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Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
Location of Thiruvananthapuram
in Kerala and India
Coordinates 8°30′N 76°55′E / 8.5°N 76.92°E / 8.5; 76.92
Country  India
State Kerala
Headquarters Thiruvananthapuram
Population
Density
3234356
1,476 /km2 (3,823 /sq mi)
Sex ratio 1058 /
Literacy 89.36%
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area 2192 km2 (846 sq mi)
ISO 3166-2 IN-KL-TVM
Website trivandrum.nic.in

Thiruvananthapuram District is the southernmost district of the Indian state of Kerala. The headquarters is in the city of Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum) which is also the capital city of Kerala.

The district has an area of 2192 km², and a population of 3,234,356 (as per the 2001 census), the second largest in Kerala. It is divided into four talukas: Thiruvananthapuram, Chirayinkil, Nedumangad, and Neyyattinkara. The urban bodies in the district are the Thiruvananthapuram Corporation, Varkala, Neyyattinkara,Attingal and Nedumangad municipalities.

Thiruvananthapuram literally means City of Lord Anantha. The name derives from the deity of the Hindu temple at the centre of the city. Anantha is the mythical thousand hooded serpent- Shesha on whom Padmanabhan or Vishnu reclines. The temple of Vishnu reclining on Anantha, the Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple, which dates back to the 16th century, is the most recognizable iconic landmark of the city as well as the district. Along with the presiding deity of Sri Padmanabha, this temple also has temples inside it, dedicated to Lord Krishna and Lord Narasimha, Lord Ganesha, and Lord Ayyappa.

The city was the capital of the Travancore state before the independence. Consequent to the recommendations of the state Reorganisation Commission, the Vilavancode taluk from Thiruvananthapuram was merged with Tamil Nadu along with three other southern taluks of Thovala, Agastheewaram and Kalkulam from Travancore and the state of Kerala came into being on 1 November 1956.

One of the other major landmarks in the district is the Government Secretariat. This white coloured building that was built by the Kings of Travancore is the seat of power. The central Durbar hall was where the assembly used to meet during the imperial rule. Less than a mile away, complementing this gothic structure, stands the modern legislature complex, the largest legislature building in India.

The district is 33.75% urbanised. [1]

Contents

Geography

The district is situated between North latitudes at 8.17° & 8.54° and East longitudes 76.41° & 77.17°. The southern most extremity, Parassala is just 54 km away from the Southern Peninsular tip of India, Cape Comorin (Kanya Kumari). The district stretches 78 km along the shores of the Arabian Sea on the West, Kollam district lies on the North with Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari districts of Tamil Nadu on the East and South respectively.

The district can be divided in to three geographical regions : highlands, midlands, and lowlands. Chirayankeezhu, and Thiruvananthapuram Taluks lies on the midland and lowland regions, while the Nedumangad Taluk lies in the midland and highland regions, and the Neyyattinkara Taluk stretches over all the three regions.

The highland regions on the east and the north-east comprises the Western Ghats and this area is ideal for major cash crops like rubber, tea, cardamom and other spices. Timber trees like Teak and Rosewood are grown in this region. The Ghats maintain an average elevation of 814 metres, and Agasthyarkoodam, the second highest peak in the Ghats, is 1869 metres above sea level. The midland region lying between the Western Ghats and lowlands is made up of small and tiny hills and valleys. This is an area of intense agricultural activities. This region is rich in produces like paddy, tapioca, rubber, eucalyptus, spices and cashew. The lowlands are comparatively narrow, comprising of rivers, deltas and seashore. This area is densely covered with coconut trees. Water bodies cover about 55.25 km² while forest area is estimated to be 498.61 km².

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Climate

The large forest reserves favourably affect the climate and induce rains. Cold weather is experienced in the mountain ranges whereas lower down, the weather is bracing and is generally hot in the plains. The mean maximum temperature is 95 °F (34 °C); humidity is high, and rises up to about 95% during South-West monsoon. The average rainfall is about 1500 mm per annum. There are two rainy seasons : South-West monsoon (June - September mid) and North-East monsoon(October–mid-November). December, January, and February are the coolest months (on an average, temperature goes down to 16 °C) and March, April, and May are hot (on an average, temperature rises up to about 35 °C). Summer showers are also common in May.

Flora and fauna

The district has a rich variety of plants ranging from rare orchids, medicinal plants and spices to hedge plants, tuber crops, plants yielding edible fruits and fibre. Aromatic plants and spices such as pepper and ginger are cultivated on a large scale on the hilly tracts. Nedumangad taluk is one of the biggest centres of cultivation and trade of pepper and other hill produces. A major portion of the district comes under the middle plain and the region is under the cultivation of coconut, paddy, tapioca, tuber crops, plantains and vegetabless.

The forests of the district abound in a variety of animals & birds and are excellent wild life habitats. Elephants, bisons, monkeys and rare species of reptiles have the place of prominence in them. The Neyyar reservoir and nearby areas abound in wild life. Nestled in the lap of the Western Ghats, a wild life sanctuary is quickly growing over an area of nearly 777 km² around this reservoir. The forest under the Kulathupuzha range is the habitat of rare species of snakes and lizards. Mammals are well represented in the district. Nilgiri Langur (Kasi Fohnii), the Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca Silenus), the Nilgiri brown mongoose (Herpestes fuscus) and the Malabar civet (Moschothere Civettina) are characteristic to this region. Carnivores include tiger, wild cat, jackal, leopard and wild dog. Sloth gear, gaur, a few species of deer and elephants are also seen. Reptiles include lizards, snakes, crocodiles and tortoises. There are about 75-80 species of snakes in this area and some of them are very poisonous.

Forests

Thiruvananthapuram district has a reserve forest area of 495.145 km² and vested forest area of 3.534 km² spreading over three ranges, viz., the Kulathupuzha range in the north, Palode range in the middle and the Paruthipalli range in the south. These forests may be broadly classified into three categories, namely, (a) southern tropical wet ever green forests, (b) southern tropical and semi ever green forests and (c) southern tropical moist deciduous forests. Veeti (Dalbergia latifolia), Thembavu (Terminalia crenulata), Aini (Artocarpus hirsutus), Plavu (Artocarpus heterophyllus), Akil (Dysoxylum malabaricum), Venga (Pterocarpus marsupium), Venthekku (Lagerstroemia lanceolata), Manjakadamb (Adina cordifolia) and Irul (Xylia xylocarpa) constitute the important timber species. Social forestry programmes are being implemented under the World Bank aided Kerala Social Forestry Project, National Rural Employment Programme (NREP) and Rural Fuel Wood Schemes to assist small and marginal farmers.

Rivers

Among the three rivers in the district, the Neyyar (56 km), the southernmost river of the Kerala state, has its origin in the Agasthyamala, the second highest peak in the Western Ghats. Karamana river (67 km) originates from Vayuvanthol (vazhuvanthol), another mountain in western ghats and the Vamanapuram River have their origin from Chemunji Mottai of the Western Ghats. There are 10 major back waters in the district. The major lakes are Veli, Kadinamkulam, Anchuthengu(Anjengo), Kaappil, Akathumuri and the Edava-Nadayara lakes. Besides these, there is a fresh water lake at Vellayani in Thiruvananthapuram taluk, which has the potential to become the major water sources of the Thiruvanthapuram city in future.

Demographics

Kerala Legislative Assembly Building -The new Assembly Block was inaugurated at the Legislature Complex on 22 May 1998 by the then President Mr. K.R. Narayanan.

Population : According to the final figures of 2001 census, the population of the district is 3,234,356. The details are as below:

Population 3,234,356
Males 1,569,917
Females 1,664,439
Sex Ratio 1,058 (Females per 1,000 males)
Density of population 1,476/sq km
Per capita Income 20,484
Literacy Rate 90.38%

Language : Malayalam is the mother tongue. Thiruvananthapuram city is more cosmopolitan with people speaking various languages like Malayalam, English, Tamil, Hindi, Tulu, and a minor percentage speak Gujarati.

Religion and Caste : Hindus constitute the majority of the population followed by Christians and Muslims. The Hindu community lies grouped on the basis of castes and sub castes as elsewhere in the state. The Brahmins,Nairs,Nadars,Ezhavas,scheduled castes and 11 tribes form the majority of the Hindu community. Christians belong mainly to the Latin Catholic Church, the Church of South India and the Orthodox Syrian Church. The Muslim community also forms a major division of the total population. Economic, social and other ties bind the members of different religious groups at the local level. People live in peace and amity, influencing and being influenced by the culture of one another.

Socio-Economic Conditions : More than 50% of the total population depend on agriculture for their livelihood. Agricultural labourers constitute 42% of the total labour class. Most of the people are engaged in low remunerative pursuits which require very little capital. Political and social consciousness, coupled with the efforts of the social, religious and cultural leaders, have helped to pull down the age-old feudal order. Economic changes have also affected the social life and attitude of the people.

Roads and bridges

The N.H.47 stretches from Parassala at the southern extremity to Navaikulam near Paripally in the north, covering a distance of 80 km within the district. The state Highway (MC Road) covers a distance of 55 km and passes through Kesavadaspuram, Vembayam, Venjaramoodu, Kilimanoor and Nilamel in the north. PWD maintains about 1552 km of road in the district. Local bodies maintain 9500 km of road. There are 116 bridges in Thiruvananthapuram District.

Administration

Name of Taluks Headquarters No. of Villages
1. Neyyattinkara Neyyattinkara 29
2. Thiruvananthapuram Thiruvananthapuram 30
3. Nedumangad Nedumangad 28
4. Chirayinkeezhu Attingal 33

The headquarters of the district administration is at Kudappanakkunnu in Thiruvananthapuram city. The district administration is headed by the District Collector. He is assisted by Five Deputy Collectors holding charges of general matters, land acquisition, revenue recovery, land reforms and election.

The District Collector also holds the charge of the District Magistrate and is assisted by the Additional District Magistrate (Deputy Collector, General) and the Revenue Divisional Officer. The district has only one revenue division, which is headed by the Revenue Divisional Officer (RDO). He is also the Sub-Divisional Magistrate.
There are four taluks, namely, Neyyattinkara, Thiruvananthapuram, Nedumangad and Chirayinkeezh, each headed by a Tahsildar. There are 120 villages under the 4 taluks of the district. The names of the taluks, their head quarters & the Villages under them are given in the box.

Consequent to the 73rd amendment of the Constitution and the new Panchayat Raj-Nagarapalika Act, the Kerala Panchayat Raj Act came into being on 23 April 1994. Thiruvananthapuram district has one district panchayat, 12 block panchayats and 78 grama panchayats. The Thiruvananthapuram District Panchayat has already worked out some notable developmental schemes in the agricultural, water supply and educational sectors. The District Panchayat president is also the chairman of the District Planning Committee and the District Rural Development Agency.
There are two parliamentary constituencies in the district. They are Chirayinkeezh with constituency number 19 and Thiruvananthapuram with constituency number 20.

Agriculture and related subjects

Agriculture

Agriculture has been the primary occupation of the people of the district. More than 42% of the total population depend on agriculture. Cultivable land may be classified as wet, dry, garden and plantations. Paddy is the most important crop cultivated in the wet lands. Tapioca and pulses are the important dry land crops. Coconut, one of the most important crops of the district, is cultivated in an area of 843.08 km² and the annual production is about 516 million nuts. Rubber cultivation is mainly confined to Nedumangad taluk. At present, there are about 269.99 km² of rubber plantations and the annual production is estimated at 30,717 tonnes. Newly introduced agricultural development schemes have opened new vistas in this field. Fresh schemes are introduced in every panchayat with a view to maximize yield per unit area by exploiting the production potential of paddy and vegetables. Cashew is grown in 21.84 km² of land and the production is about 1745 tonnes. Pepper cultivation covers an area of 50.9 km² and the yield is about 1824 tonnes. Soil conservation projects are being implemented with subsidy and loans.

Major Agricultural Products
Products Area under cultivation (km²) Production (tonne)
Rice 113.68 19610
Pepper 50.90 1824
Ginger 1.08 313
Cashewnut 21.84 1745
Tapioca 252.53 500101
Coconut 843.08 516 million nuts
Arecanut 7.17 456 million nuts
Tea 9.65 608
Rubber 269.99 30717
  • Source : Farm Guide 2000

Irrigation

The Neyyar Irrigation Project, commissioned in 1959, irrigates an area of 116.65 km² in Thiruvananthapuram. Neyyar is the source of water for the reservoir. The length of the dam is 294.13 meters and the height is 50.6 meters. The catchment draining into the reservoir, covering an area of 140 km² of forest land, receives an annual average rainfall of about 2260 mm from two monsoons. The total length of the main canal and its branches is 266 km.

Animal husbandry and dairy

The Regional Poultry Farm and the District Livestock Farm at Kudappanakunnu, the Dry Stock Farm at Palode, the Intensive Poultry Block at Pettah, Clinical lab, broiler farm, piggery, veterinary sub centres, veterinary Biological Institute, Disease Investigation Office, Livestock Disease Control unit and the SPCA (Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals) are the major animal husbandry institutions in the district. At present there are 23 veterinary hospitals 76 veterinary dispensaries and 144 such centres in the district. In Thiruvananthapuram, milk is being distributed to consumers from the dairy at Ambalathara. There are 376 dairy co-operatives besides, 294 Anand model co-operatives. Kerala Livestock Development and Milk Marketing Board (K.L.D. & M.M.B.) and the Kerala Co-operative Milk Marketing federation (MILMA) strive to improve production. Nearly 147,000 litres of milk is being collected and distributed daily through the co-operative societies.

Fisheries

Thiruvananthapuram district stretches along the shores of the Arabian Sea for a distance of 78 km, offering immense scope for the development of fisheries as an important source of earning foreign exchange. Varkala, Anchuthengu, Marianad, Poonthura, Vizhinjam and Poovar are some of the major fishing centres. The fishermen population is about 200,000 and the catch is around 32,000 tonnes. Anchovies, sardine, catfish, perches, mackerel, tuna and carangids are the important species caught in this area. Introduction of mechanized fishing crafts and modern fishing gear has augmented the fish catch. There are 42 fishermen villages and the total number of households engaged in fishing is about 40,000. Development activities and welfare programmes are implemented by the Department of Fisheries, Matsyafed, Fish Farmers Development Agency (FFDA), and Brackish Water Fish Farmers Development Agency (BWFFDA). The inland catch is significant in the district. The newly launched people oriented fish farming scheme aims at fish cultivation in 2.05 km² of public ponds. All the 78 panchayats in the district are readied to adopt the scheme under the guidance of local bodies. The coastal fisheries belt is divided into 42 fisheries villages and most of such villages have fishermen welfare societies formed under the Kerala Fisheries Welfare Society Act of 1980.

Industry

In Thiruvananthapuram district there are 2 Central sector, 14 state sector, 1 co-operative sector, 4 joint sector and 60 private sector medium and large scale industries. The Kerala state Industrial Development Corporation (KSIDC) units employ 9262 people with an investment of Rs.34,394 lakhs (as on 31.03.2003). In 2002 there were 901 registered working factories. They include oil mills, cashew factories, cotton textiles, saw mills, printing units, rubber industrial units, chemical units, match factories, general engineering units and automobile workshops. The S.M.S.M. Institute in Thiruvananthapuram is a major institution through which the products of the handicraft industries are marketed. As of 31 March 2003, there were 28,918 small scale industrial units employing 115,597 people in the district. In agro based industries, 4544 people work, 3080 work in forest based, 980 in animal husbandry based, 5057 in pesticide based, 1282 in chemicals based, 4708 in engineering based, 3075 in manufacturing and building materials section and 6192 in other industries. Of these SSI units, 1323 are Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe units and 6065 are women units. There is an industrial estate at Pappanamcode and an industrial development centre at Kochuveli. Traditional industries such as coir and hand loom are now faced with several problems. The main varieties of coir produced are Anchuthengu and Muppiri. Handloom weaving is prevalent at Balaramapuram, Amaravila, Kulathur and Chirayinkeezhu. It is estimated that clothes worth Rs.95,000,000 are annually produced in the handloom sector. There are 20 Hantex (Handloom Weavers’ Co-operative Society) depots and five showrooms in the district. Keltron (Kerala state Electronics Development Corporation) has made inroads into electronic markets throughout the country. The opening of many private Television channels in the state, made Thiruvananthapuram the home of several studios and related industries.

Information technology

Technopark was established for the development of electronics and information technology in the state. It is India's first first industrial park dedicated to electronics, software, and IT ventures. Started 1990, the campus at Thiruvananthapuram city covers an area the 300 acres (728,000 m²) campus with 1.5 million ft² (140,000 m²) of built-up space available currently and another 600,000 ft² (55,000 m²) more of built up space coming up, is now home to over 100 companies from numerous countries. Over 12,500 IT professionals are working here. The companies include one CMMI level 5 and PCMM level 5 company, four CMM Level 5, two CMM Level 3 and several ISO 9001 certified companies.

Thiruvananthapuram was rated as the best 2nd tier metro with IT/ITES infrastructure, and second in terms of availability of human talent [2]. The district contributes 80% of software exports from the state.

Tourism

Foreign Tourists in the international beach of Kovalam

Tourism has also contributed heavily to the economy of Thiruvananthapuram. The district reflects the entire beauty of the state Kerala. The entire tourism package of the state such as hill stations, back waters, beaches, lagoons, and wild life sanctuaries are present in the district. Foreign tourists are flocking to Thiruvananthapuram, a major destination for chartered flights to India for Medical tourism, as there are more than fifty recognised Ayurveda centres in and around the city. This is primarily due to Ayurveda's immense popularity in the West. Medical tourism is further promoted by world class modern medicine hospitals in the city. Recuperation facilities are available at five star beach resorts and hill stations nearby.

Rural development

There are 12 development blocks in the district and they are Parassala, Perumkadavila, Athiyanoor, Nemom, Thiruvananthapuram Rural, Kazhakuttom, Vellanad, Nedumangad, Vamanapuram, Kilimanoor, Chirayinkeezhu and Varkala. The District Rural Development Agency co-ordinates the work in these blocks. Several welfare schemes like Swarna Jayanthi Grama Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY), Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY), Total Sanitation Scheme (TSS), Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF), Prime Minister’s Grama Sadak Yojana (PMGSY), Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) etc. are carried out in the blocks.

Places of tourist interest

Many spots in the district are breathtakingly beautiful and a treat to the eye.

Agastyakoodam

About 1869 meters above sea level, Agastyakoodam is the highest peak in the Western Ghats, next only to Anamudi. Tradition says that the great sage Agasthya, had his abode in this peak. This mountain is located in Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve in the eastern side of the district. The area is noted for its abundant ayurvedic herbs and ecotourism.

Neyyar Dam

Lying amidst the southern low hills of the Western Ghats, 29 km from the city, the catchment area offers facilities for boating and mountaineering. A three-hour climb over the hills across the reservoir affords the thrill of hiking. There are two beautiful waterfalls on the way. A Lion Safari Park and a Crocodile Rearing Centre have also been set up in the reservoir.

Ponmudi

Roofs of the cottages at Ponmudi

A pleasant resort with an elevation of 912 m above sea level, Ponmudi is reached by road from Thiruvananthapuram. There are several tea and rubber estates around the hills. A hill tribe called Kani live in the surrounding areas. Ponmudi is fast developing as a hill resort with room and dormitory accommodation facilities, hill-trails for hiking, a collection of flowering trees and a deer park. Ponmudi is 61 km from Thiruvananthapuram City.

Varkala

Varkala Papanasam Beach

Varkala is a pilgrim centre and a tourist attraction that lies forty one km north of Trivandrum city by rail and 51 km by road. The Samadhi of Sree Narayana Guru, the great social reformer and philosopher, attracts devotees in thousands. The cliffs and mineral water springs at the Papanasam beach are tourist attractions. The inland waterways system connecting Kollam in the north with Thiruvananthapuram in the south, passes through two tunnels in the hills. The Janardana Swami Temple here attracts many devotees.

Thiruvananthapuram City

Thiruvananthapuram, the capital of the state and the headquarters of the district, is well connected by air, rail and road. Sree Padmanabha Swami Temple, the Kanakakkunnu Palace, the Observatory, the Science and Technology Museum, the Government Secretariat, the Kowdiar Palace, St. Joseph’s Cathedral, the Tagore Centenary theatre and the museum and zoo are some of the tourist attractions in the city. Sree Chitra Art Gallery with its rich collection of exquisite paintings, is another attraction. The gallery has a special Raja Ravi Varma section other than one for murals, water and oil painting. The S.M.S.M. Institute, Botanic Gardens at Palode and Chitranjali studios are added attractions. The Raj Bhavan, State Central Library, Victoria Jubilee Town Hall, University College, Residency Banglaw, College of Fine Arts and the Wellington Water Works are but a few of the landmarks that adorn the city. There are three big stadiums, namely; the University Stadium, the Chandrasekharan Nair Stadium and the Central Stadium, in the city. A velodrome at Kariavattom and the Jimmy George Indoor Stadium at Vellayambalam cater to sporting interests. The neat and clean Shanghumughom beach is an attraction. The Aerodrome, the Government Engineering Workshop, the Trivandrum Rubber Works and the Travancore Titanium Products Ltd are situated in the vicinity of Shanghumughom beach. Interesting places worth visiting in the neighbourhood of Thiruvananthapuram city are Aruvikkara Water Works, Kovalam Beach Resort and the resort of Ponmudi Hills. The Neyyardam at a distance of 29 km offers scenic splendour as well as opportunities for hikes, boating, camping and mountaineering. Kanyakumari, the land’s end of India now in Tamil Nadu, is only 87 km from Thiruvananthapuram. On the way to Kanyakumari is Padmanabhapuram, the old capital of Travancore, where an ancient palace with antique murals is located.

Akkulam

Musical Fountain at Aakkulam, Thiruvananthapuram city‎

Akkulam is one of the beautiful picnic spots, in Thiruvananthapuram city. The spot is developed on the banks of Akulam Lake, which is an extension of the Veli Lake. The calm and serene atmosphere and its unique natural beauty are a fascination for tourists. The Boat Club, which started functioning in 1989, now operates speed, safari, pedal and row boats from Akkulam to Veli Tourist Village. A traditional style Kettuvallom is also available for overnight stay. The swimming pool at Akkulam is equipped with glider and other playing facilities. The Children’s Park is a unique amusement spot. The newly commissioned musical fountain is an added attraction.

Kovalam

This international beach, 12 km south of Thiruvananthapuram city, is one of the finest beaches in India. A high rocky promontory jutting into the sea has created a beautiful bay of calm waters for sea bathing. The India Tourism Development Corporation had developed Kovalam as an integrated seaside resort which includes a string of cottages, the Halcyon castle, a shopping area, swimming pools, yoga centre, facilities for medicinal oil bath & massage and the Rajiv Gandhi Convention Centre with 1000 delegate capacity. The resort has 198 rooms with the four presidential suits in the Halcyon Castle, the Summer Retreat of the erstwhile Maharaja. The property has now been taken over by a private group, The Leela Group. Besides, there are numerous hotels managed by private agencies.

Museum and Zoo

The Museum building itself is an architectural splendour. The Napier Museum, the Natural History Museum, the Reptile House and the Shri Chitra Art Gallery are all within the zoo complex amidst a well laid-out garden and park. There is a lake and a boat club jointly operated by the Department of Museums and Zoos and the District Tourism Promotion Council. The zoo offers a rare opportunity for the visitors to experience an unparalleled, picturesque and panoramic sylvan landscape with a wide range of animal collections. The zoo has 75 different species of animals not only from India but also from abroad. It has several species of animals and birds from Ethiopian and Australian zoological regions. The Lion-tailed Macaque, Nilgiri Langur, Nilgiri Tahr, Manipur deer, Indian Rhino, Asiatic Lion and the Royal Bengal Tiger are prominent among the indigenous endangered fauna, while giraffe, hippo, zebra and cape buffalo are guests from the African region. The animals are let out in their open air landscapes.

Veli Lagoon

On the outskirts of Kerala’s capital city, by the side of the placid waters of Veli lake, the Tourist Village and Boat Club attracts the city people and tourists. Veli, developed as a major tourist spot by providing facilities for pedal-boating, row boating, swimming, get together, etc. is just the right place for an exciting outing. The Youth Hostel at Veli which is hardly three kilometers from the international airport, provides inexpensive dormitory type accommodation. Veli, with its palm fringed lake is easily accessible by road.

Shanghumugham Beach

Shanghumugham Beach is very near to the International Airport and is easily accessible from the Kovalam Beach, Veli Tourist Village and Akkulam Tourist Village. Shanghumugham beach is noted for its cleanliness. The vast stretch of white sand and the serene atmosphere, away from the crowd in the city, provide all the ingredients for relaxation and for spending an ideal evening. There is also a “Star Fish Restaurant” with eating kiosks and open air theatre with car parking facilities.On all sundays and on holidays a large number of families visit this place.On those days it is a good time pass for the youngesters. Varkala 50km from Trivandrum is a religious place and tourist centre with a good beach .

External links

References


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

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colspan="2" style="background-color:#EAEFEF
font-size
1.25em; text-align:center;" |Thiruvananthapuram
[[Image: Kerala locator map.svg
border|Map of Kerala showing location of Thiruvananthapuram]]
[[Image:India Kerala locator map.svg
border|Map of India showing location of Kerala]]
Location of Thiruvananthapuram
in Kerala and India
</center>
Country  India
State Kerala
Headquarters Thiruvananthapuram
Population
Density
3,234,356
1,476 /km2 (3,823 /sq mi)
Sex ratio 1058 ♂/♀
Literacy 89.36%
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area 2,192 km² (846 sq mi)
ISO 3166-2 IN-KL-TVM
Website trivandrum.nic.in

Coordinates: 8°30′N 76°55′E / 8.5, 76.92

Thiruvananthapuram District is the southernmost district of the Indian state of Kerala. The headquarters is in the city of Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum) which is also the capital city of Kerala.

The district has an area of 2192 km², and a population of 3,234,356 (as per the 2001 census), the second largest in Kerala. It is divided into four talukas: Thiruvananthapuram, Chirayinkil, Nedumangad, and Neyyattinkara. The urban bodies in the district are the Thiruvananthapuram Corporation, Attingal, Neyyattinkara, Varkala and Nedumangad municipalities.

Thiruvananthapuram literally means City of Lord Anantha. The name derives from the deity of the Hindu temple at the centre of the city. Anantha is the mythical thousand hooded serpent- Shesha on whom Padmanabhan or Vishnu reclines. The temple of Vishnu reclining on Anantha, the Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple, which dates back to the 16th century, is the most recognizable iconic landmark of the city as well as the district. Along with the presiding deity of Sri Padmanabha, this temple also has temples inside it, dedicated to Lord Krishna and Lord Narasimha, Lord Ganesha, and Lord Ayyappa.

The city was the capital of the Travancore state before the independence. Consequent to the recommendations of the state Reorganisation Commission, the Vilavancode taluk from Thiruvananthapuram was merged with Tamil Nadu along with three other southern taluks of Thovala, Agastheewaram and Kalkulam from Travancore and the state of Kerala came into being on 1 November 1956.

One of the other major landmarks in the district is the Government Secretariat. This white coloured building that was built by the Kings of Travancore is the seat of power. The central Durbar hall was where the assembly used to meet during the imperial rule. Less than a mile away, complementing this gothic structure, stands the modern legislature complex, the largest legislature building in India.

The district is 33.75% urbanised. [1]

Contents

Geography

The district is situated between North latitudes at 8.17° & 8.54° and East longitudes 76.41° & 77.17°. The southern most extremity, Parassala is just 54 km away from the Southern Peninsular tip of India, Cape Comorin(Kanya Kumari). The district stretches 78 km along the shores of the Arabian Sea on the West, Kollam district lies on the North with Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari districts of Tamil Nadu on the East and South respectively.

The district can be divided in to three geographical regions : Highlands, Midlands, and the lowlands. Chirayankeezhu, and Thiruvananthapuram Taluks lies on the midland and lowland regions, while the Nedumangad Taluk lies in the Midland and Highland regions, and the Neyyattinkara Taluk stretches over all the three regions.

The Highland regions on the east and the north-east comprises the Western Ghats and this area is ideal for major cash crops like rubber, tea, cardamom and other spices. Timber trees like Teak and Rosewood are grown in this region. The Ghats maintain an average elevation of 814 metres, and Agasthyarkoodam, the second highest peak in the Ghats, is 1869 metres above sea level. The midland region lying between the Western Ghats and lowlands is made up of small and tiny hills and valleys. This is an area of intense agricultural activities. This region is rich in produces like paddy, tapioca, rubber, eucalyptus, spices and cashew. The lowlands are comparatively narrow, comprising of rivers, deltas and seashore. This area is densely covered with coconut trees.

   Coastal line      -   78 km
   Water body area   -   55.25 km²
   Forest area       -   498.61 km²

Climate

The large forest reserves favourably affect the climate and induce rains. Cold weather is experienced in the mountain ranges whereas lower down, the weather is bracing and is generally hot in the plains. The mean maximum temperature is 95 °F (34 °C); humidity is high, and rise up to about 95% during South-West monsoon. The average rainfall is about 1500 mm per annum. There are two rainy seasons : South-West monsoon (June - September mid) and North-East monsoon(October–mid-November). December, January, and February are the coolest months (on an average, temperature goes down up to 16 °C) and March, April, and May are hot (on an average, temperature rises up to about 35 °C). Summer showers are also common in May.

Flora and fauna

The district has a rich variety of plants ranging from rare orchids, medicinal plants and spices to hedge plants, tuber crops, plants yielding edible fruits and fibre. Aromatic plants and spices such as pepper and ginger are cultivated on a large scale on the hilly tracts. Nedumangad taluk is one of the biggest centres of cultivation and trade of pepper and other hill produces. A major portion of the district comes under the middle plain and the region is under the cultivation of coconut, paddy, tapioca, tuber crops, plantains and vegetabless.

The forests of the district abound in a variety of animals & birds and are excellent wild life habitats. Elephants, bisons, monkeys and rare species of reptiles have the place of prominence in them. The Neyyar reservoir and nearby areas abound in wild life. Nestled in the lap of the Western Ghats, a wild life sanctuary is quickly growing over an area of nearly 777 km² around this reservoir. The forest under the Kulathupuzha range is the habitat of rare species of snakes and lizards. Mammals are well represented in the district. Nilgiri Langur (Kasi Fohnii), the Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca Silenus), the Nilgiri brown mongoose (Herpestes fuscus) and the Malabar civet (Moschothere Civettina) are characteristic to this region. Carnivores include tiger, wild cat, jackal, leopard and wild dog. Sloth gear, gaur, a few species of deer and elephants are also seen. Reptiles include lizards, snakes, crocodiles and tortoises. There are about 75-80 species of snakes in this area and some of them are very poisonous.

Forests

Thiruvananthapuram district has a reserve forest area of 495.145 km² and vested forest area of 3.534 km² spreading over three ranges, viz., the Kulathupuzha range in the north, Palode range in the middle and the Paruthipalli range in the south. These forests may be broadly classified into three categories, namely, (a) southern tropical wet ever green forests, (b) southern tropical and semi ever green forests and (c) southern tropical moist deciduous forests. Veeti (Dalbergia latifolia), Thembavu (Terminalia crenulata), Aini (Artocarpus hirsutus), Plavu (Artocarpus heterophyllus), Akil (Dysoxylum malabaricum), Venga (Pterocarpus marsupium), Venthekku (Lagerstroemia lanceolata), Manjakadamb (Adina cordifolia) and Irul (Xylia xylocarpa) constitute the important timber species. Social forestry programmes are being implemented under the World Bank aided Kerala Social Forestry Project, National Rural Employment Programme (NREP) and Rural Fuel Wood Schemes to assist small and marginal farmers.

Rivers

Among the three rivers in the district, the Neyyar (56 km), the southernmost river of the Kerala state, has its origin in the Agasthyamala, the second highest peak in the Western Ghats. Karamana river (67 km) originates from Vayuvanthol (vazhuvanthol), another mountain in western ghats and the Vamanapuram River have their origin from Chemunji Mottai of the Western Ghats. There are 10 major back waters in the district. The major lakes are Veli, Kadinamkulam, Anchuthengu(Anjengo), Kaappil, Akathumuri and the Edava-Nadayara lakes. Besides these, there is a fresh water lake at Vellayani in Thiruvananthapuram taluk, which has the potential to become the major water sources of the Thiruvanthapuram city in future.

Demographics

Kerala Legislative Assembly Building -The new Assembly Block was inaugurated at the Legislature Complex on 22 May 1998 by the then President Mr. K.R. Narayanan.

Population : According to the final figures of 2001 census, the population of the district is 3,234,356. The details are as below:</br>

Language :

Malayalam is the mother tongue. People in Neyyattinkara taluk living adjacent to Tamil Nadu border, speak Malayalam mixed with Tamil. Thiruvananthapuram city is more cosmopolitan with people speaking various languages like Malayalam, English, Tamil, Hindi, Tulu, and a minor percentage speak Gujarati.</br> Religion and Caste : Hindus constitute the majority of the population followed by Christians and Muslims. The Hindu community lies grouped on the basis of castes and sub castes as elsewhere in the state. The Nairs, the Ezhavas, the scheduled castes and 11 tribes form the majority of the Hindu community. Christians belong mainly to the Latin Catholic Church, the Church of South India and the Orthodox Syrian Church. The Muslim community also forms a major division of the total population. Economic, social and other ties bind the members of different religious groups at the local level. People live in peace and amity, influencing and being influenced by the culture of one another.</br> Socio-Economic Conditions : More than 50% of the total population depend on agriculture for their livelihood. Agricultural labourers constitute 42% of the total labour class. Most of the people are engaged in low remunerative pursuits which require very little capital. Political and social consciousness, coupled with the efforts of the social, religious and cultural leaders, have helped to pull down the age-old feudal order. Economic changes have also affected the social life and attitude of the people.

Roads and bridges

The N.H.47 stretches from Parassala at the southern extremity to Paripally in the north, covering a distance of 80 km within the district. The state Highway (MC Road) covers a distance of 55 km and passes through Kesavadaspuram, Vembayam, Venjaramoodu, Kilimanoor and Nilamel in the north. PWD maintains about 1552 km of road in the district. Local bodies maintain 9500 km of road. There are 116 bridges in Thiruvananthapuram District.

Administration

The headquarters of the district administration is at Vanchiyoor in Thiruvananthapuram city, 1.5 km from the Government Secretariat and the Central Railway Station. The district administration is headed by the District Collector. He is assisted by Five Deputy Collectors holding charges of general matters, land acquisition, revenue recovery, land reforms and election. </br>

The District Collector also holds the charge of the District Magistrate and is assisted by the Additional District Magistrate (Deputy Collector, General) and the Revenue Divisional Officer. The district has only one revenue division, which is headed by the Revenue Divisional Officer (RDO). He is also the Sub-Divisional Magistrate.</br> There are four taluks, namely, Neyyattinkara, Thiruvananthapuram, Nedumangad and Chirayinkeezh, each headed by a Tahsildar. There are 120 villages under the 4 taluks of the district. The names of the taluks, their head quarters & the Villages under them are given in the box.

Consequent to the 73rd amendment of the Constitution and the new Panchayat Raj-Nagarapalika Act, the Kerala Panchayat Raj Act came into being on 23 April 1994. Thiruvananthapuram district has one district panchayat, 12 block panchayats and 78 grama panchayats. The Thiruvananthapuram District Panchayat has already worked out some notable developmental schemes in the agricultural, water supply and educational sectors. The District Panchayat president is also the chairman of the District Planning Committee and the District Rural Development Agency. </br> There are two parliamentary constituencies in the district. They are Chirayinkeezh with constituency number 19 and Thiruvananthapuram with constituency number 20.

Agriculture and related subjects

Agriculture

Agriculture has been the primary occupation of the people of the district. More than 42% of the total population depend on agriculture. Cultivable land may be classified as wet, dry, garden and plantations. Paddy is the most important crop cultivated in the wet lands. Tapioca and pulses are the important dry land crops. Coconut, one of the most important crops of the district, is cultivated in an area of 843.08 km² and the annual production is about 516 million nuts. Rubber cultivation is mainly confined to Nedumangad taluk. At present, there are about 269.99 km² of rubber plantations and the annual production is estimated at 30,717 tonnes. Newly introduced agricultural development schemes have opened new vistas in this field. Fresh schemes are introduced in every panchayat with a view to maximize yield per unit area by exploiting the production potential of paddy and vegetables. Cashew is grown in 21.84 km² of land and the production is about 1745 tonnes. Pepper cultivation covers an area of 50.9 km² and the yield is about 1824 tonnes. Soil conservation projects are being implemented with subsidy and loans.

Major Agricultural Products *</br>

       Products      |Area under cultivation (km²)| Production (tonne)
    =================================================================
        Rice         |      113.68                |      19610
        Pepper       |      50.90                 |      1824
        Ginger       |      1.08                  |      313
        Cashewnut    |      21.84                 |      1745
        Tapioca      |      252.53                |      500101
        Coconut      |      843.08                |      516 million Nuts
        Arecanut     |      7.17                  |      456 million Nuts
        Tea          |      9.65                  |      608
        Rubber       |      269.99                |      30717

* Source : Farm Guide 2000

Irrigation

The Neyyar Irrigation Project, commissioned in 1959, irrigates an area of 116.65 km² in Thiruvananthapuram. Neyyar is the source of water for the reservoir. The length of the dam is 294.13 meters and the height is 50.6 meters. The catchment draining into the reservoir, covering an area of 140 km² of forest land, receives an annual average rainfall of about 2260 mm from two monsoons. The total length of the main canal and its branches is 266 km.

Animal husbandry and dairy

The Regional Poultry Farm and the District Livestock Farm at Kudappanakunnu, the Dry Stock Farm at Palode, the Intensive Poultry Block at Pettah, Clinical lab, broiler farm, piggery, veterinary sub centres, veterinary Biological Institute, Disease Investigation Office, Livestock Disease Control unit and the SPCA (Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals) are the major animal husbandry institutions in the district. At present there are 23 veterinary hospitals 76 veterinary dispensaries and 144 such centres in the district. In Thiruvananthapuram, milk is being distributed to consumers from the dairy at Ambalathara. There are 376 dairy co-operatives besides, 294 Anand model co-operatives. Kerala Livestock Development and Milk Marketing Board (K.L.D. & M.M.B.) and the Kerala Co-operative Milk Marketing federation (MILMA) strive to improve production. Nearly 147,000 litres of milk is being collected and distributed daily through the co-operative societies.

Fisheries

Thiruvananthapuram district stretches along the shores of the Arabian Sea for a distance of 78 km, offering immense scope for the development of fisheries as an important source of earning foreign exchange. Varkala, Anchuthengu, Marianad, Poonthura, Vizhinjam and Poovar are some of the major fishing centres. The fishermen population is about 200,000 and the catch is around 32,000 tonnes. Anchovies, sardine, catfish, perches, mackerel, tuna and carangids are the important species caught in this area. Introduction of mechanized fishing crafts and modern fishing gear has augmented the fish catch. There are 42 fishermen villages and the total number of households engaged in fishing is about 40,000. Development activities and welfare programmes are implemented by the Department of Fisheries, Matsyafed, Fish Farmers Development Agency (FFDA), and Brackish Water Fish Farmers Development Agency (BWFFDA). The inland catch is significant in the district. The newly launched people oriented fish farming scheme aims at fish cultivation in 2.05 km² of public ponds. All the 78 panchayats in the district are readied to adopt the scheme under the guidance of local bodies. The coastal fisheries belt is divided into 42 fisheries villages and most of such villages have fishermen welfare societies formed under the Kerala Fisheries Welfare Society Act of 1980.

Industry

In Thiruvananthapuram district there are 2 Central sector, 14 state sector, 1 co-operative sector, 4 joint sector and 60 private sector medium and large scale industries. The Kerala state Industrial Development Corporation (KSIDC) units employ 9262 people with an investment of Rs.34,394 lakhs (as on 31.03.2003). In 2002 there were 901 registered working factories. They include oil mills, cashew factories, cotton textiles, saw mills, printing units, rubber industrial units, chemical units, match factories, general engineering units and automobile workshops. The S.M.S.M. Institute in Thiruvananthapuram is a major institution through which the products of the handicraft industries are marketed. As of 31 March 2003, there were 28,918 small scale industrial units employing 115,597 people in the district. In agro based industries, 4544 people work, 3080 work in forest based, 980 in animal husbandry based, 5057 in pesticide based, 1282 in chemicals based, 4708 in engineering based, 3075 in manufacturing and building materials section and 6192 in other industries. Of these SSI units, 1323 are Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe units and 6065 are women units. There is an industrial estate at Pappanamcode and an industrial development centre at Kochuveli. Traditional industries such as coir and hand loom are now faced with several problems. The main varieties of coir produced are Anchuthengu and Muppiri. Handloom weaving is prevalent at Balaramapuram, Amaravila, Kulathur and Chirayinkeezhu. It is estimated that clothes worth Rs.95,000,000 are annually produced in the handloom sector. There are 20 Hantex (Handloom Weavers’ Co-operative Society) depots and five showrooms in the district. Keltron (Kerala state Electronics Development Corporation) has made inroads into electronic markets throughout the country. The opening of many private Television channels in the state, made Thiruvananthapuram the home of several studios and related industries.

Information technology

Technopark was established for the development of electronics and information technology in the state. It is India's first first industrial park dedicated to electronics, software, and IT ventures. Started 1990, the campus at Thiruvananthapuram city covers an area the 300 acres (728,000 m²) campus with 1.5 million ft² (140,000 m²) of built-up space available currently and another 600,000 ft² (55,000 m²) more of built up space coming up, is now home to over 100 companies from numerous countries. Over 12,500 IT professionals are working here. The companies include one CMMI level 5 and PCMM level 5 company, four CMM Level 5, two CMM Level 3 and several ISO 9001 certified companies.

Thiruvananthapuram was rated as the best 2nd tier metro with IT/ITES infrastructure, and second in terms of availability of human talent [2]. The district contributes 80% of software exports from the state.

Tourism

Foreign Tourists in the international beach of Kovalam

Tourism has also contributed heavily to the economy of Thiruvananthapuram. The district reflects the entire beauty of the state Kerala. The entire tourism package of the state such as hill stations, back waters, beaches, lagoons, and wild life sanctuaries are present in the district. Foreign tourists are flocking to Thiruvananthapuram, a major destination for chartered flights to India for Medical tourism, as there are more than fifty recognised Ayurveda centres in and around the city. This is primarily due to Ayurveda's immense popularity in the West. Medical tourism is further promoted by world class modern medicine hospitals in the city. Recuperation facilities are available at five star beach resorts and hill stations nearby.

Rural development

There are 12 development blocks in the district and they are Parassala, Perumkadavila, Athiyanoor, Nemom, Thiruvananthapuram Rural, Kazhakuttom, Vellanad, Nedumangad, Vamanapuram, Kilimanoor, Chirayinkeezhu and Varkala. The District Rural Development Agency co-ordinates the work in these blocks. Several welfare schemes like Swarna Jayanthi Grama Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) Samboorna Grama Rozgar Yojana (SGRY), Total Sanitation Scheme (TSS), Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF), Prime Minister’s Grama Sadak Yojana (PMGSY), Indira Awaz Yojana (IAY) etc. are carried out in the blocks.

Places of tourist interest

Main article: Thiruvananthapuram Tourist spots

Many spots in the district are breathtakingly beautiful and a treat to the eye.

Agastyakoodam

About 1869 meters above sea level, Agastyakoodam is the highest peak in the Western Ghats, next only to Anamudi. Tradition says that the great sage Agasthya, had his abode in this peak. This mountain is located in Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve in the eastern side of the district. The area is noted for its abundant ayurvedic herbs and ecotourism.

Neyyar Dam

Lying amidst the southern low hills of the Western Ghats, 29 km from the city, the catchment area offers facilities for boating and mountaineering. A three-hour climb over the hills across the reservoir affords the thrill of hiking. There are two beautiful waterfalls on the way. A Lion Safari Park and a Crocodile Rearing Centre have also been set up in the reservoir.

Ponmudi

Roofs of the cottages at Ponmudi

A pleasant resort with an elevation of 912 m above sea level, Ponmudi is reached by road from Thiruvananthapuram. There are several tea and rubber estates around the hills. A hill tribe called Kani live in the surrounding areas. Ponmudi is fast developing as a hill resort with room and dormitory accommodation facilities, hill-trails for hiking, a collection of flowering trees and a deer park. Ponmudi is 61 km from Thiruvananthapuram City.

Thiruvananthapuram City

Thiruvananthapuram, the capital of the state and the headquarters of the district, is well connected by air, rail and road. Sree Padmanabha Swami Temple, the Kanakakkunnu Palace, the Observatory, the Science and Technology Museum, the Government Secretariat, the Kowdiar Palace, St. Joseph’s Cathedral, the Tagore Centenary theatre and the mseum and zoo are some of the tourist attractions in the city. Sree Chitra Art Gallery with its rich collection of exquisite paintings, is another attraction. The gallery has a special Ravi Varma section other than one for murals, water and oil painting. The S.M.S.M. Institute, Botanic Gardens at Palode and Chitranjali studios are added attractions. The Raj Bhavan, Central Library, Victoria Jubilee Town Hall, University College, Residency Banglaw, College of Fine Arts and the Wellington Water Works are but a few of the landmarks that adorn the city. There are three big stadiums, namely; the University Stadium, the Chandrasekharan Nair Stadium and the Central Stadium, in the city. A velodrome at Kariavattom and the Jimmy George Indoor Stadium at Vellayambalam cater to sporting interests. The neat and clean Shanghumughom beach is an attraction. The Aerodrome, the Government Engineering Workshop, the Trivandrum Rubber Works and the Travancore Titanium Products Ltd are situated in the vicinity of Shanghumughom beach. Interesting places worth visiting in the neighbourhood of Thiruvananthapuram city are Aruvikkara Water Works, Kovalam Beach Resort and the resort of Ponmudi Hills, the Neyyardam at a distance of 29 km also offers scenic splendour as well as opportunities for hikes, boating, camping and mountaineering. Kanyakumari, the land’s end of India now in Tamil Nadu, is only 87 km from Thiruvananthapuram. On the way to Kanyakumari is Padmanabhapuram, the old capital of Travancore, where an ancient palace with antique murals is located.

Akkulam

Musical Fountain at Aakkulam, Thiruvananthapuram city‎

Akkulam is one of the beautiful picnic spots, in Thiruvananthapuram city. The spot is developed on the banks of Akulam Lake, which is an extension of the Veli Lake. The calm and serene atmosphere and its unique natural beauty are a fascination for tourists. The Boat Club, which started functioning in 1989, now operates speed, safari, pedal and row boats from Akkulam to Veli Tourist Village. A traditional style Kettuvallom is also available for overnight stay. The swimming pool at Akkulam is equipped with glider and other playing facilities. The Children’s Park is a unique amusement spot. The newly commissioned musical fountain is an added attraction.

Kovalam

This international beach, 12 km south of Thiruvananthapuram city, is one of the finest beaches in India. A high rocky promontory jutting into the sea has created a beautiful bay of calm waters for sea bathing. The India Tourism Development Corporation had developed Kovalam as an integrated seaside resort which includes a string of cottages, the Halcyon castle, a shopping area, swimming pools, yoga centre, facilities for medicinal oil bath & massage and the Rajiv Gandhi Convention Centre with 1000 delegate capacity. The resort has 198 rooms with the four presidential suits in the Halcyon Castle, the Summer Retreat of the erstwhile Maharaja. The property has now been taken over by a private group, The Leela Group. Besides, there are numerous hotels managed by private agencies.

Museum and Zoo

The Museum building itself is an architectural splendour. The Napier Museum, the Natural History Museum, the Reptile House and the Shri Chitra Art Gallery are all within the zoo complex amidst a well laid-out garden and park. There is a lake and a boat club jointly operated by the Department of Museums and Zoos and the District Tourism Promotion Council. The zoo offers a rare opportunity for the visitors to experience an unparalleled, picturesque and panoramic sylvan landscape with a wide range of animal collections. The zoo has 75 different species of animals not only from India but also from abroad. It has several species of animals and birds from Ethiopian and Australian zoological regions. The Lion-tailed Macaque, Nilgiri Langur, Nilgiri Tahr, Manipur deer, Indian Rhino, Asiatic Lion and the Royal Bengal Tiger are prominent among the indigenous endangered fauna, while giraffe, hippo, zebra and cape buffalo are guests from the African region. A new era will be ushered in with the completion of the ongoing modernisation work in the zoo which will provide for thrilling encounters with the animals out in their open air landscapes.

Veli Lagoon

On the outskirts of Kerala’s capital city, by the side of the placid waters of Veli lake, the Tourist Village and Boat Club attracts the city people and tourists. Veli, developed as a major tourist spot by providing facilities for pedal-boating, row boating, swimming, get together, etc. is just the right place for an exciting outing. The Youth Hostel at Veli which is hardly three kilometers from the international airport, provides inexpensive dormitory type accommodation. Veli, with its palm fringed lake is easily accessible by road.

Shanghumugham Beach

Shanghumugham Beach is very near to the International Airport and is easily accessible from the Kovalam Beach, Veli Tourist Village and Akkulam Tourist Village. Shanghumugham beach is noted for its cleanliness. The vast stretch of white sand and the serene atmosphere, away from the crowd in the city, provide all the ingredients for relaxation and for spending an ideal evening. There is also a “Star Fish Restaurant” with eating kiosks and open air theatre with car parking facilities.

External links



Districts of Kerala, India
AlappuzhaErnakulamIdukkiKannurKasargodKollamKottayamKozhikodeMalappuramPalakkadPathanamthittaThiruvananthapuramThrissurWayanad


This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Thiruvananthapuram district. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
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