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Thomas Corwin


In office
July 23, 1850 – March 6, 1853
President Millard Fillmore
Preceded by William M. Meredith
Succeeded by James Guthrie

In office
December 16, 1840 – December 14, 1842
Preceded by Wilson Shannon
Succeeded by Wilson Shannon

In office
March 4, 1845 – July 20, 1850
Preceded by Benjamin Tappan
Succeeded by Thomas Ewing

Born July 29, 1794(1794-07-29)
Bourbon County, Kentucky, U.S.
Died December 18, 1865 (aged 71)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political party Whig, Republican
Spouse(s) Sarah Ross Corwin
Profession Politician, Lawyer
Signature

Thomas Corwin (July 29, 1794 – December 18, 1865), also known as Tom Corwin and The Wagon Boy, was a politician from the state of Ohio who served as a prosecuting attorney, a member of the Ohio House of Representatives, United States House of Representatives, and United States Senate, and as Governor of Ohio and Secretary of the Treasury.

Corwin, whose brother Moses Bledso Corwin and nephew Franklin Corwin were also U.S. Representatives, was born in Bourbon County, Kentucky, and moved with his parents to Lebanon, Ohio, in 1798. During the War of 1812, he served as a wagon boy in General William Henry Harrison's Army.

He studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1817, commencing practice in Lebanon; he was prosecuting attorney of Warren County from 1818 to 1828.

In 1822-1823 and 1829, he was a member of the Ohio House of Representatives, where he made a spirited speech against the introduction of the whipping post into Ohio.[1] In 1830 he was elected as a Whig to the U.S. House of Representatives and served from March 4, 1831, until his resignation, effective May 30, 1840, having become a candidate for Governor of Ohio. Known for his sharp wit, debating skills and endless campaigning, he was elected Governor in 1840, defeating incumbent Wilson Shannon. Shannon defeated Corwin in a rematch just two years later. Corwin was also a member of the United States Senate, having been appointed by the Ohio General Assembly as a Whig and served from March 4, 1845 to July 20, 1850.

Thomas Corwin, as quoted by Canadian humorist Stephen Leacock --

The world has a contempt for the man who amuses it. You must be solemn, solemn as an ass. All the great monuments on earth have been erected over the graves of solemn asses.

He resigned from the Senate to become President Millard Fillmore's Secretary of the Treasury shortly after the death of President Zachary Taylor. Like his immediate predecessor, William M. Meredith, Corwin believed in a protective tariff, but he did not want to make sudden or drastic changes in the free-trade tariff law of 1846. He objected to that law's provisions, which taxed some imported raw materials at a higher rate than the imported manufactured goods made from those materials, stating in a report to Congress that such provisions certainly take from the manufacturer and artisan that encouragement which the present law was intended to afford. As a longtime Whig, however, Corwin was unsuccessful in passing any tariff legislation in a Congress controlled by Democrats. He retired as Secretary at the end of Filmore's administration.

He was again elected to the House of Representatives in 1858, and returned to that body as a Republican and served from March 4, 1859 to March 12, 1861.

He resigned only a few days into the 37th Congress after being appointed by the newly inaugurated President Abraham Lincoln to become Minister to Mexico, where he served until 1864. Corwin, well-regarded among the Mexican public for his opposition to the Mexican-American War while in the Senate, helped keep relations with the Mexicans friendly throughout the course of the Civil War, despite Confederate efforts to sway their allegiances.

After resigning from his post as Minister, he settled in Washington, D.C., and practiced law until his death at age 71. His interment was in Lebanon Cemetery, Lebanon, Ohio.

Thomas Corwin is perhaps best known for his successful sponsorship during the 36th Congress in early 1861 of the proposed Corwin amendment to the United States Constitution which remains to this day technically still pending for ratification before the state legislatures. That amendment would have prohibited any amendments to the Constitution from interfering with slavery in the United States. When it was approved by Congress and sent out to the state legislatures for consideration, it was a last-ditch effort to avert the outbreak of the Civil War.

References

  1. ^ Alexander K. McClure, ed (1902). Famous American Statesmen & Orators. VI. New York: F. F. Lovell Publishing Company. pp. 43.  

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Wilson Shannon
Governor of Ohio
1840–1842
Succeeded by
Wilson Shannon
Preceded by
William M. Meredith
United States Secretary of the Treasury
Served under: Millard Fillmore

July 23, 1850 – March 6, 1853
Succeeded by
James Guthrie
Ohio House of Representatives
Preceded by
John Bigger
William Schenck
Representative from Warren County
1821–1823
Served alongside: John Bigger
Succeeded by
John M. Houston
David Sutton
Preceded by
Benjamin Baldwin
James McEwen
Representative from Warren County
1829–1830
Served alongside: Jeremiah Morrow
Succeeded by
Jacoby Halleck
Joseph Whitehill
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Joseph Vance
Representative from Ohio's 4th congressional district
1833-03-04 – 1840-05-30
Succeeded by
Jeremiah Morrow
Preceded by
Aaron Harlan
Representative from Ohio's 7th congressional district
1859-03-04 – 1861-03-12
Succeeded by
Richard A. Harrison
United States Senate
Preceded by
Benjamin Tappan
United States Senator (Class 1) from Ohio
March 4, 1845 – July 20, 1850
Served alongside: William Allen and Salmon P. Chase
Succeeded by
Thomas Ewing
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
John B. Weller
United States Ambassador to Mexico
1861–1864
Succeeded by
Lewis D. Campbell
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Thomas Corwin

In office
July 23, 1850 – March 6, 1853
President Millard Fillmore
Preceded by William M. Meredith
Succeeded by James Guthrie

In office
December 16, 1840 – December 14, 1842
Preceded by Wilson Shannon
Succeeded by Wilson Shannon

In office
March 4, 1845 – July 20, 1850
Preceded by Benjamin Tappan
Succeeded by Thomas Ewing

Born July 29, 1794(1794-07-29)
Bourbon County, Kentucky, U.S.
Died December 18, 1865 (aged 71)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political party Whig, Republican
Spouse(s) Sarah Ross Corwin
Profession Politician, Lawyer
Signature File:Thomas Corwin

Thomas Corwin (July 29, 1794 – December 18, 1865), also known as Tom Corwin and The Wagon Boy, was a politician from the state of Ohio who served as a prosecuting attorney, a member of the Ohio House of Representatives, United States House of Representatives, and United States Senate, and as the 15th Governor of Ohio and Secretary of the Treasury.

Biography

Corwin, whose brother Moses Bledso Corwin and nephew Franklin Corwin were also U.S. Representatives, was born in Bourbon County, Kentucky, and moved with his parents to Lebanon, Ohio, in 1798. During the War of 1812, he served as a wagon boy in General William Henry Harrison's Army.

He studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1817, commencing practice in Lebanon; he was prosecuting attorney of Warren County from 1818 to 1828.

In 1822-1823 and 1829, he was a member of the Ohio House of Representatives, where he made a spirited speech against the introduction of the whipping post into Ohio.[1] In 1830 he was elected as a Whig to the U.S. House of Representatives and served from March 4, 1831, until his resignation, effective May 30, 1840, having become a candidate for Governor of Ohio. Known for his sharp wit, debating skills and endless campaigning, he was elected Governor in 1840, defeating incumbent Wilson Shannon. Shannon defeated Corwin in a rematch just two years later.

Corwin was also a member of the United States Senate, having been appointed by the Ohio General Assembly as a Whig and served from March 4, 1845 to July 20, 1850. As a legislator he spoke seldom, but always with great ability, his most famous speech being that of the February 11, 1847, opposing the Mexican-American War.[2]

Thomas Corwin, as quoted by Canadian humorist Stephen Leacock --

The world has a contempt for the man who amuses it. You must be solemn, solemn as an ass. All the great monuments on earth have been erected over the graves of solemn asses.

He resigned from the Senate to become President Millard Fillmore's Secretary of the Treasury shortly after the death of President Zachary Taylor. Like his immediate predecessor, William M. Meredith, Corwin believed in a protective tariff, but he did not want to make sudden or drastic changes in the free-trade tariff law of 1846. He objected to that law's provisions, which taxed some imported raw materials at a higher rate than the imported manufactured goods made from those materials, stating in a report to Congress that such provisions certainly take from the manufacturer and artisan that encouragement which the present law was intended to afford. As a longtime Whig, however, Corwin was unsuccessful in passing any tariff legislation in a Congress controlled by Democrats. He retired as Secretary at the end of Filmore's administration.

He was again elected to the House of Representatives in 1858, and returned to that body as a Republican and served from March 4, 1859 to March 12, 1861. In 1860, he was chairman of the House “Committee of Thirty-three,” consisting of one member from each state, and appointed to consider the condition of the nation and, if possible, to devise some scheme for reconciling the North and the South.[2]

He resigned only a few days into the 37th Congress after being appointed by the newly inaugurated President Abraham Lincoln to become Minister to Mexico, where he served until 1864. Corwin, well-regarded among the Mexican public for his opposition to the Mexican-American War while in the Senate, helped keep relations with the Mexicans friendly throughout the course of the Civil War, despite Confederate efforts to sway their allegiances.

After resigning from his post as Minister, he settled in Washington, D.C., and practiced law until his death at age 71. His interment was in Lebanon Cemetery, Lebanon, Ohio.

Thomas Corwin is remembered chiefly as an orator.[2] His speeches both on the stump and in debate were examples of remarkable eloquence.[3] He is perhaps also remembered for his sponsorship during the 36th Congress in early 1861 of the proposed Corwin amendment to the United States Constitution which remains to this day technically still pending for ratification before the state legislatures. That amendment would have prohibited any amendments to the Constitution from interfering with slavery in the United States. When it was approved by Congress and sent out to the state legislatures for consideration, it was a last-ditch effort to avert the outbreak of the Civil War.

References

  1. ^ Alexander K. McClure, ed (1902). Famous American Statesmen & Orators. VI. New York: F. F. Lovell Publishing Company. pp. 43. 
  2. ^ a b c  Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). "Corwin, Thomas". Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  3. ^  "Corwin, Thomas". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Wilson Shannon
Governor of Ohio
1840–1842
Succeeded by
Wilson Shannon
Preceded by
William M. Meredith
United States Secretary of the Treasury
Served under: Millard Fillmore

July 23, 1850 – March 6, 1853
Succeeded by
James Guthrie
Ohio House of Representatives
Preceded by
John Bigger
William Schenck
Representative from Warren County
1821–1823
Served alongside: John Bigger
Succeeded by
John M. Houston
David Sutton
Preceded by
Benjamin Baldwin
James McEwen
Representative from Warren County
1829–1830
Served alongside: Jeremiah Morrow
Succeeded by
Jacoby Halleck
Joseph Whitehill
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Joseph Vance
Representative from Ohio's 4th congressional district
1833-03-04 – 1840-05-30
Succeeded by
Jeremiah Morrow
Preceded by
Aaron Harlan
Representative from Ohio's 7th congressional district
1859-03-04 – 1861-03-12
Succeeded by
Richard A. Harrison
United States Senate
Preceded by
Benjamin Tappan
United States Senator (Class 1) from Ohio
March 4, 1845 – July 20, 1850
Served alongside: William Allen and Salmon P. Chase
Succeeded by
Thomas Ewing
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
John B. Weller
United States Ambassador to Mexico
1861–1864
Succeeded by
Lewis D. Campbell


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

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