of the temple is more in line with Tamil temples as compared to other Kerala temples. On the left is Chaalai Bazaar. This is a busy congested road teeming with all kinds of shops.
  • Stroll around the town during the dusk time when the city comes to life.It is advised not to venture out alone late into the night
  • Find local bargains and shop for souvenirs.
  • Watch the magical sunset from the Shankumukham or Veli beach
  • Get pampered with a traditional Ayurvedic massage
  • Visit the local museum and art gallery.
  • Visit a martial arts centre (Kalaripayattu)
  • Watch traditional performers perform a Kathakali dance.
  • Watch a temple procession at the end of a local festival when the deity is taken out on the top of an elephant.
  • Watch a Malayalam / Bollywood movie (no subtitles) in a local cinema.
  • Check the newspapers for daily events, especially theatre/film/dance performances. Try to find out if anything is on at the Tagore theatre when you're there, especially during the film festivals which screen art house classics from around the world.
  • Take a rain walk - if you're there during the monsoons, buy an umbrella and walk from place to place in the magical monsoon.
  • Laze around on any of the pristine beaches.
  • Visit the public library for its stunning architecture and colonial charm.
  • If you're there during the Onam season, be sure to pass by the secretariat building and the kanakakunnu palace for the brilliant illuminations. If it's Christmastime, walk down a little further to the L.M.S compound to see the awesome collection of Christmas stars.
  • Stop by a thattukada (roadside stall) at dusk for parottas or thattu dosas (a pancake of southindian origin).
  • A long breezy stroll on Veli beach with its kilometres of the orange beach is precious. Take note, as you move past the 'Tourist Village' zone you'll come into areas where the locals live by the beach, they may question you. They're trying to be friendly to the 'new face', so feel free to chat up or move on giving them a friendly wave! Here you can witness the fishermen sail back in the evening and mend their nets. Perhaps join the local kids in a game of beach ball or cricket. There is a strip on the left of the boating club where you can find sea eagles circling in the air, it is a majestic sight to see them swoop in for their prey, and then devour it mid-flight.
  • Kathakali dance and associated arts including the percussion instruments and make-up
  • Kalaripayattu
  • Malayalam and its rich literature
  • Cheap advanced computing/software training!

Work

Opportunities for foreigners to work in Kerala used to be very limited. The dramatic advances in the information technology sector have probably changed this. But the companies still prefer to use the locally available and hence more economically viable manpower.

To work in India, you need employment visa. The prospective employer has to send a letter providing information about your qualification to the home ministry in India.

Buy

Haggling is quite acceptable and very much needed if you buy anything from the vendors who will pester you during your stay at any of the nearby beaches.

  • Narmada Shopping Complex Kowdiar
  • Anna's Arcade Spencer Junction
  • Kedaram Shopping Complex Kesavadasapuram
  • Arcade Shopping Complex Killipalam
  • Karimpanal Arcade East Fort
  • De Options Nanthencode
  • Saphalyam Shopping Complex Palayam
  • Attukal Shopping Complex East Fort
  • Big Bazaar East Fort
  • Spencer's Palayam
  • Style Plus Nanthencode
  • Modern Book House , Statue
  • Paico , Statue
  • Prabhat Book House , Statue
  • Galaxy
  • Bookport, Silence, Capitol Centre, Statue. www.bookport.in. Phone: +91 471-3998399, +91 9349732933
  • Music world, Overbridge, Near SMV school
  • Handicrafts and gift items from “SMS Institute” near secretariat in the heart of Trivandrum city or other genuine craft shops (Natesan’s opposite the Ayurvedic college). Do not buy them from the roadside shops at tourist places like Kovalam. You will be ripped off.

Textiles

When you come to cities like this in India, do not pack too many clothes. You can buy them cheap at the local shops. There are many shops around the east fort and over-bridge areas. Karalkada in the Fort area is the most famous for traditional clothes.

  • Parthas on the Powerhouse road is a major retailer. The collection of Indian traditional wear for women is excellent. The western style collection leaves much to be desired. When it comes to men’s wear, you will find all you need in this shop. For western clothes check out Naaz or Last Option, or branded clothes at the showrooms of Reebok,Levi Strauss Signature, Benetton and the like.
  • Prince Jewellers East Fort Phone: 0471-2470667,2476519
  • Saravana Jewellers East Fort Phone: 0471-2470667,2477694
  • Bhima Jewellery Elankath Complex, Phone: 0471- 2461631, 2463645
  • Alappat Fashion Jewellery Attukal Shopping Complex, East Fort, Phone: 0471-2478716
  • Alukkas Jewellery East Fort Phone: 0471-2570481
  • Chemmannur Jewellers East Fort Phone: 0471-2463128
  • Josco Jewellers East Fort & Pattom
  • Lekshmi jewellery East fort Phone: 0471-2470609,2470949

Eat

There are plenty of restaurants in Thiruvananthapuram serving South Indian food. There are also quite a few eating places serving other cuisines, such as North Indian, Chinese and American food. Please note that the word 'hotel' is used for restaurants.

Budget

Non vegetarian Kerala cuisine is served in -

  • Azad Restaurant/Hotel which has branches in a few places in Thiruvananthapuram including Statue Junction, Near overbridge and Vazhuthacaud.
  • Mubarak restaurant Ruby nagar, Chalai
  • Kaithal Restaurant Chalai
  • Balan's Tattukada Kaithamukku
  • Open House Ayurveda College jn
  • Cafe Coffee Day by the main road at Kowdiar is a branch of the popular national chain and ideal for a cappuccino / sandwich.
  • Maveli Cafe a branch of Indian Coffee House near the KSRTC bus stand in a unique spiral tower. There are other branches of Indian Coffee House in the city which also serve cheap traditional food.

Vegetarian options include:

  • Arul Jyothi (M.G. Road, tel: 2470240) serves delicious South Indian 'meals' (Veg).
  • Anand Bhavan (Statue Junction)
  • Ariya Bhavan (Opp: Bus Stand, Thampanoor)
  • Arya Nivas
  • Arulakam,Palayam junction & Bakery junction
  • Hotel venkateshwara,airport road, Fort -a small hotel which offers food favoured by tamil brahmins & famous for its kara vadai

Most of the budget restaurants tend to be crowded and noisy as the aim is a rapid turnover and not relaxed dining. It might be better to use the take away facilities and eat at a local park.

  • Ambrosia - a bakery with an eating outlet. Serves burgers, hotdogs and pizzas. Bakery junction and near Medical College.
  • Casa Bianca - a Pizzeria and Restaurant at Vazhuthacaud - owned and run by a lovely expatriate. Serves great, fresh tasting pastas, pizzas and all things Italian in a casual intimate setting. Definitely worth the trip from Kovalam if you're missing a good quality thin crust pizza.
  • Kalavara - at Kowdiar, behind the Trivandrum Tennis Club, and near Pulimoodu junction.
  • Swagat - at Statue, good Vegetarian food. Very good lunch thalis for Rs 60. Serves Sadhya (Traditional Kerala food on Sundays) [6]
  • Buddha's Delight - Unauthentic Chinese vegetarian food, (lots of Tofu based delights!) [7]
  • KTDC floating restaurant - at Veli. Amazing scenery across the lake.
  • Pizza Corner - at the Spencer junction.
  • Maurya rajadhani,statue road
  • indraprastha,near bakery junction
  • Sindhoor - near the Cotton Hill Girls High School, Vazhuthacaud. Serves Chinese and Indian cuisine. The interior is designed to mimic a cave and results in a dark environment. Not very cosy or stylish. Tasty food, and good value for money.
  • Take Home - a popular roadside take-away joint in Kowdiar.
  • Muthoot Plaza [8]
  • South Park [9]
  • Park Field
  • Ruby Arena,
  • Taj Green Cove Resort Kovalam.
  • Leela Kempinski Resort Kovalam.
  • Taj Residency
  • KTDC Mascot Hotel

Drink

Traditional drinks include Karikku(tender coconut water) and Sambharam (buttermilk with salt, ginger and green chilly). Karikku can be bought mostly from the streetside vendors while Sambharam can be bought from the ubiquitous Milma outlets. The Bakery Junction area has several fresh juice vendors, serving inspirted mocktails like Sharjah and Tsunami. "Sharjah" is very popular and available in various juice shops all over trivandrum.

Alcoholic drinks are more difficult to obtain. Government run beverages corporation shops are there as the one near overbridge. A Pub is there near overbridge junction opposite to SMV school. Hotels/restaurants with "bar attached" signs sell alcoholic beverages. Public consumption of these drinks including beer is not socially accepted. The local "toddy shops" and "arrack shops" sell strong local spirit.

Sleep

Unless you are in Trivandrum on a business trip, it may be better to base yourself in Kovalam and go to the city as a day trip. But, the accommodation in Kovalam tends to be more expensive.

  • Hotel Regency, [10]is 1 star hotel close to the railway station and the bus stand. The hotel has good aircon restaurant and rooftop restaurant which is open only in the evenings. In that same area - Manjalikulam Road - are plenty of other hotels offering similar standards.
  • Hotel Navaratna YMCA Road
  • Jas Hotel Thycaud
  • Hotel Geeth Pulimoodu
  • Best Western Classic Avenue, [11] provides 4 star accommodations for your stay. Address: T.C 25/1744 (1), Manjalikulam Road, Thampanoor, Trivandrum, India 695001. Phone: +91-471-233555.
  • Hotel Chaitram, [12] is also owned by KTDC and is very close to the railway station and bus stand. Claims 2 star deluxe facilities. AC Rooms start at 2000 Rs + tax. Non-AC rooms are not available.
  • Hotel Saj Lucia is situated in East Fort near Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple.
  • The Residency Tower, [13] is a 4 star hotel near the south gate of the secretariat.
  • Hotel Horizon is a 3 star hotel located on Aristo road with a roof top restaurant.
  • Ruby Arena Hotel, [14] - 3 star Business Hotel. Hotel Ruby Arena with ample parking facility provides luxurious accommodation. Elegantly appointed rooms which are set up in international standards provide a relaxing atmosphere.
  • Hotel Pankaj is a 3 star hotel located in a convenient location in Statue, near the secretariat.
  • Hostel Lailja Pappanamcode, near Regional Research Laboratory(CSIR)
  • Hotel Venus International On the Ayyappan Kovil Road (near BTC Tower). Fairly good. A single AC room costs around Rs. 1300 + taxes. Non-AC rooms are NOT available.
  • Second Home, [15]. If you plan to stay at Trivandrum for a considerably longer time, this would be your best option as it is very homely and cost effective at the same time.
  • Paradise Gardens Beach Resort & Ayurveda Centre, [16]. Karikatikuzhi Beach - The most beautiful beach. - South of Kovalam.
  • Muthoot Plaza, [17]. A 5 star hotel in Trivandrum at the centre of the city.
  • South Park, [18]. A 4 star hotel located on the MG road,near the secretariat, 3 km from the Railway station.
  • Mascot Hotel, [19]. A KTDC [20] owned 5 star hotel in the heart of the Trivandrum city.
  • The Leela Kovalam is a 5 star hotel in Kovalam, overlooking the Arabian sea, about 15 km away from the city.
  • Sankars Homestay Trivandrum, Diamond House, 2444444, 2448888, 9447100000., [21]. Your home away from home. Diamond House. Kerala Govt. Approved Homestay. Grade A Homestay Approved by Department of Tourism, Government of Kerala.
  • Taj Green Cove Resort is a 5 star hotel in Kovalam, overlooking the Arabian sea
  • Taj Residency, [22]. A 5 star hotel in the heart of the Trivandrum city.

Stay safe

Female tourists should be wary of hooligans, especially in New Year parties. Only eat hot food and drink only boiled or good bottled water. Take water purification tablets with you. Water from corporation supplied lines are generally safe, but to be on the safer side go for purified forms.

If you are visiting during the summers(april-may) temperarures might soar a bit and you might want to take some preparations against it. Evenings are best time to stroll. City sleeps early so you can roam about until maximum 10'o'clock inside the city(really the limit), Most shops close by the time, if you are staying somewhere outside transport options get lesser and costlier ( in case of autorikshaws) as you become more late.

If you need injections or blood tests, try to provide your own needle, bringing a few with your first aid kit.

Contact

Telephone and mobile

The dialling code for Trivandrm is 471. When calling from overseas, dial +91 471 XXXX XXX. If you have a non-working phone number with only 6 digits try to add a "2" in front of it.

If you don’t have an Indian phone number I strongly recommend that you get a pre-paid calling card if you planning on using your phone frequently. By government regulation you need a photocopy of your passport (visa and the id-page) and a color photo to be able to buy a pre-paid card. Pre-paid card are sold in most shops that sell mobile equipment.

'Telephone Booths' or public telephones are widely available usually painted with the letters PCO (Public Call office,local calls), STD (Subscriber Trunk Dialing) and ISD (International Subscriber Dialing). All booths have electronic metering and you pay what's displayed on the meter.

Internet

There are many internet cafes around Trivandrum. They offer cheap, tolerably fast internet access to the public.

Cope

Hospitals

Trivandrum has world class medical facilities with very competitive rates. This attracts "health tourists" from other states and even other countries. If you are in need of medical care, try to go to one of the reputed private hospitals listed below.

State run

  • Medical College Hospital, Medical College, Trivandrum
  • Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital Medical College, Phone: 0471-2444270.
  • Regional Cancer Centre Medical College Campus, Medical College Phone: 0471-2442541.
  • Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Science and Technology Medical College, Phone: 0471-2443152
  • General hospital general hospital junction, Vanchiyoor

Private

  • Kerala Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS)Kumarapuram Poonthi Road, Anamukham, Anayara

Phone: 0471-2447575.

  • Sree Uthradam Thirunal Hospital Pattom Phone: 0471-2446220.
  • Chaithanya Eye Hospital and Research Center Kesavadasapuram, Phone: 0471-2447183.
  • Cosmopolitan Hospital Murinjapalam, Pattom, Thiruvananthapuram, Phone: 0471-2448182.
  • P R S Hospital Killippalam, Phone: 0471-2344443.
  • SP Fort hospital, near fort high school, Fort
  • Arumana hospital, airport road, west fort
  • Ananthapuri hospitals , chacka bye pass , near chacka junction

Dental Clinics

Dr.Jacob's Omega Dental Clinic, preferred by tourists for inexpensive, quality dental care, offers the services of US & UK trained specialists.

  • Dr.Jacob's Omega Dental Clinic, Centre for Implant & Cosmetic Dentistry Near QRS, Main Road, Plamood, Pattom, Trivandrum, www.omegadentalclinic.com, Phone: 91-9447366770, 91-9846053333, 0471-2726252.
  • Dr.Jacob's Omega International Dental Clinic, Centre for Implant & Cosmetic Dentistry , Suseela Gardens, Beach Road, Kovalam, Trivandrum, Phone: 91-9447366770, 91-9846053333.

ATMs

ATMs are widely available in Trivandrum, mainly along with branches of banks. A number of them are present along the MG road.

  • Thomas Cook Soundarya Buildings, MG Road, Thiruvananthapuram, 0471-2338140, 2338141
  • Trivandrum International Airport 0471-2502470
  • T. T. Travels Ltd Vellayambalam, Thiruvananthapuram, 0471-2332127, 2333208
  • Air Travel Enterprises Ltd Palayam, Thiruvananthapuram 0471-2327212
  • U.A.E Exchange Centre Pattom & Vazhuthacadu Branches,Tvm.
  • Romantic Cabs Ph: 9349998887 , 9388127646 mail@romanticcabs.com www.romanticcabs.com
  • TaxiTel Ph +919847019282,+919947019492,+919447810100.taxitel@gmail.com www.taxitel.in
  • Cellcabs phone 04712453553

Banks

Most of the major Banks in India have a branch in Trivandrum and most of these are around the MG road.

Opticians

Sunshades and prescription glasses in stylish frames are much cheaper in India as compared to the western world.

  • Eye Designs 9-10, Kedaram Shopping Complex, Kesavadasapuram Phone: 0471-2440985
  • Solar Opticals Statue Convent Lane, General Hospital Junction Phone: 0471-2477596
  • Rose opticalspulimoodu junction
  • Baba Studio East Fort Phone: 0471-2473399
  • Paramount Colour Lab MG Road, Ayurveda College Junction Phone: 0471-2331643
  • Sivans Studio Statue
  • Minerva Studio Station Road, Thampanoor Phone: 0471-2331575
  • Achas studio MG road, Near pulimoodu
  • Harisons studio Vazhapalli juction, sreevaraham
  • State Central Library widely known as "Public Library". At Palayam. Has books in English, Malayalam, Hindi, Tamil and Sanskrit. Housed in an attractive Victorian Style building.
  • Alliance Francaise[23]"Sudharshana", Forest Office Lane, Vazhuthacaud - 695008 Tel : 0471-2320666 / 5578808.
  • Eloor Lending Library [24] ABN Home, I Floor, Vellayambalam Jawahar Lane, Sasthamangalam P.O., Tel: 2318235.
  • University Library, Palayam.
  • Ponmudi - A pleasant hill resort 61 km away from city, elevation 912m above sea level.
  • Kovalam - famous for its beaches, among the finest in India. 17 km from the city.
  • Varkala - a pilgrimage centre for the devotees of janardhana samy and Sree Narayana Guru. 51 km away from Thiruvananthapuram city.
  • Thiruvananthapuram district has many more attractions which are a day trip away.
  • Kanyakumari - 87 km away in Tamilnadu state.

Other places in Tamil Nadu state like Kuttalam water falls, Madurai, Palani and Thanjavoor

This is a guide article. It has a variety of good, quality information including hotels, restaurants, attractions, arrival and departure info. Plunge forward and help us make it a star!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Proper noun

Singular
Thiruvananthapuram

Plural
-

Thiruvananthapuram

  1. State capital of Kerala (India), formerly known as Trivandrum.

Translations


Simple English

Thiruvananthapuram (Malayalam: തിരുവനന്തപുരം), is the capital city of the Indian state of Kerala. The city used to be known by the name of Trivandrum. It is located on the west coast of India near the far south of the mainland. With 889,191 people as of 2001, it is the biggest city in Kerala in terms of size and number of people.

The city is the state capital and houses many national and state government offices, organizations and companies. It is also a major center of learning and is home to several schools and colleges including Kerala University, and to many scientific institutions, the most prominent being the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Sree Chitra Tirunal Instiute for Medical Sciences and Technology (SCTIMST), Technopark, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology (RGCB) and Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST).

Contents

Origin of name

Thiruvananthapuram literally means "City of Lord Anantha" in Malayalam. The name derives from the god of the Hindu temple at the centre of the city. Anantha is the serpent Shesha on whom Padmanabhan or Vishnu lies. The temple of Vishnu lying on Anantha, the Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple is the most recognizable landmark of the city. The city was officially known as Trivandrum in English until 1991, when the government decided to change the city's name back to the original name, Thiruvananthapuram, in all languages. However, the city is still widely referred to as "Trivandrum".

Origin of name

Thiruvananthapuram literally means Thiru (Great/Lord) Ananthan's Puram (City). The name derives from the main god of a Hindu temple at the centre of the city. Ananthan is the serpent Shesha on whom Padmanabhan or Vishnu reclines. The temple of Anantha, the Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple is the most recognizable place in the city.

The city was officially known as Trivandrum until 1991. Trivandrum is the English form of Thiruvananthapuram. The name is still in common use and most non-Keralites prefer to use Trivandrum.

Infrastructure

The city is fully electrified by the Kerala State Electricity Board (KSEB). The district is divided in to three circles: Transmission circle, Thiruvananthapuram city and Kattakkada. Domestic users account for 43% of the total power usage, or 90 million units per month. Thiruvananthapuram district has one 220 kV, nine 110 kV and six 66 kV electrical substations. A 400 kV substation has just been commissioned by the Power Grid Corporation and will ensure high-quality power supply to the city.[1]

The water supply schemes cover 100% within the city limits. It is 84% of the urban and 69% of the rural population, when the district is considered. Peppara and Aruvikkara dams are the main sources of water for distribution in the capital city. The new project plan for improving the water supply with Japan aid covers Thiruvananthapuram city and six suburban panchayats having urban characteristics.[1]

The sewerage system in the city was implemented at the time of the Travancore Kingdom, and modernised in 1938. This scheme for the disposal of sullage and sewage is an underground system. The whole system is controlled by Kerala Water Authority now. The city area is divided in to seven blocks for the execution of the sewerage system, two commissioned in the 1990s and two after 2000. The sewerage is pumped to a stilling chamber at the Sewerage Treatment Plant (STP) located at Valiyathura, and is disposed through sewage farming. Diary Development Department maintains this sewage farm and fodder cultivation is done here. There is no revenue generation from this scheme, and the sewerage system in the city is a service provided to the residents.[2]

Strategic Importance

Apart from being the capital of India’s most literate[3] and socially developed state,[4][5] Thiruvananthapuram is a strategically important city in Southern India. Being the largest city in India’s deep south, it is important for both military logistics and civil aviation in the southern part of the country. It is the headquarters of the Southern Air Command(SAC) of the Indian Air Force.[6] The city is very close to the international shipping route and East-West shipping axis. Also, it falls under the international air route.[7] Due to the strategic importance of the city, the Indian Air Force authorities have planned to make an aerospace command in SAC.[8] The plan for setting up a new "Tri-Service Command", which will integrate all the three forces under a single command, is also in the pipeline.[9]

Being the Indian city with the closest air link to the small island-country of Maldives and also Sri Lanka,[10] the city’s medical and health infrastructure caters to patients from both countries, especially Maldives.[11] Exports of perishables and medicines from Trivandrum International Airport run to full capacity on everyday flights to Maldives and Sri Lanka because of this nearness. Thiruvananthapuram also provides a key link in movement of goods and passengers to and from southern Tamilnadu into Kerala, the state border being just 30 km away. The city is also important for people from around the world seeking help through Ayurveda medicine and therapy. Ayurveda resorts are coming up at a rapid pace along the International Beach of Kovalam and Varkala coast.

Notes

Find more information on Thiruvananthapuram by searching one of Wikipedia's sister projects:

Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource

Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found
Images and media from Commons

News stories from Wikinews

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Electricity and Water supply in Thiruvananthapuram". Infrastructure. Government of Kerala. http://www.tvm.kerala.gov.in/infrastracture.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-02. 
  2. "Thiruvananthapuram Sewerage Scheme". Sewage Treatment in Thiruvananthapuram. Government of Kerala. http://keralawater.org/sewer.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-16. 
  3. "Literacy rate in Indian states and Union Territories". Number of Literates & Literacy Rates (Excluding J & K).. Census Department. http://www.censusindia.net/literates1.html. Retrieved 2006-09-16. 
  4. "Kerala: Human Development Fact Sheet". "Kerala: Human Development Fact Sheet". United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). http://www.undp.org.in/programme/undpini/factsheet/kerala.pdf. Retrieved 2006-09-16. 
  5. "Kerala Model". "EFA (Education for All) Global Monitoring Report",(2003). UNESCO. http://www.unesco.org/education/efa_report/chapter4.pdf. Retrieved 2006-09-16. 
  6. "Southern Air Command, Akkulam, Thiruvananthapuram". Indian Air Force. http://indianairforce.nic.in/show_page.php?pg_id=32&page_type=command&comm_id=5. Retrieved 2006-08-29. 
  7. "Refuelling destination". The Hindu. 2006-08-04. http://www.hindu.com/2006/08/04/stories/2006080423940300.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-09. 
  8. "SAC to be made aerospace command soon". The Hindu. 2005-10-09. http://www.hindu.com/2005/10/09/stories/2005100910170400.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  9. "Tri-service command likely at Thiruvananthapuram". WebIndia. 2006-08-30. http://news.webindia123.com/news/Articles/India/20060830/436340.html. Retrieved 2006-09-15. 
  10. "Connectivity". Maps of India.. Maps of India. http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/kerala/thiruvananthapuram.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-09. 
  11. "Maldivian embassy - Independence day celebration". Embassy news (High Commission of the Republic of Maldives). 2006-07-26. http://www.maldiveshighcom.co.in/maldives/news/jul2006/jul2006%5B14%5D.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 

Other websites


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message