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Thomas Becket
Archbishop of Canterbury

13th-century manuscript illumination, an early depiction of Becket's assassination
Enthroned 3 June 1162
Reign ended 29 December 1170
Predecessor Theobald of Bec
Successor Roger de Bailleul
Personal details
Birth name Thomas Becket
Born 1118
Cheapside, London
Died 29 December 1170 (aged 52)
Canterbury
Buried Canterbury Cathedral
Sainthood
Feast day 29 December
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church,
Anglican Communion
Title as Saint Bishop and Martyr
Beatified 21 February 1173
Canonized Pope Alexander III
St. Peter's Church in Segni
Canonized by Pope Alexander III
Attributes Sword, Martyrdom, dressed in chancellor's robe and neck chain
Patronage Exeter College, Oxford; Portsmouth; Arbroath Abbey; secular clergy
.Thomas Becket (1118[1] – 29 December 1170), later also known as Thomas à Becket, was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his death in 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion.^ BECKET , THOMAS see Thomas a Becket , Saint .
  • Thomas A Becket Saint: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thomas Becket , I 162 to 1170.80.

^ Thomas Becket was a Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 to his death on December 29th, 1170, he is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion.
  • Becket - Ask.com 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

.He engaged in conflict with Henry II of England over the rights and privileges of the Church and was assassinated by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral.^ King Henry II is the ruler of England.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry II had his eldest surviving son, Henry, crowned king of England.
  • Henry II - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry, the young king, son of Henry II .
  • Henry II - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Soon after the death of Thomas Becket, Pope Alexander canonised him and the murdered priest was elevated to sainthood.^ Thomas Becket murdered at Canterbury ...

^ Thomas a Beckets death shocked the whole of the...
  • Thomas A Becket Saint: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Alexander, the pope, to Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury.
  • Foxe's Book of Martyrs -- 40. LIFE AND DEATH OF THOMAS A BECKET 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.exclassics.com [Source type: Original source]

The monks were afraid that Becket's body might be stolen. .To prevent this from happening, Becket's marble coffin was placed in the crypt of the cathedral.^ He even went to the cathedral, and kneeling down in the place where Becket had been slain, submitted to be scourged by one of the monks.
  • The Baldwin Project: Stories from English History by Alfred J. Church 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

The monks also built a stone wall in front of the tomb. There were two gaps in the wall where pilgrims could insert their heads and kiss the tomb. .In 1220, Becket's bones were moved to a new gold-plated and bejewelled shrine behind the high altar.^ Behind the altar is Trinity Chapel, in the centre of which stood the celebrated shrine of St Thomas of Canterbury.

The shrine was placed on a raised platform supported by pillars. .Canterbury, because of its religious history, had always seen a large number of pilgrims.^ After a large number of people had been seen gathering at her house for Mass, she was arrested, tried and condemned to death.
  • Liturgical Calendar | National Calendar for England II 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.liturgyoffice.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.However, after the death of Thomas Becket, the number of pilgrims visiting the town grew rapidly.^ Thomas a Beckets death shocked the whole of the...
  • Thomas A Becket Saint: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They had not, however, counted on the strength or stubbornness of Thomas Becket.
  • Writing.Com: Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.writing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Type of Work: Musical work Registration Number / Date: RE0000182014 / 1983-11-14 EP0000091751 / 1955-06-02 Title: Death of Thomas A. Becket.
  • Death of Thomas A. Becket. For chorus of mixed voices with tenor and bass solos and piano. Text: traditional, m John Jacob Niles, arr. Carl Fischer, Inc. as employer for hire of Lewis Henry Horton part 2 - song, music - Copyright Info 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Contents

Name

.Thomas Becket is also commonly known as 'Thomas à Becket', although this form seems not to have been contemporaneous but a post-reformation adornment, possibly in imitation of Thomas à Kempis.^ Thomas, known as Thomas a Becket, are probably the best.

^ Thomas Becket - Assassination: Encyclopedia II - Thomas Becket - Aftermath and cultural references Many years after his death, an 'à' was added in his name, giving the form Thomas à Becket, alluding to a later religious, Thomas à Kempis (b.

^ The cathedral terminates eastward in a graceful apsidal form, with the final addition of the circular eastern chapel built by William the Englishman, and known as the Corona or Becket's Crown .

[2] Historian John Strype wrote in his Memorials of Thomas Cranmer (1694): "It is a small error, but being so oft repeated deserveth to be observed into corrected. .The name of that archbishop was Thomas Becket.^ Read more here: » Thomas Becket: Encyclopedia II - Thomas Becket - Archbishop 1162 .

^ THOMAS BECKET, _Chancellor of England, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury_.
  • Becket and other plays by Alfred Lord Tennyson - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Becket in turn is confidant, chancellor, archbishop, enemy, and victim of the King, but he never surrenders his drive for order in the name of honor.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

.If the vulgar did formerly, as it doth now call him 'Thomas à Becket', their mistake is not to be followed by learned men."^ BECKET. Follow him out!
  • Becket and other plays by Alfred Lord Tennyson - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ BECKET: Follow him out!

^ And now consider in what sense you say, ‘We do have recourse to the remedy of appeal?’ You call yourself a follower of Christ; in this speech you are found to be far otherwise.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Roger of Hoveden: The Chronicle: On the Disputes betweenThomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury and King Henry II of England 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

Notwithstanding, the Oxford Dictionary of English, the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors and Chambers Biographical Dictionary all prefer St. Thomas à Becket.

Early life

.Thomas Becket was born c.1118 in Cheapside, London, to Gilbert Beket of Thierville and Matilda (with a familiar name of Roheise or Rosea) of Mondeville near Caen.^ This homepage is in honour of Thomas Becket, who was born in London on Dec.

^ Thomas was born in London, on December 21, probably in 1118.

^ Becket was born in 1118, in Normandy the son of an ...

[3] .Gilbert, a knight's son, had taken the trade of mercer but in London was a property-owner, living on his rents.^ Knowing only that his name was Gilbert and he lived in Cheapside , London, she still tracked him down.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | December 21| St Thomas mumping 2012 McKenna Jos� Arg�elles Maya Timewave zero Mayan calendarAustralia Christmas beetle 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ According to a contemporary writer, Thomas Becket was the son of Gilbert Becket, sheriff of London; another relates that both parents were of Norman blood.
  • St. Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]
  • St. Thomas Becket - Saints & Angels - Catholic Online 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

[3] They were buried in Old St. Paul's Cathedral. .There is a story that Thomas's mother was a Saracen princess who met and fell in love with his English father while he was on Crusade or pilgrimage in the Holy Land, followed him home, was baptised and married him.^ There is a romantic legend that the mother of Thomas Becket was a Saracen princess who followed his father, a pilgrim or crusader, back from the Holy Land, and wandered about Europe repeating the only English words she knew, "London" and "Becket," until she found him.
  • St. Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was married twice, and a loving father of four.
  • Liturgical Calendar | National Calendar for England II 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.liturgyoffice.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Becket Feastday: December 29 b.1118 d.1170 St. Thomas Becket There is a romantic legend that the mother of Thomas Becket was a Saracen princess who followed his father, a pilgrim or crusader, back from the Holy Land, and wandered about Europe repeating the only English words she knew, "London" and "Becket," until she found him.
  • St. Thomas Becket - Saints & Angels - Catholic Online 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

.This story has no truth to it, being a fabrication from three centuries after the saint's martyrdom and inserted as a forgery into Edward Grim's contemporary (12th century) Life of St Thomas.^ With real insight into his life situation, Thomas responds: "The last temptation is the greatest treason: To do the right deed for the wrong reason."
  • St. Thomas Becket | Saint of the Day | AmericanCatholic.org 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.americancatholic.org [Source type: General]

^ Henry finds himself trapped by the life-force no less than Thomas had.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From this day worldly grandeur no longer marked Thomas' way of life.
  • St. Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

[4][5]
.One of Thomas's father's rich friends, Richer de L'Aigle, was attracted to Thomas's sisters.^ One of Thomas's father's rich friends, Richer de Laigle, saw something in Thomas.

^ One of Thomas's father's rich friends, Richer de L'aigle, saw something in Thomas.

^ On leaving school he employed himself in secretarial work, first with Sir Richer de l'Aigle and then with his kinsman, Osbert Huitdeniers, who was “Justiciar” of London.

.He often invited Thomas to his estates in Sussex.^ He often invited Thomas to his estate on the coast of France.

^ He often invited Thomas ...

.There, Thomas learned to ride a horse, hunt, behave like a gentleman and engage in popular sports such as jousting.^ There, Thomas learned to ride a horse, hunt, behave, and engage in popular sports s ...

.Beginning when he was 10, Becket received a brilliant education in civil and canon law at Merton Priory in England and then in Paris, Bologna and Auxerre.^ His parents were of the upper-middle class near Rouen, and he received an excellent education in "Civil & Canon Law" at Merton Priory in England, and then overseas at Paris, Bologna, and Auxerre.

^ Becket first received his education ...

^ Whatever his parentage, we know with certainty that the future chancellor and archbishop of Canterbury was born on St. Thomas day, 1118, of a good family, and that he was educated at a school of canons regular at Merton Priory in Sussex, and later at the University of Paris.
  • St. Thomas Becket - Saints & Angels - Catholic Online 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

.Richer was later a signatory at the Constitutions of Clarendon against Thomas.^ Thomas Becket - Assassination: Encyclopedia II - Thomas Becket - The constitutions of Clarendon Henry called another assembly at Clarendon for January 30, 1164, at which he presented his demands in sixteen constitutions.

^ Thomas viewed the Constitutions of Clarendon as calling for nothing less than the total surrender of church liberties.
  • CRF-USA - BRIA 16 1 b The Murder of an Archbishop 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.crf-usa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas also presented himself to the Pope and showed him the Constitutions of Clarendon, some of which Alexander pronounced intolerable, others impossible.
  • St. Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Upon returning to the Kingdom of England he attracted the notice of Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury, who entrusted him with several important missions to Rome and finally made him Archdeacon of Canterbury and Provost of Beverley.^ Theobald appointed him archdeacon of Canterbury, the highest ecclesiastical office in England after a bishopric or an abbacy, and began to entrust him with the most intricate affairs; several times he was sent on important missions to Rome.
  • St. Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]
  • St. Thomas Becket - Saints & Angels - Catholic Online 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon returning to the Kingdom of England, he attracted the notice of Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury, who entrusted him with s ...

^ While archdeacon of Canterbury, he was made chancellor of England at the age of 36 by his friend King Henry II. When Henry felt it advantageous to make his chancellor the archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas gave him fair warning: he might not accept all of Henry’s intrusions into Church affairs.
  • St. Thomas Becket | Saint of the Day | AmericanCatholic.org 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.americancatholic.org [Source type: General]

.He so distinguished himself by his zeal and efficiency that Theobald recommended him to King Henry II when the important office of Lord Chancellor was vacant.^ King Henry II is the ruler of England.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry, the young king, son of Henry II .
  • Henry II - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the following year Henry II., at the primate's recommendation, bestowed on him the important office of chancellor .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

Henry accordingly appointed Becket as Chancellor in 1155.
.Henry desired to be absolute ruler of his dominions, both Church and State, and could find precedents in the traditions of the throne when he planned to do away with the special privileges of the English clergy, which he regarded as fetters on his authority.^ Eski Adalia) side looked to find in Becket the archbishop a coadjutor as loyal as Becket the archdeacon; and anticipated that the Church would once more be reduced to that state of dependence in which she had stood during the latter years of Henry I .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ The feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury is now kept throughout the Roman Catholic Church, and in England he is regarded as the protector of the secular clergy.
  • St. Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]
  • St. Thomas Becket - Saints & Angels - Catholic Online 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The rights and dignities of the Church, which the public authority had usurped, he deemed it right to restore, and to recall to their proper state.
  • Service Of Thomas Becket, On The Anniversary Of His Martyrdom, Dec. 29. 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.logoi.com [Source type: Original source]

.As Chancellor, Becket enforced the king’s traditional medieval land tax that was exacted from all landowners, including churches and bishoprics.^ The King and all his barons-- BECKET. Judgment!
  • Becket and other plays by Alfred Lord Tennyson - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Chancellor-Archbishop, he might well have sway'd All England under Henry, the young King, When I was hence.
  • Becket by Lord Alfred Tennyson: Act I 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Becket and other plays by Alfred Lord Tennyson - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The King and all his lords-- BECKET. Son, first hear _me_!
  • Becket and other plays by Alfred Lord Tennyson - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

This created both a hardship and a resentment of Becket among the English Churchmen. .To further implicate Becket as a secular man, he became an accomplished and extravagant courtier and a cheerful companion to the king's pleasures.^ Becket the minister of a king, and only deacon, became Archbishop of Canterbury.

^ If Becket's heroism is measured against the petty craftiness and intrigues of his peers, Henry is a caricature of Carlyle's great man: "I am prepared to forget a lot of things, but not that I am king."
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The king and Becket soon became close friends.
  • Catholic Church in England-History of the church of england 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.myenglandtravel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thomas was devoted to Henry's interests with such a firm and yet diplomatic thoroughness that scarcely anyone except perhaps John of Salisbury doubted his allegiance to English royalty.^ Thomas Edward 8 Beckett (Clyde Henry 7 , John Monroe 6 , Joseph 5 , William 4 , Matthew 3 , James 2 , Thomas 1 ) was born December 06, 1946 in Boggsville, Pennsylvania..
  • Descendants of Thomas Beckett, Newfield House, Upper Ballinderry, Baronyof Massereene, County Antrim, Ireland 1690-2001 25 September 2009 9:59 UTC www.pa-roots.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pauline Grace 8 Beckett(d) (Clyde Henry 7 Beckett, John Monroe 6 , Joseph 5 , William 4 , Matthew 3 , James 2 , Thomas 1 ) was born February 12, 1951 in Boggsville, Pennsylvania..
  • Descendants of Thomas Beckett, Newfield House, Upper Ballinderry, Baronyof Massereene, County Antrim, Ireland 1690-2001 25 September 2009 9:59 UTC www.pa-roots.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was mass excommunication, and meant that all Henry's vassals could be absolved of their allegiance to the English king and their loyalties bidden for by Louis.

.King Henry even sent his son Henry to live in Becket's household, it being the custom then for noble children to be fostered out to other noble houses.^ Henry, the young king, son of Henry II .
  • Henry II - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In June, 1170, Henry had his eldest son crowned by the archbishop of York, in direct violation of custom and of a papal ban.
  • Thomas A Becket Saint: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although reinstated in York, he fell out again with the king and other bishops, and exercised his ministry then in the East Midlands and finally at Hexham.
  • Liturgical Calendar | National Calendar for England II 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.liturgyoffice.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The younger Henry was reported to have said Becket showed him more fatherly love in a day than his father did for his entire life.^ Henry howls with pain, "I loved him!
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For Henry, Becket must love him, or no one.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ BECKET: More than enough.

.An emotional attachment to Becket as a foster-father may have been one of the reasons the younger Henry would turn against his father.^ HENRY: But one must be logical, Becket!
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The reign of Henry II., during which Becket's memorable career took place, was an important one.

^ For Henry, Becket must love him, or no one.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

Primacy

.He achieved his final position of power as the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1162, several months after the death of Theobald.^ In an effort to get one up on the only institution that rivals his own power, Henry makes Thomas Archbishop of Canterbury--smartly placing "the king's man" in the highest position of authority in the Church.
  • The Honor of Thomas Becket: Review on TheaterMania.com - 09/17/2001 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.theatermania.com [Source type: General]

^ Theobald, the archbishop of Canterbury, recommended Becket to Henry as a candidate for chancellor, to which Henry agreed.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the same year, Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury, legate of the Roman Church, departed this life.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Roger of Hoveden: The Chronicle: On the Disputes betweenThomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury and King Henry II of England 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Henry intended to further his influence by directing the actions of Thomas, his loyal appointee, and diminish the independence and influence of the Church in England.^ King Henry VIII commissions a General Visitation of churches, monasteries and clergy in England and Wales .
  • Thomas Cromwell Historical Timeline - The Tudors Wiki 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: General]

^ It was a hollow truce, since the subject of the constitutions was not mentioned; and Thomas returned to See also: ENGLAND ENGLAND, THE CHURCH OF England with the determination of See also: RIDING riding roughshod over the king's supporters .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury was assassinated in his cathedral on December 29, 1170 because of his opposition to his former friend, King Henry II of England, who was encroaching on the liberties of the English Church.

.The famous transformation of Becket into an ascetic occurred at this time.^ The reply drove Henry into a furious rage and he shouted his famous invitation to murder: 'The man Becket ate my bread and mocks my favors.

.A rift grew between Henry and Thomas as the new Archbishop dropped his Chancellorship and consolidated the landed revenues of Canterbury under his control.^ Alexander, the pope, to Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury.
  • Foxe's Book of Martyrs -- 40. LIFE AND DEATH OF THOMAS A BECKET 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.exclassics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile in England all the revenues of the archbishop are confiscated, his estates are laid waste, his possessions are plundered, and by the invention of a new kind of punishment, the whole kin of Thomas is proscribed together.
  • Service Of Thomas Becket, On The Anniversary Of His Martyrdom, Dec. 29. 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.logoi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In more sweeping measures, however, the pope refused to support him, until in 1170 Henry infringed the rights of Canterbury by causing Archbishop See also: ROGER (d.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

.So began a series of legal conflicts, such as the jurisdiction of secular courts over English clergymen, which accelerated antipathy between the two great offices.^ What were the most important conflicts between the two?
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He soon came into conflict with Henry, and as the tension between the two men mounted, the series of minor disputes developed into a major quarrel.
  • Thomas A Becket Saint: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At the Council of Westminster (1163), Henry claimed that such clerics, once tried and convicted in the ecclesiastical courts, should be punished by the secular authorities.
  • Thomas A Becket Saint: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Attempts by King Henry to foment the opinion and influence of the other bishops against Thomas began in Westminster in October 1163, where the King sought approval of stated royal privileges.^ Thomas and King Henry 11.

^ Thomas stiffened the bishops against yielding.
  • St. Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]
  • St. Thomas Becket - Saints & Angels - Catholic Online 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With this view Henry summoned the bishops at Westminster (1 October, 1163) to sanction certain as yet unspecified articles which he called his grandfather's customs (avit consuetudines), one of the known objects of which was to bring clerics guilty of crimes under the jurisdiction of the secular courts.

.This led to Clarendon, where Thomas was officially asked to sign off on the King’s rights or face political repercussions.^ The king's officials claimed that over a hundred murderers had escaped their proper punishment because they had claimed their right to be tried in church courts.
  • Catholic Church in England-History of the church of england 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.myenglandtravel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Soon after this the great matter of dispute was reached in the resistance made by Thomas to the king's officials when they attempted to assert jurisdiction over criminous clerks.

The Constitutions of Clarendon

.King Henry II presided over the assemblies at Clarendon Palace on 30 January 1164. In sixteen constitutions, he sought less clerical independence and a weaker connection with Rome.^ Henry, the young king, son of Henry II .
  • Henry II - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ King Henry II : Are you mad?
  • Becket (1964) 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC uk.imdb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But when Henry shortly afterwards at Clarendon (13 January 1164) sought to draw the saint on to a formal and public acceptance of the " Constitutions of Clarendon ", under which name the sixteen articles, the avitæ consuetudines as finally drafted, have been commonly known, St. Thomas, though at first yielding somewhat to the solicitations of the other bishops, in the end took up an attitude of uncompromising resistance.

He employed all his skills to induce their consent and was apparently successful with all but the Primate.
.Finally even Becket expressed his willingness to agree to the substance of the Constitutions of Clarendon, but he still refused to formally sign the documents.^ The following year Henry codified these customs (including his claim concerning the "criminous clerks") in the Constitutions of Clarendon (see Clarendon, Constitutions of ) and Becket, although he refused to sign them, did give his oral assent.
  • Thomas A Becket Saint: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Becket had deceived him, having trifled with him by taking an oath to sign the Constitutions of Clarendon, and then broken his oath and defied his authority, appealing to the Pope, and perhaps involving the King in a quarrel with the supreme spiritual power of Christendom.

^ When, in 1164, Becket refused to accept the Constitutions of Clarendon, Henry declared him a traitor and Becket fled to France.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

This meant war between the two powers. .Henry summoned Becket to appear before a great council at Northampton Castle on 8 October 1164, to answer allegations of contempt of royal authority and malfeasance in the Lord Chancellor's office.^ As Henry speaks, Becket appears on stage.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry named Becket his Chancellor.

^ Henry ordered Becket to appear before his courts.
  • Catholic Church in England-History of the church of england 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.myenglandtravel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Convicted on the charges, Becket stormed out of the trial and fled to the Continent.^ Other lawes and constitutions made at Clarendon in Normandy, and sent to England, whereunto Becket and the pope would not agree, he being then fled out of the realm.
  • Foxe's Book of Martyrs -- 40. LIFE AND DEATH OF THOMAS A BECKET 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.exclassics.com [Source type: Original source]

.Henry pursued the fugitive archbishop with a series of edicts, aimed at all his friends and supporters as well as Becket himself; but Louis VII of France received him with respect and offered him protection.^ Then Louis, the King of France, made war on Henry, and took Becket under his protection.

^ Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury was assassinated in his cathedral on December 29, 1170 because of his opposition to his former friend, King Henry II of England, who was encroaching on the liberties of the English Church.

^ So that after this the French king and Becket were great friends together; insomuch that King Henry sending to the king to entreat him, and desire him that he would not support nor maintain his enemy within his realm, the French king utterly denied the king's request, taking part rather with the archbishop than with him.
  • Foxe's Book of Martyrs -- 40. LIFE AND DEATH OF THOMAS A BECKET 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.exclassics.com [Source type: Original source]

.He spent nearly two years in the Cistercian abbey of Pontigny, until Henry's threats against the order obliged him to move to Sens again.^ He was buried in the Cistercian abbey of Pontigny.
  • Liturgical Calendar | National Calendar for England II 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.liturgyoffice.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In more sweeping measures, however, the pope refused to support him, until in 1170 Henry infringed the rights of Canterbury by causing Archbishop See also: ROGER (d.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ See also: MEASURES measures against Henry; and six years elapsed before the king found himself definitely confronted with the choice between an See also: INTERDICT (Lat.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

Becket sought to exercise the prerogatives of the Church, particularly the weapons of excommunication and interdict. .But Pope Alexander III, though sympathising with him in theory, favoured a more diplomatic approach.^ In more sweeping measures, however, the pope refused to support him, until in 1170 Henry infringed the rights of Canterbury by causing Archbishop See also: ROGER (d.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ Becket then fled to Sens to live in proximity with Pope Alexander III - much to the pope's discomfort.
  • Henry II - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Pope rebuked Louis for the war; but Louis retorted by telling Alexander that it was a shame for him not to give up his time-serving policy.

.Differences thus arose between Pope and Archbishop and legates were sent in 1167 with authority to act as arbitrators.^ The archbishop was thus enabled to invoke the pope's assistance, and to quit the See also: COUNTRY (from the Mid.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ The king, on seeing this, in his indignation sent back to our lord the pope the letters appointing him legate, which John of Oxford and Geoffrey Riddel had brought.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Roger of Hoveden: The Chronicle: On the Disputes betweenThomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury and King Henry II of England 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Notwithstanding, at the request of the king's clergy, the pope was content that the king should be legate himself; whereat the king took great indignation, (as Hoveden writeth,) so that he sent the pope his letters again.
  • Foxe's Book of Martyrs -- 40. LIFE AND DEATH OF THOMAS A BECKET 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.exclassics.com [Source type: Original source]

.Becket's firmness seemed about to meet with its reward when in 1170 the Pope was on the point of fulfilling his threats and excommunicating Henry II. At that point Henry, alarmed by the prospect, held out hopes of an agreement that would allow Thomas to return to England and resume his place.^ Thomas Becket eventually agreed to return to England.
  • Catholic Church in England-History of the church of england 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.myenglandtravel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was a hollow truce, since the subject of the constitutions was not mentioned; and Thomas returned to See also: ENGLAND ENGLAND, THE CHURCH OF England with the determination of See also: RIDING riding roughshod over the king's supporters .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ In more sweeping measures, however, the pope refused to support him, until in 1170 Henry infringed the rights of Canterbury by causing Archbishop See also: ROGER (d.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

Assassination

The martyrdom of St Thomas from the St Thomas Altarpiece commissioned in 1424, from Meister Francke by the Guild of English Merchants in Hamburg
Depiction of Thomas Becket's assassination and funeral, from a French casket made about 1180 for Prior Benedict — a witness to the murder — to take some of the saint's relics to Peterborough Abbey when he became Abbot there
.In June 1170 the archbishop of York and the bishops of London and Salisbury held the coronation of Henry the Young King in York.^ The story that Henry VIII in 1538 summoned the archbishop to stand his trial for high treason, and that when, in June, 1538, the trial had been held and the accused pronounced contumacious, the body was ordered to be disinterred and burnt, is probably apocryphal.

^ Before returning to England in Dec., 1170, Becket released papal letters suspending the bishops who had taken part in the coronation.
  • Thomas A Becket Saint: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In June, 1170, Henry had his eldest son crowned by the archbishop of York, in direct violation of custom and of a papal ban.
  • Thomas A Becket Saint: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

This was a breach of Canterbury's privilege of coronation. .In November 1170 Becket excommunicated all three.^ In addition, he has excommunicated the three men responsible, all friends of the king.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the knights arrived at Canterbury Cathedral on 29th December 1170, they demanded that Becket pardon the men he had excommunicated.
  • Catholic Church in England-History of the church of england 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.myenglandtravel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then there arrived three bishops whom the Primate had excommunicated, with renewed complaints and grievances, assuring him there would be no peace so long as Becket lived.

.While the three bishops fled to the king in Normandy, Becket continued to excommunicate his opponents in the church.^ Nonetheless, Becket continued to oppose the king.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1166 Becket received from the pope a commission to publish what censures he thought See also: FIT fit ; of which he at once availed himself to excommunicate the king's See also: PRINCIPAL principal counsellors .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ In addition, he has excommunicated the three men responsible, all friends of the king.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

Soon word of this reached Henry.
A Seal of the Abbot of Arbroath, depicting the murder of St. Thomas. Arbroath Abbey was founded 8 years after the death of St. Thomas and dedicated to him; it became the wealthiest abbey in Scotland.
.After these reports of Becket's activities, Henry is said to have raised his head from his sickbed and roared a lament of frustration.^ These were Becket's last words, so reported.

^ Henry at this time was on the Continent, and was greatly annoyed at the reports of Becket's conduct which reached him.

^ In fact, Henry was so disgusted with the Pope's ambassadors that he was reported to have said 'I hope to God I never set eyes on a Cardinal again.'

.The King's exact words are in doubt and several versions have been reported.^ At this, the King, in a fit of rage, pronounced some words which several of his hearers took as a rebuke to them for allowing Becket to continue to live and thereby disturb him.
  • St. Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The king's exact words have been lost to history but his outrage inspired four knights to sail to England to rid the realm of this annoying prelate.

The most commonly quoted, as handed down by "oral tradition", is "Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?",[6] but according to historian Simon Schama this is incorrect: he accepts the account of the contemporary biographer Edward Grim, writing in Latin, who gives us "What miserable drones and traitors have I nourished and brought up in my household, who let their lord be treated with such shameful contempt by a low-born cleric?"[7][8] Many variations have found their way into popular culture.
.Whatever the King said, it was interpreted as a royal command, and four knights, Reginald FitzUrse, Hugh de Moreville, William de Tracy, and Richard le Breton, set out to confront the Archbishop of Canterbury.^ Their names were Reginald Fitzurse, William de Tracy, Hugh de Morville, and Richard le Bret.
  • St. Thomas Becket - Saints & Angels - Catholic Online 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ King's_ SIR WILLIAM DE TRACY .
  • Becket and other plays by Alfred Lord Tennyson - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were Reginald FitzUrse, Hugh de Moreville, William de Tracy, and Richard le Breton.

.On 29 December 1170 they arrived at Canterbury.^ Canterbury, 29 December 1170.

^ They arrived at Canterbury during the afternoon of December 29 and immediately searched for the Archbishop.

^ Canterbury, 29 December, 1170.

.According to accounts left by the monk Gervase of Canterbury and eyewitness Edward Grim, they placed their weapons under a sycamore tree outside the cathedral and hid their mail armour under cloaks before entering to challenge Becket.^ Observations of a Monk Edward Grim, a monk, observed the attack from the safety of a hiding place near the altar.

^ When Henry appears naked on the altar of Canterbury Cathedral, ready to receive his flogging at the hands of the monks, in penance for the murder of Becket, he creates for the audience the rest of the play.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Becket reacted by threatening, with papal support, to place England under an interdict.
  • Thomas A Becket Saint: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

[9] .The knights informed Becket he was to go to Winchester to give an account of his actions, but Becket refused.^ On Becket's refusal, the knight continued: "Since you will not obey, the royal command is that you and your clergy forthwith depart from the realm, never more to return."

^ "Laws and customs give us means of coercion," he informs his King, who quickly agrees, thereby proclaiming not his own absolute authority but that of Becket.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

.It was not until Becket refused their demands to submit to the king's will that they retrieved their weapons and rushed back inside for the killing.^ When Becket refused, the king confiscated his property.
  • Catholic Church in England-History of the church of england 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.myenglandtravel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Like Becket, Anouilh's protagonists refuse to accept any standards other than those they adopt for themselves.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Becket refused, they hacked him to death with their swords.
  • Catholic Church in England-History of the church of england 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.myenglandtravel.com [Source type: Original source]

[9] Becket, meanwhile, proceeded to the main hall for vespers. .The four knights, carrying naked swords, caught up with him in a spot near a door to the monastic cloister, the stairs into the crypt, and the stairs leading up into the quire of the cathedral, where the monks were chanting vespers.^ [The four KNIGHTS cross their swords.

^ We pick up the story after the knights have stormed into the cathedral.

^ After six years' refuge in a French monastery, he returned to his diocese, but careless words from the king inspired four knights to assassinate him.
  • Liturgical Calendar | National Calendar for England II 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.liturgyoffice.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Several contemporary accounts of what happened next exist; of particular note is that of Edward Grim, who was himself wounded in the attack.^ His faithful companion, Edward Grim, who bore his cross, was wounded in the struggle.

^ Observations of a Monk Edward Grim, a monk, observed the attack from the safety of a hiding place near the altar.

^ Edward Grim, Becket's crosier, tried to parry the blow and was cut severely on the arm; Tracy's sword had drawn blood from the crown of Becket's head, and now he struck again.

This is part of the account from Edward Grim:
The burial of Becket
...The wicked knight leapt suddenly upon him, cutting off the top of the crown which the unction of sacred chrism had dedicated to God. .Next he received a second blow on the head, but still he stood firm and immovable.^ Then he received a second blow on the head but still stood firm.

.At the third blow he fell on his knees and elbows, offering himself a living sacrifice, and saying in a low voice, 'For the name of Jesus and the protection of the Church, I am ready to embrace death.'^ At the third blow he fell on his knees and elbows, offering himself a living victim, and saying in a low voice, ‘For the Name of Jesus and the protection of the Church I am ready to embrace death.’ “Then the third knight inflicted a terrible wound as he lay, by which the sword was broken against the pavement, and the crown which was large was separated from the head.

^ 'Willingly I die in the name of Jesus and in defense of the Church.'

^ Another blow from Tracy beat him to his knees, and he pitched forward onto his face, murmuring, "For the name of Jesus and in defense of the Church I am willing to die."
  • St. Thomas Becket - Saints & Angels - Catholic Online 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

.But the third knight inflicted a terrible wound as he lay prostrate.^ At the third blow he fell on his knees and elbows, offering himself a living victim, and saying in a low voice, ‘For the Name of Jesus and the protection of the Church I am ready to embrace death.’ “Then the third knight inflicted a terrible wound as he lay, by which the sword was broken against the pavement, and the crown which was large was separated from the head.

.By this stroke, the crown of his head was separated from the head in such a way that the blood white with the brain, and the brain no less red from the blood, dyed the floor of the cathedral.^ Edward Grim, one real-life witness, lived up to his name by describing at great length the precise appearance of bits of brain and blood all over the cathedral floor.
  • Becket: forking Normans and a not so turbulent priest | Film | guardian.co.uk 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ This, with other such like, declared to all the council great displeasure to be in the king, and no less danger to ward the archbishop.
  • Foxe's Book of Martyrs -- 40. LIFE AND DEATH OF THOMAS A BECKET 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.exclassics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward Grim, Becket's crosier, tried to parry the blow and was cut severely on the arm; Tracy's sword had drawn blood from the crown of Becket's head, and now he struck again.

.The same clerk who had entered with the knights placed his foot on the neck of the holy priest and precious martyr, and, horrible to relate, scattered the brains and blood about the pavements, crying to the others, 'Let us away, knights; this fellow will arise no more.'^ The voice of blood, the voice of his scattered brains, .
  • Service Of Thomas Becket, On The Anniversary Of His Martyrdom, Dec. 29. 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.logoi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As to the fifth, no knight but that clerk who had entered with the knights, that a fifth blow might not be wanting to the martyr who was in other things like to Christ, he put his foot on the neck of the holy priest and precious martyr, and, horrible to say, scattered his brain and blood over the pavement, calling out to the others, ‘Let us away, knights; he will rise no more.’ .

^ They tried to drag him from the church, but were unable, and in the end they slew him where he stood, scattering his brains on the pavement.

[10]
Following his death, the monks prepared his body for burial. .According to some accounts, it was discovered that Becket had worn a hairshirt under his archbishop's garments—a sign of penance.^ Some of the courtiers even suggested that Becket resign his office of Archbishop.

^ Note that Roger began the year on Christmas Day, so for him, Becket's murder, which occured on 29 December 1170, occured in the early days of the year 1171, so his account of the murder occurs under the entry for that year.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Roger of Hoveden: The Chronicle: On the Disputes betweenThomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury and King Henry II of England 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Such was the murder of Becket,--a martyr, as he has been generally regarded, for the liberties of the Church; but, according to some, justly punished for presumptuous opposition to his sovereign.

[11] Soon after, the faithful throughout Europe began venerating Becket as a martyr, and in 1173 — barely three years after his death — he was canonised by Pope Alexander III in St. Peter's Church in Segni. On 12 July 1174, in the midst of the Revolt of 1173–1174, Henry humbled himself with public penance at Becket's tomb (see also St. Dunstan's, Canterbury), which became one of the most popular pilgrimage sites in England.
.Becket's assassins fled north to Knaresborough Castle, which was held by Hugh de Morville, where they remained for about a year.^ Their names were Reginald Fitzurse, William de Tracy, Hugh de Morville, and Richard le Bret.
  • St. Thomas Becket - Saints & Angels - Catholic Online 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Seeing the writing on the wall, Becket fled to France where he remained in exile for six years.

^ They were Reginald FitzUrse, Hugh de Moreville, William de Tracy, and Richard le Breton.

[12] De Morville held property in Cumbria and this may also have provided a convenient bolt-hole, as the men prepared for a longer stay in the separate kingdom of Scotland. .They were not arrested and neither did Henry confiscate their lands, but he failed to help them when they sought his advice in August 1171. Pope Alexander excommunicated all four.^ Also, it was rumored that the Pope might put all Henry's European peoples under interdict.

^ This was mass excommunication, and meant that all Henry's vassals could be absolved of their allegiance to the English king and their loyalties bidden for by Louis.

^ Henry liberally endowed Godstow, gave lands to William and Geoffrey was raised at court, made bishop of Lincoln but did not take holy orders.
  • Henry II - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Seeking forgiveness, the assassins travelled to Rome and were ordered by the Pope to serve as knights in the Holy Lands for a period of fourteen years.^ Henry liberally endowed Godstow, gave lands to William and Geoffrey was raised at court, made bishop of Lincoln but did not take holy orders.
  • Henry II - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the same year, pope Alexander returned to Rome, and was honorably received by the people of that city.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Roger of Hoveden: The Chronicle: On the Disputes betweenThomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury and King Henry II of England 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ From the ensuing feast of Pentecost, for the period of one year, you shall give as much money as in the opinion of the brethren of the Temple will suffice to maintain two hundred knights for the defense of the land of Jerusalem during a period of one year.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Roger of Hoveden: The Chronicle: On the Disputes betweenThomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury and King Henry II of England 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[13]
.In 1220, Becket's remains were relocated from this first tomb to a shrine in the recently completed Trinity Chapel where it stood until it was destroyed in 1538, around the time of the Dissolution of the Monasteries, on orders from King Henry VIII.^ The story that Henry VIII in 1538 summoned the archbishop to stand his trial for high treason, and that when, in June, 1538, the trial had been held and the accused pronounced contumacious, the body was ordered to be disinterred and burnt, is probably apocryphal.

^ His tomb was magnificently adorned with gold, silver, and jewels, only to be despoiled by Henry VIII; the fate of his relics is uncertain.
  • St. Thomas Becket - Saints & Angels - Catholic Online 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The popularity of the cult of St. Thomas continued through the Middle Ages; Canterbury's preeminence as a place of pilgrimage (immortalized in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales ) continued until the shrine was destroyed, probably along with the martyr's remains, under Henry VIII in 1538.
  • Thomas A Becket Saint: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The king also destroyed Becket's bones and ordered that all mention of his name be obliterated.^ The King and all his barons-- BECKET. Judgment!
  • Becket and other plays by Alfred Lord Tennyson - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The King and all his lords-- BECKET. Son, first hear _me_!
  • Becket and other plays by Alfred Lord Tennyson - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Becket in turn is confidant, chancellor, archbishop, enemy, and victim of the King, but he never surrenders his drive for order in the name of honor.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

[14] The pavement where the shrine stood is today marked by a lit candle. .Modern day archbishops celebrate the Eucharist at this place to commemorate Becket's martyrdom and the translation of his body from his first burial place to the new shrine.^ After having thus celebrated the mass, the archbishop placed over his shoulders his stole, and then put on his black canonical cape, and forthwith set out for the king’s court.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Roger of Hoveden: The Chronicle: On the Disputes betweenThomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury and King Henry II of England 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ His relics were translated on this day in 1163 to a new shrine in Westminster Abbey, which foundation he had richly endowed and expanded.
  • Liturgical Calendar | National Calendar for England II 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.liturgyoffice.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Wherefore the next day following, the pope sitting in consistory with his cardinals, the ambassadors were called for to the hearing of Becket's matter; and first beginneth the bishop of London; next, the archbishop of York; then Exeter; and the other bishops every one in their order to speak.
  • Foxe's Book of Martyrs -- 40. LIFE AND DEATH OF THOMAS A BECKET 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.exclassics.com [Source type: Original source]

Aftermath

Pilgrim badge of St Thomas Becket c.14th century
St Thomas & the men of Strood by Meister Francke from the St Thomas Altarpiece.
A Nottingham Alabaster carving of the Martyrdom of St Thomas, 15th century, Victoria & Albert Museum.
Stained glass window of Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral.
Altar marking the spot of Thomas Becket's martyrdom, Canterbury Cathedral.
.Becket's last public act of defiance was a sermon to the Augustinian foundation at St Mary's Priory at Southwark on 23 December, now the Cathedral.^ Thomas of Canterbury" St. Thomas, son of Gilbert Becket, was born in Southwark, England, in 1117.

^ Mary, Born August 20th 1817 Died December 24th 1893, St Thomas A Becket, Warblington.

He then left for Canterbury by the principal route to Kent from there, now the A2 road. .The pilgrimage started shortly after the murder, encouraged by the Augustinian orders at both Southwark and Canterbury, as a retracing of Becket's last journey.^ When Henry appears naked on the altar of Canterbury Cathedral, ready to receive his flogging at the hands of the monks, in penance for the murder of Becket, he creates for the audience the rest of the play.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After prayer, Becket understands that he has been chosen to be archbishop of Canterbury in order to defend God's honor; it is this role he must play out.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thereat Henry ordered him tried again both for the original murder chargeand for his later misdemeanor.
  • St. Thomas Becket - Saints & Angels - Catholic Online 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

.This was given added impetus with Becket's canonisation in 1173. The Pilgrimage had very strong advantages to those participating as it was relatively a short distance, between two major cities across a well policed area, convenient and affordable by a larger class of penitents.^ Given the political and moral culture of the United States, the love between Henry and Becket could only be constructed as Platonic, a love between two dear friends, devoid of any hint of Eros, the passionate, intimate love between lovers.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Becket was quickly canonized by the pope, and the site of his death became the destination for pilgrimages for years to come.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The pope promulgated the bull of canonization, little more than two years after the martyrdom, 21 February, 1173.

.This contrasted with, for example, pilgrimages to the Holy Land, St Denis, Paris or St Peter's, Rome, or Santiago de Compostella across the Pyrenees, and the 'indulgences' and other religious benefits were as great.^ Ranulf de Broc, Hugh of St. Clair, and Thomas FitzBernard were excommunicated for stealing money and other possessions of the See of Canterbury.

^ Common of Pastors: for Bishops Common of Holy Men and Women: for Religious St Elizabeth of Hungary .
  • Liturgical Calendar | National Calendar for England II 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.liturgyoffice.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The chronicle of GARNIER DE PONT S. MAXENCE, Vie de St. Thomas Martyr, has been edited by HIPPEAU (Paris, 1859).

So successful was this procession that it led to the reconstruction of London Bridge, firstly in timber and then in stone, which included a chapel dedicated to Thomas on it. The pilgrims both began and ended their journey with devotions there. The new traffic generated economic development in Southwark, increasing its urban density and creating the long line of inns and hostelries along the High Street. Furthermore, due to the number of sick pilgrims hoping for a miraculous cure and arriving too unwell to continue, an infirmary was created by the Augustinians at St Mary's Priory (near the bridge-foot). .It became dedicated to Becket, and was relocated from the precincts to a site now called St Thomas Street, a little to the south, not later than 1212. This is the origin of St Thomas' Hospital.^ Becket was quickly canonized by the pope, and the site of his death became the destination for pilgrimages for years to come.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Becket Here are two interesting sites about the martyrdom of St. Thomas Becket.

^ Although St. Thomas lived less than fifty years, he composed more than sixty works, some of them brief, some very lengthy.
  • Thomas Aquinas, Saint - Original Catholic Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC oce.catholic.com [Source type: Original source]

[15]
.As the scion of the leading mercantile dynasty of later centuries, Mercers, Becket was very much regarded as a Londoner by the citizens and was adopted as the City's co-patron saint with St Paul: both their images appeared on the Seals of the City and of the Lord Mayor.^ BECKET: How much might that amount to, my lord Leicester?

^ We know, of course, that Becket, the real Becket, became a saint and has been honored through the centuries.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Saint Thomas Becket SAINT THOMAS BECKET Sir Thomas Becket changed from being a 'patron of play actors and a follower of hounds to being a shepherd of souls.

The Bridge House Estates seal used only the image of Becket, while the reverse featured the depiction of his martyrdom.
Local legends regarding Becket arose after his canonisation. Though they are typical hagiographical stories, they also display Becket’s particular gruffness. Becket's Well, in Otford, Kent, is said to have been created after Becket had become displeased with the taste of the local water. .Two springs of clear water are said to have bubbled up after he struck the ground with his crozier.^ According to one version of her life, she was beheaded by a prince whose advances she refused, and springs of water sprang up at the place of her martyrdom.
  • Liturgical Calendar | National Calendar for England II 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.liturgyoffice.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The absence of nightingales in Otford is also ascribed to Becket, who is said to have been so disturbed in his devotions by the song of a nightingale that he commanded that none should sing in the town ever again.^ To whom, said Becket, should I complain?
  • Foxe's Book of Martyrs -- 40. LIFE AND DEATH OF THOMAS A BECKET 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.exclassics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ BECKET. State secrets should be patent to the statesman Who serves and loves his king, and whom the king Loves not as statesman, but true lover and friend.
  • Becket and other plays by Alfred Lord Tennyson - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the town of Strood, also in Kent, Becket is said to have caused the inhabitants of the town and their descendants to be born with tails.^ Family History - Descendants of William Becket born C. 1746 Descendants of William Becket born C. 1746 ...

^ Whatever may be said about the cause of Becket, to which there are two sides, there is no doubt about his popularity.

.The men of Strood had sided with the king in his struggles against the archbishop, and to demonstrate their support, had cut off the tail of Becket’s horse as he passed through the town.^ If the Pope should take his side, and the King of France, and other temporal powers, Becket would be no unequal match for the King.

^ Becket the minister of a king, and only deacon, became Archbishop of Canterbury.

^ And how been made Archbishop hadst thou told him, 'I mean to fight mine utmost for the Church, Against the King?'
  • Becket by Lord Alfred Tennyson: Act I 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Becket and other plays by Alfred Lord Tennyson - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

The saint's fame quickly spread throughout the Norman world. .The first holy image of Becket is thought to be a mosaic icon still visible in Monreale Cathedral, in Sicily, created shortly after his death.^ BECKET: If it were not, Gilbert Foliot, I mean to cross the sea to France, and lay My crozier in the Holy Father's hands, And bid him re-create me, Gilbert FOLIOT: .

^ When Henry appears naked on the altar of Canterbury Cathedral, ready to receive his flogging at the hands of the monks, in penance for the murder of Becket, he creates for the audience the rest of the play.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ BECKET. If it were not, Gilbert Foliot, I mean to cross the sea to France, and lay My crozier in the Holy Father's hands, And bid him re-create me, Gilbert Foliot.
  • Becket and other plays by Alfred Lord Tennyson - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Becket's cousins obtained refuge at the Sicilian court during his exile, and King William II of Sicily wed a daughter of Henry II. The principal church of the Sicilian city of Marsala is dedicated to St Thomas Becket.^ King Henry II is the ruler of England.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ TITLE Court, household and itinerary of King Henry II / Robert William Eyton.

^ Henry, the young king, son of Henry II .
  • Henry II - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

Cultural references

.
Candle marking the former spot of the shrine of Thomas Becket, at Canterbury Cathedral
  • In The Black Adder, King Richard IV of England is telling the tale of the words spoken by Henry II, and a pair of knights act under his interpreted order to kill Prince Edmund, who was Archbishop of Canterbury at the time.
  • In the nineteenth century, Conrad Ferdinand Meyer wrote the novella Der Heilige (The Saint) about Thomas Becket.
  • Ken Follett's historical novel The Pillars of the Earth, which is mostly an account of the building of a Gothic architecture cathedral, also depicts the struggles between the Church, the gentry, and the monarchy, culminating in the assassination and martyrdom of Becket by Henry's men.^ At the time of the play, the archbishop and Henry are engaged in a struggle for power.
    • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ King Henry II is the ruler of England.
    • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ At issue is who will have authority over England: the king or the church.
    • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

    .This fictionalised account is considered largely historically accurate, but adds one of the book's fictional villains as the fifth attacker.
  • An episode of History Bites is set in the aftermath of Becket's assassination.
  • Masonic scholars, seeking to establish the origin of the third degree ritual of the death of Hiram Abif, have suggested (among many other theories) that it was a re-telling of the murder of Becket.^ BECKET: Strike, and I die the death of martyrdom; Strike, and ye set these customs by my death Ringing their own death-knell thro' all the realm.

    ^ His history has become interesting, in view of this very discrepancy of opinion,--like that of Oliver Cromwell, one of those historical puzzles which always have attraction to critics.

    ^ Note that Roger began the year on Christmas Day, so for him, Becket's murder, which occured on 29 December 1170, occured in the early days of the year 1171, so his account of the murder occurs under the entry for that year.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Roger of Hoveden: The Chronicle: On the Disputes betweenThomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury and King Henry II of England 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    [16][17] This theory included reference to a company of masons in the City of London making a procession to St. Thomas's Chapel on his saint's day. .The theory suggests that there may have been an emblematic performance concerning the death of Thomas on that day.
  • The Becket Fund for Religious Liberty, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, interfaith, legal and educational institute dedicated to protecting the free expression of all religious traditions, took its inspiration and namesake from Thomas Becket.^ But ‘Woe to him by whom offenses come!’ Against the aforesaid obstacles, and against others, if any there were, the dispensations of God prevailed, as we may at this day perceive.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Roger of Hoveden: The Chronicle: On the Disputes betweenThomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury and King Henry II of England 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Type of Work: Musical work Registration Number / Date: RE0000182014 / 1983-11-14 EP0000091751 / 1955-06-02 Title: Death of Thomas A. Becket.
    • Death of Thomas A. Becket. For chorus of mixed voices with tenor and bass solos and piano. Text: traditional, m John Jacob Niles, arr. Carl Fischer, Inc. as employer for hire of Lewis Henry Horton part 2 - song, music - Copyright Info 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ There are several excellent lives by Anglicans, of which HUTTON, Thomas Becket (London, 1900), and the account by NORGATE in Dict.

    [18]
  • .
  • In 2006, in a "daft poll" carried out by the BBC, Becket was lined up alongside lesser-known historical figures such as Hugh Despenser, Eadric Streona and Thomas Arundel, and was then voted as the second "worst" Briton in history behind only Jack the Ripper.^ PHILIP. Wilt thou hold out for ever, Thomas Becket?
    • Becket and other plays by Alfred Lord Tennyson - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Anouilh's Becket, however, carries on an incessant game of aspiration: "We must only do—absurdly—what we have been given to do—right to the end."
    • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The themes of conquest, colonialism, and collaboration played out in Becket were deeply influenced not only by the German occupation of World War II but also by the Algerian War.
    • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

    [19][20]
  • .
  • An area of Worthing is known to locals as 'Thomas a Becket'. This is probably because of the supposed links between the eponymous Archbishop and the nearby 13th Century Palace in West Tarring, another suburb of Worthing.^ Thomas, known as Thomas a Becket, are probably the best.

    ^ Thomas Becket Archbishop, Martyr b.1118 d.

    ^ The communication and controversy between the king and Thomas Becket with his clergy.
    • Foxe's Book of Martyrs -- 40. LIFE AND DEATH OF THOMAS A BECKET 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.exclassics.com [Source type: Original source]

    There is also a pub in the area called 'The Thomas a Becket'.

Notes and references

  1. ^ Michael Walsh, ed. "Butler's Lives of the Saints." (HarperCollins Publishers: New York, 1991), p. 430.
  2. ^ Barlow (1986: 11–12))
  3. ^ a b Barlow, Frank (2004). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press.
  4. ^ Staunton (2006: 29)
  5. ^ Hutton, William Holden (1910). Thomas Becket – Archbishop of Canterbury. London: Pitman and Sons Ltd. p. 4. ISBN 1409788083. 
  6. ^ Knowles, Elizabeth M. (1999). "Henry II". Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (5 ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 370. ISBN 9780198601739. 
  7. ^ Schama, Simon (2002). A history of Britain: at the edge of the world? : 3000 BC-AD 1603. London: BBC Books. p. 142. ISBN 0563384972. 
  8. ^ Edward Grim, Vita Sancti Thomae, quoted in Robertson, James Craigie (1876). Materials for the history of Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury. ii. London: Longman. 
  9. ^ a b Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn (1855). Historical Memorials of Canterbury. London: John Murray. pp. 53 et sec. 
  10. ^ This Sceptred Isle 55BC – 1901 (1997) p.73 Christopher Lee
  11. ^ Grim, Benedict of Peterborough and William FitzStephen are quoted in Douglas, David C.; Greenway, George W. (1953). English Historical Documents 1042–1189. 2 (Second, 1981 ed.). London: Routledge. p. 821. 
  12. ^ Their stay is the subject of the 1999 play Four Knights in Knaresborough by Paul Corcoran
  13. ^ Barlow, Frank (1986). "From death unto life". Thomas Becket (2000 ed.). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. pp. 257–258. ISBN 1842124277. 
  14. ^ The Martyrdom of Saint Thomas Becket, Getty Museum
  15. ^ Medieval Southwark Martha Carlin, Hambledon Press 1999
  16. ^ Madhavan, Chakravarthy Sampath (2003-05-26). "The Hiramic Legend: Whence & Wherefore". Pietre-Stones Review Of Freemasonry. http://www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/MADHAVAN_HiramicLegend.html. Retrieved 2008-05-02. 
  17. ^ Heywood, H. L. (1909). Supplement to Mackey's Encyclopedia of Freemasonry Vol Three. Chicago: The Masonic History Company. p. 1262. 
  18. ^ "Becket Fund". Becket Fund. http://www.becketfund.org. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  19. ^ Weaver, Matthew (2006-01-31). "Asking silly questions". The Guardian (London). http://blogs.guardian.co.uk/news/archives/2006/01/31/asking_silly_questions.html. Retrieved 2008-05-02. 
  20. ^ Coughlan, Sean (2006-01-31). "UK | Saint or sinner?". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4663032.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  • Staunton, Michael. Thomas Becket and his Biographers Woodbridge, The Boydell Press, 2006, ISBN 1-84383-271-2
  • Sudeley, The Rt. Hon. .The Lord, Becket's Murderer — William de Tracy, in Family History magazine, Canterbury, August 1983, vol.13, no.^ William Becket family.
    • Descendants of Thomas Beckett, Newfield House, Upper Ballinderry, Baronyof Massereene, County Antrim, Ireland 1690-2001 25 September 2009 9:59 UTC www.pa-roots.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ When Henry appears naked on the altar of Canterbury Cathedral, ready to receive his flogging at the hands of the monks, in penance for the murder of Becket, he creates for the audience the rest of the play.
    • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ King's_ SIR WILLIAM DE TRACY .
    • Becket and other plays by Alfred Lord Tennyson - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    97, pp. 3–36.

Further reading

Lifes
  • Robertson, James C. (1875–85), Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, 7 vols., London: Longman.
  • Schmidt, Paul G. (1991), Thomas von Froidmont: Die Vita des heiligen Thomas Becket / Thomas de Fridigo Monte: Vita et passio Sancti Thomae, Stuttgart: Steiner.
  • Walberg, Emmanuel (1971), Guernes de Pont-Saint-Maxence: La vie de Saint Thomas Becket, Paris: Champion.
Biographies
  • Abbott, Edwin A. (1898), St. Thomas of Canterbury. .His Death and Miracles, London: Adam & Charles Black.
  • Barlow, Frank (1986), Thomas Becket, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
  • Duggan, Anne (2005), Thomas Becket, London: Hodder Arnold.
  • Haseldine, Julian (2001), Thomas Becket: Martyr, Saint – and Friend?, in: Gameson, R./Leyser, H. (eds.^ This homepage is in honour of Thomas Becket, who was born in London on Dec.

    ^ Type of Work: Musical work Registration Number / Date: RE0000182014 / 1983-11-14 EP0000091751 / 1955-06-02 Title: Death of Thomas A. Becket.
    • Death of Thomas A. Becket. For chorus of mixed voices with tenor and bass solos and piano. Text: traditional, m John Jacob Niles, arr. Carl Fischer, Inc. as employer for hire of Lewis Henry Horton part 2 - song, music - Copyright Info 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ JMJ. Saint Thomas Becket was born on the Feast of St. Thomas Aquinas in AD 1118, in London, and went to school with the canons regular in Surrey.

    ), Belief and Culture in the Middle Ages, Oxford Univ. .Press, 305–317
  • Knowles, David (1951), The Episcopal Colleagues of Archbishop Thomas Becket, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ.^ Medieval Sourcebook: Roger of Hoveden: The Chronicle : On the Disputes between Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury and King Henry II of England .
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Roger of Hoveden: The Chronicle: On the Disputes betweenThomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury and King Henry II of England 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ AUTHOR Knowles, David, 1896- PUBLISHER Stanford, Calif., Stanford University Press, 1971 [c1970] DESCRIPTION xi, 183 p.

    ^ AUTHOR David, Charles Wendell, 1885- PUBLISHER Cambridge, Harvard university press; [etc., etc.,] 1920.

    .Press.
  • Knowles, David (1970), Thomas Becket, London: Adam & Charles Black.
  • Winston, Richard (1970), Thomas Becket, New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Staunton, Michael (2001), The Lives of Thomas Becket, Manchester/New York: Manchester Univ.^ Thomas Becket was the son of Gilbert Becket, sheriff of London; another ...

    ^ This homepage is in honour of Thomas Becket, who was born in London on Dec.

    ^ PUBLISHER London ; New York : Longman, 1990.

    Press
Historiography
  • Alexander, James W. (May 1970). ."The Becket Controversy in Recent Historiography". Albion 9 (2): 1–26. 
  • Duggan, Anne (1980), Thomas Becket: A Textual History of his Letters, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Duggan, Anne (Hrsg.^ But the letter tendeth to this effect, to exhort and charge the king to show favour to Thomas Becket.
    • Foxe's Book of Martyrs -- 40. LIFE AND DEATH OF THOMAS A BECKET 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.exclassics.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The communication and controversy between the king and Thomas Becket with his clergy.
    • Foxe's Book of Martyrs -- 40. LIFE AND DEATH OF THOMAS A BECKET 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.exclassics.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ PUBLISHER Oxford : Clarendon Press ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1980.

    ) .(2000), The Correspondence of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury (1162–1170). 2 Bände, lat./engl., Oxford: Clarendon Press..
  • Foreville, Raymonde (1975), Thomas Becket.^ Becket the minister of a king, and only deacon, became Archbishop of Canterbury.

    ^ Theobald, the archbishop of Canterbury, recommended Becket to Henry as a candidate for chancellor, to which Henry agreed.
    • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ NOTES Discusses the events surrounding the murder of Thomas {225}a Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the living conditions in England during the reign of Henry II. SUBJECT Thomas, {225}a Becket, Saint, 1118?-1170.

    Actes du colloque international de Sedières, 19–24 août 1973
    , Paris: Beauchesne.
  • Foreville, Raymonde (1981), Thomas Becket dans la tradition historique et hagiographique, London: Variorum Reprints.
  • Walberg, Emanuel (1975), La tradition hagiographique de Saint Thomas Becket, Genf: Slatkine Reprints.

External links

.
Political offices
Preceded by
Robert of Ghent
Lord Chancellor
1155–1162
Succeeded by
Geoffrey Ridel
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Theobald of Bec
Archbishop of Canterbury
1162–1170
Succeeded by
Roger de Bailleul
louis kenyon edited this page

Thomas Becket
Archbishop of Canterbury
[[Template:Safesubst:|alt=|200px]]
13th-century manuscript illumination, an early depiction of Becket's assassination
Province Canterbury
Diocese Diocese of Canterbury
See Archbishop of Canterbury
Enthroned 3 June 1162
Reign ended 29 December 1170
Predecessor Theobald of Bec
Successor Roger de Bailleul
Personal details
Birth name Thomas Becket
Born 1118
Cheapside, London
Died 29 December 1170 (aged 52)
Canterbury
Buried Canterbury Cathedral
Parents Gilbert Beket
Matilda
Sainthood
Feast day 29 December
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church,
Anglican Communion
Title as Saint Bishop and Martyr
Beatified 21 February 1173
Canonized Pope Alexander III
St. Peter's Church in Segni
Canonized by Pope Alexander III
Attributes Sword, Martyrdom, dressed in chancellor's robe and neck chain
Patronage Exeter College, Oxford; Portsmouth; Arbroath Abbey; secular clergy

Thomas Becket (1118[1] – 29 December 1170), later also known as Thomas à Becket, was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He engaged in conflict with Henry II of England over the rights and privileges of the Church and was assassinated by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral. Soon after the death of Thomas Becket, Pope Alexander canonized him.

The monks were afraid that Becket's body might be stolen. To prevent this from happening, Becket's remains were placed beneath the floor of the eastern crypt of the cathedral. A stone cover was placed over the burial place with two holes where pilgrims could insert their heads and kiss the tomb; this arrangement is illustrated in the 'Miracle Windows' of the Trinity Chapel. A guard chamber (now called the Wax Chamber) had a clear view of the grave. In 1220, Becket's bones were moved to a new gold-plated and bejewelled shrine behind the high altar in the Trinity Chapel. The shrine was supported by three pairs of pillars, placed on a raised platform with three steps. This is also illustrated in one of the miracle windows. Canterbury, because of its religious history, had always seen a large number of pilgrims. However, after the death of Thomas Becket, the number of pilgrims visiting the city grew rapidly.

Contents

Name

Thomas Becket is also commonly known as "Thomas à Becket", although this form seems not to have been contemporaneous but a post-Reformation adornment, possibly in imitation of Thomas à Kempis.[2] Historian John Strype wrote in his Memorials of Thomas Cranmer (1694): "It is a small error, but being so oft repeated deserveth to be observed into corrected. The name of that archbishop was Thomas Becket. If the vulgar did formerly, as it doth now call him 'Thomas à Becket', their mistake is not to be followed by learned men." Notwithstanding, the Oxford Dictionary of English, the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors and Chambers Biographical Dictionary all prefer St. Thomas à Becket.

Early life

Thomas Becket was born c. 1118 in Cheapside, London, to Gilbert Beket of Thierville and Matilda (with a familiar name of Roheise or Rosea) of Mondeville near Caen.[3] Gilbert, a knight's son, had taken the trade of mercer but in London was a property-owner, living on his rents.[3] They were buried in Old St. Paul's Cathedral. There is a story that Thomas's mother was a Saracen princess who met and fell in love with his English father while he was on Crusade or pilgrimage in the Holy Land, followed him home, was baptised and married him. This story has no truth to it, being a fabrication from three centuries after the saint's martyrdom and inserted as a forgery into Edward Grim's contemporary (12th century) Life of St Thomas.[4][5]

One of Thomas's father's rich friends, Richer de L'Aigle, was attracted to Thomas's sisters. He often invited Thomas to his estates in Sussex. There, Thomas learned to ride a horse, hunt, behave like a gentleman and engage in popular sports such as jousting. Beginning when he was 10, Becket received a brilliant education in civil and canon law at Merton Priory in England and then in Paris, Bologna and Auxerre. Richer was later a signatory at the Constitutions of Clarendon against Thomas.

Upon returning to the Kingdom of England he attracted the notice of Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury, who entrusted him with several important missions to Rome and finally made him Archdeacon of Canterbury and Provost of Beverley. He so distinguished himself by his zeal and efficiency that Theobald recommended him to King Henry II when the important office of Lord Chancellor was vacant. Henry accordingly appointed Becket as Chancellor in 1155.

Henry desired to be absolute ruler of his dominions, both Church and State, and could find precedents in the traditions of the throne when he planned to do away with the special privileges of the English clergy, which he regarded as fetters on his authority. As Chancellor, Becket enforced the king’s traditional medieval land tax that was exacted from all landowners, including churches and bishoprics. This created both a hardship and a resentment of Becket among the English Churchmen. To further implicate Becket as a secular man, he became an accomplished and extravagant courtier and a cheerful companion to the king's pleasures. Thomas was devoted to Henry's interests with such a firm and yet diplomatic thoroughness that scarcely anyone except perhaps John of Salisbury doubted his allegiance to English royalty.

King Henry even sent his son Henry to live in Becket's household, it being the custom then for noble children to be fostered out to other noble houses. The younger Henry was reported to have said Becket showed him more fatherly love in a day than his father did for his entire life. An emotional attachment to Becket as a foster-father may have been one of the reasons the younger Henry would turn against his father.

Primacy

He achieved his final position of power as the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1162, several months after the death of Theobald. Henry intended to further his influence by directing the actions of Thomas, his loyal appointee, and diminish the independence and influence of the Church in England. The famous transformation of Becket into an ascetic occurred at this time.

A rift grew between Henry and Thomas as the new Archbishop dropped his Chancellorship and consolidated the landed revenues of Canterbury under his control. So began a series of legal conflicts, such as the jurisdiction of secular courts over English clergymen, which accelerated antipathy between the two great offices. Attempts by King Henry to foment the opinion and influence of the other bishops against Thomas began in Westminster in October 1163, where the King sought approval of stated royal privileges. This led to Clarendon, where Thomas was officially asked to sign off on the King’s rights or face political repercussions.

The Constitutions of Clarendon

King Henry II presided over the assemblies at Clarendon Palace on 30 January 1164. In sixteen constitutions, he sought less clerical independence and a weaker connection with Rome. He employed all his skills to induce their consent and was apparently successful with all but the Primate.

Finally even Becket expressed his willingness to agree to the substance of the Constitutions of Clarendon, but he still refused to formally sign the documents. This meant war between the two powers. Henry summoned Becket to appear before a great council at Northampton Castle on 8 October 1164, to answer allegations of contempt of royal authority and malfeasance in the Lord Chancellor's office. Convicted on the charges, Becket stormed out of the trial and fled to the Continent.

Henry pursued the fugitive archbishop with a series of edicts, aimed at all his friends and supporters as well as Becket himself; but Louis VII of France received him with respect and offered him protection. He spent nearly two years in the Cistercian abbey of Pontigny, until Henry's threats against the order obliged him to move to Sens again.

Becket sought to exercise the prerogatives of the Church, particularly the weapons of excommunication and interdict. But Pope Alexander III, though sympathising with him in theory, favoured a more diplomatic approach. Differences thus arose between Pope and Archbishop and legates were sent in 1167 with authority to act as arbitrators.

Becket's firmness seemed about to meet with its reward when in 1170 the Pope was on the point of fulfilling his threats and excommunicating Henry II. At that point Henry, alarmed by the prospect, held out hopes of an agreement that would allow Thomas to return to England and resume his place.

Assassination

by the Guild of English Merchants in Hamburg]]
made about 1190-1200, one of about 45 surviving examples.]]

In June 1170 the archbishop of York and the bishops of London and Salisbury held the coronation of Henry the Young King in York. This was a breach of Canterbury's privilege of coronation. In November 1170 Becket excommunicated all three. While the three bishops fled to the king in Normandy, Becket continued to excommunicate his opponents in the church. Soon word of this reached Henry.

of the Abbot of Arbroath, depicting the murder of St. Thomas. Arbroath Abbey was founded 8 years after the death of St. Thomas and dedicated to him; it became the wealthiest abbey in Scotland.]]

After these reports of Becket's activities, Henry is said to have raised his head from his sickbed and roared a lament of frustration. The King's exact words are in doubt and several versions have been reported. The most commonly quoted, as handed down by "oral tradition", is "Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?",[6] but according to historian Simon Schama this is incorrect: he accepts the account of the contemporary biographer Edward Grim, writing in Latin, who gives us "What miserable drones and traitors have I nourished and brought up in my household, who let their lord be treated with such shameful contempt by a low-born cleric?"[7][8] Many variations have found their way into popular culture.

Whatever the King said, it was interpreted as a royal command, and four knights, Reginald FitzUrse, Hugh de Moreville, William de Tracy, and Richard le Breton, set out to confront the Archbishop of Canterbury. On 29 December 1170 they arrived at Canterbury. According to accounts left by the monk Gervase of Canterbury and eyewitness Edward Grim, they placed their weapons under a sycamore tree outside the cathedral and hid their mail armour under cloaks before entering to challenge Becket.[9] The knights informed Becket he was to go to Winchester to give an account of his actions, but Becket refused. It was not until Becket refused their demands to submit to the king's will that they retrieved their weapons and rushed back inside for the killing.[9] Becket, meanwhile, proceeded to the main hall for vespers. The four knights, carrying naked swords, caught up with him in a spot near a door to the monastic cloister, the stairs into the crypt, and the stairs leading up into the quire of the cathedral, where the monks were chanting vespers.

Several contemporary accounts of what happened next exist; of particular note is that of Edward Grim, who was himself wounded in the attack. This is part of the account from Edward Grim:

...The wicked knight leapt suddenly upon him, cutting off the top of the crown which the unction of sacred chrism had dedicated to God. Next he received a second blow on the head, but still he stood firm and immovable. At the third blow he fell on his knees and elbows, offering himself a living sacrifice, and saying in a low voice, 'For the name of Jesus and the protection of the Church, I am ready to embrace death.' But the third knight inflicted a terrible wound as he lay prostrate. By this stroke, the crown of his head was separated from the head in such a way that the blood white with the brain, and the brain no less red from the blood, dyed the floor of the cathedral. The same clerk who had entered with the knights placed his foot on the neck of the holy priest and precious martyr, and, horrible to relate, scattered the brains and blood about the pavements, crying to the others, 'Let us away, knights; this fellow will arise no more.[10]

Following his death, the monks prepared his body for burial. According to some accounts, it was discovered that Becket had worn a hairshirt under his archbishop's garments—a sign of penance.[11] Soon after, the faithful throughout Europe began venerating Becket as a martyr, and in 1173 — barely three years after his death — he was canonised by Pope Alexander III in St. Peter's Church in Segni. On 12 July 1174, in the midst of the Revolt of 1173–1174, Henry humbled himself with public penance at Becket's tomb (see also St. Dunstan's, Canterbury), which became one of the most popular pilgrimage sites in England.

Becket's assassins fled north to Knaresborough Castle, which was held by Hugh de Morville, where they remained for about a year. De Morville held property in Cumbria and this may also have provided a convenient bolt-hole, as the men prepared for a longer stay in the separate kingdom of Scotland. They were not arrested and neither did Henry confiscate their lands, but he failed to help them when they sought his advice in August 1171. Pope Alexander excommunicated all four. Seeking forgiveness, the assassins travelled to Rome and were ordered by the Pope to serve as knights in the Holy Lands for a period of fourteen years.[12]

In 1220, Becket's remains were relocated from this first tomb to a shrine in the recently completed Trinity Chapel where it stood until it was destroyed in 1538, around the time of the Dissolution of the Monasteries, on orders from King Henry VIII. The king also destroyed Becket's bones and ordered that all mention of his name be obliterated.[13] The pavement where the shrine stood is today marked by a lit candle. Modern day archbishops celebrate the Eucharist at this place to commemorate Becket's martyrdom and the translation of his body from his first burial place to the new shrine.

Aftermath

of St Thomas Becket c.14th century]]
carving of the Martyrdom of St Thomas, 15th century, Victoria & Albert Museum.]]

Becket's last public act of defiance was a sermon to the Augustinian foundation at St Mary's Priory at Southwark on 23 December, now the Cathedral. He then left for Canterbury by the principal route to Kent from there, now the A2 road. The pilgrimage started shortly after the murder, encouraged by the Augustinian orders at both Southwark and Canterbury, as a retracing of Becket's last journey. This was given added impetus with Becket's canonisation in 1173. The Pilgrimage had very strong advantages to those participating as it was relatively a short distance, between two major cities across a well policed area, convenient and affordable by a larger class of penitents. This contrasted with, for example, pilgrimages to the Holy Land, St Denis, Paris or St Peter's, Rome, or Santiago de Compostella across the Pyrenees, and the 'indulgences' and other religious benefits were as great. So successful was this procession that it led to the reconstruction of London Bridge, firstly in timber and then in stone, which included a chapel dedicated to Thomas on it. The pilgrims both began and ended their journey with devotions there. The new traffic generated economic development in Southwark, increasing its urban density and creating the long line of inns and hostelries along the High Street. Furthermore, due to the number of sick pilgrims hoping for a miraculous cure and arriving too unwell to continue, an infirmary was created by the Augustinians at St Mary's Priory (near the bridge-foot). It became dedicated to Becket, and was relocated from the precincts to a site now called St Thomas Street, a little to the south, not later than 1212. This is the origin of St Thomas' Hospital.[14]

As the scion of the leading mercantile dynasty of later centuries, Mercers, Becket was very much regarded as a Londoner by the citizens and was adopted as the City's co-patron saint with St Paul: both their images appeared on the Seals of the City and of the Lord Mayor. The Bridge House Estates seal used only the image of Becket, while the reverse featured the depiction of his martyrdom.

Local legends regarding Becket arose after his canonisation. Though they are typical hagiographical stories, they also display Becket’s particular gruffness. Becket's Well, in Otford, Kent, is said to have been created after Becket had become displeased with the taste of the local water. Two springs of clear water are said to have bubbled up after he struck the ground with his crozier. The absence of nightingales in Otford is also ascribed to Becket, who is said to have been so disturbed in his devotions by the song of a nightingale that he commanded that none should sing in the town ever again. In the town of Strood, also in Kent, Becket is said to have caused the inhabitants of the town and their descendants to be born with tails. The men of Strood had sided with the king in his struggles against the archbishop, and to demonstrate their support, had cut off the tail of Becket’s horse as he passed through the town.

The saint's fame quickly spread throughout the Norman world. The first holy image of Becket is thought to be a mosaic icon still visible in Monreale Cathedral, in Sicily, created shortly after his death. Becket's cousins obtained refuge at the Sicilian court during his exile, and King William II of Sicily wed a daughter of Henry II. The principal church of the Sicilian city of Marsala is dedicated to St Thomas Becket. Over forty-five medieval chasse reliquaries decorated in champlevé enamel showing similar scenes from Becket's life survive, including the Becket Casket in London (V&A Museum). He is commemorated by a statue in niche 196 of the west front of Salisbury Cathedral.

Cultural references

]]

  • In The Black Adder, King Richard IV of England is telling the tale of the words spoken by Henry II, and a pair of knights act under his interpreted order to kill Prince Edmund, who was Archbishop of Canterbury at the time.
  • In the nineteenth century, Conrad Ferdinand Meyer wrote the novella Der Heilige (The Saint) about Thomas Becket.
  • Ken Follett's historical novel The Pillars of the Earth, which is mostly an account of the building of a Gothic architecture cathedral, also depicts the struggles between the Church, the gentry, and the monarchy, culminating in the assassination and martyrdom of Becket by Henry's men. This fictionalised account is considered largely historically accurate, but adds one of the book's fictional villains as the fifth attacker.
  • An episode of History Bites is set in the aftermath of Becket's assassination.
  • The Becket Fund for Religious Liberty, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, interfaith, legal and educational institute dedicated to protecting the free expression of all religious traditions, took its inspiration and namesake from Thomas Becket.[16]
  • In 2006, in a poll carried out by the BBC, Becket was lined up alongside lesser-known historical figures such as Hugh Despenser, Eadric Streona and Thomas Arundel, and was then voted as the second "worst" Briton in history behind only Jack the Ripper.[17][18]
  • An area of Worthing is known to locals as "Thomas a Becket". This is probably because of the supposed links between the eponymous Archbishop and the nearby 13th Century Palace in West Tarring,[citation needed] another suburb of Worthing. There is also a pub in the area called "The Thomas a Becket".

Notes and references

  1. ^ Michael Walsh, ed. "Butler's Lives of the Saints." (HarperCollins Publishers: New York, 1991), p. 430.
  2. ^ Barlow (1986: 11–12))
  3. ^ a b Barlow, Frank (2004). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press.
  4. ^ Staunton (2006: 29)
  5. ^ Hutton, William Holden (1910). Thomas Becket – Archbishop of Canterbury. London: Pitman and Sons Ltd. p. 4. ISBN 1409788083. 
  6. ^ Knowles, Elizabeth M. (1999). "Henry II". Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (5 ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 370. ISBN 9780198601739. 
  7. ^ Schama, Simon (2002). A history of Britain: at the edge of the world? : 3000 BC-AD 1603. London: BBC Books. p. 142. ISBN 0563384972. 
  8. ^ Edward Grim, Vita Sancti Thomae, quoted in Robertson, James Craigie (1876). Materials for the history of Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury. ii. London: Longman. 
  9. ^ a b Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn (1855). Historical Memorials of Canterbury. London: John Murray. pp. 53 et sec. 
  10. ^ Lee, Christopher M. (1997). This sceptred isle. London: BBC Books. p. 71. ISBN 0-563-38384-4. 
  11. ^ Grim, Benedict of Peterborough and William FitzStephen are quoted in Douglas, David C.; Greenway, George W. (1953). English Historical Documents 1042–1189. 2 (Second, 1981 ed.). London: Routledge. p. 821. 
  12. ^ Barlow, Frank (1986). "From death unto life". Thomas Becket (2000 ed.). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. pp. 257–258. ISBN 1842124277. 
  13. ^ The Martyrdom of Saint Thomas Becket, Getty Museum
  14. ^ Medieval Southwark Martha Carlin, Hambledon Press 1999
  15. ^ Malvern, Jack (10 June 2006). "Hollywood shines a light on geezers who killed à Becket". The Times (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article1083473.ece. Retrieved 21 June 2010. 
  16. ^ "Becket Fund". Becket Fund. http://www.becketfund.org. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  17. ^ Weaver, Matthew (2006-01-31). "Asking silly questions". The Guardian (London). http://blogs.guardian.co.uk/news/archives/2006/01/31/asking_silly_questions.html. Retrieved 2008-05-02. 
  18. ^ Coughlan, Sean (2006-01-31). "UK | Saint or sinner?". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4663032.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  • Staunton, Michael. Thomas Becket and his Biographers Woodbridge, The Boydell Press, 2006, ISBN 1-84383-271-2
  • Sudeley, The Rt. Hon. The Lord, Becket's Murderer — William de Tracy, in Family History magazine, Canterbury, August 1983, vol.13, no. 97, pp. 3–36.

Further reading

Lifes

  • Robertson, James C. (1875–85), Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, 7 vols., London: Longman.
  • Schmidt, Paul G. (1991), Thomas von Froidmont: Die Vita des heiligen Thomas Becket / Thomas de Fridigo Monte: Vita et passio Sancti Thomae, Stuttgart: Steiner.
  • Walberg, Emmanuel (1971), Guernes de Pont-Saint-Maxence: La vie de Saint Thomas Becket, Paris: Champion.

Biographies

  • Abbott, Edwin A. (1898), St. Thomas of Canterbury. His Death and Miracles, London: Adam & Charles Black.
  • Barlow, Frank (1986), Thomas Becket, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
  • Duggan, Anne (2005), Thomas Becket, London: Hodder Arnold.
  • Haseldine, Julian (2001), Thomas Becket: Martyr, Saint – and Friend?, in: Gameson, R./Leyser, H. (eds.), Belief and Culture in the Middle Ages, Oxford Univ. Press, 305–317
  • Knowles, David (1951), The Episcopal Colleagues of Archbishop Thomas Becket, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Knowles, David (1970), Thomas Becket, London: Adam & Charles Black.
  • Winston, Richard (1970), Thomas Becket, New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Staunton, Michael (2001), The Lives of Thomas Becket, Manchester/New York: Manchester Univ. Press

Historiography

  • Alexander, James W. (May 1970). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The Becket Controversy in Recent Historiography"]. Albion 9 (2): 1–26. 
  • Duggan, Anne (1980), Thomas Becket: A Textual History of his Letters, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Duggan, Anne (Hrsg.) (2000), The Correspondence of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury (1162–1170). 2 Bände, lat./engl., Oxford: Clarendon Press..
  • Foreville, Raymonde (1975), Thomas Becket. Actes du colloque international de Sedières, 19–24 août 1973, Paris: Beauchesne.
  • Foreville, Raymonde (1981), Thomas Becket dans la tradition historique et hagiographique, London: Variorum Reprints.
  • Walberg, Emanuel (1975), La tradition hagiographique de Saint Thomas Becket, Genf: Slatkine Reprints.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Robert of Ghent
Lord Chancellor
1155–1162
Succeeded by
Geoffrey Ridel
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Theobald of Bec
Archbishop of Canterbury
1162–1170
Succeeded by
Roger de Bailleul

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118-1170), by his contemporaries more commonly called Thomas of London, English chancellor and archbishop of Canterbury under Henry II., was born about the year 1118 in London.^ Read more here: » Thomas Becket: Encyclopedia II - Thomas Becket - Archbishop 1162 .

^ Thomas Becket (c 1118 – December 29, 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 to 1170.

^ This homepage is in honour of Thomas Becket, who was born in London on Dec.
  • At Oto's - Thomas Becket - Dec. 21, 1118 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.gksdesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • "BECKET, THOMAS" 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.virtualology.com [Source type: Original source]

.His mother was a native of Caen; his father, who came of a family of small Norman landowners, had been a citizen of Rouen, but migrated to London before the birth of Thomas, and held at one time the dignified office of portreeve, although he ended his life in straitened circumstances.^ His mother was a native of Caen ; his father, who came of a family of small Norman landowners, had been a citizen of Rouen , but migrated to London before the birth of Thomas, and held at one time the dignified office of portreeve, although he ended his life in straitened circumstances.

^ Although his life in court makes him an unlikely saint in the eyes of many, was he not, after all, one who gave everything in that one, crucial moment when this was what his faith called him to do?

^ There is a romantic legend that the mother of Thomas Becket was a Saracen princess who followed his father, a pilgrim or crusader, back from the Holy Land, and wandered about Europe repeating the only English words she knew, "London" and "Becket," until she found him.
  • St. Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The young Thomas received an excellent education.^ The young Thomas received an excellent education.

^ When he was 10, Becket received an excellent education in "Civil & Canon Law" at Merton Priory in England, and then overseas at Paris , Bologna , and Auxerre .
  • Thomas Becket at AllExperts 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The See also: YOUNG YOUNG, A YOUNG, ARTHUR (1741-1820) YOUNG, BRIGHAM (1801-1877) YOUNG, CHARLES MAYNE (1777–1856) YOUNG, EDWARD (1683–1765) YOUNG, JAMES (1811-1883) YOUNG, THOMAS (1773-1829) young Thomas received an excellent See also: EDUCATION education .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

.At the age of ten he was put to school with the canons of Merton priory in Surrey.^ Thomas was schooled in Surrey at the Merton Priory.
  • Thomas Becket - Earthlore Explorations Gothic Era Foundation Stone of Learning 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.elore.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the age of ten he was put to school with the canons of Merton priory in Surrey .

^ Whatever his parentage, we know with certainty that the future chancellor and archbishop of Canterbury was born on St. Thomas day, 1118, of a good family, and that he was educated at a school of canons regular at Merton Priory in Sussex, and later at the University of Paris.
  • St. Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Later he spent some time in the schools of London, which enjoyed at that time a high reputation, and finally studied theology at Paris.^ He was educated at Merton Priory and later went to Paris to study theology.
  • History Bookshop.com: Becket, Thomas 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.historybookshop.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Later he spent some time in the schools of London, which enjoyed at that time a high reputation, and finally studied theology at Paris .

^ Thomas was born in London on 21 December 1118 to Norman parents who'd lived in England for some time.
  • Feast of St. Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fisheaters.com [Source type: Original source]

.Returning at the age of twenty-two he was compelled, through the misfortunes of his parents, to become a notary in the service of a wealthy kinsman, Osbert Huit Deniers, who was of some importance in London politics.^ Returning at the age of twenty-two he was compelled, through the misfortunes of his parents, to become a See also: NOTARY, or NOTARY PUBLIC notary in the service of a wealthy kinsman, Osbert Huit Deniers, who was of some importance in London politics .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ Returning at the age of twenty-two he was compelled, through the misfortunes of his parents, to become a notary in the service of a wealthy kinsman, Osbert Huit Deniers, who was of some importance in London politics.

^ Thomas was born in London on 21 December 1118 to Norman parents who'd lived in England for some time.
  • Feast of St. Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fisheaters.com [Source type: Original source]

.About 1142 a family friend brought Thomas under the notice of Archbishop Theobald, of whose household he at once became an inmate.^ THEOBALD, LEWIS (1688-1744) Theobald , of whose See also: HOUSEHOLD, ROYAL household he at once became an inmate .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ About 1142 a family friend brought Thomas under the See also: NOTICE notice of Archbishop See also: THEOBALD, (d.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ About 1142 a family friend brought Thomas under the notice of Archbishop Theobald, of whose household he at once became an inmate.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.He accompanied the primate to Rome in 1143, and also to the council of Reims (1148),(1148), which Theobald attended in defiance of a prohibition from the king.^ See also: REIMS REIMS (RHEIMS) Reims (1148), which Theobald attended in See also: DEFIANCE defiance of a See also: PROHIBITION (Lat.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ He accompanied the primate to Rome in 1143, and also to the council of Reims (1148), (1148), which Theobald attended in defiance of a prohibition from the king.

^ He accompanied the primate to Rome in 1143, and also to the council of Reims (1148), which Theobald attended in defiance of a prohibition from the king.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.It appears to have been at some time between the dates of these two journeys that he visited Bologna and Auxerre, and began those studies in the canon law to which he was in no small degree indebted for his subsequent advancement and misfortunes.^ He studied in London and Paris, then took up canon law at Bologna.

^ It appears to have been at some time between the dates of these two journeys that he visited Bologna and Auxerre, and began those studies in the canon law to which he was in no small degree indebted for his subsequent advancement and misfortunes.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It appears to have been at some time between the dates of these two journeys that he visited Bologna and Auxerre , and began those studies in the canon law to which he was in no small degree indebted for his subsequent advancement and misfortunes.

.Although the bent of his mind was legal, he never made himself an expert jurist; but he had the art of turning his knowledge, such as it was, to excellent account.^ BENI) BENT, JAMES THEODORE (1852–1897) bent of his mind was legal, he never made himself an See also: EXPERT (Lat.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ See also: ART art of turning his knowledge, such as it was, to excellent See also: ACCOUNT ACCOUNT (through O. Fr.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ Although the bent of his mind was legal, he never made himself an expert jurist; but he had the art of turning his knowledge, such as it was, to excellent account.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.In rip he was sent to Rome by the archbishop with instructions to dissuade the Curia from sanctioning the coronation of Stephen's eldest son Eustace.^ In rip he was sent to Rome by the archbishop with instructions to dissuade the Curia from sanctioning the coronation of Stephen's eldest son Eustace .

^ In 1151 he was sent to Rome by the archbishop with instructions to dissuade the See also: CURIA Curia from sanctioning the See also: CORONATION (Lat.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ Thomas was also sent to Rome for the archbishop when needed.
  • CIN - St. Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.cin.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is said that Thomas distinguished himself by the ability with which he executed his commission; in any case it gave him a claim on the gratitude of the Angevin party which was not forgotten.^ It is said that Thomas distinguished himself by the ability with which he executed his See also: COMMISSION (from Lat.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ Angevin party which was not forgotten .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ It is said that Thomas distinguished himself by the ability with which he executed his commission; in any case it gave him a claim on the gratitude of the Angevin party which was not forgotten.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1154 he was promoted to be archdeacon of Canterbury, after first taking deacon's orders.^ In 1154 he was promoted to be archdeacon of Canterbury, after first taking deacon's orders.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1154 he was ordained deacon and appointed archdeacon of Canterbury.
  • Thomas A Becket Saint: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After studying Law on the continent, he was promoted by his patron to the position of Archdeacon of Canterbury.
  • Elsfield Village near Oxford - Church 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.elsfield.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the following year Henry II., at the primate's recommendation, bestowed on him the important office of chancellor.^ In 1155, King Henry II made him Chancellor of England.

^ In the following year Henry II., at the primate's recommendation, bestowed on him the important office of chancellor.

^ He assumed that office in 1154, the same year as Henry II was crowned.
  • Henry II - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

.In this capacity Thomas controlled the issue of royal writs and the distribution of ecclesiastical patronage; but it was more important for his future that he had ample opportunities of exercising his personal fascination upon a prince who was comparatively inexperienced, and thirteen or fourteen years his junior.^ In this capacity Thomas controlled the issue of royal writs and the distribution of ecclesiastical patronage; but it was more important for his future that he had ample opportunities of exercising his personal fascination upon a prince who was comparatively inexperienced, and thirteen or fourteen years his junior.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry, incited by his partisans, refused to restore the ecclesiastical property that he had seized, and Thomas prepared to issue the pope's sentence against the despoilers of the Church and the bishops who had abetted them.
  • thomas becket - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.onpedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But Henry was a modern monarch who wanted to have complete control over everything and everyone in his domain, including the clergy, and Thomas resisted this.
  • St. Thomas Becket, Archbishop and Martyr | Catholic Exchange 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC catholicexchange.com [Source type: Original source]

.He became Henry's bosom friend and was consulted in all affairs of state.^ Becket became Henry's friend and confidant.
  • BBC - History - British History in depth: Becket, the Church and Henry II 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ He became Henry's bosom friend and was consulted in all affairs of state.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Beckett and Henry became good friends .

.It had been the hope of Theobald that Becket's influence would be exercised to support the extensive privileges which the Church had wrested from Stephen.^ It had been the hope of Theobald that Becket's influence would be exercised to support the extensive privileges which the Church had wrested from Stephen .

^ It had been the hope of Theobald that Becket's influence would be exercised to support the extensive privileges which the Church had wrested from Stephen.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the portrayal of Becket as defender of the Church, her beliefs, and her privileges got me thinking, particularly the scene in which he excommunicates a nobleman who has murdered a priest.
  • Lessons from Thomas Becket » First Thoughts | A First Things Blog 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.firstthings.com [Source type: General]

.But the chancellor, although preserving friendly relations with his old patron, subordinated the interests of the Church to those of his new master.^ But the chancellor, although preserving friendly relations with his old See also: PATRON patron , subordinated the interests of the Church to those of his new See also: MASTER (Lat.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ But the chancellor, although preserving friendly relations with his old patron, subordinated the interests of the Church to those of his new master.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Becket told Henry that he must find a new chancellor because he had to devote all his work and time to taking care of the Church.

Under his administration the Church was severely taxed for the prosecution of Henry's foreign wars; and the chancellor incurred the reproach "of plunging his sword into the bowels of his mother." Like Wolsey he identified himself with the military aspirations of his sovereign. .It was Thomas who organized the Toulouse campaign of 1159; even in the field he made himself conspicuous by commanding a company of knights, directing the work of devastation, and superintending the conduct of the war after the king had withdrawn his presence from the camp.^ It was Thomas who organized the Toulouse campaign of 1159; even in the field he made himself conspicuous by commanding a company of knights, directing the work of devastation, and superintending the conduct of the war after the king had withdrawn his presence from the camp.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ THE KNIGHTS who murdered Thomas Becket.
  • What happened to th four knights which killed St. Thomas Backet? - Yahoo!7 Answers 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ He made himself agreeable to all around him, and his biographers attest that he led a chaste life—in this respect uninfluenced by the King.
  • Saint Thomas Becket (archbishop of Canterbury) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When there was war with France upon the Norman border, the chancellor acted as Henry's representative; and on one occasion engaged in single combat and unhorsed a French knight of reputation.^ When there was war with France upon the Norman border, the chancellor acted as Henry's representative; and on one occasion engaged in single combat and unhorsed a French knight of reputation.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry on hearing of A'Becket's reception in England exclaimed, "Of all the cowards who eat my bread, is there not one who will free me from this turbulent priest?"
  • A'Becket, Thomas, born in London, 1118, the son... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.encyclopedia123.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The intensity of her prayer, sacrifice, and service to the poor won her a reputation for holiness and wisdom, and she was called upon to make peace between warring nobles.
  • The Problem of the Plantagenets | G. K. Chesterton on St. Thomas Becket | From "A Short History of England" | Ignatius Insight 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.ignatiusinsight.com [Source type: Original source]

.Later it fell to his part to arrange the terms of peace with France.^ Later it See also: FELL FELL, JOHN (1625-1686) fell tc his See also: PART part to arrange the terms of See also: PEACE PEACE, BREACH OF THE peace with France .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ Later it fell to his part to arrange the terms of peace with France.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The north-west transept was the actual scene of Becket's murder; the spot where he fell is shown on the floor, but this part of the building is of later date than the tragedy.

.He discharged the duties of an envoy with equal magnificence and dexterity; the treaty of May r r60, which put an end to the war, was of his making.^ He discharged the duties of an envoy with equal magnificence and dexterity; the treaty of May 1160, which put an end to the war, was of his making.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He discharged the duties of an envoy with equal magnificence and dexterity; the treaty of May r r60, which put an end to the war, was of his making.

^ These things do I write unto you, not for your confusion, but to put you on your guard; to the end that, relying upon the authority of God and of myself, for the future you may be strengthened and may be willing more manfully and more boldly to perform the duties of your office.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Roger of Hoveden: The Chronicle: On the Disputes betweenThomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury and King Henry II of England 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In 1162 he was transferred to a new sphere of action.^ In 1162 he was transferred to a new sphere of action.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1162 he was transferred to a new See also: SPHERE (Gr.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

.Henry bestowed on him the see of Canterbury, left vacant by the death of Theobald.^ Henry bestowed on him the see of Canterbury, left vacant by the death of Theobald.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A t Theobald's, death, Henry nominated Becket as archbishop of Canterbury.
  • Thomas Becket - Earthlore Explorations Gothic Era Foundation Stone of Learning 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.elore.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For almost a year after the death of Theobald the see of Canterbury was vacant.
  • Saint Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.jcanu.hpg.ig.com.br [Source type: Original source]
  • Becket, Saint Thomas 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.uv.es [Source type: Original source]

.The appointment caused some murmurs; since Becket, at the time when it was made, was still a simple deacon.^ The appointment caused some murmurs; since Becket, at the time when it was made, was still a simple deacon .

^ The appointment caused some murmurs; since Becket, at the time when it was made, was still a simple deacon.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Becket, with this wealthy background of a father who was even sheriff for some time, was well educated at Merton Priory, and Paris.
  • Thomas á Becket and the Catholic Context Essay 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.exampleessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.But it had been desired by Theobald as the one means of averting an attack on clerical privileges which had been impending almost since the accession of Henry II.; and the bishops accepted it in silence.^ But it had been desired by Theobald as the one means of averting an attack on clerical privileges which had been impending almost since the accession of Henry II; and the bishops accepted it in silence.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But it had been desired by Theobald as the one means of averting an attack on clerical privileges which had been impending almost since the accession of Henry II.; and the bishops accepted it in silence.

^ He studied in London and Paris, entered the service of Archbishop Theobald of Canterbury, became Lord Chancellor under King Henry II in 1155, and in 1162 Archbishop of Canterbury.

.Henry on his side looked to find in Becket the archbishop a coadjutor as loyal as Becket the archdeacon; and anticipated that the Church would once more be reduced to that state of dependence in which she had stood during the latter years of Henry I.^ Henry on his side looked to find in Becket the archbishop a coadjutor as loyal as Becket the archdeacon; and anticipated that the Church would once more be reduced to that state of dependence in which she had stood during the latter years of King Henry I .
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry stated that the church was subject to the law of the land, but Becket insisted that the Church was above the law.
  • Murder in the Cathedral - the death of Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.historic-uk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The seal of England meant that Becket would be loyal to King Henry.
  • Term-Papers.us - Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.term-papers.us [Source type: Original source]

.Becket, however, disappointed all the conflicting expectations excited by his appointment.^ Becket, however, disappointed all the conflicting expectations excited by his appointment.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However Becket takes his new duties seriously and his devotion to God soon brings him into direct conflict with both the State and his lifelong friend.
  • Becket DVD | Classic Movies | Films by Movie Mail UK 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.moviemail-online.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Henry persuaded Becket and he agreed in 1162 to the appointment.

.He did not allow himself to be made the king's tool; nor on the other hand did he attempt to protect the Church by humouring the king in ordinary matters.^ He did not allow himself to be made the king's tool; nor on the other hand did he attempt to protect the Church by humoring the king in ordinary matters.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He did not allow himself to be made the king's tool; nor on the other hand did he attempt to protect the Church by humouring the king in ordinary matters.

^ He made himself agreeable to all around him, and his biographers attest that he led a chaste life—in this respect uninfluenced by the King.
  • Saint Thomas Becket (archbishop of Canterbury) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He devoted himself to ascetic practices, confined himself to the society of churchmen, and resigned the chancellorship in spite of a papal dispensation (procured by the king) which authorized him to hold that office concurrently with the primacy.^ He devoted himself to ascetic practices, confined himself to the society of churchmen, and resigned the chancellorship in spite of a papal See also: DISPENSATION dispensation (procured by the king) which authorized him to hold that office concurrently with the primacy .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ Contrary to the king's wish he resigned the chancellorship.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • St. Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.stthomaschurchiow.co.uk [Source type: Original source]
  • Saint Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.jcanu.hpg.ig.com.br [Source type: Original source]
  • "BECKET, THOMAS" 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.virtualology.com [Source type: Original source]
  • St. Thomas Becket - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He devoted himself to ascetic practices, confined himself to the society of churchmen, and resigned the chancellorship in spite of a papal dispensation (procured by the king) which authorized him to hold that office concurrently with the primacy.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.By nature a violent partisan, the archbishop now showed himself the uncompromising champion of his order and his see.^ By nature a violent partisan, the archbishop now showed himself the uncompromising champion of his order and his see.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By nature a violent partisan , the archbishop now showed himself the uncompromising champion of his order and his see.

^ As chancellor he had given himself to spiritual disciplines, but now as archbishop, he increased his devotion to fastings, use of hair shirts, protracted vigils, and prayer.

.Hence he was on the worst of terms with the king before a year had elapsed.^ Hence he was on the worst of terms with the king before a year had elapsed.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For some reason, before I saw the film again, I had remembered him as the king and Peter OToole as the saint perhaps because of the latters saintly T.E. Lawrence two years before.

^ This was almost seven years before 'The King' keeled over and expired in his toilet.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | December 21| St Thomas mumping 2012 McKenna Jos� Arg�elles Maya Timewave zero Mayan calendarAustralia Christmas beetle 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

.They came into open conflict at the council of Woodstock (July 1163), when Becket successfully opposed the king's proposal that a land-tax, known as the sheriff's aid, which formed part of that official's salary, should be henceforth paid into the Exchequer.^ July Council at Woodstock: King Henry II and Thomas Becket argue over the control of payments to Sheriffs.

^ They came into open conflict at the council of Woodstock (July 1163), when Becket successfully opposed the king's proposal that a land-tax, known as the sheriff's aid, which formed part of that official's salary , should be henceforth paid into the Exchequer .

^ They came into open conflict at the council of Woodstock (July 1163), when Becket successfully opposed the king's proposal that a land-tax, known as the sheriff's aid, which formed part of that official's salary, should be henceforth paid into the Exchequer.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.But there were more serious differences in the background.^ But there were more serious differences in the background.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But there were more serious See also: DIFFERENCES, CALCULUS OF (Theory of Finite Differences) differences in the background .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

.Becket had not shrunk from excommunicating a tenant in chief who had encroached upon the lands of Canterbury, and had protected against the royal courts a clerk named Philip de Brois who was charged with an assault upon a royal officer.^ Becket had not shrunk from excommunicating a See also: TENANT (from Lat.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ PHILIP, LANOGRAVE OF HESSE (1504-1567) Philip de Brois who was charged with an See also: ASSAULT (from Lat.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ Becket had not shrunk from excommunicating a tenant in chief who had encroached upon the lands of Canterbury, and had protected against the royal courts a clerk named Philip de Brois who was charged with an assault upon a royal officer.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.These disputes involved questions of principle which had long occupied Henry's attention, and Becket's defiant attitude was answered by the famous Constitutions of Clarendon, in which the king defined, professedly according to ancient use and custom, the relations of Church and State.^ Henry stated that the church was subject to the law of the land, but Becket insisted that the Church was above the law.
  • Murder in the Cathedral - the death of Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.historic-uk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Becket became involved in a dispute between his church and his king, Henry II (played by Peter O'Toole).
  • Film Review: Becket: Medieval Church (Thomas Becket) Versus Medieval State (Henry II of England) 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC medievalhistory.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These disputes involved questions of principle which had long occupied Henry's attention, and Becket's defiant attitude was answered by the famous Constitutions of Clarendon, in which the king defined, professedly according to ancient use and custom, the relations of Church and State.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Becket and the bishops were required to give these constitutions their approval.^ Becket and the bishops were required to give these constitutions their approval.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Becket and the bishops were required to give these constitutions their approval .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ But the archbishop prevailed upon the pope to suspend the bishops, and before his return published papal letters which, in announcing these sentences, spoke of the constitutions as null and void .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

.Henry's demands were more defensible in substance than might be supposed from the manner in which he pressed them on the bishops.^ Henry's demands were more defensible in substance than might be supposed from the manner in which he pressed them on the bishops.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Becket was fond of pomp and luxury, and lived in a more magnificent manner than even the king himself.

^ Henry the Young King was reported to have said Becket showed him more fatherly love in a day than his father did his entire life.
  • Thomas Becket at AllExperts 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket: Canterbury's Martyred Saint 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.timetravel-britain.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the most burning question, that of criminous clerks, he offered a compromise.^ On the most burning question, that of criminous clerks, he offered a compromise .

^ On the most burning question, that of criminous clerks, he offered a compromise.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Matters came to a head over the question of punishing "criminous clerks."
  • Thomas A Becket Saint: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.He was willing that the accused should be tried in the courts Christian provided that the punishment of the guilty were left to the lay power.^ He was willing that the accused should be tried in the ecclesiastical courts provided that the punishment of the guilty were left to the lay power.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was willing that the accused should be tried in the courts Christian provided that the punishment of the guilty were left to the lay power.

^ At the Council of Westminster (1163), Henry claimed that such clerics, once tried and convicted in the ecclesiastical courts, should be punished by the secular authorities.
  • Thomas A Becket Saint: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Becket's opposition rested upon a casuistic interpretation of the canon law, and an extravagant conception of the dignity attaching to the priesthood; he showed, moreover, a disposition to quibble, to equivocate, and to make promises which he had no intention of fulfilling.^ Becket's opposition rested upon a casuistic interpretation of the canon law, and an extravagant conception of the dignity attaching to the priesthood; he showed, moreover, a disposition to quibble, to equivocate, and to make promises which he had no intention of fulfilling.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Beginning when he was 10, Becket received an excellent education in civil and canon law at Merton Priory in England, and then overseas at Paris , Bologna , and Auxerre.

^ Becket assumes his office with religious dignity and, finding himself in opposition to Henry's interference in the church, resigns as Chancellor of England.
  • Becket (1964) 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.tcm.com [Source type: General]

.His conduct may be excused on the ground that the bishops were subjected to unwarrantable intimidation.^ His conduct may be excused on the ground that the bishops were subjected to unwarrantable intimidation.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.But when he renounced his promise to observe the constitutions his conduct was reprobated by the other bishops, although approved by the pope.^ But when he renounced his promise to observe the constitutions his conduct was reprobated by the other bishops, although approved by the pope.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But when he renounced his promise to observe the constitutions his conduct was reprobated by the other bishops, although approved by the pope .

^ But the archbishop prevailed upon the pope to suspend the bishops, and before his return published papal letters which, in announcing these sentences, spoke of the constitutions as null and void.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was fortunate for Becket's reputation that Henry punished him for his change of front by a systematic persecution in the forms of law.^ It was fortunate for Becket's reputation that Henry punished him for his change of front by a systematic persecution in the forms of law.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ King Henry II argues over church and state with Thomas a Becket in the 12th century after naming him archbishop of Canterbury.
  • Becket Information, Reviews and Showtimes 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.gjsentinel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pope Alexander III offers him sanctuary in a monastery, and Louis arranges for a final meeting between Becket and Henry.
  • Becket (1964) 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.tcm.com [Source type: General]

.The archbishop was thus enabled to invoke the pope's assistance, and to quit the country with some show of dignity.^ The archbishop was thus enabled to invoke the pope's assistance, and to quit the country with some show of dignity.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gegend, neighbourhood) country with some show of dignity .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ The archbishop was thus enabled to invoke the pope's assistance, and to quit the See also: COUNTRY (from the Mid.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

.Becket fled to France in November 1164. He at once succeeded in obtaining from Alexander III.^ Becket fled to France in November 1164.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result of this pressure, Becket fled to France.
  • Henry II - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He at once succeeded in obtaining from Alexander III .

a formal condemnation of the constitutions. .But Alexander, a fugitive from Italy and menaced by an alliance of the emperor with an antipope, was indisposed to take extreme measures against Henry; and six years elapsed before the king found himself definitely confronted with the choice between an interdict and a surrender.^ Hence he was on the worst of terms with the king before a year had elapsed.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence he was on the worst of terms with the king before a year had elapsed .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ But Alexander, a fugitive from Italy and menaced by an alliance of the emperor with an antipope, was indisposed to take extreme measures against Henry; and six years elapsed before the king found himself definitely confronted with the choice between an interdict and a surrender.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.For the greater part of this time the archbishop resided at the Burgundian monastery of Pontigny, constantly engaged in negotiations with Alexander, whose hand he desired to force, and with Henry, from whom he hoped to extract an unconditional submission.^ For the greater part of this time the archbishop resided at the Burgundian monastery of Pontigny, constantly engaged in negotiations with Alexander, whose hand he desired to force, and with Henry, from whom he hoped to See also: EXTRACT (from Lat.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ At the time of the play, the archbishop and Henry are engaged in a struggle for power.
  • Becket, or the Honor of God 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the greater part of this time the archbishop resided at the Burgundian monastery of Pontigny, constantly engaged in negotiations with Alexander, whose hand he desired to force, and with Henry, from whom he hoped to extract an unconditional submission.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1166 Becket received from the pope a commission to publish what censures he thought fit; of which he at once availed himself to excommunicate the king's principal counsellors.^ In 1166 Becket received from the pope a commission to publish what censures he thought fit; of which he at once availed himself to excommunicate the king's principal counsellors.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result Henry publicly questioned Becket’s honesty when he was Chancellor Becket fled to France, where he excommunicated two Bishops that had stood by the King.

^ A king of England could not remove a pope from his position but popes claimed that they could remove a king by excommunicating him - this meant that the kings soul was condemned to Hell and people then had the right to disobey the king.

.In 1169 he took the same step against two of the royalist bishops.^ In 1169 he took the same step against two of the royalist bishops.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1169 he took the same step against two of the royalist bishops .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

.In more sweeping measures, however, the pope refused to support him, until in 1170 Henry infringed the rights of Canterbury by causing Archbishop Roger of York to crown the young king.^ 'I do not want to be Archbishop of Canterbury,' he said to the King.
  • Heritage History — Putting the "Story" back into History 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.heritage-history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On 24 May 1170, he had his son, Henry the Younger, crowned at Canterbury by the Archbishop of York.
  • BBC - History - British History in depth: Becket, the Church and Henry II 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In more sweeping measures, however, the pope refused to support him, until in 1170 Henry infringed the rights of Canterbury by causing Archbishop See also: ROGER (d.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

.In that year the threats of the pope forced Henry to a reconciliation which took place later at Freteval on the 22nd of July.^ In that year the threats of the pope forced Henry to a reconciliation which took See also: PLACE (through Fr.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ IrAar6s, wide) place later at Freteval on the 22nd of July .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ In that year the threats of the pope forced Henry to a reconciliation which took place later at Freteval on the 22nd of July.

.It was a hollow truce, since the subject of the constitutions was not mentioned; and Thomas returned to England with the determination of riding roughshod over the king's supporters.^ It was a hollow truce, since the subject of the constitutions was not mentioned; and Thomas returned to See also: ENGLAND ENGLAND, THE CHURCH OF England with the determination of See also: RIDING riding roughshod over the king's supporters .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ It was a hollow truce, since the subject of the constitutions was not mentioned; and Thomas returned to England with the determination of riding roughshod over the king's supporters.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas was hacked to death by four knights who allegedly heard King Henry II of England ask, "Who will rid me of this turbulent priest?"
  • CNS STORY: Catholic saint named among top 10 'worst Britons' by BBC magazine 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.catholicnews.com [Source type: News]

.If he had not given a definite pledge to forgive the bishops who had taken part in the young king's coronation, he had at least raised expectations that he would overlook all past offences.^ If he had not given a definite pledge to forgive the bishops who had taken part in the young king's coronation, he had at least raised expectations that he would overlook all past offences.

^ If he had not given a definite See also: PLEDGE pledge to forgive the bishops who had taken part in the young king's coronation, he had at least raised expectations that he would overlook all past offences .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ If he had not given a definite pledge to forgive the bishops who had taken part in the young king's coronation, he had at least raised expectations that he would overlook all past offenses.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.But the archbishop prevailed upon the pope to suspend the bishops, and before his return published papal letters which, in announcing these sentences, spoke of the constitutions as null and void.^ But the archbishop prevailed upon the pope to suspend the bishops, and before his return published papal letters which, in announcing these sentences, spoke of the constitutions as null and void .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ And as for the bishops, it was not I but the Pope that passed this sentence upon them."
  • The Baldwin Project: Stories from English History by Alfred J. Church 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the archbishop prevailed upon the pope to suspend the bishops, and before his return published papal letters which, in announcing these sentences, spoke of the constitutions as null and void.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was only to be expected that such a step, which was virtually a declaration of war against the king, should arouse in him the strongest feelings of resentment.^ It was only to be expected that such a step, which was virtually a declaration of war against the king, should arouse in him the strongest feelings of resentment.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was only to be expected that such a step, which was virtually a See also: DECLARATION (from Lat.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ He absorbed himself in the duties of his new office, defending the rights of the Church against Henry II. This prompted the king to exile him to France for six years.
  • St. Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.wf-f.org [Source type: Original source]

.The archbishop's murder, perpetrated within a month of his return to England (29th December 1170), was, however, the work of over zealous courtiers and regretted by no one more than Henry.^ The archbishop's murder , perpetrated within a month of his return to England (29th December 1170), was, however, the work of over zealous courtiers and regretted by no one more than Henry.

^ Thomas spent six years in exile but was murdered within a month of returning to England.
  • CNS STORY: Catholic saint named among top 10 'worst Britons' by BBC magazine 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.catholicnews.com [Source type: News]

^ The archbishop's See also: MURDER murder , perpetrated within a See also: MONTH MONTH (a common Teutonic word, cf.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

.Becket was canonized in 1172. Within a short time his shrine at Canterbury became the resort of innumerable pilgrims.^ Thomas of Canterbury, and the resort of the Christian Pilgrim - world on pilgrimage to his shrine.

^ Within a short time his shrine at Canterbury became the resort of innumerable pilgrims.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Becket was canonized in 1172 .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

.Plenary indulgences were given for a visit to the shrine, and an official register was kept to record the miracles wrought by the relics of the saint.^ Plenary indulgences were given for a visit to the shrine, and an official register was kept to record the miracles wrought by the relics of the saint.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Plenary indulgences were given for a visit to the shrine, and an official See also: REGISTER register was kept to See also: RECORD (Lat.
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ Wherefore (as I said) if the holy sainting of Thomas Becket standeth upon no other thing but upon his miracles, what credit is to be given there to?
  • Foxe's Book of Martyrs -- 40. LIFE AND DEATH OF THOMAS A BECKET 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.exclassics.com [Source type: Original source]

.The shrine was magnificently adorned with the gold and silver and jewels offered by the pious.^ The shrine was magnificently adorned with the gold and silver and jewels offered by the pious.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His tomb was magnificently adorned with gold, silver, and jewels, only to be despoiled by Henry VIII; the fate of his relics is uncertain.
  • St. Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]
  • St. Thomas Becket - Saints & Angels - Catholic Online 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A magnificent shrine erected in 1628 was destroyed during the French Revolution, and the body was removed to the Church of St. Sernin, where it now reposes in a sarcophagus of gold and silver, which was solemnly blessed by Cardinal Desprez on July 24, 1878.
  • Thomas Aquinas, Saint - Original Catholic Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC oce.catholic.com [Source type: Original source]

.It was plundered by Henry VIII., to whom the memory of Becket was specially obnoxious; but the reformers were powerless to expunge the name of the saint from the Roman calendar, on which it still remains.^ See also: ROMAN Roman See also: CALENDAR calendar , on which it still remains .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ It was plundered by King Henry VIII , to whom the memory of Becket was specially obnoxious; but the reformers were powerless to expunge the name of the saint from the Roman calendar, on which it still remains.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was plundered by Henry VIII ., to whom the memory of Becket was specially obnoxious ; but the reformers were powerless to expunge the name of the saint from the Roman calendar , on which it still remains.

.Even to those who are in sympathy with III. 20 the principles for which he fought, the posthumous reputation of Becket must appear strangely exaggerated.^ Even to those who are in sympathy with the principles for which he fought, the posthumous reputation of Becket must appear strangely exaggerated.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even to those who are in sympathy with III. 20 the principles for which he fought, the posthumous reputation of Becket must appear strangely exaggerated.

^ Even to those who are in sympathy with 11 the principles for which he fought, the See also: POSTHUMOUS posthumous reputation of Becket must appear strangely exaggerated .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

.It is evident that in the course of his long struggle with the state he fell more and more under the dominion of personal motives.^ It is evident that in the course of his long struggle with the state he fell more and more under the dominion of personal motives.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is evident that in the course of his long struggle with the state he fell more and more under the dominion of personal motives .
  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... - Online Information article about THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118... 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ He effected a decided improvement in the state of the country; it was freed from robbers and bandits, and brought under dominion of the law.

.At the last he fought not so much for an idea as for the humiliation of an opponent by whom he had been ungenerously treated.^ At the last he fought not so much for an idea as for the humiliation of an opponent by whom he had been ungenerously treated.
  • Thomas Becket 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Becket - LoveToKnow 1911 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

William of Newburgh appears to express the verdict of the most impartial contemporaries when he says that the bishop was zelo justitiae fervidus, utrum autem please secundum scientism novit Deus: " burning with zeal for justice, but whether altogether according to wisdom God knows." AuTxoRITIEs. - .Original: - The correspondence of Becket and most of the contemporary biographies are collected by J. C. Robertson in Materials for the History of Thomas Becket ('7 vols., Rolls Series, 1875-1885).^ Original: - The correspondence of Becket and most of the contemporary biographies are collected by J. C. Robertson in Materials for the History of Thomas Becket ('7 vols., Rolls Series, 1875-1885).

^ The church was originally dedicated to St Nicholas, but was rededicated to St Thomas a Becket shortly after Becket's murder in 1170.
  • St Thomas a Becket, Brightling Travel Information and nearby accommodation 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.britainexpress.com [Source type: News]

^ Book Preview from Google Books » Login to add to favorites Materials for the history of Thomas Becket archbishop of Canterbury (canonized by Pope Alexander III., A. D. 1173).

.See also the Vie de Saint Thomas, by Garnier de Pont Sainte Maxence (ed.^ BECKET , THOMAS see Thomas a Becket , Saint .
  • Thomas A Becket Saint: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ See also the Vie de Saint Thomas , by Garnier de Pont Sainte Maxence (ed.

^ Then Thomas, seeing that his hour was at hand, inclined his neck as one that prays, and joining his hands together, commended his cause and the cause of the Church to God, and to Saint Mary, and to Saint Denys.
  • The Baldwin Project: Stories from English History by Alfred J. Church 25 January 2010 5:10 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hippeau, Paris, 1859).^ Hippeau, Paris, 1859).

^ The chronicle of GARNIER DE PONT S. MAXENCE, Vie de St. Thomas Martyr, has been edited by HIPPEAU (Paris, 1859).

.For the chronology of the controversy see Eyton's Itinerary of Henry II. Modern: - Morris, Life and Martyrdom of St Thomas Becket (London, 1885); Lhuillier, Saint Thomas de Cantorbery (2 vols., Paris, 1891-1892); J. C. Robertson, Becket (London, 1859); F. W. Maitland, Roman Canon Law in the Church of England, c.^ Unknown Preview from Google Books » Login to add to favorites Saint Thomas de Cantorbéry, Thomas Becket, 1118-1170 by Chalendard, M. (Marie) Call Number: Loading Located: Loading Loading...

^ Thomas Becket and St .

^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Thomas Becket ...

iv.; J. A. Froude in his Short Studies, vol. iv., and .Freeman in his Historical Essays (1871), give noteworthy but conflicting appreciations.^ Freeman in his Historical Essays (1871), give noteworthy but conflicting appreciations.

(H. W. C. D.)


Simple English

Thomas Becket was an English priest, and Archbishop of Canterbury, who was assassinated by four knights in Canterbury Cathedral in 1170. People used to think his name was Thomas á Becket, but it is now known to be wrong. [1]

He was a close friend of King Henry II, but they argued about the rights the Church could have, and he was killed by four followers of the King. However, evidence shows that the King had no knowledge of the murder. English stories say that he went around Canterbury being whipped as punishment for the murder of his close friend.

He became a saint in 1173. His major shrine is in Canterbury, but was destroyed by order of Henry VIII during his reign.

References

  1. Memorials of Thomas Cranmer (1694)


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Thomas Becket, which are similar to those in the above article.








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