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Thomas Caulfeild was the British Governor of Nova Scotia from 1715 to 1717. Before that period, he had developed some strong connections to the colony.

Caulfeild was a younger son of William Caulfeild, 2nd Viscount Charlemont. In 1710, he took part in the successful expedition against Port-Royal. The man in charge of that action was Francis Nicholson. After the capture of Port Royal, Caulfeild was in charge during the absence of Governor Samuel Vetch. This occupied the period from October 1711 to June 1712. In October 1712, Nicholson was named governor of Nova Scotia and Placentia. In June, Vetch had returned to his position and it wasn't until October, 1713 that he was frmally replaced by Caulfeild as acting governor. Nicholson only spent a few months in the colony during his tenure (from 1712-1715), as was often the case with governors of the time.

While acting in the position and while governor, Caulfeild was involved in attempting to obtain an oath of allegiance to the British Government by the Acadian French. He was unsuccessful in this endeavour.

He was replaced by Richard Philipps in this office.

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