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Thomas Hobbes
Full name Thomas Hobbes
Born 5 April 1588(1588-04-05)
Malmesbury, Wiltshire, England
Died 4 December 1679 (aged 91)
Derbyshire, England
Era 17th-century philosophy
(Modern Philosophy)
Region Western Philosophers
School Social contract, classical realism, materialism
Main interests Political philosophy, history, ethics, geometry
Notable ideas modern founder of the social contract tradition; life in the state of nature is "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short"
.Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbs of Malmsbury,[1] was an English philosopher, remembered today for his work on political philosophy.^ And if it seems strange that Hobbes, guardian of order that he was, prompts such thoughts, remember that, at least where philosophers and lawyers were concerned, he was also a virulent anti-professional.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes has a very concrete reason for engaging in such philosophical 'subtilty' as a critique of linguistic, metaphysical, and theological essentialism in a work where he   pretend[s .
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The same connections were subjected to a very different analysis by Strauss, see L. STRAUSS, THE POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES (1936).
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.His 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory.^ The social contract is not a proscribed sacrifice of freedoms; it is a living, changing social and political arrangement determined by the communitas itself, by the people.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes describes the sovereign, the body politic, as being made up of the people and that is where the element of freedom is lost, not upon entry to the social contract.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ It is generally accepted that Leviathan is the most celebrated and challenging work of political philosophy written in English.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[2]
.Hobbes also contributed to a diverse array of fields, including history, geometry, physics of gases, theology, ethics, general philosophy, and political science.^ For generally, not he that hath skill in geometry, or any other science speculative, but only he that understandeth what conduceth to the good and government of the people, is called a wise man.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

His account of human nature as self-interested cooperation has proved to be an enduring theory in the field of philosophical anthropology. .He was one of the main philosophers who founded materialism.^ To conclude, there is nothing so absurd that the old philosophers (as Cicero saith, who was one of them) have not some of them maintained.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To conclude there is nothing so absurd, that the old Philosophers (as Cicero saith, who was one of them) have not some of them maintained.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Early life and education

.Thomas Hobbes was born in Wiltshire, England on 5 April 1588, some sources say at Malmesbury[3].^ Craigie, Pearl Mary Teresa Richards en.wikipedia Robert Orange Being a Continuation of the History of Robert Orange (English) (as Author) Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 .
  • Browse By Author: H - Project Gutenberg 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Browse By Author: H - Project Gutenberg 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.gutenberg.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But are not, may some man say, the universities of England learned enough already to do that?
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But are not (may some men say) the Universities of England learned enough already to do that?
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

Born prematurely on April 5, 1588, when his mother heard of the coming invasion of the Spanish Armada, Thomas Hobbes later reported that "my mother gave birth to twins: myself and fear."[4] His childhood is almost a complete blank, and his mother's name is unknown.[5] His father, also named Thomas, was the vicar of Charlton and Westport. Thomas Sr. abandoned his three children to the care of an older brother, .Thomas junior's uncle Francis, when he was forced to flee to London after being involved in a fight with a clergyman outside his own church.^ From the same mistaking of the present Church for the kingdom of God came in the distinction between the civil and the canon laws: the civil law being the acts of sovereigns in their own dominions, and the canon law being the acts of the Pope in the same dominions.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From the same mistaking of the present Church for the Kingdom of God, came in the distinction betweene the Civill and the Canon Laws: The civil Law being the acts of Soveraigns in their own Dominions, and the Canon Law being the Acts of the Pope in the same Dominions.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hobbes was educated at Westport church from the age of four, passed to the Malmesbury school and then to a private school kept by a young man named Robert Latimer, a graduate of the University of Oxford.^ There were many that studied that science to the great advantage of mankind: but there is no mention of their schools; nor was there any sect of geometricians; nor did they then pass under the name of philosophers.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Things named, are either the objects themselves, as man; or the conception itself that we have of man, as shape or motion; or some privation, which is when we conceive that there is something which we conceive, not in him.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There were many that studied that Science to the great advantage of mankind: but there is no mention of their Schools; nor was there any Sect of Geometricians; nor did they then passe under the name of Philosophers.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hobbes was a good pupil, and around 1603 he went up to Magdalen Hall, which is most closely related to Hertford College, Oxford.^ Perhaps the single most important thing that we have to learn from Hobbes is the idea that his definition serves a purpose and that, unless we can get around the critique of essences, our definitions also have to be guided by a purpose.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

[6][7][8][9] The principal John Wilkinson was a Puritan, and he had some influence on Hobbes.
.At university, Hobbes appears to have followed his own curriculum; he was "little attracted by the scholastic learning". He did not complete his B.A. degree until 1608, but he was recommended by Sir James Hussey, his master at Magdalen, as tutor to William, the son of William Cavendish, Baron of Hardwick (and later Earl of Devonshire), and began a life-long connection with that family.^ To govern well a family, and a kingdome, are not different degrees of Prudence; but different sorts of businesse; no more then to draw a picture in little, or as great, or greater then the life, are different degrees of Art.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Martin D. Glew James A. Coakley, Jr. William R. Tahnk Steven Platnick Peter V. Hobbs Ronald J. Ferek .

[10]
.Hobbes became a companion to the younger William and they both took part in a grand tour in 1610. Hobbes was exposed to European scientific and critical methods during the tour in contrast to the scholastic philosophy which he had learned in Oxford.^ Or, to be more accurate, there are good reasons to see Hobbes as one who was relying on the scientific method (as he understood it) for his ultimate epistemological backstop.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And That All Government But Popular, Is Tyranny: From Aristotles Civill Philosophy, they have learned, to call all manner of Common-wealths but the Popular, (such as was at that time the state of Athens,) Tyranny.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From Aristotle's civil philosophy, they have learned to call all manner of Commonwealths but the popular (such as was at that time the state of Athens), tyranny.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.His scholarly efforts at the time were aimed at a careful study of classic Greek and Latin authors, the outcome of which was, in 1628, his great translation of Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War, the first translation of that work into English from a Greek manuscript.^ For the seventy Interpreters that converted the Bible into Greek, were all of them Hebrews; and we have extant the works of Philo and Josephus both Jews, written by them eloquently in Greek.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The first cause does not necessarily inflow any thing into the second, by force of the Essential subordination of the second causes, by which it may help it to worke?"
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This ceremony of the Greeks, in the time that Judaea was under the Dominion of Alexander, and the Greeks his successors, may probably enough have crept into the Religion of the Jews.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although he associated with literary figures like Ben Jonson and thinkers such as Francis Bacon, he did not extend his efforts into philosophy until after 1629. His employer Cavendish, then the Earl of Devonshire, died of the plague in June 1628. The widowed countess dismissed Hobbes but he soon found work, again as a tutor, this time to the son of Sir Gervase Clifton.^ Hobbes has a very concrete reason for engaging in such philosophical 'subtilty' as a critique of linguistic, metaphysical, and theological essentialism in a work where he   pretend[s .
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ All which, by an observing reader, may be found in such ancient histories, Greek and Latin, as make mention of the German nation and manners in their times.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Magicians of Egypt did the like by their Enchantments;" and that after Moses had turned the waters of the Egyptian Streams, Rivers, Ponds, and Pooles of water into blood, (Exod.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

This task, chiefly spent in Paris, ended in 1631 when he again found work with the Cavendish family, tutoring the son of his previous pupil. .Over the next seven years as well as tutoring he expanded his own knowledge of philosophy, awakening in him curiosity over key philosophic debates.^ Is there something that they would help him to do that Hobbes's theory, the lawyer's rule of thumb, or a first-year class in political theory would not do as well, or better?
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I'm going back to University next year (well, pending successful funding applications) to study Political Thought and Intellectual History.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ And this is the knowledge required in a philosopher; that is to say, of him that pretends to reasoning.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

He visited Florence in 1636 and later was a regular debater in philosophic groups in Paris, held together by Marin Mersenne. .From 1637 he considered himself a philosopher and scholar.^ From 1637 he considered himself a philosopher and scholar.
  • What is Thomas Hobbes? 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes [1588 - 1679 CE] | Rational Vedanta 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.rationalvedanta.net [Source type: Original source]

In Paris

.Hobbes's first area of study was an interest in the physical doctrine of motion and physical momentum.^ The first is the idea of motion, which becomes Hobbes's master metaphor for cause, be it physical, societal, or mental.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

Despite his interest in this phenomenon, he disdained experimental work as in physics. He went on to conceive the system of thought to the elaboration of which he would devote his life. .His scheme was first to work out, in a separate treatise, a systematic doctrine of body, showing how physical phenomena were universally explicable in terms of motion, at least as motion or mechanical action was then understood.^ The best signs of passions present are either in the countenance, motions of the body, actions, and ends, or aims, which we otherwise know the man to have.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And therefore if a man by words, or other signes, seem to despoyle himselfe of the End, for which those signes were intended; he is not to be understood as if he meant it, or that it was his will; but that he was ignorant of how such words and actions were to be interpreted.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The best signes of Passions present, are either in the countenance, motions of the body, actions, and ends, or aims, which we otherwise know the man to have.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.He then singled out Man from the realm of Nature and plants.^ And thus much for the ill condition which man by mere nature is actually placed in; though with a possibility to come out of it, consisting partly in the passions, partly in his reason.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And thus much for the ill condition, which man by meer Nature is actually placed in; though with a possibility to come out of it, consisting partly in the Passions, partly in his Reason.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A man therefore ought not to examine by reason any point, or draw any consequence out of Scripture by reason, concerning the nature of God Almighty, of which reason is not capable.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.Then, in another treatise, he showed what specific bodily motions were involved in the production of the peculiar phenomena of sensation, knowledge, affections and passions whereby Man came into relation with Man.^ The best signs of passions present are either in the countenance, motions of the body, actions, and ends, or aims, which we otherwise know the man to have.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ God Inspired into man the breath of life, no more is meant, then that God gave unto him vitall motion.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The best signes of Passions present, are either in the countenance, motions of the body, actions, and ends, or aims, which we otherwise know the man to have.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Finally he considered, in his crowning treatise, how Men were moved to enter into society, and argued how this must be regulated if Men were not to fall back into "brutishness and misery". Thus he proposed to unite the separate phenomena of Body, Man, and the State.^ Thus far concerning the Nature of Man, and the constitution and properties of a Body Politic.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And from the degrees of curiosity proceed also the degrees of knowledge among men; for to a man in the chase of riches or authority, (which in respect of knowledge are but sensuality) it is a diversion of little pleasure to consider, whether it be the motion of the sun or the earth that maketh the day, or to enter into other contemplation of any strange accident, than whether it conduce or not to the end he pursueth.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ How far therefore in the making of a commonwealth, a man subjecteth his will to the power of others, must appear from the end, namely security.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hobbes came home, in 1637, to a country riven with discontent which disrupted him from the orderly execution of his philosophic plan.^ The English philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, an original thinker but not a lawyer nor even primarily interested in legal philosophy, came close to the imperative conception when he said: 'Law properly is the word of him that by right hath command over others.'
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When Mr. T. Hobbes was sick in France, the Divines came to him and tormented him (both Roman Catholic, Church of England, and Geneva).
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.However, by the end of the Short Parliament in 1640, he had written a short treatise called The Elements of Law, Natural and Politic.^ What it is we call the law of nature, is not agreed upon, by those that have hitherto written.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But seeing in this case there passeth no covenant, the breach of this law of nature is not to be called injury; it hath another name (viz.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These Articles, are they, which otherwise are called the Lawes of Nature: whereof I shall speak more particularly, in the two following Chapters.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

It was not published and only circulated among his acquaintances in manuscript form. A pirated version, however, was published about ten years later. .Although it seems that much of The Elements of Law was composed before the sitting of the Short Parliament, there are polemical pieces of the work that clearly mark the influences of the rising political crisis.^ It is not meant of any private Reason; for then there would be as much contradiction in the Lawes, as there is in the Schooles; nor yet (as Sr.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For all words, are subject to ambiguity; and therefore multiplication of words in the body of the Law, is multiplication of ambiguity: Besides it seems to imply, (by too much diligence,) that whosoever can evade the words, is without the compasse of the Law.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And first, if by Righteousnesse be understood the Justice of the Works themselves, there is no man that can be saved; for there is none that hath not transgressed the Law of God.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Nevertheless, many (though not all) elements of Hobbes's political thought were unchanged between The Elements of Law and Leviathan, which demonstrates that the events of the English Civil War had little effect on his contractarian methodology.^ Many commentators believe that Hobbes saw the English Civil war as a State of Nature.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ At the very end of this definitional passage it might have looked as though Hobbes was straying into natural law ('for the Distinction of Right and Wrong').
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If the history had been a little different, we might be going back to demonstrate that all of the great theorists were fumbling their way toward a truth-community theory of law.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It should be noted, however, that the arguments in Leviathan were modified from The Elements of Law when it came to the necessity of consent in creating political obligation.^ Earlier I quoted his comment that Hobbes 'came close to' the imperative conception of law, but that his ideas still contained reference to 'the question of the political justification of the state.'
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, it shies away from political theories that venture to suggest that you cannot give a purely conceptual explanation of the obligation to obey law.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The true and perspicuous explication of the Elements of Laws, Natural and Politic, which is my present scope, dependeth upon the knowledge of what is human nature, what is a body politic, and what it is we call a law.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.Namely, Hobbes wrote in The Elements of Law that Patrimonial kingdoms were not necessarily formed by the consent of the governed, while in Leviathan he argued that they were.^ That nothing else is necessarily required to salvation is manifest from this, that the kingdom of heaven is shut to none but to sinners; that is to say, to the disobedient, or transgressors of the law; nor to them, in case they repent, and believe all the articles of Christian faith necessary to salvation.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is therefore necessary, to consider in this place, what arguments, and signes be sufficient for the knowledge of what is the Law; that is to say, what is the will of the Soveraign, as well in Monarchies, as in other formes of government.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There be other names of government in the histories and books of policy; as tyranny and oligarchy; but they are not the names of other forms of government, but of the same forms misliked.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

This was perhaps a reflection either of Hobbes's thoughts concerning the engagement controversy or of his reaction to treatises published by Patriarchalists, such as Sir Robert Filmer, between 1640 and 1651.
.When in November 1640 the Long Parliament succeeded the Short, Hobbes felt he was a marked man by the circulation of his treatise and fled to Paris.^ I always felt that Hobbes in his reference to life being "nasty brutish and short" in a state of nature was responding in part to the cult of the noble savage which had developed at the time.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.He did not return for eleven years.^ He did not return for eleven years.
  • What is Thomas Hobbes? 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes [1588 - 1679 CE] | Rational Vedanta 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.rationalvedanta.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He was now for the fourth and last time abroad, and did not return for eleven years.

^ The first official account of the journey did not appear in print until eight years after the expedition's return to St. Louis.
  • Treasures of the University of Delaware Library: History 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.lib.udel.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Paris he rejoined the coterie about Mersenne, and wrote a critique of the Meditations on First Philosophy of Descartes, which was printed as third among the sets of "Objections" appended, with "Replies" from Descartes in 1641. A different set of remarks on other works by Descartes succeeded only in ending all correspondence between the two.^ If, for instance, you ask about virtue, he tells you "Force and Fraud are in War the two cardinal Virtues" – "Honour consisteth only in Opinion of Power", and "The Value or Worth of a man is, as of all other things, his Price, namely as much as would be given for the Use of his Power".
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ But there is no suddennesse of Passion sufficient for a totall Excuse: For all the time between the first knowing of the Law, and the Commission of the Fact, shall be taken for a time of deliberation; because he ought by meditation of the Law, to rectifie the irregularity of his Passions.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Differences Between Command And Counsell COMMAND is, where a man saith, "Doe this," or "Doe this not," without expecting other reason than the Will of him that sayes it.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hobbes also extended his own works somewhat, working on the third section, De Cive, which was finished in November 1641. Although it was initially only circulated privately, it was well received, and included lines of argumentation to be repeated a decade later in the Leviathan.^ In this section, I work through Hobbes's definition of law in Leviathan.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In answer to various questions we have received on this: We are constantly working on finishing the paperwork to legally request donations in all 50 states.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That is Wittgenstein talking, but it could just as well be Hobbes, telling us that the only thing shared by all the phenomena grouped under a single name is the name itself.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He then returned to hard work on the first two sections of his work and published little except for a short treatise on optics (Tractatus opticus) included in the collection of scientific tracts published by Mersenne as Cogitata physico-mathematica in 1644. He built a good reputation in philosophic circles and in 1645 was chosen with Descartes, Gilles de Roberval and others, to referee the controversy between John Pell and Longomontanus over the problem of squaring the circle.^ The Savages of America, are not without some good Morall Sentences; also they have a little Arithmetick, to adde, and divide in Numbers not too great: but they are not therefore Philosophers.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From Formall And Cleer Texts The fourth Argument is taken from places expresse, and such as receive no controversie of Interpretation; as first, John 5.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For in a way beset with those that contend on one side for too great Liberty, and on the other side for too much Authority, 'tis hard to passe between the points of both unwounded.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

The Civil War in England

.The English Civil War broke out in 1642, and when the Royalist cause began to decline in the middle of 1644 there was an exodus of the king's supporters to Europe.^ And these all do contrary to the Decrees of Caesar, saying, that there is another King, one Jesus:" And out of the 2.&3.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But one may ask them again, when or where has there been a kingdom long free from sedition and civil war?
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many commentators believe that Hobbes saw the English Civil war as a State of Nature.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

Many came to Paris and were known to Hobbes. .This revitalised Hobbes's political interests and the De Cive was republished and more widely distributed.^ Hobbes's definition of liberty is given fully for the first time in De Cive as the 'absence of restraint'.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes was a theorist who was interested in justifying the state and providing a theory of political obligation.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ I generally disagree with Straussian interpretations of political philosophy, but the book on Hobbes seems to me to be far more impressive than the rest of the genre.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

The printing began in 1646 by Samuel de Sorbiere through the Elsevier press at Amsterdam with a new preface and some new notes in reply to objections.
In 1647, Hobbes was engaged as mathematical instructor to the young Charles, Prince of Wales,[11] who had come over from Jersey around July. This engagement lasted until 1648 when Charles went to Holland.
.The company of the exiled royalists led Hobbes to produce an English book to set forth his theory of civil government in relation to the political crisis resulting from the war.^ Hobbes is putting forth a sophisticated theory of meaning that allows for different practices of signification depending on the kind of activity in which the speaker or writer is engaged.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Many commentators believe that Hobbes saw the English Civil war as a State of Nature.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Having hitherto set forth how a body politic is made, and how it may be destroyed, this place requireth to say something concerning the preservation of the same.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.The State, it now seemed to Hobbes, might be regarded as a great artificial man or monster (Leviathan), composed of men, with a life that might be traced from its generation under pressure of human needs to its dissolution through civil strife proceeding from human passions.^ Some, deriving them from the Passions; some, from Daemons, or Spirits, either good, or bad, which they thought might enter into a man, possesse him, and move his organs is such strange, and uncouth manner, as mad-men use to do.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes recognises that men can and will resist - but that's just a fact about human beings, not an argument for constraint on State power.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes go on specifically to state that the sovereign power can be acquired by forcing others to submit or ‘when men agree amongst themselves, to submit to some Man, or Assembly of men, voluntarily, on confidence to be protected by him against all others.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The work was closed with a general "Review and Conclusion", in direct response to the war which raised the question of the subject's right to change allegiance when a former sovereign's power to protect was irrecoverably gone.^ And therefore, whosoever is made general of an army, he that hath the sovereign power is always generalissimo.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Again, the consent of a subject to sovereign power is contained in these words, "I authorise, or take upon me, all his actions"; in which there is no restriction at all of his own former natural liberty: for by allowing him to kill me, I am not bound to kill myself when he commands me.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But to kill a man because from his actions or his threatenings I may argue he will kill me when he can (seeing I have time and means to demand protection from the sovereign power) is a crime.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

Also he criticized religious doctrines on rationalistic grounds in the Commonwealth.
Frontispiece from De Cive (1642)
During the years of the composition of Leviathan he remained in or near Paris. In 1647 Hobbes was overtaken by a serious illness which disabled him for six months. .On recovering from this near fatal disorder, he resumed his literary task, and carried it steadily forward to completion by the year 1650. Meanwhile, a translation of De Cive was being produced; there has been much scholarly disagreement over whether Hobbes translated the work himself or not.^ And therefore, as when the authority is evident, the covenant obligeth the author, not the actor; so when the authority is feigned, it obligeth the actor only, there being no author but himself.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Contributor "Though, I admit, there are problems here; namely that the sovereign by acquisition does not work in the same way by institution - Hobbes never worked this through" .
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Your argument about obligation ("The issue has to do with whether Hobbes succeeds providing completely naturalistic account of political obligation which was his aim."
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.In 1650, a pirated edition of The Elements of Law, Natural and Politic was published.^ The laws of nature therefore need not any publishing nor proclamation; as being contained in this one sentence, approved by all the world, Do not that to another which thou thinkest unreasonable to be done by another to thyself.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The legislator known, and the laws either by writing or by the light of nature sufficiently published, there wanteth yet another very material circumstance to make them obligatory.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If they be made Law by God himselfe, they are of the nature of written Law, which are Laws to them only to whom God hath so sufficiently published them, as no man can excuse himself, by saying, he know not they were his.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.It was divided into two separate small volumes (Human Nature, or the Fundamental Elements of Policie and De corpore politico, or the Elements of Law, Moral and Politick).^ As for the first division of law into divine, natural, and civil, the first two branches are one and the same law.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But because the Law of Nature is eternall, Violation of Covenants, Ingratitude, Arrogance, and all Facts contrary to any Morall vertue, can never cease to be Sinne.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now the science of Vertue and Vice, is Morall Philosophie; and therfore the true Doctrine of the Lawes of Nature, is the true Morall Philosophie.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

In 1651 the translation of De Cive was published under the title of Philosophicall Rudiments concerning Government and Society. .Meanwhile, the printing of the greater work was proceeding, and finally it appeared about the middle of 1651, under the title of Leviathan, or the Matter, Forme, and Power of a Common Wealth, Ecclesiasticall and Civil, with a famous title-page engraving in which, from behind hills overlooking a landscape, there towered the body (above the waist) of a crowned giant, made up of tiny figures of human beings and bearing sword and crozier in the two hands.^ But be it Evidence and Truth it selfe that was given; or be it but Admonition to the Priest to endeavour to inform himself cleerly, and give judgment uprightly; yet in that it was given to the High Priest, it was given to the Civill Soveraign: For next under God was the High Priest in the Common-wealth of Israel; and is an argument for Evidence and Truth, that is, for the Ecclesiasticall Supremacy of Civill Soveraigns over their own Subjects, against the pretended Power of the Pope.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So that it is manifest hereby, in whom the Power Ecclesiasticall continually remained, in those first times, where there was not any Christian Common-wealth; namely, in them that received the same from the Apostles, by successive laying on of hands.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A Law may be made to bind All the Subjects of a Common-wealth: a Liberty, or Charter is only to One man, or some One part of the people.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.The work had immediate impact.^ The work had immediate impact.
  • What is Thomas Hobbes? 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes [1588 - 1679 CE] | Rational Vedanta 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.rationalvedanta.net [Source type: Original source]

.Soon Hobbes was more lauded and decried than any other thinker of his time.^ But Hobbes is more subtle than this.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But for what reason succession in one tone and measure is more air than another, I confess I know not; but I conjecture the reason to be, for that some of them may imitate and revive some passion which otherwise we take no notice of, and the other not; for no air pleaseth but for a time, no more doth imitation.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For the same cause women are more apt to weep than men, as being not only more accustomed to have their wills, but also to measure their power by the power and love of others that protect them.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, the first effect of its publication was to sever his link with the exiled royalists, forcing him to appeal to the revolutionary English government for protection.^ Of the first sort are collectors, receivers, and treasurers; of the second are the treasurers again, and the officers appointed for payment of several public or private ministers.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The whole point of this provision was to allow former subjects of Charles I to make peace with the English Commonwealth that had beheaded him and live under its protection.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ For what is it for men to excommunicate their lawful king, but to keep him from all places of God's public service in his own kingdom; and with force to resist him when he with force endeavoureth to correct them?
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.The exiles might very well have killed him; the secularist spirit of his book greatly angered both Anglicans and French Catholics.^ A man might as well say, that one man maketh both a streight line, and a crooked, and another maketh their Incongruity.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The Spirit of God came upon Saul, and his Anger (or, as it is in the Latine, His Fury) was kindled greatly."
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For both the state had power over their life without consent of their fathers; and the father might kill his son by his own authority, without any warrant from the state.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hobbes fled back home, arriving in London in the winter of 1651. Following his submission to the council of state he was allowed to subside into private life in Fetter Lane.^ Following our Gallilean-Euclidean method, we resolve the state into its smallest comprehensible element--the citizen.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ So we have 'composed' our resolved elements back into a vision of what a properly functioning state would look like.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes fears that social decisionmaking will be carved up into a multitude of private satrapies, and that is a fear which we can, and should, share.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

Leviathan

Frontispiece of Leviathan
.In Leviathan, Hobbes set out his doctrine of the foundation of states and legitimate governments - based on social contract theories.^ Taking this section in Leviathan as my text, I want not only to sketch the connections that Hobbes saw between definition, interpretation, and the theory of law and state, but also to show the dangerous power of the definitional argument in the hands of a master.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There is therefore no other government in this life, neither of state nor religion, but temporal; nor teaching of any doctrine lawful to any subject which the governor both of the state and of the religion forbiddeth to be taught.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes shows us a lot about the process of policing the boundary between legal and social theory.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Leviathan was written during the English Civil War; much of the book is occupied with demonstrating the necessity of a strong central authority to avoid the evil of discord and civil war.^ Seeing then the Acts of Councell of the Apostles, were then no Laws, but Councells; much lesse are Laws the Acts of any other Doctors, or Councells since, if assembled without the Authority of the Civill Soveraign.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hyde argued that Hobbess provisions in practice, if not in theory, liberated any individual from the necessity of obedience to civil authority.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Seeing then the acts of council of the Apostles were then no laws, but counsels; much less are laws the acts of any other doctors or councils since, if assembled without the authority of the civil sovereign.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.Beginning from a mechanistic understanding of human beings and the passions, Hobbes postulates what life would be like without government, a condition which he calls the state of nature.^ If your state is not listed and you would like to know if we have added it since the list you have, just ask.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And thus much for the ill condition, which man by meer Nature is actually placed in; though with a possibility to come out of it, consisting partly in the Passions, partly in his Reason.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The condition of man in this life shall never be without Inconveniences; but there happeneth in no Common-wealth any great Inconvenience, but what proceeds from the Subjects disobedience, and breach of those Covenants, from which the Common-wealth had its being.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

In that state, each person would have a right, or license, to everything in the world. .This inevitably leads to conflict, a "war of all against all" (bellum omnium contra omnes), and thus lives that are "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short" (xiii).^ But withal, they live in the condition of a perpetual war, and upon the confines of battle, with their frontiers armed, and cannons planted against their neighbours round about.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hereby it is manifest that during the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war; and such a war as is of every man against every man.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But withall, they live in the condition of a perpetuall war, and upon the confines of battel, with their frontiers armed, and canons planted against their neighbours round about.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.To escape this state of war, men in the state of nature accede to a social contract and establish a civil society.^ These are the Lawes of Nature, dictating Peace, for a means of the conservation of men in multitudes; and which onely concern the doctrine of Civill Society.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So that the nature of justice consisteth in keeping of valid covenants, but the validity of covenants begins not but with the constitution of a civil power sufficient to compel men to keep them: and then it is also that propriety begins.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For in the condition of nature where every man is judge, there is no place for accusation: and in the civil state the accusation is followed with punishment, which, being force, a man is not obliged not to resist.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.According to Hobbes, society is a population beneath a sovereign authority, to whom all individuals in that society cede their natural rights for the sake of protection.^ For it is not the Letter, but the Intendment, or Meaning; that is to say, the authentique Interpretation of the Law (which is the sense of the Legislator,) in which the nature of the Law consisteth; And therefore the Interpretation of all Lawes dependeth on the Authority Soveraign; and the Interpreters can be none but those, which the Soveraign, (to whom only the Subject oweth obedience) shall appoint.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For they will clamour, fight against, and destroy those, by whom all their lifetime before, they have been protected, and secured from injury.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes go on specifically to state that the sovereign power can be acquired by forcing others to submit or ‘when men agree amongst themselves, to submit to some Man, or Assembly of men, voluntarily, on confidence to be protected by him against all others.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Any abuses of power by this authority are to be accepted as the price of peace.^ Those levies therefore which are made upon men's estates, by the sovereign authority, are no more but the price of that peace and defence which the sovereignty maintaineth for them.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

However, he also states that in severe cases of abuse, rebellion is expected. .In particular, the doctrine of separation of powers is rejected:[12] the sovereign must control civil, military, judicial and ecclesiastical powers.^ When a Commonwealth is once settled, then are they actually laws, and not before; as being then the commands of the Commonwealth; and therefore also civil laws: for it is the sovereign power that obliges men to obey them.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The civil law containeth in it the ecclesiastical, as a part thereof, proceeding from the power of ecclesiastical government, given by our Saviour to all Christian sovereigns, as his immediate vicars, as hath been said Part II. chap.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When therefore he saith the civil power is subject to the spiritual, his meaning is that the civil sovereign is subject to the spiritual sovereign.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

Leviathan was also well-known for its radical religious views, which were often Hobbes's attempt to reinterpret scripture from his materialist assumptions. .His denial of incorporeal entities led him to write, for example, that Heaven and Hell were places on Earth, and to take other positions out of sync with church teachings of his time.^ Deuteronomy; That wee take not any for Prophets, that teach any other Religion, then that which Gods Lieutenant, (which at that time was Moses,) hath established; nor any, (though he teach the same Religion,) whose Praediction we doe not see come to passe.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the other places which he allegeth out of the Old Testament, there is not so much as any show or colour of proof.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It followeth also that there is on earth no such universal Church as all Christians are bound to obey, because there is no power on earth to which all other Commonwealths are subject.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.Much has been made of his religious views by scholars such as Richard Tuck and J. G. A. Pocock, but there is still widespread disagreement about the significance of Leviathan's contents concerning religion.^ Such As Are Perspicuous The Perspicuity, consisteth not so much in the words of the Law it selfe, as in a Declaration of the Causes, and Motives, for which it was made.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many have taken the work to mean that Hobbes was an atheist, while others find the evidence for this position insufficient.^ This latter point, that we do project our self-interest unconsciously onto others, to find safety in numbers, was exactly what Hobbes appreciated.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ For the things that please and displease, are innumerable, and work innumerable ways; but men have taken notice of the passions they have from them in a very few, which also are many of them without name.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Among other things, this means that no one owns a United States copyright on or for this work, so the Project (and you!
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

Opponents

John Bramhall

Hobbes now turned to complete the fundamental treatise of his philosophical system. .He worked so steadily that De Corpore was first printed in 1654. Also in 1654, a small treatise, Of Liberty and Necessity, was published by Bishop John Bramhall, addressed at Hobbes.^ Hobbes's definition of liberty is given fully for the first time in De Cive as the 'absence of restraint'.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ And first, he says it is agreed that the jurisdiction of bishops is at least in the general de jure divino, that is, in the right of God; for which he alleges St. Paul, Ephesians, 4.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And first, he sayes it is agreed, that the Jurisdiction of Bishops, is at least in the generall De Jure Divino, that is, in the Right of God; for which he alledges S. Paul, Ephes.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

Bramhall, a strong Arminian, had met and debated with Hobbes and afterwards wrote down his views and sent them privately to be answered in this form by Hobbes. Hobbes duly replied, but not for publication. But a French acquaintance took a copy of the reply and published it with "an extravagantly laudatory epistle." .Bramhall countered in 1655, when he printed everything that had passed between them (under the title of A Defence of the True Liberty of Human Actions from Antecedent or Extrinsic Necessity).^ For in a way beset with those that contend on one side for too great Liberty, and on the other side for too much Authority, 'tis hard to passe between the points of both unwounded.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

In 1656 Hobbes was ready with The Questions concerning Liberty, Necessity and Chance, in which he replied "with astonishing force" to the bishop. .As perhaps the first clear exposition of the psychological doctrine of determinism, Hobbes's own two pieces were important in the history of the free-will controversy.^ Like those other theorists, Hobbes did indeed make people aware of some important psychological facts.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ And to compare Monarchy with the other two, we may observe; First, that whosoever beareth the Person of the people, or is one of that Assembly that bears it, beareth also his own naturall Person.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And to compare monarchy with the other two, we may observe: first, that whosoever beareth the person of the people, or is one of that assembly that bears it, beareth also his own natural person.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

The bishop returned to the charge in 1658 with Castigations of Mr Hobbes's Animadversions, and also included a bulky appendix entitled The Catching of Leviathan the Great Whale. .Hobbes never took any notice of the Castigations.^ I would suggest a possible answer to this problem may be that Hobbes took a quick look at history and never saw a Sovereign by institution.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

John Wallis

.Beyond the spat with Bramhall, Hobbes was caught in a series of conflicts from the time of publishing his De Corpore in 1655. In Leviathan he had assailed the system of the original universities.^ On the question of the noble savage it may be relevant that Hobbes was writing at a time when the English colonies were expanding and coming into increasing conflict with the indigenous inhabitants.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes's definition of liberty is given fully for the first time in De Cive as the 'absence of restraint'.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Because Hobbes was so evidently opposed to the existing academic arrangements, and because De Corpore contained not only tendentious views on mathematics, but an unacceptable proof of the squaring of the circle (which was apparently an afterthought), mathematicians took him to be a target for polemics.^ Not least because the continental Enlightenment which (arguably) lead to the French Revolution took its tip from Hobbes (not Locke).
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ And then only is his life in security, and his service due, when the victor hath trusted him with his corporal liberty.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Douleia, because we are God's slaves; latreia, because we serve Him: and in all kinds of service is contained, not only obedience, but also worship; that is, such actions, gestures, and words as signify honour.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.John Wallis was not the first such opponent, but he tenaciously pursued Hobbes.^ From Formall And Cleer Texts The fourth Argument is taken from places expresse, and such as receive no controversie of Interpretation; as first, John 5.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fourth argument is taken from places express, and such as receive no controversy of interpretation; as first, John, 5.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

The resulting controversy continued well into the 1670s.

Later life

.Hobbes published, in 1658, the final section of his philosophical system, completing the scheme he had planned more than twenty years before.^ Condensed is when there is in the very same matter less quantity than before; and rarefied, when more.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Of which things, not onely the whole summe, but every one of the particulars requires the age, and observation of a man in years, and of more than ordinary study.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Condensed, is when there is in the very same Matter, lesse Quantity than before; and Rarefied, when more.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

De Homine consisted for the most part of an elaborate theory of vision. .The remainder of the treatise dealt cursorily with some of the topics more fully treated in the Human Nature and the Leviathan.^ By which places, and many more, it is evident that our Saviour's kingdom is to be exercised by him in his human nature.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is therefore no such inconsistence of human nature with civil duties, as some think.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He did this by declaring, in his Leviathan , that the natural state of human life was one of ceaseless "war of all against all".
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.In addition to publishing some controversial writings on mathematics and physics, Hobbes also continued to produce philosophical works.^ From Desire, ariseth the Thought of some means we have seen produce the like of that which we ayme at; and from the thought of that, the thought of means to that mean; and so continually, till we come to some beginning within our own power.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From desire ariseth the thought of some means we have seen produce the like of that which we aim at; and from the thought of that, the thought of means to that mean; and so continually, till we come to some beginning within our own power.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.From the time of the Restoration he acquired a new prominence; "Hobbism" became a fashionable creed which it was the duty of "every lover of true morality and religion" to denounce.^ Time and industry produce every day new knowledge.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Time, and Industry, produce every day new knowledge.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

The young king, Hobbes's former pupil, now Charles II, remembered Hobbes and called him to the court to grant him a pension of £100.
.The king was important in protecting Hobbes when, in 1666, the House of Commons introduced a bill against atheism and profaneness.^ How then can wee be obliged to doe any thing contrary to the Command of the King, or other Soveraign Representant of the Common-wealth, whereof we are members, and by whom we look to be protected?
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.That same year, on 17 October 1666, it was ordered that the committee to which the bill was referred "should be empowered to receive information touching such books as tend to atheism, blasphemy and profaneness...^ And seeing this is to be done by ordinances concerning copulation: they are by the law of nature bound to make such ordinances concerning the same, as may tend to the increase of mankind.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

in particular... the book of Mr. Hobbes called the Leviathan".[13] Hobbes was terrified at the prospect of being labelled a heretic, and proceeded to burn some of his compromising papers. .At the same time, he examined the actual state of the law of heresy.^ That which totally excuseth a fact, and takes away from it the nature of a crime, can be none but that which, at the same time, taketh away the obligation of the law.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Totall Excuses That which totally Excuseth a Fact, and takes away from it the nature of a Crime, can be none but that, which at the same time, taketh away the obligation of the Law.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.The results of his investigation were first announced in three short Dialogues added as an Appendix to his Latin translation of Leviathan, published at Amsterdam in 1668. In this appendix, Hobbes aimed to show that, since the High Court of Commission had been put down, there remained no court of heresy at all to which he was amenable, and that nothing could be heresy except opposing the Nicene Creed, which, he maintained, Leviathan did not do.^ In all which there is nothing of Power, but of Perswasion.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In all which there is nothing of power, but of persuasion.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That it consisteth in wit, or, as they call it, in the jest, this experience confuteth: for men laugh at mischances and indecencies, therein there lieth no wit or jest at all.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.The only consequence that came of the bill was that Hobbes could never thereafter publish anything in England on subjects relating to human conduct.^ Both Hobbes's "nasty, brutish and short" and Rousseaux's "noble savage" were formulated in an age when we understood little, if anything, about the origins and prehistory of humans - so how could either draw correct conclusions?
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In relation to these bonds only it is that I am to speak now of the liberty of subjects.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Liberty Of Subjects Consisteth In Liberty From Covenants In relation to these Bonds only it is, that I am to speak now, of the Liberty of Subjects.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.The 1668 edition of his works was printed in Amsterdam because he could not obtain the censor's licence for its publication in England.^ For how admirable soever any work be, the Admiration consisteth not in that it could be done, because men naturally beleeve the Almighty can doe all things, but because he does it at the Prayer, or Word of a man.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For how admirable soever any work be, the admiration consisteth not in that could be done, because men naturally believe the Almighty can do all things, but because He does it at the prayer or word of a man.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.Other writings were not made public until after his death, including Behemoth: the History of the Causes of the Civil Wars of England and of the Counsels and Artifices by which they were carried on from the year 1640 to the year 1662.^ They had not in Commission to make Laws; but to obey, and teach obedience to Laws made; and consequently they could not make their Writings obligatory Canons, without the help of the Soveraign Civill Power.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The other is civil history, which is the history of the voluntary actions of men in Commonwealths.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The other, is Civill History; which is the History of the Voluntary Actions of men in Common-wealths.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.For some time, Hobbes was not even allowed to respond, whatever his enemies tried.^ I always felt that Hobbes in his reference to life being "nasty brutish and short" in a state of nature was responding in part to the cult of the noble savage which had developed at the time.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Despite this, his reputation abroad was formidable, and noble or learned foreigners who came to England never forgot to pay their respects to the old philosopher.^ To conclude, there is nothing so absurd that the old philosophers (as Cicero saith, who was one of them) have not some of them maintained.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To conclude there is nothing so absurd, that the old Philosophers (as Cicero saith, who was one of them) have not some of them maintained.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

His final works were a curious mixture: an autobiography in Latin verse in 1672, and a translation of four books of the Odyssey into "rugged" English rhymes that in 1673 led to a complete translation of both Iliad and Odyssey in 1675.
.In October 1679, Hobbes suffered a bladder disorder, which was followed by a paralytic stroke from which he died on 4 December 1679. He is said to have uttered the last words "A great leap in the dark" in his final moments of life.^ From which words he inferreth three sorts of sins, and three sorts of punishments; and that none of those sins, but the last, shall be punished with hell fire; and consequently, that after this life there is punishment of lesser sins in purgatory.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And where it is said to the Apostles by an angel, "Go stand and speak in the Temple, all the words of this life";*(2) by the words of this life is meant the doctrine of the Gospel, as is evident by what they did in the Temple, and is expressed in the last verse of the same chapter.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From which words he inferreth three sorts of Sins, and three sorts of Punishments; and that none of those sins, but the last, shall be punished with hell fire; and consequently, that after this life, there is punishment of lesser sins in Purgatory.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

[14] He was interred within St. John the Baptist Church in Ault Hucknall in Derbyshire, England.

Selected bibliography

In popular culture

References

General

  • Macpherson, C. B. (1962). .The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism: Hobbes to Locke.^ Hobbes was a theorist who was interested in justifying the state and providing a theory of political obligation.
    • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Yet again Hobbes is turned into Locke through misreadings of his political thought.
    • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There is no contract between Sovereign (State) and individual citizens in Hobbes' political system.
    • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Robinson, Dave & Groves, Judy (2003). Introducing Political Philosophy. Icon Books. ISBN 1-84046-450-X.
  • Strauss, Leo (1936). The Political Philosophy of Hobbes; Its Basis and Its Genesis. .Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Strauss, Leo (1959).^ Strauss, L., 1936, The Political Philosophy of Hobbes: its Basis and Genesis , Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Hobbes's Moral and Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Oxford University Press has undertaken a projected 26 volume collection of the Clarendon Edition of the Works of Thomas Hobbes .
    • Hobbes's Moral and Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Perspectives on Thomas Hobbes , Oxford: Clarendon Press, 189–205.
    • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    "On the Basis of Hobbes's Political Philosophy," in What Is Political Philosophy?, Glencoe, IL: The Free Press, chap. 7.
  • Tönnies, Ferdinand (1925). Hobbes. Leben und Lehre, Stuttgart: Frommann, 3rd ed.
  • Shapin, Steven and Shaffer, Simon (1995). Leviathan and the Air-Pump. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Malcolm, Noel. 2002. Aspects of Hobbes. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Skinner, Quentin. 1996. Reason and Rhetoric in the Philosophy of Hobbes's. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • World History: The Living Legend. (2004) Changes Throughout Modern Philosophy. Pearson & Hall.
  • Malcolm, Noel. 2007. Reason of State, Propaganda, and the Thirty Years' War: An Unknown Translation by Thomas Hobbes. Oxford University Press.

Specific

  1. ^ book title Tracts of Mr. Thomas Hobbs of Malmsbury : Containing I. Behemoth, the history of the causes of the civil wars of England, from 1640. to 1660. printed from the author's own copy: never printed (but with a thousand faults) before. II. An answer to Arch-bishop Bramhall's book, called the Catching of the Leviathan: never printed before. III. An historical narration of heresie, and the punishment thereof: corrected by the true copy. IV. Philosophical problems, dedicated to the King in 1662. but never printed before, publ. 1682
  2. ^ "Hobbes's Moral and Political Philosophy". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hobbes-moral/.   . Retrieved March 11, 2009.
  3. ^ "Thomas Hobbes". thomas-hobbes.com. http://www.thomas-hobbes.com/.  
  4. ^ "Thomas Hobbes Biography". Notablebiographies.com. http://www.notablebiographies.com/He-Ho/Hobbes-Thomas.html. Retrieved 2009-07-24.  
  5. ^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/3791051
  6. ^ "Philosophy at Hertford College". Philosophy.hertford.ox.ac.uk. http://philosophy.hertford.ox.ac.uk/. Retrieved 2009-07-24.  
  7. ^ "Thomas Hobbes - Hertford College". Hertford.ox.ac.uk. http://www.hertford.ox.ac.uk/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=88&Itemid=159. Retrieved 2009-07-24.  
  8. ^ "The Galileo Project". Galileo.rice.edu. http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/hobbes.html. Retrieved 2009-07-24.  
  9. ^ "Thomas Hobbes: Politics and law - Google Books". Books.google.co.uk. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=LGSytrSTMQwC&pg=PT89&lpg=PT89&dq=hobbes+hertford&source=web&ots=-L0D0a4gm2&sig=KCcDC1kxvv15OVQuS074jwFqpm8&hl=en. Retrieved 2009-07-24.  
  10. ^ "Hobbes biography". Groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk. http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Hobbes.html. Retrieved 2009-07-24.  
  11. ^ "NNDB". NNDB. http://www.nndb.com/people/691/000031598//. Retrieved 2009-07-24.  
  12. ^ "1000 Makers of the Millennium", page 42. Dorling Kindersley, 1999
  13. ^ "House of Commons Journal Volume 8". British History Online. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=26780. Retrieved January 14 2005.  
  14. ^ Norman Davies, Europe: A history p. 687
  15. ^ Modern scholars are divided as to whether or not this translation was done by Hobbes. For a pro-Hobbes account see H. Warrender's introduction to De Cive: The English Edition in the Clarendon Edition of the Works of Thomas Hobbes (Oxford, 1984). For the contra-Hobbes account see Noel Malcolm's 'Charles Cotton, Translator of Hobbes's De cive' in Aspects of Hobbes (Oxford, 2002)
  16. ^ "Calvin and Hobbes Trivia". http://www.andrewsmcmeel.com/calvinandhobbes/trivia.html. Retrieved 2007-05-12.  

Further reading

  • Perez Zagorin Hobbes and the Law of Nature, Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009
  • A. P. Martinich
    • "Thomas Hobbes," The Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 281: British Rhetoricians and Logicians, 1500-1660, Second Series, Detroit: Gale, 2003, pp. 130-144.
    • A Hobbes Dictionary, Oxford: Blackwell, 1995.
    • Thomas Hobbes, New York: St. Martin's, 1997.
    • The Two Gods of Leviathan: Thomas Hobbes on Religion and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
    • Hobbes: A Biography, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
    • trans., Computatio sive Logica: Part One of De Corpore, New York: Abaris, 1981.
    • ed., Leviathan, Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 2002.
    • Philosophy and Government, 1572-1651, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

External links

.

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Do not that to another, which thou wouldst not have done to thyself.
.Thomas Hobbes (5 April 15884 December 1679) was an English philosopher, whose famous 1651 book Leviathan established the agenda for nearly all subsequent Western political philosophy.^ Thomas Hobbes 1651 INTRODUCTION .
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Project Gutenberg EBook of Leviathan, by Thomas Hobbes Copyright laws are changing all over the world.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ IIRC David Gauthier had an interesting book on Leviathan that explored Hobbes as exposing a collective action problem occurring in communities.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

Sourced

.
  • Give an inch, he'll take an ell.
    • Liberty and Necessity (no.^ And therefore God, that seeth, and disposeth all things, seeth also that the Liberty of man in doing what he will, is accompanied with the Necessity of doing that which God will, & no more, nor lesse.
      • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ And therefore God, that seeth and disposeth all things, seeth also that the liberty of man in doing what he will is accompanied with the necessity of doing that which God will and no more, nor less.
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Again, if we take liberty for an exemption from laws, it is no less absurd for men to demand as they do that liberty by which all other men may be masters of their lives.
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

      .111)
  • To understand this for sense it is not required that a man should be a geometrician or a logician, but that he should be mad.^ So that Justice Justifies in that that sense, in which to Justifie, is the same that to Denominate A Man Just; and not in the signification of discharging the Law; whereby the punishment of his sins should be unjust.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So that justice justifies in that sense in which to justify is the same as that to denominate a man just; and not in the signification of discharging the law, whereby the punishment of his sins should be unjust.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On this law dependeth another: that at the entrance into conditions of peace, no man require to reserve to himself any right which he is not content should he reserved to every one of the rest.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    • On the proposition that the volume generated by revolving the region under 1/x from 1 to infinity has finite volume. .Quoted in Mathematical Maxims and Minims by N. Rose (1988)
  • …the passion of laughter is nothing else but a sudden glory arising from sudden conception of some eminency in ourselves, by comparison with the infirmities of others, or with our own formerly…
    • The Elements of Law, Natural and Politic Pt.^ I may therefore conclude, that the passion of laughter is nothing else but a sudden glory arising from sudden conception of some eminency in ourselves, by comparison with the infirmities of others, or with our own formerly: for men laugh at the follies of themselves past, when they come suddenly to remembrance, except they bring with them any present dishonour.
      • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ And in this case also the passion of laughter proceedeth from the sudden imagination of our own odds and eminence; for what is else the recommending ourselves to our own good opinion, by comparison with another man's infirmities or absurdity?
      • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ If they be not, what others are so, besides the Law of Nature?
      • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

      I Human Nature (1640) Ch. .9
  • …in the state of nature, Profit is the measure of Right.^ Out of which may also be collected, that irresistible might in the state of nature is right.
    • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

  • Now I am about to take my last voyage, a great leap in the dark.
    • Last words

Leviathan (1651)

.
  • The condition of Man...is a condition of Warre of every one against every one.^ In Such A Warre, Nothing Is Unjust To this warre of every man against every man, this also is consequent; that nothing can be Unjust.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For without the decision of Controversies, there is no protection of one Subject, against the injuries of another; the Lawes concerning Meum and Tuum are in vaine; and to every man remaineth, from the naturall and necessary appetite of his own conservation, the right of protecting himselfe by his private strength, which is the condition of Warre; and contrary to the end for which every Common-wealth is instituted.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Ninth, Against Pride The question who is the better man, has no place in the condition of meer Nature; where, (as has been shewn before,) all men are equall.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. I, Ch. .14
  • Words are wise men’s counters, they do but reckon by them; but they are the money of fools, that value them by the authority of an Aristotle, a Cicero, or a Thomas, or any other doctor whatsoever, if but a man.
    • Pt.^ For words are wise mens counters, they do but reckon by them: but they are the mony of fooles, that value them by the authority of an Aristotle, a Cicero, or a Thomas, or any other Doctor whatsoever, if but a man.
      • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ She cannot rely on the authority of past definitions, even those backed up 'by the authority of an Aristotle, a Cicero, or a Thomas, or any other Doctor whatsoever, if but a man.'
      • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ For words are wise mens counters, they do but reckon by them: but they are the mony of fooles, that value them by the authority of an Aristotle, a Cicero, or a Thomas, or any other Doctor whatsoever, if but a man.'
      • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

      I, Ch. .4
  • …Understanding being nothing else, but conception caused by Speech.^ Understanding When a man upon the hearing of any Speech, hath those thoughts which the words of that Speech, and their connexion, were ordained and constituted to signifie; Then he is said to understand it; Understanding being nothing els, but conception caused by Speech.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When a man, upon the hearing of any speech, hath those thoughts which the words of that speech, and their connexion, were ordained and constituted to signify, then he is said to understand it: understanding being nothing else but conception caused by speech.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Nay, for the cause of understanding also, they say the thing understood sendeth forth an intelligible species, that is, an intelligible being seen; which, coming into the understanding, makes us understand.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. I, Ch. .4
  • …Science is the knowledge of Consequences, and dependence of one fact upon another…
    • Pt.^ And whereas sense and memory are but knowledge of fact, which is a thing past and irrevocable, science is the knowledge of consequences, and dependence of one fact upon another; by which, out of that we can presently do, we know how to do something else when we will, or the like, another time: because when we see how anything comes about, upon what causes, and by what manner; when the like causes come into our power, we see how to make it produce the like effects.
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ But to prove it, he allegeth first, this reason, "Kings and popes, clergy and laity, make but one Commonwealth; that is to say, but one Church: and in all bodies the members depend one upon another: but things spiritual depend not of things temporal: therefore temporal depend on spiritual, and therefore are subject to them."
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ For whatsoever men are to take knowledge of for Law, not upon other mens words, but every one from his own reason, must be such as is agreeable to the reason of all men; which no Law can be, but the Law of Nature.
      • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

      I, Ch. .5
  • The privilege of absurdity; to which no living creature is subject but man only.^ But this privilege is allayed by another; and that is by the privilege of absurdity, to which no living creature is subject, but men only.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But this priviledge, is allayed by another; and that is, by the priviledge of Absurdity; to which no living creature is subject, but man onely.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And those several sorts of unions, governments, and subjections of man's will, may be understood to be made, either absolutely, that is to say, for all future time, or for a time limited only.
    • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. I, Ch. .5
  • Sudden glory is the passion which maketh those grimaces called laughter.^ Sudden glory is the passion which maketh those grimaces called laughter; and is caused either by some sudden act of their own that pleaseth them; or by the apprehension of some deformed thing in another, by comparison whereof they suddenly applaud themselves.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sudden Glory Laughter Sudden glory, is the passion which maketh those Grimaces called LAUGHTER; and is caused either by some sudden act of their own, that pleaseth them; or by the apprehension of some deformed thing in another, by comparison whereof they suddenly applaud themselves.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There is a passion which hath no name, but the sign of it is that distortion of the countenance we call LAUGHTER, which is always joy, but what joy, what we think, and wherein we triumph when we laugh, hath not hitherto been declared by any.
    • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. I, Ch. .6
  • Hope
    For Appetite with an opinion of attaining, is called HOPE.

    Despaire
    The same, without such opinion, DESPAIRE.
    • Pt.^ For appetite with an opinion of attaining is called hope.
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The same, without such opinion, despair.
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Hope For Appetite with an opinion of attaining, is called HOPE. Despaire The same, without such opinion, DESPAIRE. Feare Aversion, with opinion of Hurt from the object, FEARE. Courage The same, with hope of avoyding that Hurt by resistance, COURAGE. Anger Sudden Courage, ANGER. Confidence Constant Hope, CONFIDENCE of our selves.
      • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

      I, Ch. .6
  • Desire, to know why, and how, CURIOSITY; such as is in no living creature but Man; so that Man is distinguished, not only by his Reason; but also by this singular Passion from other Animals; in whom the appetite of food, and other pleasures of Sense, by predominance, take away the care of knowing causes; which is a Lust of the mind, that by a perseverance of delight in the continual and indefatigable generation of Knowledge, exceedeth the short vehemence of any carnal Pleasure.^ Desire to know why, and how, curiosity; such as is in no living creature but man: so that man is distinguished, not only by his reason, but also by this singular passion from other animals; in whom the appetite of food, and other pleasures of sense, by predominance, take away the care of knowing causes; which is a lust of the mind, that by a perseverance of delight in the continual and indefatigable generation of knowledge, exceedeth the short vehemence of any carnal pleasure.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And again: "Take away the civil law, and no man knows what is his own, and what another man's."
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Desires, and other Passions of man, are in themselves no Sin.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. I, Ch. .6
  • The secret thoughts of a man run over all things, holy, prophane, clean, obscene, grave, and light, without shame, or blame…
    • Pt.^ The secret thoughts of a man run over all things holy, prophane, clean, obscene, grave, and light, without shame, or blame; which verbal discourse cannot do, farther than the judgement shall approve of the time, place, and persons.
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ For the thoughts are to the desires as scouts and spies to range abroad and find the way to the things desired, all steadiness of the mind's motion, and all quickness of the same, proceeding from thence.
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ For he that hath dominion over the person of a man hath dominion over all that is his, without which dominion were but a title without the effect.
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

      I, Ch. .8
  • The "value" or "worth" of a man is, as of all other things, his price; that is to say, so much as would be given for the use of his power.^ The value or worth of a man is, as of all other things, his price; that is to say, so much as would be given for the use of his power, and therefore is not absolute, but a thing dependent on the need and judgement of another.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For so much worth is every thing, as a man will give for the use of all it can do.
    • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Worth The Value, or WORTH of a man, is as of all other things, his Price; that is to say, so much as would be given for the use of his Power: and therefore is not absolute; but a thing dependant on the need and judgement of another.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. I, Ch. .10
  • By Manners, I mean not here decency of behaviour; as how one man should salute another, or how a man should wash his mouth, or pick his teeth before company, and such other points of the small morals; but those qualities of mankind that concern their living together in peace and unity.^ CHAPTER XI OF THE DIFFERENCE OF MANNERS What Is Here Meant By Manners By MANNERS, I mean not here, Decency of behaviour; as how one man should salute another, or how a man should wash his mouth, or pick his teeth before company, and such other points of the Small Morals; But those qualities of man-kind, that concern their living together in Peace, and Unity.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ BY MANNERS, I mean not here decency of behaviour; as how one man should salute another, or how a man should wash his mouth, or pick his teeth before company, and such other points of the small morals; but those qualities of mankind that concern their living together in peace and unity.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is therefore manifest enough by this one place that by the kingdom of God is properly meant a Commonwealth, instituted (by the consent of those which were to be subject thereto) for their civil government and the regulating of their behaviour, not only towards God their king, but also towards one another in point of justice, and towards other nations both in peace and war; which properly was a kingdom wherein God was king, and the high priest was to be, after the death of Moses, his sole viceroy, or lieutenant.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    .To which end we are to consider that the felicity of this life consisteth not in the repose of a mind satisfied.^ To which end we are to consider, that the Felicity of this life, consisteth not in the repose of a mind satisfied.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To which end we are to consider that the felicity of this life consisteth not in the repose of a mind satisfied.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    .For there is no such finis ultimus [utmost aim] nor summum bonum [greatest good] as is spoken of in the books of the old moral philosophers.^ For there is no such finis ultimus (utmost aim) nor summum bonum (greatest good) as is spoken of in the books of the old moral philosophers.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For there is no such Finis Ultimus, (utmost ayme,) nor Summum Bonum, (greatest good,) as is spoken of in the Books of the old Morall Philosophers.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But this again has no place but in a State Civill, because before such estate, there is no Dominion of Persons.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Nor can a man any more live whose desires are at an end than he whose senses and imaginations are at a stand.^ Nor can a man any more live whose desires are at an end than he whose senses and imaginations are at a stand.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Nor can a man any more live, whose Desires are at an end, than he, whose Senses and Imaginations are at a stand.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For to accuse requires less eloquence (such is man's nature) than to excuse; and condemnation, than absolution, more resembles justice.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. I, Ch. .11
  • Felicity is a continual progress of the desire from one object to another, the attaining of the former being still but the way to the latter.The cause whereof is that the object of man's desire is not to enjoy once only, and for one instant of time, but to assure forever the way of his future desire.^ Felicity is a continual progress of the desire from one object to another, the attaining of the former being still but the way to the latter.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The cause whereof is that the object of man's desire is not to enjoy once only, and for one instant of time, but to assure forever the way of his future desire.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The cause whereof is, That the object of mans desire, is not to enjoy once onely, and for one instant of time; but to assure for ever, the way of his future desire.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .And therefore the voluntary actions and inclinations of all men tend not only to the procuring, but also to the assuring of a contented life, and differ only in the way, which ariseth partly from the diversity of passions in diverse men, and partly from the difference of the knowledge or opinion each one has of the causes which produce the effect desired.^ It proceeds, therefore, from the passions; which are different, not only from the difference of men's complexions, but also from their difference of customs and education.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And therefore the voluntary actions and inclinations of all men tend not only to the procuring, but also to the assuring of a contented life, and differ only in the way, which ariseth partly from the diversity of passions in diverse men, and partly from the difference of the knowledge or opinion each one has of the causes which produce the effect desired.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Having shewed in the precedent chapters, that the imagination of men proceedeth from the action of external objects upon the brain, or some internal substance of the head; and that the passions proceed from the alteration there made, and continued to the heart: it is consequent in the next place (seeing the diversity of degree in knowledge in divers men, to be greater than may be ascribed to the divers temper of the brain) to declare what other causes may produce such odds, and excess of capacity, as we daily observe in one man above another.
    • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. I, Ch. .11
  • In the first place, I put for a general inclination of all mankind a perpetual and restless desire of power after power, that ceaseth only in death. And the cause of this is not always that a man hopes for a more intensive delight than he has already attained to, or that he cannot be content with a moderate power, but because he cannot assure the power and means to live well, which he hath present, without the acquisition of more.^ For he that hath dominion over the person of a man hath dominion over all that is his, without which dominion were but a title without the effect.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ All which may be reduced to the first, that is, desire of power.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And the cause of this is not always that a man hopes for a more intensive delight than he has already attained to, or that he cannot be content with a moderate power, but because he cannot assure the power and means to live well, which he hath present, without the acquisition of more.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. I, Ch. .11
  • Man gives indifferent names to one and the same thing from the difference of their own passions; as they that approve a private opinion call it opinion; but they that mislike it, heresy: and yet heresy signifies no more than private opinion.
    • Pt.^ And that whereby they signify the opinion they have of a man's felicity is by the Greeks called makarismos, for which we have no name in our tongue.
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ From the same it proceedeth, that men give different names, to one and the same thing, from the difference of their own passions: As they that approve a private opinion, call it Opinion; but they that mislike it, Haeresie: and yet haeresie signifies no more than private opinion; but has onely a greater tincture of choler.
      • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ From the same it proceedeth that men give different names to one and the same thing from the difference of their own passions: as they that approve a private opinion call it opinion; but they that mislike it, heresy: and yet heresy signifies no more than private opinion; but has only a greater tincture of choler.
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

      I, Ch. .11
  • And this Feare of things invisible, is the naturall Seed of that, which every one in himself calleth Religion; and in them that worship, or feare that Power otherwise than they do, Superstition.^ And this fear of things invisible is the natural seed of that which every one in himself calleth religion; and in them that worship or fear that power otherwise than they do, superstition.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And this Feare of things invisible, is the naturall Seed of that, which every one in himself calleth Religion; and in them that worship, or feare that Power otherwise than they do, Superstition.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And he that counterfeiteth such worship for fear of punishment, if he be a man whose example hath power amongst his brethren, committeth a sin.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. I, Ch. .11
  • In these four things, opinion of ghosts, ignorance of second causes, devotions towards what men fear, and taking of things casual for prognostics, consisteth the natural seed of religion; which by reason of the different fancies, judgements, and passions of several men, hath grown up into ceremonies so different, that those which are used by one man, are for the most part ridiculous to another.^ And from these Images it is that one of the faculties of mans Nature, is called the Imagination.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And from these images it is that one of the faculties of man's nature is called the imagination.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And in these four things, opinion of ghosts, ignorance of second causes, devotion towards what men fear, and taking of things casual for prognostics, consisteth the natural seed of religion; which, by reason of the different fancies, judgements, and passions of several men, hath grown up into ceremonies so different that those which are used by one man are for the most part ridiculous to another.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. I, Ch. .12 Of religion
  • For Prudence, is but Experience; which equal time, equally bestows on all men, in those things they equally apply themselves unto.^ For Prudence, is but Experience; which equall time, equally bestowes on all men, in those things they equally apply themselves unto.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For prudence is but experience, which equal time equally bestows on all men in those things they equally apply themselves unto.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For if all things were equally in all men, nothing would be prized.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. I, Ch. .13
  • For such is the nature of men, that howsoever they may acknowledge many others to be more witty, or more eloquent, or more learned; Yet they will hardly believe there be many so wise as themselves: For they see their own wit at hand, and other men's at a distance.
    • Pt.^ If they be not, what others are so, besides the law of nature?
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ As he acknowledges that men will resist one, he must acknowledge that they will resist the other.
      • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

      ^ For that which men reap benefit by to themselves they are thought to do for their own sakes, and not for love of others.
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

      I, Ch. .13
  • During the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that conditions called war; and such a war, as if of every man, against every man.^ For as long as every man holdeth this right, of doing anything he liketh; so long are all men in the condition of war.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hereby it is manifest that during the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war; and such a war as is of every man against every man.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To this war of every man against every man, this also is consequent; that nothing can be unjust.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. I, Ch. .13
  • For War, consisteth not in Battell onely, or the act of fighting; but in a tract of time, wherein the Will to contend by Battell is sufficiently known: and therefore the notion of Time, is to be considered in the nature of Warre; as it is in the nature of Weather.
    • Pt.^ For WARRE, consisteth not in Battell onely, or the act of fighting; but in a tract of time, wherein the Will to contend by Battell is sufficiently known: and therefore the notion of Time, is to be considered in the nature of Warre; as it is in the nature of Weather.
      • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ For war consisteth not in battle only, or the act of fighting, but in a tract of time, wherein the will to contend by battle is sufficiently known: and therefore the notion of time is to be considered in the nature of war, as it is in the nature of weather.
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ For as the nature of foul weather lieth not in a shower or two of rain, but in an inclination thereto of many days together: so the nature of war consisteth not in actual fighting, but in the known disposition thereto during all the time there is no assurance to the contrary.
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

      I, Ch. .13
  • To this war of every man against every man, this also in consequent; that nothing can be unjust.^ To this war of every man against every man, this also is consequent; that nothing can be unjust.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In Such A Warre, Nothing Is Unjust To this warre of every man against every man, this also is consequent; that nothing can be Unjust.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Secondly, though thus assembled with intention to unite themselves, they are yet in that estate in which every man hath right to everything, and consequently, as hath been said, chap.
    • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The notions of right and wrong, justice and injustice have there no place.^ The notions of right and wrong, justice and injustice, have there no place.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The notions of Right and Wrong, Justice and Injustice have there no place.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But this again has no place but in a State Civill, because before such estate, there is no Dominion of Persons.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Where there is no common power, there is no law, where no law, no injustice.^ Where there is no common power, there is no law; where no law, no injustice.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Where there is no common Power, there is no Law: where no Law, no Injustice.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But this is no Body Politique, there being no Common Representative to oblige them to any other Law, than that which is common to all other subjects.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Force, and fraud, are in war the cardinal virtues.
    • Pt.^ Force and fraud are in war the two cardinal virtues.
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

      I, Ch. .13
  • [In a state of war] No arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.
    • Pt.^ In such condition, there is no place for Industry; because the fruit thereof is uncertain; and consequently no Culture of the Earth; no Navigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by Sea; no commodious Building; no Instruments of moving, and removing such things as require much force; no Knowledge of the face of the Earth; no account of Time; no Arts; no Letters; no Society; and which is worst of all, continuall feare, and danger of violent death; And the life of man, solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short.
      • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ In such condition there is no place for industry, because the fruit thereof is uncertain: and consequently no culture of the earth; no navigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by sea; no commodious building; no instruments of moving and removing such things as require much force; no knowledge of the face of the earth; no account of time; no arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Also because whatsoever (as I said before,) we conceive, has been perceived first by sense, either all at once, or by parts; a man can have no thought, representing any thing, not subject to sense.
      • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

      I, Ch. .13
    • Whatsoever therefore is consequent to a time of Warre, where every man is Enemy to every man; the same is consequent to the time, wherein men live without other security, than what their own strength, and their own invention shall furnish them withall.^ Whatsoever therefore is consequent to a time of war, where every man is enemy to every man, the same consequent to the time wherein men live without other security than what their own strength and their own invention shall furnish them withal.
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ In Such A Warre, Nothing Is Unjust To this warre of every man against every man, this also is consequent; that nothing can be Unjust.
      • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ All other time is PEACE. The Incommodites Of Such A War Whatsoever therefore is consequent to a time of Warre, where every man is Enemy to every man; the same is consequent to the time, wherein men live without other security, than what their own strength, and their own invention shall furnish them withall.
      • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

      .In such condition, there is no place for Industry; because the fruit thereof is uncertain; and consequently no Culture of the Earth; no Navigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by Sea; no commodious Building; no Instruments of moving, and removing such things as require much force; no Knowledge of the face of the Earth; no account of Time; no Arts; no Letters; no Society; and which is worst of all, continuall feare, and danger of violent death; And the life of man, solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short.
  • The RIGHT OF NATURE, which Writers commonly call Jus Naturale, is the Liberty each man hath, to use his own power, as he will himself, for the preservation of his own Nature; that is to say, of his own Life; and consequently, of doing any thing, which in his own Judgement, and Reason, he shall conceive to be the aptest means thereunto.^ Nor is there any such thing as agathon aplox, that is to say, simply good.
    • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In such condition, there is no place for Industry; because the fruit thereof is uncertain; and consequently no Culture of the Earth; no Navigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by Sea; no commodious Building; no Instruments of moving, and removing such things as require much force; no Knowledge of the face of the Earth; no account of Time; no Arts; no Letters; no Society; and which is worst of all, continuall feare, and danger of violent death; And the life of man, solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For a man's conscience and his judgement is the same thing; and as the judgement, so also the conscience may be erroneous.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. I, Ch. .14
  • As first a man cannot lay down the right of resisting them, that assault him by force, to take away his life; because he cannot be understood to aim thereby, at any Good to himself.^ As first a man cannot lay down the right of resisting them that assault him by force to take away his life, because he cannot be understood to aim thereby at any good to himself.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As first a man cannot lay down the right of resisting them, that assault him by force, to take away his life; because he cannot be understood to ayme thereby, at any Good to himselfe.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Against The Duty Of A Soveraign To Relinquish Any Essentiall Right of Soveraignty: Or Not To See The People Taught The Grounds Of Them And because, if the essentiall Rights of Soveraignty (specified before in the eighteenth Chapter) be taken away, the Common-wealth is thereby dissolved, and every man returneth into the condition, and calamity of a warre with every other man, (which is the greatest evill that can happen in this life;) it is the Office of the Soveraign, to maintain those Rights entire; and consequently against his duty, First, to transferre to another, or to lay from himselfe any of them.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. I, Ch. .14
  • That a man be willing, when others are so too, as farre-forth, as for Peace, and defence of himself he shall think it necessary, to lay down this right to all things; and be contented with so much liberty against other men, as he would allow other men against himself.^ For so much worth is every thing, as a man will give for the use of all it can do.
    • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Second Law Of Nature From this Fundamentall Law of Nature, by which men are commanded to endeavour Peace, is derived this second Law; "That a man be willing, when others are so too, as farre-forth, as for Peace, and defence of himselfe he shall think it necessary, to lay down this right to all things; and be contented with so much liberty against other men, as he would allow other men against himselfe."
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ From this fundamental law of nature, by which men are commanded to endeavour peace, is derived this second law: that a man be willing, when others are so too, as far forth as for peace and defence of himself he shall think it necessary, to lay down this right to all things; and be contented with so much liberty against other men as he would allow other men against himself.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. I, Ch. .14
  • Moral philosophy is nothing else but the science of what is good, and evil, in the conversation, and society of mankind.^ And the science of them is the true and only moral philosophy.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For moral philosophy is nothing else but the science of what is good and evil in the conversation and society of mankind.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For Morall Philosophy is nothing else but the Science of what is Good, and Evill, in the conversation, and Society of mankind.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Good, and evil, are names that signify our appetites, and aversions; which in different tempers, customs, and doctrines of men, are different.^ Good and evil are names that signify our appetites and aversions, which in different tempers, customs, and doctrines of men are different: and diverse men differ not only in their judgement on the senses of what is pleasant and unpleasant to the taste, smell, hearing, touch, and sight; but also of what is conformable or disagreeable to reason in the actions of common life.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Good, and Evill, are names that signifie our Appetites, and Aversions; which in different tempers, customes, and doctrines of men, are different: And divers men, differ not onely in their Judgement, on the senses of what is pleasant, and unpleasant to the tast, smell, hearing, touch, and sight; but also of what is conformable, or disagreeable to Reason, in the actions of common life.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A seventh is: that in revenges (that is, retribution of evil for evil), men look not at the greatness of the evil past, but the greatness of the good to follow.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. I, Ch. .15
  • Do not that to another, which thou wouldst not have done to thyself.
    • Original form: A Rule, By Which The Laws Of Nature May Easily Be Examined And though this may seem too subtile a deduction of the Lawes of Nature, to be taken notice of by all men; whereof the most part are too busie in getting food, and the rest too negligent to understand; yet to leave all men unexcusable, they have been contracted into one easie sum, intelligible even to the meanest capacity; and that is, "Do not that to another, which thou wouldest not have done to thy selfe;" which sheweth him, that he has no more to do in learning the Lawes of Nature, but, when weighing the actions of other men with his own, they seem too heavy, to put them into the other part of the ballance, and his own into their place, that his own passions, and selfe-love, may adde nothing to the weight; and then there is none of these Lawes of Nature that will not appear unto him very reasonable.
    • Pt.^ For whatsoever men are to take knowledge of for Law, not upon other mens words, but every one from his own reason, must be such as is agreeable to the reason of all men; which no Law can be, but the Law of Nature.
      • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ It appears also that the oath adds nothing to the obligation.
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Seeing all men by nature had right to all things, they had right every one to reign over all the rest.
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

      I, Ch. .15
  • For the Lawes of Nature (as Justice, Equity, Modesty, Mercy, and (in summe) Doing To Others, As Wee Would Be Done To,) if themselves, without the terrour of some Power, to cause them to be observed, are contrary to our naturall Passions, that carry us to Partiality, Pride, Revenge, and the like.^ If they be not, what others are so, besides the law of nature?
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To the Laws of Nature, declared in the 15.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If they be not, what others are so, besides the Law of Nature?
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .And Covenants, without the Sword, are but Words, and of no strength to secure a man at all.^ And Covenants, without the Sword, are but Words, and of no strength to secure a man at all.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And covenants, without the sword, are but words and of no strength to secure a man at all.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Covenant without the sword.
    • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. I, Ch. .17
  • As in the presence of the Master, the Servants are equall, and without any honour at all; So are the Subjects, in the presence of the Soveraign.^ As in the presence of the Master, the Servants are equall, and without any honour at all; So are the Subjects, in the presence of the Soveraign.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And as the Power, so also the Honour of the Soveraign, ought to be greater, than that of any, or all the Subjects.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As in the presence of the master, the servants are equal, and without any honour at all; so are the subjects, in the presence of the sovereign.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    .And though they shine some more, some lesse, when they are out of his sight; yet in his presence, they shine no more than the Starres in presence of the Sun.^ And of these, some be capital, some less than capital.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And though they shine some more, some lesse, when they are out of his sight; yet in his presence, they shine no more than the Starres in presence of the Sun.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Capitall And of these, some be Capitall, some Lesse than Capitall.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. I, Ch. .18
  • No man's error becomes his own Law; nor obliges him to persist in it.^ No man's error becomes his own law, nor obliges him to persist in it.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ No mans error becomes his own Law; nor obliges him to persist in it.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Nay, granting whatsoever was given to St. Peter was given to the Pope, yet seeing there is in the Scripture no command to any man to obeyeth him when his commands are contrary to those of his lawful sovereign.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. II, ch. .26
  • The source of every crime, is some defect of the understanding; or some error in reasoning; or some sudden force of the passions.
    • Pt.^ The source of every crime is some defect of the understanding, or some error in reasoning, or some sudden force of the passions.
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Ignorance Of The Law Of Nature Excuseth No Man The source of every Crime, is some defect of the Understanding; or some errour in Reasoning, or some sudden force of the Passions.
      • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Another, and a principal defect of the mind, is that which men call MADNESS, which appeareth to be nothing else but some imagination of such predominance above all the rest, that we have no passion but from it.
      • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

      II, ch. .27
  • Another doctrine repugnant to civil society, is that whatsoever a man does against his conscience, is sin; and it dependeth on the presumption of making himself judge of good and evil.^ Another doctrine repugnant to civil society is that whatsoever a man does against his conscience is sin; and it dependeth on the presumption of making himself judge of good and evil.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Erroneous Conscience Another doctrine repugnant to Civill Society, is, that "Whatsoever a man does against his Conscience, is Sinne;" and it dependeth on the presumption of making himself judge of Good and Evill.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For he that deserteth the Means, deserteth the Ends; and he deserteth the Means, that being the Soveraign, acknowledgeth himselfe subject to the Civill Lawes; and renounceth the Power of Supreme Judicature; or of making Warre, or Peace by his own Authority; or of Judging of the Necessities of the Common-wealth; or of levying Mony, and Souldiers, when, and as much as in his own conscience he shall judge necessary; or of making Officers, and Ministers both of Warre, and Peace; or of appointing Teachers, and examining what Doctrines are conformable, or contrary to the Defence, Peace, and Good of the people.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .For a man's conscience and his judgement are the same thing, and as the judgement, so also the conscience may be erroneous.^ For a man's conscience and his judgement is the same thing; and as the judgement, so also the conscience may be erroneous.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For a mans Conscience, and his Judgement is the same thing; and as the Judgement, so also the Conscience may be erroneous.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For let a man say he knoweth a thing never so well, if the same shall afterwards appear to be false, he is driven to a confession, that it was not knowledge, but opinion.
    • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. II, Ch. .29
  • Corporations may lesser commonwealths in the bowels of a greater, like worms in the entrails of a natural man.^ Another infirmity of a Commonwealth is the immoderate greatness of a town, when it is able to furnish out of its own circuit the number and expense of a great army; as also the great number of corporations, which are as it were many lesser Commonwealths in the bowels of a greater, like worms in the entrails of a natural man.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Use Of Names Positive And this is all the variety of Names Positive; which are put to mark somewhat which is in Nature, or may be feigned by the mind of man, as Bodies that are, or may be conceived to be; or of bodies, the Properties that are, or may be feigned to be; or Words and Speech.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But the infliction of what evil soever on an innocent man that is not a subject, if it be for the benefit of the Commonwealth, and without violation of any former covenant, is no breach of the law of nature.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. II, Ch. .29
  • For a mans Conscience, and his Judgement is the same thing; and as the Judgement, so also the Conscience may be erroneous.^ For a man's conscience and his judgement is the same thing; and as the judgement, so also the conscience may be erroneous.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For a mans Conscience, and his Judgement is the same thing; and as the Judgement, so also the Conscience may be erroneous.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ An Anatomist, or a Physitian may speak, or write his judgement of unclean things; because it is not to please, but profit: but for another man to write his extravagant, and pleasant fancies of the same, is as if a man, from being tumbled into the dirt, should come and present himselfe before good company.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. II, Ch. .29
  • Intemperance is naturally punished with diseases; rashness, with mischance; injustice; with violence of enemies; pride, with ruin; cowardice, with oppression; and rebellion, with slaughter.^ And hereby it comes to passe, that Intemperance, is naturally punished with Diseases; Rashnesse, with Mischances; Injustice, with the Violence of Enemies; Pride, with Ruine; Cowardise, with Oppression; Negligent government of Princes, with Rebellion; and Rebellion, with Slaughter.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And hereby it comes to pass that intemperance is naturally punished with diseases; rashness, with mischances; injustice, with the violence of enemies; pride, with ruin; cowardice, with oppression; negligent government of princes, with rebellion; and rebellion, with slaughter.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The laws of nature are immutable and eternal; for injustice, ingratitude, arrogance, pride, iniquity, acception of persons, and the rest can never be made lawful.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. II, Ch. .31
  • Leisure is the mother of philosophy.
    • Original: There have been divers true, generall, and profitable Speculations from the beginning; as being the naturall plants of humane Reason: But they were at first but few in number; men lived upon grosse Experience; there was no Method; that is to say, no Sowing, nor Planting of Knowledge by it self, apart from the Weeds, and common Plants of Errour and Conjecture: And the cause of it being the want of leisure from procuring the necessities of life, and defending themselves against their neighbours, it was impossible, till the erecting of great Common-wealths, it should be otherwise.^ Where first were great and flourishing cities, there was first the study of philosophy.
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

      ^ For as there were Plants of Corn and Wine in small quantity dispersed in the Fields and Woods, before men knew their vertue, or made use of them for their nourishment, or planted them apart in Fields, and Vineyards; in which time they fed on Akorns, and drank Water: so also there have been divers true, generall, and profitable Speculations from the beginning; as being the naturall plants of humane Reason: But they were at first but few in number; men lived upon grosse Experience; there was no Method; that is to say, no Sowing, nor Planting of Knowledge by it self, apart from the Weeds, and common Plants of Errour and Conjecture: And the cause of it being the want of leasure from procuring the necessities of life, and defending themselves against their neighbours, it was impossible, till the erecting of great Common-wealths, it should be otherwise.
      • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Were it against reason so to get it, when it is impossible to receive hurt by it?
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

      .Leisure is the mother of Philosophy; and Common-wealth, the mother of Peace, and Leisure: Where first were great and flourishing Cities, there was first the study of Philosophy.
    • Pt.^ Where first were great and flourishing cities, there was first the study of philosophy.
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Leasure is the mother of Philosophy; and Common-wealth, the mother of Peace, and Leasure: Where first were great and flourishing Cities, there was first the study of Philosophy.
      • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Leisure is the mother of philosophy; and Commonwealth, the mother of peace and leisure.
      • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

      IV, Ch. .46
  • And if a man consider the original of this great ecclesiastical dominion, he will easily perceive, that the Papacy, is no other than the ghost of the deceased Roman Empire, sitting crowned upon the grave thereof: for so did the Papacy start up on a sudden out of the ruins of that heathen power.^ And if a man consider the originall of this great Ecclesiasticall Dominion, he will easily perceive, that the Papacy, is no other, than the Ghost of the deceased Romane Empire, sitting crowned upon the grave thereof: For so did the Papacy start up on a Sudden out of the Ruines of that Heathen Power.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And if a man consider the original of this great ecclesiastical dominion, he will easily perceive that the papacy is no other than the ghost of the deceased Roman Empire, sitting crowned upon the grave thereof: for so did the papacy start up on a sudden out of the ruins of that heathen power.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And therefore When The Representative Is One Man, His Unwarranted Acts Are His Own Onely In a Body Politique, if the Representative be one man, whatsoever he does in the Person of the Body, which is not warranted in his Letters, nor by the Lawes, is his own act, and not the act of the Body, nor of any other Member thereof besides himselfe: Because further than his Letters, or the Lawes limit, he representeth no mans person, but his own.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Pt. IV, Ch. .47
  • The praise of ancient authors proceeds not from the reverence of the dead, but from the competition and mutual envy of the living.^ If the Antiquity of the Writer, I am not sure, that generally they to whom such honor is given, were more Ancient when they wrote, than I am that am Writing: But if it bee well considered, the praise of Ancient Authors, proceeds not from the reverence of the Dead, but from the competition, and mutuall envy of the Living.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For if we will reverence the age, the present is the oldest: if the antiquity of the writer, I am not sure that generally they to whom such honour is given, were more ancient when they wrote than I am that am writing: but if it be well considered, the praise of ancient authors proceeds not from the reverence of the dead, but from the competition and mutual envy of the living.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Particularly, competition of praise, enclineth to a reverence of Antiquity.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Review and Conclusion
  • Such truth as opposeth no man's profit nor pleasure is to all men welcome.^ For such truth as opposeth no man's profit nor pleasure is to all men welcome.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For such Truth, as opposeth no man profit, nor pleasure, is to all men welcome.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And when that is done, the thing they pretend to be a Miracle, we must both see it done, and use all means possible to consider, whether it be really done; and not onely so, but whether it be such, as no man can do the like by his naturall power, but that it requires the immediate hand of God.
    • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Review and Conclusion

External links

Wikipedia
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.THOMAS HOBBES (1588-1679), English philosopher, second son of Thomas Hobbes, was born at Westport (now part of Malmesbury, Wiltshire) on the 5th of April 1588. His father, vicar of Charlton and Westport, an illiterate and choleric man, quarrelled, it is said, with a brother clergyman at the church door, and was forced to decamp, leaving his three children to the care of an elder brother Francis, a flourishing glover at Malmesbury.^ His father, vicar of Charlton and Westport, an illiterate and choleric man, quarrelled, it is said, with a brother clergyman at the church door , and was forced to decamp, leaving his three children to the care of an elder brother Francis , a flourishing glover at Malmesbury.

^ De corpore References: nnaa Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679.
  • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) : Library of Congress Citations 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ De cive References: Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679.
  • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) : Library of Congress Citations 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Academic]

Thomas Hobbes was put to school at Westport church at the age of four, passed to the Malmesbury school at eight, and was taught again in Westport later at a private school kept by a young man named Robert Latimer, fresh from Oxford and " a good Grecian." He had begun Latin and Greek early, and under Latimer made such progress as to be able to translate the Medea of Euripides into Latin iambic verse before he was fourteen. .About the age of fifteen he was sent to Oxford and entered at Magdalen Hall.^ About the age of fifteen he was sent to Oxford and entered at Magdalen Hall.

^ Here T.H. so well profited in his learning, that at fourteen years of age, he went away a good school-scholar to Magdalen Hall in Oxford.
  • A Brief Life of Thomas Hobbes, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC oregonstate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By that point the future philosopher Hobbes had himself left Malmesbury (in 1602 or 1603), in order to study at Magdalen Hall, Oxford.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.During his residence, the first principal of Magdalen Hall, John Hussee, was succeeded by John Wilkinson, who ruled in the interest of the Calvinistic party in the university.^ During his residence, the first principal of Magdalen Hall, John Hussee, was succeeded by John Wilkinson , who ruled in the interest of the Calvinistic party in the university.

^ Because the state of nature is so appalling, it is in everyone's interest to accept the rule of anyone who can impose order.
  • Thomas Hobbes, Robert Filmer and John Locke: 17th Century Models for aScience of Society 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.studymore.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ But he who knows words, may learn this universal rule from others, which delivers us from much labour.
  • Thomas Hobbes - Leviathan - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus early was he brought into contact with the aggressive Puritan spirit.^ Thus early was he brought into contact with the aggressive Puritan spirit.

^ His early position as a tutor gave him the scope to read, write and publish (a brilliant translation of the Greek writer Thucydides appeared in 1629), and brought him into contact with notable English intellectuals such as Francis Bacon .
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Apart from this, Hobbes owed little to his university training, which was based on the scholastic logic then prevalent.^ Apart from this, Hobbes owed little to his university training, which was based on the scholastic logic then prevalent.

^ The train, stream, chain or succession of these is the motion that moves Hobbes' universe.
  • Thomas Hobbes, Robert Filmer and John Locke: 17th Century Models for aScience of Society 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.studymore.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ At university, Hobbes appears to have followed his own curriculum; he was "little attracted by the scholastic learning".
  • What is Thomas Hobbes? 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.We have from himself a lively record of his student life (Vit.^ We have from himself a lively record of his student life ( Vit.

^ And therefore he which performeth first does but betray himself to his enemy, contrary to the right he can never abandon of defending his life and means of living.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And therefore he which performeth first, does but betray himselfe to his enemy; contrary to the Right (he can never abandon) of defending his life, and means of living.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

carm. exp.
p. lxxxv.), which, though penned in extreme old age, may be taken as trustworthy. .He tells how, when he had slowly taken in the doctrine of logical figures and moods, he put it aside and would prove things only in his own way; how he then heard about bodies as consisting of matter and form, as throwing off species of themselves for perception, and as moved by sympathies and antipathies, with much else of a like sort, all beyond his comprehension; and how he therefore turned to his old books again, fed his mind on maps and charts of earth and sky, traced the sun in his path, followed Drake and Cavendish girdling the main, and gazed with delight upon pictured haunts of men and wonders of unknown lands.^ Passions of all other men, upon the like occasions.
  • http://www60.homepage.villanova.edu/hugh.ormsby-lennon/HobbesFirstAid.htm 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www60.homepage.villanova.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He tells how, when he had slowly taken in the doctrine of logical figures and moods, he put it aside and would prove things only in his own way; how he then heard about bodies as consisting of matter and form, as throwing off species of themselves for perception , and as moved by sympathies and antipathies, with much else of a like sort, all beyond his comprehension; and how he therefore turned to his old books again, fed his mind on maps and charts of earth and sky , traced the sun in his path, followed Drake and Cavendish girdling the main, and gazed with delight upon pictured haunts of men and wonders of unknown lands.

^ For if all things were equally in all men, nothing would be prized.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Very characteristic is the interest in men and things, and the disposition to cut through questions in the schools after a trenchant fashion of his own.^ Very characteristic is the interest in men and things, and the disposition to cut through questions in the schools after a trenchant fashion of his own.

^ For the things that please and displease, are innumerable, and work innumerable ways; but men have taken notice of the passions they have from them in a very few, which also are many of them without name.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They lived in Detroit most of the early 70's but when they moved back here, Ann and I were very close platonic friends all through school and in college.
  • Growing Up and Growing Apart - A Love Story - Greg Thomas - Open Salon 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC open.salon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was little attracted by the scholastic learning, though it would be wrong to take his words as evidence of a precocious insight into its weakness.^ He was little attracted by the scholastic learning, though it would be wrong to take his words as evidence of a precocious insight into its weakness.

^ At the very end of this definitional passage it might have looked as though Hobbes was straying into natural law ('for the Distinction of Right and Wrong').
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When a line came into his head, he would, as he was walking, take a rude memorandum of it, to preserve it in his memory till he came to his chamber.
  • A Brief Life of Thomas Hobbes, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC oregonstate.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The truth probably is that he took no interest in studies which there was no risk in neglecting, and thought as little of rejecting as of accepting the traditional doctrines.^ The truth probably is that he took no interest in studies which there was no risk in neglecting, and thought as little of rejecting as of accepting the traditional doctrines.

^ He showed very little interest in the strict scholastic philosophy of the time and took around six years to complete his degree.
  • Thomas Hobbes - Leviathan - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, before there were great Commonwealths, it was thought no dishonour to be a pirate, or a highway thief.
  • Thomas Hobbes - Leviathan - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

He adds that he took his degree at the proper time; but in fact, upon any computation and from whatever cause, he remained at Magdalen Hall five, instead of the required four, years, not being admitted as bachelor till the 5th of February 1608.
.In the same year Hobbes was recommended by Wilkinson as tutor to the son of William Cavendish, baron of Hardwick (afterwards 2nd earl of Devonshire), and thus began a lifelong connexion with a great and powerful family.^ He became a tutor to William Cavendish (the future Earl of Devonshire), and began a long association with that family.
  • Hobbes' Moral Theory Leture Supplement 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.fiu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the same year Hobbes was recommended by Wilkinson as tutor to the son of William Cavendish, baron of Hardwick (afterwards 2nd earl of Devonshire ), and thus began a lifelong connexion with a great and powerful family.

^ After graduating from Oxford in February 1608, Hobbes went to work for the Cavendish family, initially as a tutor to William Cavendish (1590–1628), who later became the second earl of Devonshire.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Twice it was loosened --once, for a short time, after twenty years, and again, for a longer period, during the Civil War - but it never was broken.^ His exile was related to the civil wars of the time.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Those ninety-one years of his life were coincident with a very important period of English history -- the reigns of Elizabeth and James I, the trouble with the Stuarts, the Civil War, Cromwell, the Restoration.
  • Hobbes Selections 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ THE most frequent pretext of sedition and civil war in Christian Commonwealths hath a long time proceeded from a difficulty, not yet sufficiently resolved, of obeying at once both God and man then when their commandments are one contrary to the other.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hobbes spoke of the first years of his tutorship as the happiest of his life.^ Hobbes spoke of the first years of his tutorship as the happiest of his life.

^ We were by all accounts, a normal, happy family during my first several years of life.
  • Growing Up and Growing Apart - A Love Story - Greg Thomas - Open Salon 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC open.salon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Young Cavendish was hardly younger than Hobbes, and had been married, a few months before, at the instance of the king, to Christiana, the only daughter of Edward, Lord Bruce of Kinloss, though by reason of the bride's age, which was only twelve years, the pair had no establishment for some time.^ Young Cavendish was hardly younger than Hobbes, and had been married, a few months before, at the instance of the king, to Christiana, the only daughter of Edward, Lord Bruce of Kinloss, though by reason of the bride's age, which was only twelve years, the pair had no establishment for some time.

^ XIII. 18 before 1628, except that through his connexion with young Cavendish he had relations with literary men of note like Ben Jonson , and also with Bacon and Lord Herbert of Cherbury .

^ We are therefore to understand, first, that he wrote the earliest draft of his political theory some years before the outbreak of the Civil War, and, secondly, that this earliest draft was not written till, in accordance with his philosophical conception, he had established the grounds of polity in human nature.

.Hobbes was his companion rather than tutor (before becoming secretary); and, growing greatly attached to each other, they were sent abroad together on the grand tour in 1610. During this journey, the duration of which cannot be precisely stated, Hobbes acquired some knowledge of French and Italian, and also made the important discovery that the scholastic philosophy which he had learned in Oxford was almost universally neglected in favour of the scientific and critical methods of Galileo, Kepler and Montaigne.^ Hobbes’s contempt for scholastic philosophy is boundless.
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes's contempt for scholastic philosophy is boundless.
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ During this journey, the duration of which cannot be precisely stated, Hobbes acquired some knowledge of French and Italian , and also made the important discovery that the scholastic philosophy which he had learned in Oxford was almost universally neglected in favour of the scientific and critical methods of Galileo, Kepler and Montaigne.

.Unable at first to cope with their unfamiliar ideas, he determined to become a scholar, and until 1628 was engaged in a careful study of Greek and Latin authors, the outcome of which was his great translation of Thucydides.^ Unable at first to cope with their unfamiliar ideas, he determined to become a scholar, and until 1628 was engaged in a careful study of Greek and Latin authors, the outcome of which was his great translation of Thucydides .

^ The first is the idea of motion, which becomes Hobbes's master metaphor for cause, be it physical, societal, or mental.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes's Translation of Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian Wars Hobbes's decision to translate and publish Thucydides' history in 1628 was certainly a reaction to the growing political tensions in England at this time.
  • Thomas Hobbes: Methodology [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.But when he had finished his work he kept it lying by him for years, being no longer so sure of finding appreciative readers; and when he did send it forth, in 1628, he was fain to be content with " the few and better sort.^ But when he had finished his work he kept it lying by him for years, being no longer so sure of finding appreciative readers; and when he did send it forth, in 1628, he was fain to be content with " the few and better sort.

^ Is there something that they would help him to do that Hobbes's theory, the lawyer's rule of thumb, or a first-year class in political theory would not do as well, or better?
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The effect whereof is, to pursue that way no longer; but, by consideration of the end, to direct themselves into a better.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

."1 That he was finally determined to publication by the political troubles of the year 1628 may be regarded as certain, not only from his own express declaration at a later time (Vit.^ And those several sorts of unions, governments, and subjections of man's will, may be understood to be made, either absolutely, that is to say, for all future time, or for a time limited only.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Those that concern the Commonwealth only may without breach of equity be pardoned; for every man may pardon what is done against himself, according to his own discretion.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In his own time, the Kings claim of having the final say on political matters was called into question by members of Parliament.
  • Thomas Hobbes: Methodology [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

caret. exp.
), but also from unmistakable hints in the account of the life and work of his author prefixed to the translation on its appearance. .This was the year of the Petition of Right, extorted from the king in the third parliament he had tried within three years of his accession; and, in view of Hobbes's later activity, it is significant that he came forward just then, at the mature age of forty, with his version of the story of the Athenian democracy as the first production of his pen.^ This was the year of the Petition of Right, extorted from the king in the third parliament he had tried within three years of his accession; and, in view of Hobbes's later activity, it is significant that he came forward just then, at the mature age of forty, with his version of the story of the Athenian democracy as the first production of his pen.

^ Hobbes spoke of the first years of his tutorship as the happiest of his life.

^ The state's authority does not, said Hobbes, rest on the Divine Right of Kings.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Nothing else is known of his doings 1 The translation, under the title Eight Books of the Peloponnesian War, written by Thucydides the son of Olorus, interpreted with faith and diligence immediately out of the Greek by Thomas Hobbes, secretary to the late Earl of Devonshire, appeared in 1628 (or 1629), after the death of the earl, to whom touching reference is made in the dedication.^ Nothing else is known of his doings 1 The translation, under the title Eight Books of the Peloponnesian War , written by Thucydides the son of Olorus, interpreted with faith and diligence immediately out of the Greek by Thomas Hobbes, secretary to the late Earl of Devonshire, appeared in 1628 (or 1629), after the death of the earl, to whom touching reference is made in the dedication .

^ His first published work, in 1628, was a translation of eight books of Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War .
  • Hobbes Selections 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After graduating from Oxford in February 1608, Hobbes went to work for the Cavendish family, initially as a tutor to William Cavendish (1590–1628), who later became the second earl of Devonshire.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It reappeared in 1634, with the date of the dedication altered, as if then newly written.^ It reappeared in 1634, with the date of the dedication altered, as if then newly written.

^ The date of the dedication to the young earl of Devonshire was altered from 1641 to 1646.

.Though Hobbes claims to have performed his work " with much more diligence than elegance," his version is remarkable as a piece of English writing, but is by no means accurate.^ But Hobbes is more subtle than this.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Though Hobbes claims to have performed his work " with much more diligence than elegance," his version is remarkable as a piece of English writing, but is by no means accurate.

^ With this objective in mind, Hobbes set to work and wrote a book which became the greatest, perhaps the sole, masterpiece of political philosophy in the English language, The Leviathan.
  • Political Philosophy: Thomas Hobbes Leviathan Quotes. On Politics, Wisdom and the Dynamic Unity of Reality 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

It fills vols. viii. and ix. in .Molesworth's collection (I I vols., including index vol.^ Molesworth's collection (I I vols., including index vol.

) of .Hobbes's English Works (London, Bohn, 1839-1845).^ Sorrell, Tom (1986) Hobbes (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London) A concise and well-judged account of Hobbes’s life and works.
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Though Hobbes claims to have performed his work " with much more diligence than elegance," his version is remarkable as a piece of English writing, but is by no means accurate.

^ The English Works of Thomas Hobbes , ed.
  • Hobbes Selections 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.The volumes of this collection will here be cited as E.W. Molesworth's collection of the Latin Opera philosophica (5 vols., 1839-1845) will be cited as L.W. The five hundred and odd Latin hexameters under the title De mirabilibus Pecci (L.W. v.^ Molesworth's collection (I I vols., including index vol.

^ The volumes of this collection will here be cited as E.W. Molesworth's collection of the Latin Opera philosophica (5 vols., 1839-1845) will be cited as L.W. The five hundred and odd Latin hexameters under the title De mirabilibus Pecci (L.W. v.

^ Molesworth's edition (1839-1845), dedicated to Grote, has been referred to in a former note.

.323-340), giving an account of a short excursion from Chatsworth to view the seven wonders of the Derbyshire Peak, were written before 1628 (in 1626 or 1627), though not published till 1636. It was a New Year's present to his patron, who gave him £5 in return.^ It was a New Year's present to his patron, who gave him £5 in return.

^ Chatsworth to view the seven wonders of the Derbyshire Peak, were written before 1628 (in 1626 or 1627), though not published till 1636.

^ Other important works include: De Corpore [ On the Body ] (1655), which deals with questions of metaphysics; De Homine [ On Man ] (1657); and Behemoth (published 1682, though written rather earlier), in which Hobbes gives his account of England’s Civil Wars.
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.A later edition, in 1678, included an English version by another hand.^ A later edition, in 1678, included an English version by another hand.

.XIII. 18 before 1628, except that through his connexion with young Cavendish he had relations with literary men of note like Ben Jonson, and also with Bacon and Lord Herbert of Cherbury.^ XIII. 18 before 1628, except that through his connexion with young Cavendish he had relations with literary men of note like Ben Jonson , and also with Bacon and Lord Herbert of Cherbury .

^ Although he associated with literary figures like Ben Jonson and thinkers such as Francis Bacon , he did not extend his efforts into philosophy until after 1629.
  • What is Thomas Hobbes? 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After that to understand how do men relate to other men and through this relationship, I can know if there is justice or not among them.

.If he never had any sympathy with Herbert's intuitionalist principles in philosophy, he was no less eager, as he afterwards showed, than Herbert to rationalize in matters of religious doctrine, so that he may be called the second of the English deists, as Herbert has been called the first.^ If he never had any sympathy with Herbert's intuitionalist principles in philosophy, he was no less eager, as he afterwards showed, than Herbert to rationalize in matters of religious doctrine, so that he may be called the second of the English deists, as Herbert has been called the first.

^ And what matters in this artificial creation is not a particular model but the essential rational principles which will hold it together.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The Originall of them all, is that which we call SENSE; (For there is no conception in a mans mind, which hath not at first, totally, or by parts, been begotten upon the organs of Sense.
  • Political Philosophy: Thomas Hobbes Leviathan Quotes. On Politics, Wisdom and the Dynamic Unity of Reality 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leviathan 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.With Bacon he was so intimate (Aubrey's Lives, pp.^ With Bacon he was so intimate (Aubrey's Lives, pp.

222, 602) that some writers have described him as a disciple. .The facts that he used to walk with Bacon at Gorhambury, and would jot down with exceptional intelligence the eager thinker's sudden " notions," and that he was employed to make the Latin version of some of the Essays, prove nothing when weighed against his own disregard of all Bacon's principles, and the other evidence that the impulse to independent thinking came to him not from Bacon, and not till some time after Bacon's death in 1626.1 So far as we have any positive evidence, it was not before the year 1629 that Hobbes entered on philosophical inquiry.^ The facts that he used to walk with Bacon at Gorhambury, and would jot down with exceptional intelligence the eager thinker's sudden " notions," and that he was employed to make the Latin version of some of the Essays, prove nothing when weighed against his own disregard of all Bacon's principles, and the other evidence that the impulse to independent thinking came to him not from Bacon, and not till some time after Bacon's death in 1626.1 So far as we have any positive evidence, it was not before the year 1629 that Hobbes entered on philosophical inquiry.

^ In fact, he had some fairly harsh words towards other philosophers of the time that were.
  • Thomas Hobbes is a conundrum - gprime.net boards 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC gprime.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All other time is peace.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.Meanwhile a great change had been wrought in his circum P lo- stances.^ Meanwhile a great change had been wrought in his circum P lo- stances.

.His friend and master, after about two years' tenure of the earldom of Devonshire, died of the plague in June 1628, and the affairs of the family were so disordered financially that the widowed countess was left with the task of righting them in the boyhood of the third earl.^ His friend and master, after about two years' tenure of the earldom of Devonshire, died of the plague in June 1628, and the affairs of the family were so disordered financially that the widowed countess was left with the task of righting them in the boyhood of the third earl.

^ After graduating from Oxford in February 1608, Hobbes went to work for the Cavendish family, initially as a tutor to William Cavendish (1590–1628), who later became the second earl of Devonshire.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the same year Hobbes was recommended by Wilkinson as tutor to the son of William Cavendish, baron of Hardwick (afterwards 2nd earl of Devonshire ), and thus began a lifelong connexion with a great and powerful family.

.Hobbes went on for a time living in the household; but his services were no longer in demand, and, remaining inconsolable under his personal bereavement, he sought distraction, in 1629, in another engagement which took him abroad as tutor to the son of Sir Gervase Clifton, of an old Nottinghamshire family.^ Hobbes went on for a time living in the household; but his services were no longer in demand, and, remaining inconsolable under his personal bereavement, he sought distraction , in 1629, in another engagement which took him abroad as tutor to the son of Sir Gervase Clifton , of an old Nottinghamshire family.

^ He went abroad and took his book with him.
  • Thomas Hobbes, Robert Filmer and John Locke: 17th Century Models for aScience of Society 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.studymore.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ After graduating from Oxford in February 1608, Hobbes went to work for the Cavendish family, initially as a tutor to William Cavendish (1590–1628), who later became the second earl of Devonshire.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This, his second, sojourn abroad appears to have been spent chiefly in Paris, and the one important fact recorded of it is that he then first began to look into Euclid.^ This, his second, sojourn abroad appears to have been spent chiefly in Paris , and the one important fact recorded of it is that he then first began to look into Euclid .

^ What is the meaning of these words: "The first cause does not necessarily inflow anything into the second, by force of the essential subordination of the second causes, by which it may help it to work?"
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "The first cause does not necessarily inflow any thing into the second, by force of the Essential subordination of the second causes, by which it may help it to worke?"
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.The engagement came to an end in 1631, when he was recalled to train the young earl of Devonshire, now thirteen years old, son of his previous pupil.^ The engagement came to an end in 1631, when he was recalled to train the young earl of Devonshire, now thirteen years old, son of his previous pupil.

^ He left Oxford in 1608 and became a tutor to the young son of William Cavendish, the governor of Devonshire .

^ In the same year Hobbes was recommended by Wilkinson as tutor to the son of William Cavendish, baron of Hardwick (afterwards 2nd earl of Devonshire ), and thus began a lifelong connexion with a great and powerful family.

.In the course of the next seven years in Derbyshire and abroad, Hobbes took his pupil over rhetoric, 2 logic, astronomy, and the principles of law, with other subjects.^ In the course of the next seven years in Derbyshire and abroad, Hobbes took his pupil over rhetoric , 2 logic, astronomy , and the principles of law, with other subjects.

^ MA thesis on Hobbes next year.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Over the next seven years as well as tutoring he expanded his own knowledge of philosophy, awakening in him curiosity over key philosophic debates.
  • What is Thomas Hobbes? 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His mind was now full of the thought of motion in nature, and on the continent he sought out the philosophical speculators or scientific workers.^ His mind was now full of the thought of motion in nature, and on the continent he sought out the philosophical speculators or scientific workers.

^ For the thoughts are to the desires as scouts and spies to range abroad and find the way to the things desired, all steadiness of the mind's motion, and all quickness of the same, proceeding from thence.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The state of nature is not a "rulebase" but the raw material out of which the political philosopher works to bring into being the modern nation-state with its idea of a social contract.

.In Florence in 1636 he saw Galileo, for whom he ever retained the warmest admiration, and spent eight months in daily converse with the members of a scientific circle in Paris, held together by Malin Mersenne (q.v.^ In Florence in 1636 he saw Galileo, for whom he ever retained the warmest admiration, and spent eight months in daily converse with the members of a scientific circle in Paris, held together by Malin Mersenne (q.v.

^ When he was at Florence, he contracted a friendship with the famous Galileo, whom he extremely venerated and magnified .
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

). .From that time (the winter of 1636-1637) he too, as he tells us, was numbered among philosophers.^ From that time (the winter of 1636-1637) he too, as he tells us, was numbered among philosophers.

^ The Short Parliament, as he tells us at a later time (E.W. iv.

.His introduction to Euclid took place accidentally in 1629 (Aubrey's Lives, p.^ His introduction to Euclid took place accidentally in 1629 (Aubrey's Lives, p.

^ Hobbes refers to his first introduction to Euclid, in a way that confirms the story in Aubrey quoted in an earlier paragraph .

604). .Euclid's manner of proof became the model for his own way of thinking upon all subjects.^ Euclid's manner of proof became the model for his own way of thinking upon all subjects.

^ Again, the consent of a subject to sovereign power is contained in these words, "I authorise, or take upon me, all his actions"; in which there is no restriction at all of his own former natural liberty: for by allowing him to kill me, I am not bound to kill myself when he commands me.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rather than start, like Descartes, with his own cogito ("I am thinking, therefore I am"), Hobbes outlines in his "Introduction" the "similitude" of what all people share, particularly their passions: .
  • http://www60.homepage.villanova.edu/hugh.ormsby-lennon/HobbesFirstAid.htm 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www60.homepage.villanova.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It is less easy to determine when he awoke to an interest in the physical doctrine of motion.^ It is less easy to determine when he awoke to an interest in the physical doctrine of motion.

.The story told by himself (Vit. p.^ The story told by himself ( Vit.

xx.) is that, .hearing the question asked " What is sense ?^ There is a story told, but difficult to date, that at a gathering of "learned men" the question was asked, What is sense?
  • Hobbes Selections 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

." he fell to thinking often on the subject, till it suddenly occurred to him that if bodies and their internal parts were at rest, or were always in the same state of motion, there could be no distinction of anything, and consequently no sense; the cause of all things must therefore be sought in diversity of movements.^ Teaching therefore, and Preaching is the same thing.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore there is no Idea, or conception of anything we call Infinite.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If therefore he will have no heir, there is no sovereignty, nor subjection.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.Starting from this principle he was driven to geometry for insight into the ground and modes of emotion.^ Starting from this principle he was driven to geometry for insight into the ground and modes of emotion.

^ This mode is indispensable, not only for the singing of the Classical-musical repertoire and to provide instrumentalists with an indispensable grounding in the principles of the bel canto singing voice.
  • Fidelio Article: LaRouche--Hobbes' Math Misshaped History 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.schillerinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The biographies we possess do not tell us where or when this great change of interest occurred.^ The biographies we possess do not tell us where or when this great change of interest occurred.

^ Hobbes's view is so close us, so familiar, that we may not recognize as clearly as we should the enormous change that has occurred between his vision and that of Shakespeare in the Tempest .
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Nothing is said, however, which contradicts a statement that on his third journey in Europe he began to study the doctrine of motion more seriously, being interested in it before; and as he claims more than once (L.W. v.^ Nothing is said, however, which contradicts a statement that on his third journey in Europe he began to study the doctrine of motion more seriously, being interested in it before; and as he claims more than once (L.W. v.

^ The truth probably is that he took no interest in studies which there was no risk in neglecting, and thought as little of rejecting as of accepting the traditional doctrines.

^ But the Spanish king was more interested in fighting European wars than in investing his money prudently, so all Europe became wealthy on Spanish goldand, by a curious irony, Spain went into something a steep decline once the supply of gold lessened.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

303; E.W. vii. .468) to have explained light and sound by 1 Hobbes, in minor works dealing with physical questions (L.W. iv.^ Leibniz also paid a good deal of attention to Hobbes's views about motion, in particular those about conatus or endeavour, which have application both to physics and to mathematics.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes begins with questions about mind and language, and works towards questions in political philosophy.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Look’, we might take Hobbes to be saying, ‘I can explain all the workings of the mind using only material resources.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

316; E.W. vii. .112), makes two incidental references to Bacon's writings, but never mentions Bacon as he mentions Galileo, Kepler, Harvey, and others (De corpore, ep.^ Bacon's writings, but never mentions Bacon as he mentions Galileo, Kepler, Harvey , and others ( De corpore, ep.

^ The title Elementorum philosophise sectio tertia, De dive, expresses its relation to the unwritten sections, which also comes out in one or two back-references in the text.

^ De corpore References: nnaa Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679.
  • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) : Library of Congress Citations 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Academic]

ded.), among the lights of the century. .The word " Induction," which occurs in only three or four passages throughout all his works (and these again minor ones), is never used by him with the faintest reminiscence of the import assigned to it by Bacon; and, as will be seen, he had nothing but scorn for experimental work in physics.^ The word " Induction ," which occurs in only three or four passages throughout all his works (and these again minor ones), is never used by him with the faintest reminiscence of the import assigned to it by Bacon; and, as will be seen, he had nothing but scorn for experimental work in physics.

^ "He hath a Divell, and is mad;" whereas others holding him for a Prophet, sayd, "These are not the words of one that hath a Divell."
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Again, the consent of a subject to sovereign power is contained in these words, "I authorise, or take upon me, all his actions"; in which there is no restriction at all of his own former natural liberty: for by allowing him to kill me, I am not bound to kill myself when he commands me.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.2 The free English abstract of Aristotle's Rhetoric, published in 1681, after Hobbes's death, as The Whole Art of Rhetoric (E.W. vi.^ The free English abstract of Aristotle's Rhetoric, published in 1681, after Hobbes's death, as The Whole Art of Rhetoric (E.W. vi.

^ This Answer was first published after Hobbes's death."

^ Publisher: Cambridge University Press; 1 edition (July 20, 2009) Language: English ENJOY Download: Morality in the Philosophy of Thomas Hobbes .
  • Morality in the Philosophy of Thomas Hobbes - Free Online Movies Forum - Watch Movies Online Free 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC freeonlinemoviesforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.4 2 3-5 10), corresponds with a Latin version dictated to his young pupil.^ Latin version dictated to his young pupil.

.Among Hobbes's papers preserved at Hardwick, where he died, there remains the boy's dictation-book, interspersed with headings, examples, &c.^ Among Hobbes's papers preserved at Hardwick, where he died, there remains the boy's dictation-book, interspersed with headings, examples, &c.

^ Irritating as it was, it did not avail to shake Hobbes's determination to remain silent; and thus at last there was peace for a time.

^ Du Verdus was one of Hobbes's profoundest admirers and most frequent correspondents in later years; there are many of his letters among Hobbes's papers at Hardwick.

in Hobbes's hand.
a mechanical .hypothesis as far back as 1630, the inspiration may be assigned to the time of the second journey.^ I think the difficulty is that Hobbes did not know how far back into biology he had to go, and clearly evolutionary science was not known in his time.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.But it was not till the third journey that the new interest became an overpowering passion, and the " philosopher " was on his way home before he had advanced so far as to conceive the scheme of a system of thought to the elaboration of which his life should henceforth be devoted.^ But it was not till the third journey that the new interest became an overpowering passion, and the " philosopher " was on his way home before he had advanced so far as to conceive the scheme of a system of thought to the elaboration of which his life should henceforth be devoted.

^ Also because whatsoever (as I said before,) we conceive, has been perceived first by sense, either all at once, or by parts; a man can have no thought, representing any thing, not subject to sense.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And the cause of it being the want of leisure from procuring the necessities of life, and defending themselves against their neighbours, it was impossible, till the erecting of great Commonwealths, it should be otherwise.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.Hobbes was able to carry out his plan in some twenty years or more from the time of its conception, but the execution was so broken in upon by political events, and so complicated with other labours, that its stages can hardly be followed without some previous understanding of the relations of the parts of the scheme, as there is reason to believe they were sketched out from the beginning.^ Hobbes likes his scheme particularly because he believes anyone can understand it.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ By these events Hobbes was distracted from the orderly execution of his philosophic plan.

^ Hobbes was able to carry out his plan in some twenty years or more from the time of its conception, but the execution was so broken in upon by political events, and so complicated with other labours, that its stages can hardly be followed without some previous understanding of the relations of the parts of the scheme, as there is reason to believe they were sketched out from the beginning.

.His scheme was first to work out, in a separate treatise De corpore, a systematic doctrine of Body, showing how physical phenomena were universally explicable in terms of motion, as motion or mechanical action was then (through Galileo and others) understood - the theory of motion being applied in the light of mathematical science, after quantity, the subject-matter of mathematics, had been duly considered in its place among the fundamental conceptions of philosophy, and a clear indication had been given, at first starting, of the logical ground and method of all philosophical inquiry.^ Their theories are usually classified as being philosophical.
  • Thomas Hobbes, Robert Filmer and John Locke: 17th Century Models for aScience of Society 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.studymore.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ SCIENCE, that is, knowledge of consequences; which is called also PHILOSOPHY Consequences from accidents of bodies natural; which is called NATURAL PHILOSOPHY Consequences from accidents common to all bodies natural; which are quantity, and motion.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Chapter six of De Corpore is Hobbes's main work on method.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He would then single out Man from the realm of nature, and, in a treatise De homine, show what specific bodily motions were involved in the production of the peculiar phenomena of sensation and knowledge, as also of the affections and passions thence resulting, whereby man came into relation with man.^ So far as the treatise De homine (L.W. ii.

^ He would then single out Man from the realm of nature, and, in a treatise De homine, show what specific bodily motions were involved in the production of the peculiar phenomena of sensation and knowledge, as also of the affections and passions thence resulting, whereby man came into relation with man.

^ He then singled out Man from the realm of Nature and plants.
  • What is Thomas Hobbes? 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Finally he would consider, in a crowning treatise De cive, how men, being naturally rivals or foes, were moved to enter into the better relation of Society, and demonstrate how this grand product of human wit must be regulated if men were not to fall back into brutishness and misery.^ I am interested to know how Hobbes considered human nature.

^ If we can’t do this, then many of the achievements of human society that involve putting hard work into land (farming, building) or material objects (the crafts, or modern industrial production, still unknown in Hobbes’s time) will be near impossible.
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If we can't do this, then many of the achievements of human society that involve putting hard work into land (farming, building) or material objects (the crafts, or modern industrial production, still unknown in Hobbes's time) will be near impossible.
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Thus he proposed to unite in one coherent whole the separate phenomena of Body, Man and the State.^ For it is upon this ground, that when a Man is dead and buried, they say his Soule (that is his Life) can walk separated from his Body, and is seen by night amongst the graves.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Secondly, though thus assembled with intention to unite themselves, they are yet in that estate in which every man hath right to everything, and consequently, as hath been said, chap.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus far concerning the Nature of Man, and the constitution and properties of a Body Politic.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hobbes came home, in 1637, to a country seething with discontent.^ Hobbes came home, in 1637, to a country seething with discontent.

^ Hobbes came home, in 1637, to a country riven with discontent which disrupted him from the orderly execution of his philosophic plan.
  • What is Thomas Hobbes? 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The reign of " Thorough " was collapsing, and the forces pent up since 1629 were soon to rend the fabric of the state.^ The reign of " Thorough " was collapsing, and the forces pent up since 1629 were soon to rend the fabric of the state.

.By these events Hobbes was distracted from the orderly execution of his philosophic plan.^ By these events Hobbes was distracted from the orderly execution of his philosophic plan.

^ Hobbes came home, in 1637, to a country riven with discontent which disrupted him from the orderly execution of his philosophic plan.
  • What is Thomas Hobbes? 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Without these, scholars might remember Hobbes as an interesting intellectual of the seventeenth century; but few philosophers would even recognize his name.
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Short Parliament, as he tells us at a later time (E.W. iv.^ Aubrey tells us that he went to school in Westport when four years old, and could, at that time, read well, and number four figures.
  • Hobbes Selections 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

41 4), was not dissolved before he had ready " a little treatise in English," in which he sought to prove that the points of the royal prerogative which the members were determined to dispute before granting supplies " were inseparably annexed to the sovereignty which they did not then deny to be in the king." Now it can be proved that at this time he had written not only his Human Nature but also his De corpore politico, the two treatises (though published separately ten years later) having been composed as parts of one work; 3 and there cannot be the least question that together they make " the little treatise " just mentioned. .We are therefore to understand, first, that he wrote the earliest draft of his political theory some years before the outbreak of the Civil War, and, secondly, that this earliest draft was not written till, in accordance with his philosophical conception, he had established the grounds of polity in human nature.^ We are therefore to understand, first, that he wrote the earliest draft of his political theory some years before the outbreak of the Civil War, and, secondly, that this earliest draft was not written till, in accordance with his philosophical conception, he had established the grounds of polity in human nature.

^ The remainder of the treatise dealt cursorily with some of the topics more fully treated in the Human Nature and the Leviathan .
  • What is Thomas Hobbes? 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are in it, to be sure, quaintnesses and allusions which require an understanding of the conditions under which it was written, and of the man who wrote it, if they themselves are to be understood.
  • Hobbes Selections 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.The first point is to be noted, because it has often been supposed that Hobbes's political doctrine took its peculiar complexion from his revulsion against the state of anarchy before his eyes, as he wrote during the progress of the Civil War.^ The first point is to be noted, because it has often been supposed that Hobbes's political doctrine took its peculiar complexion from his revulsion against the state of anarchy before his eyes, as he wrote during the progress of the Civil War.

^ For Hobbes, State of Nature is something else - a war of all against all.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Hobbes realizes that this state of nature, this Sisyphus-like life of despair, inevitably devolves into anarchy – a “war of all against all” (bellum omnium contra omnes), an existential existence where life is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.” .
  • How Thomas Hobbes is helping destroy America : WesternFront America 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC westernfrontamerica.com [Source type: Original source]

.The second point must be maintained against his own implied, if not express, statement some years later, when publishing his De cive (L.W. ii. 15r), that he wrote this third part of his system before he had been able to set down any finished representation of the fundamental doctrines which it presupposed.^ The second point must be maintained against his own implied, if not express, statement some years later, when publishing his De cive (L.W. ii.

^ We are therefore to understand, first, that he wrote the earliest draft of his political theory some years before the outbreak of the Civil War, and, secondly, that this earliest draft was not written till, in accordance with his philosophical conception, he had established the grounds of polity in human nature.

^ In 1640 he wrote “The Elements of Laws, Natural and Politic;” in 1642 he published De Cive (The Citizen); in 1655 he wrote De Corpore (Concerning the Body); in 1658 he published De Homine (Concerning Man); and later on in France he wrote the famous work called Leviathan .

.In the beginning of 1640, therefore, he had written out his doctrine of Man at least, with almost as much elaboration as it ever received from him.^ In the beginning of 1640, therefore, he had written out his doctrine of Man at least, with almost as much elaboration as it ever received from him.

^ But this is certain; by how much one man has more experience of things past, than another; by so much also he is more Prudent, and his expectations the seldomer faile him.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is therefore manifest, that wee may dispute the Doctrine of our Pastors; but no man can dispute a Law.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

In November 1640 the Long Parliament succeeded to the Short, and sent Laud and Strafford to the Tower, and Hobbes, who had become, or thought he had become, a marked man by the circulation of his treatise (of which, " though not printed, many gentlemen had copies "), hastened to Paris, " the first of all that fled." He was now for the fourth and last time abroad, and did not return for eleven years. Apparently he remained the greater part of the time in or about 3 Among the Hardwick papers there is preserved a MS. copy of the work, under the title Elementes of Law Naturall and Politique, with the dedication to the earl of Newcastle, written in Hobbes's own hand, and dated May 9, 1640. This dedication was prefixed to the first thirteen chapters of the work when printed by themselves, under the title Human Nature in 1650.
Paris. .He was welcomed back into the scientific coterie about Mersenne, and forthwith had the task assigned him of criticizing the Meditations of Descartes, which had been sent from Holland, before publication, to Mersenne with the author's request for criticism from the most different points of view.^ He was welcomed back into the scientific coterie about Mersenne, and forthwith had the task assigned him of criticizing the Meditations of Descartes , which had been sent from Holland , before publication, to Mersenne with the author's request for criticism from the most different points of view.

^ About the same time also Mersenne sent to Descartes, as if they came from a friend in England , another set of objections which Hobbes had to offer on various points in the scientific treatises, especially the Dioptrics, appended by Descartes to his Discourse on Method in 1637; to which Descartes replied without suspecting the common authorship of the two sets.

^ His self-imposed exile in France, along with his emerging reputation as a scientist and thinker, brought him into contact with major European intellectual figures of his time, leading to exchange and controversy with figures such as Descartes , Mersenne and Gassendi.
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Hobbes was soon ready with the remarks that were printed as " Third " among the six (later seven) sets of " Objections " appended, with " Replies " from Descartes, to the Meditations, when published shortly afterwards in 1641 (reprinted in L.W. v.^ Then in 1641 Hobbes's objections were among those published along with Descartes's Meditations .
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In Paris he rejoined the coterie about Mersenne, and wrote a critique of the Meditations on First Philosophy of Descartes , which was printed as third among the sets of "Objections" appended, with "Replies" from Descartes in 1641.
  • What is Thomas Hobbes? 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hobbes was soon ready with the remarks that were printed as " Third " among the six (later seven) sets of " Objections " appended, with " Replies " from Descartes, to the Meditations, when published shortly afterwards in 1641 (reprinted in L.W. v.

2 492 74). .About the same time also Mersenne sent to Descartes, as if they came from a friend in England, another set of objections which Hobbes had to offer on various points in the scientific treatises, especially the Dioptrics, appended by Descartes to his Discourse on Method in 1637; to which Descartes replied without suspecting the common authorship of the two sets.^ In 1640 Hobbes sent to Mersenne a set of comments on Descartes's Discourse and Optics .
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At this time Hobbes also had a series of interactions with Descartes.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ About the same time also Mersenne sent to Descartes, as if they came from a friend in England , another set of objections which Hobbes had to offer on various points in the scientific treatises, especially the Dioptrics, appended by Descartes to his Discourse on Method in 1637; to which Descartes replied without suspecting the common authorship of the two sets.

.The result was to keep the two thinkers apart rather than bring them together.^ The result was to keep the two thinkers apart rather than bring them together.

^ One way of reading this is to suppose that he has to keep the two claims apart because otherwise the equivocation would become obvious.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As a philosophical thinker he was speedily eclipsed by John Locke (1632-1704) who, rather than Hobbes, was to become the force which energized British philosophy.
  • Hobbes Selections 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hobbes was more eager to bring forward his own philosophical and physical ideas than careful to enter into the full meaning of another's thought; and Descartes was too jealous, and too confident in his conclusions to bear with this kind of criticism.^ Hobbes was more eager to bring forward his own philosophical and physical ideas than careful to enter into the full meaning of another's thought; and Descartes was too jealous, and too confident in his conclusions to bear with this kind of criticism.

^ But Hobbes is more subtle than this.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Taking up mathematics when not only his mind was already formed but his thoughts were crystallizing into a philosophical system, Hobbes had, in fact, never put himself to school and sought to work up gradually to the best knowledge of the time, but had been more anxious from the first to become himself an innovator with whatever insufficient means.

.He was very curt in his replies to Hobbes's philosophical objections, and broke off all correspondence on the physical questions, writing privately to Mersenne that he had grave doubts of the Englishman's good faith in drawing him into controversy (L.W. v.^ He was very curt in his replies to Hobbes's philosophical objections, and broke off all correspondence on the physical questions, writing privately to Mersenne that he had grave doubts of the Englishman's good faith in drawing him into controversy (L.W. v.

^ What are the writings that earned Hobbes his philosophical fame?
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ His self-imposed exile in France, along with his emerging reputation as a scientist and thinker, brought him into contact with major European intellectual figures of his time, leading to exchange and controversy with figures such as Descartes , Mersenne and Gassendi.
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

277-307).
.Meanwhile Hobbes had his thoughts too full of the political theory which the events of the last years had ripened within him to settle, even in Paris, to the orderly composition of his works.^ Meanwhile Hobbes had his thoughts too full of the political theory which the events of the last years had ripened within him to settle , even in Paris, to the orderly composition of his works.

^ Hobbes, then verging upon eighty, was terrified at the prospect of being treated as a heretic, and proceeded to burn such of his papers as he thought might compromise him.

^ Ethics and Human Nature Hobbes's moral thought is difficult to disentangle from his politics.
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Though connected in his own mind with his view of human nature and of nature generally, the political theory, as he always declared, could stand by itself.^ Though connected in his own mind with his view of human nature and of nature generally, the political theory, as he always declared, could stand by itself.

^ We are therefore to understand, first, that he wrote the earliest draft of his political theory some years before the outbreak of the Civil War, and, secondly, that this earliest draft was not written till, in accordance with his philosophical conception, he had established the grounds of polity in human nature.

^ But we could also make state of nature theories to explain how the human race emerged.
  • Thomas Hobbes, Robert Filmer and John Locke: 17th Century Models for aScience of Society 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.studymore.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Also, while he may have hoped at this time to be able to add much (though he never did) to the sketch of his doctrine of Man contained in the unpublished " little treatise," he might extend, but could hardly otherwise modify, the sketch he had there given of his carefully articulated theory of Body Politic.^ Also, while he may have hoped at this time to be able to add much (though he never did) to the sketch of his doctrine of Man contained in the unpublished " little treatise," he might extend, but could hardly otherwise modify, the sketch he had there given of his carefully articulated theory of Body Politic.

^ And so much for the Time when he may do it lawfully, if hee will.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And so much for the time when he may do it lawfully, if he will.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.Possibly, indeed, before that sketch was written early in 1640, he may, under pressure of the political excitement, have advanced no small way in the actual composition of the treatise De Cive, the third section of his projected system.^ Possibly, indeed, before that sketch was written early in 1640, he may, under pressure of the political excitement, have advanced no small way in the actual composition of the treatise De Cive, the third section of his projected system.

^ In 1640 he wrote “The Elements of Laws, Natural and Politic;” in 1642 he published De Cive (The Citizen); in 1655 he wrote De Corpore (Concerning the Body); in 1658 he published De Homine (Concerning Man); and later on in France he wrote the famous work called Leviathan .

^ For a Judge may erre in the Interpretation even of written Lawes; but no errour of a subordinate Judge, can change the Law, which is the generall Sentence of the Soveraigne.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.In any case, it was upon this section, before the others, that he set to work in Paris; and before the end of 1641 the book, as we know from the date of the dedication (November 1), was finished.^ As before, Hobbes had just finished a book.
  • The First Counter-revolutionary 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In any case, it was upon this section, before the others, that he set to work in Paris; and before the end of 1641 the book, as we know from the date of the dedication (November 1), was finished.

^ In Paris he rejoined the coterie about Mersenne, and wrote a critique of the Meditations on First Philosophy of Descartes , which was printed as third among the sets of "Objections" appended, with "Replies" from Descartes in 1641.
  • What is Thomas Hobbes? 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though it was forthwith printed in the course of the year 1642, he was content to circulate a limited number of copies privately 1; and when he found his work received with applause (it was praised even by Descartes), he seems to have taken this recognition of his philosophical achievement as an additional reason for deferring publication till the earlier works of the system were completed.^ Though it was forthwith printed in the course of the year 1642, he was content to circulate a limited number of copies privately 1; and when he found his work received with applause (it was praised even by Descartes), he seems to have taken this recognition of his philosophical achievement as an additional reason for deferring publication till the earlier works of the system were completed.

^ Taking up his abode in Fetter Lane, London, on his return, and continuing to reside there for the sake of intellectual society, even after renewing his old ties with the earl of Devonshire, who lived in the country till the Restoration,4 he worked so steadily as to be printing the De corpore in the year 1654.

^ It has taken a long time, but it seems that even orthodox legal theorists are coming to agree with Hobbes that 'reason' alone cannot do the trick.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Accordingly, for the next three or four years, he remained steadily at work, and nothing appeared from him in public except a short treatise on optics (Tractatus opticus, L.W. v.^ Accordingly, for the next three or four years, he remained steadily at work, and nothing appeared from him in public except a short treatise on optics ( Tractatus opticus, L.W. v.

^ The word " Induction ," which occurs in only three or four passages throughout all his works (and these again minor ones), is never used by him with the faintest reminiscence of the import assigned to it by Bacon; and, as will be seen, he had nothing but scorn for experimental work in physics.

^ Meanwhile Hobbes had his thoughts too full of the political theory which the events of the last years had ripened within him to settle , even in Paris, to the orderly composition of his works.

.217-248) included in the collection of scientific tracts published by Mersenne under the title Cogitata physico-mathematica in 1644, and a highly compressed statement of his psychological application of the doctrine of motion (L.W. v.^ Mersenne under the title Cogitata physico-mathematica in 1644, and a highly compressed statement of his psychological application of the doctrine of motion (L.W. v.

^ He then returned to hard work on the first two sections of his work and published little except for a short treatise on optics ( Tractatus opticus ) included in the collection of scientific tracts published by Mersenne as Cogitata physico-mathematica in 1644.
  • What is Thomas Hobbes? 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NUC. First published in Paris in 1642 under title: Elementorum philosophiae sectio tertia de cive.
  • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) : Library of Congress Citations 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Academic]

.309-318), incorporated with Mersenne's Ballistica, published in the same year.^ Mersenne's Ballistica, published in the same year.

.Thus or otherwise he had become sufficiently known by 1645 to be chosen as a referee, with Descartes, Roberval and others, in the famous controversy between John Pell and the Dane Longomontanus over that problem of the squaring of the circle which was seen later on to have such a fatal charm for himself.^ He built a good reputation in philosophic circles and in 1645 was chosen with Descartes, Gilles de Roberval and others, to referee the controversy between John Pell and Longomontanus over the problem of squaring the circle .
  • What is Thomas Hobbes? 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus or otherwise he had become sufficiently known by 1645 to be chosen as a referee , with Descartes, Roberval and others, in the famous controversy between John Pell and the Dane Longomontanus over that problem of the squaring of the circle which was seen later on to have such a fatal charm for himself.

^ Apparently he did nothing with mathematics, a subject which later much occupied his mind, and led him into a bitter controversy with the Oxford professors over such problems as squaring the circle and duplicating the cube.
  • Hobbes Selections 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

But though about this time he had got ready all or most of the materials for his fundamental work on Body, not even now was he able to make way with its composition, 1 The book, of which the copies are rare (one in Dr Williams's library in London and one in the Bodleian), was printed in quarto size (Paris, 1642), with a pictorial title-page (not afterwards reproduced) of scenes and figures illustrating its three divisions, " Libertas," " Imperium," " Religio." The title Elementorum philosophise sectio tertia, De dive, expresses its relation to the unwritten sections, which also comes out in one or two back-references in the text.
and when he returned to it after a number of years, he returned a different man.
.The Civil War had broken out in 1642, and the royalist cause began to decline from the time of the defeat at Marston Moor, in the middle of 1644. Then commenced an exodus of the king's friends.^ Then commenced an exodus of the king's friends.

^ The English Civil War broke out in 1642, and when the Royalist cause began to decline in the middle of 1644 there was an exodus of the king's supporters to Europe.
  • What is Thomas Hobbes? 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His exile was related to the civil wars of the time.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Newcastle himself, who was a cousin of Hobbes's late patron and to whom he dedicated the " little treatise " of 1640, found his way to Paris, and was followed by a stream of fugitives, many of whom were known to Hobbes.^ Newcastle himself, who was a cousin of Hobbes's late patron and to whom he dedicated the " little treatise " of 1640, found his way to Paris, and was followed by a stream of fugitives, many of whom were known to Hobbes.

^ In November 1640 the Long Parliament succeeded to the Short, and sent Laud and Strafford to the Tower , and Hobbes, who had become, or thought he had become, a marked man by the circulation of his treatise (of which, " though not printed, many gentlemen had copies "), hastened to Paris, " the first of all that fled."

^ Thus, many of Hobbes's critics in the seventeenth century, including those who vehemently attacked his religious views, still thought he believed in the existence of God.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The sight of these exiles made the political interest once more predominant in Hobbes, and before long the revived feeling issued in the formation of a new and important design.^ The sight of these exiles made the political interest once more predominant in Hobbes, and before long the revived feeling issued in the formation of a new and important design.

^ But Hobbes’s main interest lies in the educative power of religion, and indeed of political authority.
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This revitalised Hobbes' political interests and the De Cive was republished and more widely distributed.
  • What is Thomas Hobbes? 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It first showed itself in the publication of the De cive, of which the fame, but only the fame, had extended beyond the inner circle of friends and critics who had copies of the original impression.^ It first showed itself in the publication of the De cive, of which the fame, but only the fame, had extended beyond the inner circle of friends and critics who had copies of the original impression.

^ Tenthly, hurt inflicted on the representative of the Commonwealth is not punishment, but an act of hostility: because it is of the nature of punishment to be inflicted by public authority, which is the authority only of the representative itself.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During his time in France, Hobbes continued to associate with Mersenne and his circle, including Pierre Gassendi, who seems to have been a particular friend of Hobbes's.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Hobbes now entrusted it, early in 1646, to his admirer, the Frenchman Samuel de Sorbiere, by whom it was seen through the Elzevir press at Amsterdam in 1647 - having previously inserted a number of notes in reply to objections, and also a striking preface, in the course of which he explained its relation to the other parts of the system not yet forthcoming, and the (political) occasion of its having been composed and being now published before them.^ Hobbes' physics is the weakest part of his system.
  • Hobbes Selections 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes now entrusted it, early in 1646, to his admirer, the Frenchman Samuel de Sorbiere, by whom it was seen through the Elzevir press at Amsterdam in 1647 - having previously inserted a number of notes in reply to objections, and also a striking preface, in the course of which he explained its relation to the other parts of the system not yet forthcoming, and the (political) occasion of its having been composed and being now published before them.

^ And it is interesting as a part of Hobbes's system.
  • Hobbes Selections 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.2 So hopeless, meanwhile, was he growing of being able to return home that, later on in the year, he was on the point of leaving Paris to take up his abode in the south with a French friend, 3 when he was engaged " by the month " as mathematical instructor to the young prince of Wales, who had come over from Jersey about the month of July.^ So hopeless, meanwhile, was he growing of being able to return home that, later on in the year, he was on the point of leaving Paris to take up his abode in the south with a French friend, 3 when he was engaged " by the month " as mathematical instructor to the young prince of Wales , who had come over from Jersey about the month of July.

^ Taking up his abode in Fetter Lane, London, on his return, and continuing to reside there for the sake of intellectual society, even after renewing his old ties with the earl of Devonshire, who lived in the country till the Restoration,4 he worked so steadily as to be printing the De corpore in the year 1654.

^ Henry writes, “I think a one horse trap should be sent with the handcart company to fetch up the sick and not leave them to the care of strangers.” This is about as close as he ever comes in the journal to complaining.

.This engagement lasted nominally from 1646 to 1648 when Charles went to Holland.^ This engagement lasted until 1648 when Charles went to Holland.
  • What is Thomas Hobbes? 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This engagement lasted nominally from 1646 to 1648 when Charles went to Holland.

.Thus thrown more than Leviathan. ever into the company of the exiled royalists, it was then, if not earlier, that he conceived his new design of bringing all his powers of thought and expression to bear upon the production of an English book that should set forth his whole theory of civil government in relation to the political crisis resulting from the war.^ His exile was related to the civil wars of the time.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus thrown more than Leviathan .

^ English book that should set forth his whole theory of civil government in relation to the political crisis resulting from the war.

.The De cive, presently to be published, was written in Latin for the learned, and gave the political theory without its foundation in human nature.^ De Cive (Latin) 1651.
  • What is Thomas Hobbes? 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The De cive, presently to be published, was written in Latin for the learned, and gave the political theory without its foundation in human nature.

^ We are therefore to understand, first, that he wrote the earliest draft of his political theory some years before the outbreak of the Civil War, and, secondly, that this earliest draft was not written till, in accordance with his philosophical conception, he had established the grounds of polity in human nature.

.The unpublished treatise of 1640 contained all or nearly all that he had to tell concerning human nature, but was written before the terrible events of the last years had disclosed how men might still be urged by their anti-social passions back into the abyss of anarchy.^ The unpublished treatise of 1640 contained all or nearly all that he had to tell concerning human nature, but was written before the terrible events of the last years had disclosed how men might still be urged by their anti-social passions back into the abyss of anarchy.

^ In this state of nature all men are equal.

^ We are therefore to understand, first, that he wrote the earliest draft of his political theory some years before the outbreak of the Civil War, and, secondly, that this earliest draft was not written till, in accordance with his philosophical conception, he had established the grounds of polity in human nature.

.There was need of an exposition at once comprehensive, incisive and popular.^ There was need of an exposition at once comprehensive, incisive and popular.

^ The sacraments of admission are but once to be used, because there needs but one admission; but because we have need of being often put in mind of our deliverance and of our allegiance, the sacraments of commemoration have need to be reiterated.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Sacraments of Admission, are but once to be used, because there needs but one Admission; but because we have need of being often put in mind of our deliverance, and of our Allegeance, The Sacraments of Commemoration have need to be reiterated.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.The State, it now seemed to Hobbes, might be regarded as a great artificial man or monster (Leviathan), composed of men, with a life that might be traced from its generation through human reason under pressure of human needs to its dissolution through civil strife proceeding from human passions.^ The State, it now seemed to Hobbes, might be regarded as a great artificial man or monster ( Leviathan ), composed of men, with a life that might be traced from its generation through human reason under pressure of human needs to its dissolution through civil strife proceeding from human passions.

^ Hobbes was associated with the royalist side, and might also have had reason to fear punishment because of his defence of absolute sovereignty in his political philosophy.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes, then verging upon eighty, was terrified at the prospect of being treated as a heretic, and proceeded to burn such of his papers as he thought might compromise him.

.This, we may suppose, was the presiding conception from the first, but the design may have been variously modified in the three or four years of its execution.^ This, we may suppose, was the presiding conception from the first, but the design may have been variously modified in the three or four years of its execution.

^ Accordingly, for the next three or four years, he remained steadily at work, and nothing appeared from him in public except a short treatise on optics ( Tractatus opticus, L.W. v.

.Before the end, in 1650-1651, it is plain that he wrote in direct reference to the greatly changed aspect of affairs in England.^ Before the end, in 1650-1651, it is plain that he wrote in direct reference to the greatly changed aspect of affairs in England.

.The king being dead, and the royalist cause appearing to be hopelessly lost, he did not scruple, in closing the work with a general " Review and Conclusion," to raise the question of the subject's right to change allegiance when a former sovereign's power to protect was irrecoverably gone.^ As if, for example, the right of the kings of England did depend on the goodness of the cause of William the Conqueror, and upon their lineal and directest descent from him; by which means, there would perhaps be no tie of the subjects' obedience to their sovereign at this day in all the world: wherein whilst they needlessly think to justify themselves, they justify all the successful rebellions that ambition shall at any time raise against them and their successors.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ As to the question, who shall appoint the Successor, of a Monarch that hath the Soveraign Authority; that is to say, (for Elective Kings and Princes have not the Soveraign Power in propriety, but in use only,) we are to consider, that either he that is in possession, has right to dispose of the Succession, or else that right is again in the dissolved Multitude.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In such an arrangement, all the power of the assembled human beings rests with the Sovereign.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Also he took advantage of the rule of the Commonwealth to indulge much more freely than he might have otherwise dared in rationalistic criticism of religious doctrines; while, amid the turmoil of sects, he could the more forcibly urge that the preservation of social order, when again firmly restored, must depend on the assumption by the civil power of the right 2 L.W. ii. 133-134. In this first public edition (12mo), the title was changed to Elementa philosophica de cive, the references in the text to the previous sections being omitted.^ The first public edition was titled Elementa philosophica de cive .
  • What is Thomas Hobbes? 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Title: Leviathan; or, The matter, forme and power of a commonwealth, ecclesiasticall and civil.
  • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) : Library of Congress Citations 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Also he criticized religious doctrines on rationalistic grounds in the Commonwealth.
  • What is Thomas Hobbes? 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The date of the dedication to the young earl of Devonshire was altered from 1641 to 1646.
.Described as "nobilis Languedocianus " in Vit.; doubtless the same with the " Dominus Verdusius, nobilis Aquitanus," to whom was dedicated the Exam.^ Described as "nobilis Languedocianus " in Vit.; doubtless the same with the " Dominus Verdusius, nobilis Aquitanus," to whom was dedicated the Exam.

et emend. math. hod. (L.W.
iv.) in .1660. Du Verdus was one of Hobbes's profoundest admirers and most frequent correspondents in later years; there are many of his letters among Hobbes's papers at Hardwick.^ There is one name, and there are many trees.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Du Verdus was one of Hobbes's profoundest admirers and most frequent correspondents in later years; there are many of his letters among Hobbes's papers at Hardwick.

^ Or, to be more accurate, there are good reasons to see Hobbes as one who was relying on the scientific method (as he understood it) for his ultimate epistemological backstop.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

to wield all sanctions, supernatural as well as natural, against the pretensions of any clergy, .Catholic, Anglican or Presbyterian, to the exercise of an imperium in imperio. We know the Leviathan only as it finally emerged from Hobbes's pen.^ Catholic , Anglican or Presbyterian, to the exercise of an imperium in imperio.

^ We know the Leviathan only as it finally emerged from Hobbes's pen.

^ For Hobbes, it is only science, "the knowledge of consequences" ( Leviathan , v.17), that offers reliable knowledge of the future and overcomes the frailties of human judgment.
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.During the years of its composition he remained in or near Paris, at first in attendance on his royal pupil, with whom he became a great favourite.^ During the years of its composition he remained in or near Paris, at first in attendance on his royal pupil, with whom he became a great favourite.

^ Meanwhile Hobbes had his thoughts too full of the political theory which the events of the last years had ripened within him to settle , even in Paris, to the orderly composition of his works.

^ In Paris he joined a circle about Mersenne, who was living in a monastery near the Place Royale, and whose cell became the resort of local scholars and distinguished foreigners.
  • Hobbes Selections 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1647 Hobbes was overtaken by a serious illness which disabled him for six months.^ In 1647 Hobbes was overtaken by a serious illness which disabled him for six months.
  • Thomas Hobbes - LoveToKnow 1911 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • What is Thomas Hobbes? 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mersenne begged him not to die outside the Roman Catholic Church, but Hobbes said that he had already considered the matter sufficiently and afterwards took the sacrament according to the rites of the Church of England.^ Mersenne begged him not to die outside the Roman Catholic Church , but Hobbes said that he had already considered the matter sufficiently and afterwards took the sacrament according to the rites of the Church of England .

^ Thomas Hobbes 1588-1679 Hobbes gravestone in Ault Hucknall church, Derbyshire, England .
  • Thomas Hobbes - Leviathan - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So Hobbes argues that the matter, form and power of church and state (combined) are as the power of a devouring monster that we cannot make contracts with, but which we nevertheless allow to rule us.
  • Thomas Hobbes, Robert Filmer and John Locke: 17th Century Models for aScience of Society 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.studymore.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.On recovering from this illness,which nearly proved fatal, he resumed his literary task, and carried it steadily forward to completion by the year 1650, having also within the same time translated into English, with characteristic force of expression, his Latin treatise.^ On recovering from this illness,which nearly proved fatal, he resumed his literary task, and carried it steadily forward to completion by the year 1650, having also within the same time translated into English, with characteristic force of expression, his Latin treatise.

^ Subjects: Homer -- Translations into English.
  • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) : Library of Congress Citations 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ He showed very little interest in the strict scholastic philosophy of the time and took around six years to complete his degree.
  • Thomas Hobbes - Leviathan - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

.Otherwise the only thing known (from one or two letters) of his life in those years is that from the year 1648 he had begun to think of returning home; he was then sixty, and might well be weary of exile.^ So that here be two sorts of names: one of things, in which we conceive something, or of the conceptions themselves, which are called POSITIVE; the other of things wherein we conceive privation or defect, and those names are called PRIVATIVE. .
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The inconveniences of government in general to a subject are none at all, if well considered; but in appearance there be two things that may trouble his mind, or two general grievances.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These operations are not incident to numbers only, but to all manner of things that can be added together, and taken one out of another.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.When ' 1650 came, as if to prepare the way for the reception of his magnum opus, he allowed the publication of his earliest treatise, divided into two separate small volumes (Human Nature, or the Fundamental, Elements of Policy, E.W. iv.^ His Humane nature, 1650.
  • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) : Library of Congress Citations 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ When ' 1650 came, as if to prepare the way for the reception of his magnum opus , he allowed the publication of his earliest treatise, divided into two separate small volumes ( Human Nature, or the Fundamental, Elements of Policy, E.W. iv.

^ In 1650, to prepare the way for his magnum opus , he allowed the publication of his earliest treatise, divided into two separate small volumes ( Human Nature, or the Fundamental Elements of Policie , and De corpore politico, or the Elements of Law, Moral and Politick ).
  • What is Thomas Hobbes? 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.1-76, and De Corpore Politico, or the Elements of Law, Moral and Politic, pp.^ The second treatise contained the rest of the first, together with the second, part, and was entitled De corpore politico; or, The elements of law, moral and politic ...
  • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) : Library of Congress Citations 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ De corpore politico.
  • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) : Library of Congress Citations 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1640 he wrote “The Elements of Laws, Natural and Politic;” in 1642 he published De Cive (The Citizen); in 1655 he wrote De Corpore (Concerning the Body); in 1658 he published De Homine (Concerning Man); and later on in France he wrote the famous work called Leviathan .

.77-228).1 In 1651 2 he published his translation of the De Cive under the title of Philosophical Rudiments concerning Government and Society (E.W. ii.^ Philosophical rudiments concerning government and society Notes: His Man and citizen, c1990: -- CIP t.p.
  • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) : Library of Congress Citations 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ (Philosophical rudiments concerning government and society) Heading: Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679.
  • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) : Library of Congress Citations 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1651 2 he published his translation of the De Cive under the title of Philosophical Rudiments concerning Government and Society (E.W. ii.

).
.Meanwhile the printing of the greater work was proceeding, and finally it appeared about the middle of the same year, 1651, under the title of Leviathan, or the Matter, Form and Power of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiastical and Civil (E.W. iii.^ Meanwhile the printing of the greater work was proceeding, and finally it appeared about the middle of the same year, 1651, under the title of Leviathan, or the Matter, Form and Power of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiastical and Civil (E.W. iii.

^ Frederick J. E. Woodbridge (1930) INTRODUCTION Thomas Hobbes, by publishing in London, in 1651, a book with the title, Leviathan, or the Matter, Form, and Power of a Commonwealth Ecclesiastical and Civil , made a place for himself among those writers on social and political subjects who find many readers in lands and times besides their own.
  • Hobbes Selections 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Leviathan, or, The Matter, Forme and Power of A Common-Wealth Ecclesiastical And Civill INTRODUCTION NATURE (the art whereby God hath made and governs the world) is by the art of man imitated.
  • Thomas Hobbes - Leviathan - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

), with a .quaint frontispiece in which, from behind hills overlooking a fair landscape of town and country, there towered the body (above the waist) of a crowned giant, made up of tiny figures of human beings and bearing sword and crozier in the two hands.^ The frontispiece to the Leviathan represents a giant with a crown upon his head, a sword in his right hand and a crosier in his left, rising from behind the hills which overlook a city.
  • Hobbes Selections 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But this is no Body Politique, there being no Common Representative to oblige them to any other Law, than that which is common to all other subjects.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We will see that there is moral force behind the laws and requirements of the state, simply because human beings do indeed need authority and systems of enforcement if they are to cooperate peacefully.
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It appeared, and soon its author was more lauded and decried than any other thinker of his time; but the first effect of its publication was to sever his connexion with the exiled royalist party, and to throw him for protection on the revolutionary Government.^ It appeared, and soon its author was more lauded and decried than any other thinker of his time; but the first effect of its publication was to sever his connexion with the exiled royalist party, and to throw him for protection on the revolutionary Government.

^ Contained in his theory is that while some men may be stronger or more intelligent than others, none is so strong and smart as to be beyond a fear of violent death.
  • How Thomas Hobbes is helping destroy America : WesternFront America 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC westernfrontamerica.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In particular, he often speaks of “covenants,” by which he means a contract where one party performs his part of the bargain later than the other.
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.No sooner did copies of the book reach Paris than he found himself shunned by his former associates, and though he was himself so little conscious of disloyalty that he was forward to present a manuscript copy " engrossed in vellum in a marvellous fair hand" 3 to the young king of the Scots (who, after the defeat at Worcester, escaped to Paris about the end of October), he was denied the royal presence when he sought it shortly afterwards.^ About these points fundamental there is little controversy amongst Christians, though otherwise of different sects amongst themselves.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Secondly, upon the sight of anything that hath a beginning, to think also it had a cause which determined the same to begin then when it did, rather than sooner or later.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That which the high priest did to Athaliah was not done in his own right, but in the right of the young King Joash, her son: But Solomon in his own right deposed the high priest Abiathar, and set up another in his place.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

Straightway, then, he saw himself exposed to a double peril. .The exiles had among them desperadoes who could slay; and, besides exciting the enmity of the Anglican clergy about the king, who bitterly resented the secularist spirit of his book, he had compromised himself with the French authorities by his elaborate attack on the papal system.^ Any attempt of subjects to oppose their king is equal to opposing oneself because the subject is the one who put the king in authority.

^ For who is there that does not see to whose benefit it conduceth to have it believed that a king hath not his authority from Christ unless a bishop crown him?
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Book of Judges, an extraordinary zeal and courage in the defence of God's people is called the Spirit of God; as when it excited Othniel, Gideon, Jephtha, and Samson to deliver them from servitude, Judges, 3.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the circumstances, no resource was left him but secret flight.^ In the circumstances, no resource was left him but secret flight.

^ And if it be in no particular man, but left to a new choice; then is the Commonwealth dissolved, and the right is in him that can get it, contrary to the intention of them that did institute the Commonwealth for their perpetual, and not temporary, security.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And if it be in no particular man, but left to a new choyce; then is the Common-wealth dissolved; and the Right is in him that can get it; contrary to the intention of them that did institute the Common-wealth, for their perpetuall, and not temporary security.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Travelling with what speed he could in the depths of a severe winter and under the effects of a recent (second) illness, he managed to reach London, where, sending in his submission to the council of state, he was allowed to subside into private life.^ If the state of nature is anything like as bad as Hobbes has argued, then there's just no way people could ever make an agreement like this or put it into practice.
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ So you could *lapse* into the State of Nature on Hobbes' account (indeed the threat of that lape is a key argument for why the Sovereign must be absolute).
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the contract you entered into was designed to protect your life, the moment your life becomes threatened by the state, you are released from your obligations.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Though Hobbes came back, after his eleven years' absence, without having as yet publicly proved his title to rank with the natural philosophers of the age, he was sufficiently conscious of what he had been able to achieve in Leviathan; and it was 1 The Human Nature corresponds with cc.^ At the very end of this definitional passage it might have looked as though Hobbes was straying into natural law ('for the Distinction of Right and Wrong').
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Second, in any case Hobbes often relies on a more sophisticated view of human nature.
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes, who was born in 1588, was a young man aged 22 at the time of the writing of the Tempest , but if he knew the play, he was obviously unwilling to attend at all to its vision of the world when he came to write the Leviathan .
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

i.-xiii. of the first part of the original treatise. .The remaining six chapters of the part stand now as Part I. of the De corpore politico. Part II. of Ithe D.C.P. corresponds with the original second part of the whole work.^ De corpore politico.
  • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) : Library of Congress Citations 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The remaining six chapters of the part stand now as Part I. of the De corpore politico.

^ Part II. of Ithe D.C.P. corresponds with the original second part of the whole work.

.2 At the beginning of this year he wrote and published in Paris a letter on the nature and conditions of poetry, chiefly epic, in answer to an appeal to his judgment made in the preface to Sir W. Davenant's heroic poem, Gondibert (E.W. iv.^ At the beginning of this year he wrote and published in Paris a letter on the nature and conditions of poetry , chiefly epic, in answer to an appeal to his judgment made in the preface to Sir W. Davenant's heroic poem, Gondibert (E.W. iv.

^ If they be made law by God Himself, they are of the nature of written law, which are laws to them only to whom God hath so sufficiently published them as no man can excuse himself by saying he knew not they were His.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If they be made Law by God himselfe, they are of the nature of written Law, which are Laws to them only to whom God hath so sufficiently published them, as no man can excuse himself, by saying, he know not they were his.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

445-458). .The letter is dated Jan.^ The letter is dated Jan.

50, 1650 (1650/I).
.3 This presentation copy, so described by Clarendon (Survey of the Leviathan, 5676, p.^ This presentation copy, so described by Clarendon ( Survey of the Leviathan, 5676, p.

^ This exemption, far from not being present in ‘Leviathan, was one of the main reasons why Hobbes was vituperated by several royalists, notably Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.8), is doubtless the beautifully written and finely bound MS. now to be found in the British Museum (Egerton MSS. 1910).^ Early on he mentions a complimentary bath in the “warm sulpher spring,” doubtless the one where the Children’s Museum of Utah is now.

in no humble mood that he now, at the age of sixty-four, turned to complete the fundamental treatise of his philosophical system. .Neither those whom his masterpiece soon roused to enthusiasm, nor those whom it moved to indignation, were likely to be indifferent to anything he should now write, whether it lay near to or far from the region of practice.^ If the state of nature is anything like as bad as Hobbes has argued, then there's just no way people could ever make an agreement like this or put it into practice.
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And that anything hath power now to produce another thing hereafter, we cannot conceive, but by remembrance that it hath produced the like heretofore.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If the state of nature is anything like as bad as Hobbes has argued, then there’s just no way people could ever make an agreement like this or put it into practice.
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Taking up his abode in Fetter Lane, London, on his return, and continuing to reside there for the sake of intellectual society, even after renewing his old ties with the earl of Devonshire, who lived in the country till the Restoration,4 he worked so steadily as to be printing the De corpore in the year 1654. Circumstances (of which more presently), however, kept the book back till the following year, and meanwhile the readers of Leviathan had a different excitement.^ In Leviathan and De Corpore something more complex goes on.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ After graduating from Oxford in February 1608, Hobbes went to work for the Cavendish family, initially as a tutor to William Cavendish (1590–1628), who later became the second earl of Devonshire.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1640 he wrote “The Elements of Laws, Natural and Politic;” in 1642 he published De Cive (The Citizen); in 1655 he wrote De Corpore (Concerning the Body); in 1658 he published De Homine (Concerning Man); and later on in France he wrote the famous work called Leviathan .

In 1654 a small treatise, " Of Liberty and Necessity " (E.W. iv. .229-278), issued from the press, claiming to be an answer to a discourse on the same subject by Bishop Bramhall of Londonderry (afterwards archbishop of Armagh, d.^ In his Answer to Bishop Bramhall , Hobbes describes God as a “corporeal spirit” (Hobbes 1662, 4.306).
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Hobbes does seem in his Answer to Bishop Bramhall and the Appendix to the Latin edition of Leviathan to believe this strange view sincerely.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes, T., 1662, An Answer to Bishop Bramhall's Book, called “The Catching of the Leviathan” , in W. Molesworth (ed.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

1663), addressed by Hobbes to the marquis of Newcastle. .5 It had grown out of an oral discussion between Hobbes and Bramhall in the marquis's presence at Paris in 1646. Bramhall, a strong Arminian, had afterwards written down his views and sent them to Newcastle to be answered in this form by Hobbes.^ Hobbes's view is so close us, so familiar, that we may not recognize as clearly as we should the enormous change that has occurred between his vision and that of Shakespeare in the Tempest .
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ I think an evolutionary view of Hobbes thought would answer this effectively.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Hobbes duly replied, but not for publication, because he thought the subject a delicate one.^ Also because whatsoever (as I said before,) we conceive, has been perceived first by sense, either all at once, or by parts; a man can have no thought, representing any thing, not subject to sense.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Aubrey reports that the two “mutually respected one another”, but also that Hobbes thought that Descartes would have been better off sticking to geometry (Aubrey 1696, 1.367).
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Actually Hobbes is forced to go even further than suggested by posters above, because of his insistence that duress is not a 'defence' to the enforceability of any covenant between the sovereign and the subject.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.But it happened that Hobbes had allowed a French acquaintance to have a private translation of his reply made by a young Englishman, who secretly took a copy of the original for himself; and now it was this unnamed purloiner who, in 1654, when Hobbes had become famous and feared, gave it to the world of his own motion, with an extravagantly laudatory epistle to the reader in its front.^ By this means it was that Julius Caesar, who was set up by the people against the senate, having won to himself the affections of his army, made himself master both of senate and people.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes, who was born in 1588, was a young man aged 22 at the time of the writing of the Tempest , but if he knew the play, he was obviously unwilling to attend at all to its vision of the world when he came to write the Leviathan .
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The question now is, Who it was that gave to these written Tables the obligatory force of Lawes.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Upon Hobbes himself the publication came as a surprise, but, after his plain speaking in Leviathan, there was nothing in the piece that he need scruple to have made known, and he seems to have condoned the act.^ "If there be a Prophet among you, I the Lord will make my self known to him in a Vision, and will speak unto him in a Dream.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In chapter 2 of Leviathan Hobbes comes to these topics at a slightly surprising point.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the first paragraph of his chapter 'Of Civill Lawes' in the Leviathan, Hobbes tells us that 'Civill Law' is sometimes used to refer to the received Roman law: 'But that is not what I intend to speak of here; my designe being not to shew what is Law here, and there; but what is Law; as Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, and divers others have done, without taking upon them the profession of the study of the Law.'
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.On the other hand, Bramhall, supposing Hobbes privy to the publication, resented the manner of it, especially as no mention was made of his rejoinder.^ To which I can give no other kind of answer but that which is given to those that urge the Scripture in like manner against the opinion of the motion of the earth.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But when a covenant is made, then to break it is unjust and the definition of injustice is no other than the not performance of covenant.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Others suppose that Hobbes has a much more complex picture of human motivation, so that there is no reason to think moral ideas are absent in the state of nature.
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Accordingly, in 1655, he printed everything that had passed between them (under the title of A Defence of the True Liberty of Human Actions from Antecedent or Extrinsic Necessity), with loud complaint against the treatment he had received, and the promise added that, in default of others, he himself would stand forward to expose the deadly principles of Leviathan. About this time Hobbes had begun to be hard pressed by other foes, and, being never more sure of himself than upon the question of the will, he appears to have welcomed the opportunity thus given him of showing his strength.^ But Hobbes is more subtle than this.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Vision, though a more cleer Vision than was given to other Prophets.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This section focuses on Hobbes's materialism about human beings.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

By 1656 he was ready with his Questions concerning Liberty, Necessity and Chance (E.W. v.), in which he replied with astonishing force to the bishop's rejoinder point by point, besides explaining the occasion and circumstances of the whole debate, and reproducing (as Bramhall had done) all the pieces from the beginning. .As perhaps the first clear exposition and defence of the psychological doctrine of determinism, Hobbes's own two pieces must ever retain a classical importance in the history of the free-will controversy; while Bramhall's are still worth study as specimens of scholastic fence.^ Commentators debate how seriously to take Hobbes’s stress on the importance of definition, and whether it embodies a definite philosophical doctrine.
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes's is the first doctrine that necessarily and unmistakably points to a thoroughly 'enlightened', i.e., a-religious or atheistic society as the solution of the social or political problem.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ From the stillness of the moment which must always precede the beginning of the piece's opening enunciation, through to the concluding momentary silence, the performance is governed by an unchanging goal.
  • Fidelio Article: LaRouche--Hobbes' Math Misshaped History 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.schillerinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The bishop, it should be added, returned to the charge in 1658 with ponderous Castigations of Mr Hobbes's Animadversions, and also made good his previous threat in a bulky 4 During all the time he was abroad he had continued to receive from his patron a yearly pension of (80, and they remained in steady correspondence.^ And those several sorts of unions, governments, and subjections of man's will, may be understood to be made, either absolutely, that is to say, for all future time, or for a time limited only.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For the thoughts are to the desires as scouts and spies to range abroad and find the way to the things desired, all steadiness of the mind's motion, and all quickness of the same, proceeding from thence.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For they were the sovereign all the time, as appeareth by the acts of those elective kings, that have procured from the people, that their children might succeed them.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.The earl, having sided with the king in 1642, was declared unfit to sit in the House of Peers, and though, by submission to Parliament, he recovered his estates when they were sequestered later on, he did not sit again till 1660. Among Hobbes's friends at this time are specially mentioned John Selden and William Harvey,.^ After their rejection of God in the demand of a King, they enjoyed still the same revenue; but the Right thereof was derived from that, that the Kings did never take it from them: for the Publique Revenue was at the disposing of him that was the Publique Person; and that (till the Captivity) was the King.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And though this law may be drawn by consequence from some of those that are there already mentioned, yet the times require to have it inculcated and remembered.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Secondly, though thus assembled with intention to unite themselves, they are yet in that estate in which every man hath right to everything, and consequently, as hath been said, chap.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

who left him a legacy of £IO. According to Aubrey, Selden left him an equal bequest, but this seems to be a mistake. .Harvey (not Bacon) is the only Englishman he mentions in the dedicatory epistle prefixed to the De corpore, among the founders, before himself, of the new natural philosophy.^ If they be made Law by God himselfe, they are of the nature of written Law, which are Laws to them only to whom God hath so sufficiently published them, as no man can excuse himself, by saying, he know not they were his.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus the first part of The Elements of Law is titled “Human Nature” and the second “De Corpore Politico” (i.e., “About the Body Politic”).
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If they be made law by God Himself, they are of the nature of written law, which are laws to them only to whom God hath so sufficiently published them as no man can excuse himself by saying he knew not they were His.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

s The treatise bore the date, " ` Rouen, Aug. .20, 1652," but it should have been 2646, as afterwards explained by Hobbes himself (E.W. V. 25).^ Before we ask whether Hobbes, himself, 'succeeded' and inquire into the morality of his definition, we should ask, 'Should our jurisprudence follow the model of his?'
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.versy appendix entitled The Catching of Leviathan the Great Whale. Hobbes never took any notice of the Castigations, but ten years later replied to the charges of atheism, &c., made in the nonpolitical part of the appendix, of which he says he then heard for the first time (E.W. iv.^ Hobbes's Leviathan, part 6: Responses to readers .
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes's Leviathan, part 5: The end of individualism .
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes's Leviathan, part 7: His idea of war .
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

279-384). .This Answer was first published after Hobbes's death."^ De Cive (1642) was Hobbes's first published book of political philosophy.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ So the answers to the first two questions I posed--what theory of language Hobbes puts in place of essentialism and what exactly Hobbes is doing, when he himself defines law--are rather complicated.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.We may now follow out the more troublesome conflict, or rather series of conflicts, in which Hobbes became entangled from the time of publishing his De corpore in 1655, and which checkered all his remaining years.^ At this time Hobbes also had a series of interactions with Descartes.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Other important works include: De Corpore [ On the Body ] (1655), which deals with questions of metaphysics; De Homine [ On Man ] (1657); and Behemoth (published 1682, though written rather earlier), in which Hobbes gives his account of England's Civil Wars.
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1640 he wrote “The Elements of Laws, Natural and Politic;” in 1642 he published De Cive (The Citizen); in 1655 he wrote De Corpore (Concerning the Body); in 1658 he published De Homine (Concerning Man); and later on in France he wrote the famous work called Leviathan .

In Leviathan he had vehemently assailed the system of the universities, as originally founded for the support of the papal against the civil authority, and as still working social mischief by adherence to the old learning. The attack was duly noted at Oxford, where under the Commonwealth a new spirit of scientific activity had begun to stir. .In 1654 Seth Ward (1617-1689), the Savilian professor of astronomy, replying in his Vindiciae academiarum to some other assaults (especially against John Webster's Examen of Academies) on the academic system, retorted upon Hobbes that, so far from the universities being now what he had known them in his youth, he would find his geometrical pieces, when they appeared, better understood there than he should like.^ These included debates with John Wallis and Seth Ward that centred on Hobbes's alleged squaring of the circle (Jesseph 1999), debates with John Bramhall about liberty and necessity (continuing some discussions of the 1640s), and debates with Robert Boyle about the experimental physics of the Royal Society (Shapin & Schaffer 1989).
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Men have rights to all things in the state of jungle not because there is no any obligation but because “if a man were modest, tractable, and kept his promises in such time and place where no man else should do so should but make [himself] a prey to others…” 15 Hobbes was aware that anarchy would be the outcome of men living in the state of war, because as we have already seen, everyone is at war against everyone.

^ If one prophet deceive another, what certainty is there of knowing the will of God by other way than that of reason?
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.This was said in reference to the boasts in which Hobbes seems to have been freely indulging of having squared the circle and accomplished other such feats; and, when a year later the De corpore (L.W. i.^ And if it seems strange that Hobbes, guardian of order that he was, prompts such thoughts, remember that, at least where philosophers and lawyers were concerned, he was also a virulent anti-professional.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ De Corpore was published in 1655, and provides Hobbes's main statements on several topics, such as method and the workings of language.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By the time of Leviathan and De Corpore , Hobbes was convinced that human beings (including their minds) were entirely material.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

) finally appeared, it was seen how the thrust had gone home. In the chapter (xx.) of that work where .Hobbes dealt with the famous problem whose solution he thought he had found, there were left expressions against Vindex (Ward) at a time when the solutions still seemed to him good; but the solutions themselves, as printed, were allowed to be all in different ways halting, as he naively confessed he had discovered only when he had been driven by the insults of malevolent men to examine them more closely with the help of his friends.^ If Hobbes’s problems are real and his solutions only partly convincing, where will we go?
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If Hobbes's problems are real and his solutions only partly convincing, where will we go?
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ That a man be willing when others are so too, as for peace, and defense of himself he shall think it necessary, to lay down this right to all things; and be contended with so much liberty against other men, as he would allow other men against himself.

A strange conclusion this, and reached by a path not less strange, as was now to be disclosed by a relentless hand. .Ward's colleague, the more famous John Wallis, Savilian professor of geometry from 1649, had been privy to the challenge thrown out in 1654, and it was arranged that they should critically dispose of the De corpore between them.^ So that the whole effect of excommunicating a Christian prince, is no more than he or they that so excommunicate him, depart, and banish themselves out of his dominion.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His sixth argument is this: if bishops have their jurisdiction de jure divino, that is, immediately from God, they that maintain it should bring some word of God to prove it: but they can bring none.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They would differ, as I pointed out, earlier, about what that higher guide to interpretation should be.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

Ward was to occupy himself with the philosophical and physical sections, which he did in leisurely fashion, bringing out his criticism in the course of next year (In Th. .Hobbii philosophiam exercitatio epistolica). Wallis was to confine himself to the mathematical chapters, and set to work at once with characteristic energy.^ Called to God to labor in his vineyard, he has within himself a principle at once of energy and of order, which makes him irresistible both in war and in the struggles of commerce.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Obtaining an unbound copy of the De corpore, he saw by the mutilated appearance of the sheets that Hobbes had repeatedly altered his demonstrations before he issued them at last in their actual form, grotesque as it was, rather than delay the book longer.^ De Corpore was published in 1655, and provides Hobbes's main statements on several topics, such as method and the workings of language.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By the time of Leviathan and De Corpore , Hobbes was convinced that human beings (including their minds) were entirely material.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In De Corpore Hobbes first describes the view that reasoning is computation early in chapter one.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Obtaining also a copy of the work as it had been printed before Hobbes had any doubt of the validity of his solutions, Wallis was able to track his whole course front the time of Ward's provocation - his passage from exultation to doubt, from doubt to confessed impotence, yet still without abandoning the old assumption of confident strength; and all his turnings and windings were now laid bare in one of the most trenchant pieces of controversial writing ever penned.^ One postscript before returning to Hobbes.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ If we can’t do this, then many of the achievements of human society that involve putting hard work into land (farming, building) or material objects (the crafts, or modern industrial production, still unknown in Hobbes’s time) will be near impossible.
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If we can't do this, then many of the achievements of human society that involve putting hard work into land (farming, building) or material objects (the crafts, or modern industrial production, still unknown in Hobbes's time) will be near impossible.
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Wallis's Elenchus geometriae Hobbianae, published in 1655 about three months after the De corpore, contained also an elaborate criticism of Hobbes's whole attempt to relay the foundations of mathematical science in its place within the general body of reasoned knowledge - a criticism which, if it failed to allow for the merit of the conception, exposed only too effectually the utter inadequacy of the result.^ Other important works include: De Corpore [ On the Body ] (1655), which deals with questions of metaphysics; De Homine [ On Man ] (1657); and Behemoth (published 1682, though written rather earlier), in which Hobbes gives his account of England’s Civil Wars.
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Other important works include: De Corpore [ On the Body ] (1655), which deals with questions of metaphysics; De Homine [ On Man ] (1657); and Behemoth (published 1682, though written rather earlier), in which Hobbes gives his account of England's Civil Wars.
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1640 he wrote “The Elements of Laws, Natural and Politic;” in 1642 he published De Cive (The Citizen); in 1655 he wrote De Corpore (Concerning the Body); in 1658 he published De Homine (Concerning Man); and later on in France he wrote the famous work called Leviathan .

.Taking up mathematics when not only his mind was already formed but his thoughts were crystallizing into a philosophical system, Hobbes had, in fact, never put himself to school and sought to work up gradually to the best knowledge of the time, but had been more anxious from the first to become himself an innovator with whatever insufficient means.^ Hobbes's first notable philosophical works are from around 1640.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For the first time, privacy becomes not only desirable but attainable.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ If we can't do this, then many of the achievements of human society that involve putting hard work into land (farming, building) or material objects (the crafts, or modern industrial production, still unknown in Hobbes's time) will be near impossible.
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The consequence was that, when not spending himself in vain attempts to solve the impossible problems that have always waylaid the fancy of self-sufficient beginners, he took an interest only in the elements of geometry, and never had any notion of the full scope of mathematical science, undergoing as it then was (and not least at the hands of Wallis) the extraordinary development which made it before the end of the century the potent instrument of physical discovery which it became in the hands of Newton.^ Perhaps he just had a good deal of confidence in the ability of the rapidly developing science of the his time to proceed towards a full material explanation of the mind.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the problem with all of Hobbes’s notions about sovereignty is that – on his account – it is not Hobbes the philosopher, nor we the citizens, who decide what counts as the proper nature, scope or exercise of sovereignty.
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Besides the discretion of times, places, and persons, necessary to a good fancy, there is required also an often application of his thoughts to their end; that is to say, to some use to be made of them.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.He was even unable, in dealing with the elementary conceptions of geometry, to work out with any consistency the few original thoughts he had, and thus became the easy sport of Wallis.^ And thus much for the ill condition which man by mere nature is actually placed in; though with a possibility to come out of it, consisting partly in the passions, partly in his reason.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And thus much for the ill condition, which man by meer Nature is actually placed in; though with a possibility to come out of it, consisting partly in the Passions, partly in his Reason.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

At his advanced age, however, and with the sense he had of his powers, he was not likely to be brought to a better mind by so insulting an opponent. He did indeed, before allowing an English 1 " The Vit. auct. refers to 1676, a ` Letter to William duke of Newcastle on the Controversy about Liberty and Necessity, held with Benjamin Laney, bishop of Ely.' .In that year there did appear a (confused) little tract written by Laney against Hobbes's concluding statement of his own ` Opinion ' in the ` Liberty and Necessity ' of 1654 (1646), but I can find no trace of any further writing by Hobbes on the subject " (G. Croom Robertson, Hobbes, p.^ Lastly, when in a war, foreign or intestine, the enemies get a final victory, so as, the forces of the Commonwealth keeping the field no longer, there is no further protection of subjects in their loyalty, then is the Commonwealth dissolved, and every man at liberty to protect himself by such courses as his own discretion shall suggest unto him.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Again, the consent of a subject to sovereign power is contained in these words, "I authorise, or take upon me, all his actions"; in which there is no restriction at all of his own former natural liberty: for by allowing him to kill me, I am not bound to kill myself when he commands me.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In cases where the Soveraign has prescribed no rule, there the Subject hath the liberty to do, or forbeare, according to his own discretion.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

202).
translation of the De corpore (E.W. i.) to appear in .1656, take care to remove some of the worst mistakes exposed by Wallis, and, while leaving out all the references to Vindex, now profess to make, in altered form, a series of mere " attempts " at quadrature; but he was far from yielding the ground to the enemy.^ New Orleans can cause some turnovers, but so could Green Bay -- and we all saw how that turned out.
  • Postseason Fantasy: Roster analysis, Round 2 - Matthew Lutovsky - Fantasy Source Blitz - Sporting News 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.sportingnews.com [Source type: General]

^ And for these doctrines, men are chiefly beholding to some of those, that making profession of the Lawes, endeavour to make them depend upon their own learning, and not upon the Legislative Power.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We are now trying to release all our eBooks one year in advance of the official release dates, leaving time for better editing.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.With the translation,' in the spring of 1656, he had ready Six Lessons to the Professors of Mathematics, one of Geometry, the other of Astronomy, in the University of Oxford (E.W. vii.^ These meaningless vocal sounds, “abstract substances,” “separated essence,” and other similar ones, spring from the same fountain (Hobbes 1655, 3.4).
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ One universal name is imposed on many things for their similitude in some quality, or other accident: and whereas a proper name bringeth to mind one thing only, universals recall any one of those many.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nidditch, P.H., 1975, “Foreword”, in J. Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975, vii–xxvi.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.181-356), in which, after reasserting his view of the principles of geometry in opposition to Euclid's, he proceeded to repel Wallis's objections with no lack of dialectical skill, and with an unreserve equal to Wallis's own.^ The former quality requires a complex set of practical skills (which Machiavelli calls virtu ), hence the saying about his views: there is no virtue in virtu .
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

He did not scruple, in the ardour of conflict, even to maintain positions that he had resigned in the translation, and he was not afraid to assume the offensive by a counter criticism of three of Wallis's works then published. .When he had thus disposed of the " Paralogisms " of his more formidable antagonist in the first five lessons, he ended with a lesson on " Manners " to the two professors together, and set himself gravely at the close to show that he too could be abusive.^ Although he sets out nineteen laws of nature, it is the first two that are politically crucial.
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Alternatively, I could go into more detail, thus running the risk that I would often be repeating well-known truths.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When two or more men know of one and the same fact, they are said to be conscious of it one to another; which is as much as to know it together.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.In this particular part of his task, it must be allowed, he succeeded very well; his criticism of Wallis's works, especially the great treatise Arithmetica infinitorum (1655), only showed how little able he was to enter into the meaning of the modern analysis.^ He showed very little interest in the strict scholastic philosophy of the time and took around six years to complete his degree.
  • Thomas Hobbes - Leviathan - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In particular, he often speaks of “covenants,” by which he means a contract where one party performs his part of the bargain later than the other.
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For let a space be never so little, that which is moved over a greater space, whereof that little one is part, must first be moved over that.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Wallis, on his side, was not less ready to keep up the game in English than he had been to begin it in Latin.^ Languages with more than 50 books: Chinese Dutch English Esperanto Finnish French German Italian Latin Portuguese Spanish Swedish Tagalog .
  • Browse By Author: H - Project Gutenberg 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Browse By Author: H - Project Gutenberg 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.gutenberg.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Is it totally arbitrary that this set of phenomena, rather than some other set, ends up being called 'games'?
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Swift as before to strike, in three months' time he had deftly turned his own word against the would-be master by administering Due Correction for Mr Hobbes, or School Discipline for not saying his Lessons right, in a piece that differed from the Elenchus only in being more biting and unrestrained.^ In which, the principal Schools were ordained for the three Professions, that is to say, of the Romane Religion, of the Romane Law, and of the Art of Medicine.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, Hobbes has an extraordinarily reductive view of human beings, not unlike Machiavelli's they are power hungry, acquisitive, destructive, competitive animals, restrained only by fear and desire for pleasure.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus in talking about ambiguity Hobbes says that “the word faith sometimes signifieth the same with belief; sometimes it signifieth particularly that belief which maketh a Christian; and sometimes it signifieth the keeping of a promise” (Hobbes 1640, 5.7).
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Having an easy task in defending himself against Hobbes's trivial criticism, he seized the opportunity given him by the English translation of the De corpore to track Hobbes again step by step over the whole course, and now to confront him with his incredible inconsistencies multiplied by every new utterance.^ By this means it was that Julius Caesar, who was set up by the people against the senate, having won to himself the affections of his army, made himself master both of senate and people.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the making of a Commonwealth every man giveth away the right of defending another, but not of defending himself.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ De Corpore was published in 1655, and provides Hobbes's main statements on several topics, such as method and the workings of language.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

But it was no longer a fight over mathematical questions only. .Wallis having been betrayed originally by his fatal cleverness into the pettiest carping at words, Hobbes had retorted in kind, and then it became a high duty in the other to defend his Latin with great parade of learning and give fresh provocation.^ After his death Hobbes became almost a kind of English institution.

^ And when the Endeavour is fromward something, it is generally called AVERSION. These words Appetite, and Aversion we have from the Latines; and they both of them signifie the motions, one of approaching, the other of retiring.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, other than one specific right, the governed now have no way to call the ruler into account (except as the ruler shall determine).
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

.One of Wallis's rough sallies in this kind suggested to Hobbes the title of the next rejoinder with which, in 1657, he sought to close the unseemly wrangle.^ But one needs, at least, a fairly complex story about Hobbes's attitudes in order to sustain the view that he was sneakily suggesting that God didn't exist.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet, in some respects, the biggest and most dislocating jump we experience is moving from Shakespeare's Tempest in one week to Hobbes's Leviathan in the next.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ What matters, Hobbes says, is that “we remember that vocal sounds of this kind sometimes evoked one thing in the mind, sometimes something else” (Hobbes 1655, 2.9).
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Arguing in the Lessons that a mathematical point must have quantity, though this were not reckoned, he had explained the Greek word UTCy v , used for a point, to mean a visible mark made with a hot iron;; whereupon he was charged by Wallis with gross ignorance for confounding artypii and o - y,ua. Hence the title of his new piece: Ertl/mat eyewperpias, aypoudas, avruroXcreias, apaBeias, or Marks of the Absurd Geometry, Rural Language, Scottish Church Politics, and Barbarisms of John Wallis, Professor of Geometry and Doctor of Divinity (E. W. vii.^ Use Of Names Positive And this is all the variety of Names Positive; which are put to mark somewhat which is in Nature, or may be feigned by the mind of man, as Bodies that are, or may be conceived to be; or of bodies, the Properties that are, or may be feigned to be; or Words and Speech.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the Schools find in mere appetite to go, or move, no actual motion at all; but because some motion they must acknowledge, they call it metaphorical motion, which is but an absurd speech; for though words may be called metaphorical, bodies and motions cannot.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For words are wise mens counters, they do but reckon by them: but they are the mony of fooles, that value them by the authority of an Aristotle, a Cicero, or a Thomas, or any other Doctor whatsoever, if but a man.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

357400). .He now attacked more in detail but not more happily than before Wallis's great work, while hardly attempting any further defence of his own positions; also he repelled with some force and dignity the insults that had been heaped upon him, and fought the verbal points, but could not leave the field without making political insinuations against his adversary, quite irrelevant in themselves and only noteworthy as evidence of his own resignation to Cromwell's rule.^ But Hobbes says more than this, and it is this point that makes his argument so powerful.
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For men, as they become at last weary of irregular jostling and hewing one another, and desire with all their hearts to conform themselves into one firm and lasting edifice; so for want both of the art of making fit laws to square their actions by, and also of humility and patience to suffer the rude and cumbersome points of their present greatness to be taken off, they cannot without the help of a very able architect be compiled into any other than a crazy building, such as, hardly lasting out their own time, must assuredly fall upon the heads of their posterity.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These laws of nature, the sum whereof consisteth in forbidding us to be our own judges, and our own carvers, and in commanding us to accommodate one another; in case they should be observed by some, and not by others, would make the observers but a prey to them that should neglect them; leaving the good, both without defence against the wicked, and also with a charge to assist them: which is against the scope of the said laws, that are made only for the protection and defence of them that keep them.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

The thrusts were easily and nimbly parried by Wallis in a reply (Hobbiani puncti dispunctio, 1657) occupied mainly with the verbal questions. .Irritating as it was, it did not avail to shake Hobbes's determination to remain silent; and thus at last there was peace for a time.^ All in all, Hobbes conception of justice can help to implement peace and security in areas where there is war.

^ I think the difficulty is that Hobbes did not know how far back into biology he had to go, and clearly evolutionary science was not known in his time.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ But there is a more important theme that emerges from Hobbes's writing, a theme that should speak to us, appeal to us, even if we do not feel anarchy to be either as close or as dangerous as he did.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Before the strife flamed up again, Hobbes had published, in 1658, the outstanding section of his philosophical system, and thus completed, after a fashion, the scheme he had planned more than twenty years before.^ But Hobbes is more subtle than this.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ De Homine was published in 1658, completing the plan of the Elements of Philosophy .
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Condensed is when there is in the very same matter less quantity than before; and rarefied, when more.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

So far as the treatise De homine (L.W. ii. .11 -32) was concerned, the completion was more in name than in fact.^ The result was the growth of a powerful middle class, more concerned about what Hobbes calls "commodious living" than in traditional community life.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, for most of us, I suspect, our idea of freedom is derived more from Hobbes than from anyone else.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ It is my claim--and I recognize that at this point it is no more than a claim--that the 'prerequisites,' 'criteria,' and 'fundamental components' are all, in fact, resurrections of the essentialist project under another name.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It consisted for the most part of an elaborate theory of vision which, though very creditable to Hobbes's scientific insight, was out of place, or at least out of proportion, in a philosophical consideration of human nature generally.^ And if it seems strange that Hobbes, guardian of order that he was, prompts such thoughts, remember that, at least where philosophers and lawyers were concerned, he was also a virulent anti-professional.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At the very end of this definitional passage it might have looked as though Hobbes was straying into natural law ('for the Distinction of Right and Wrong').
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As for the rites of consecration, though they depend for the most part upon the discretion and judgement of the governors of the Church, and not upon the Scriptures; yet those governors are obliged to such direction as the nature of the action itself requireth; as that the ceremonies, words, gestures be both decent and significant, or at least conformable to the action.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.The remainder of the treatise, dealing cursorily with some of the topics more fully treated in the Human Nature and the Leviathan, has all the appearance of having been tagged in haste to the optical chapters (composed years before) a as This translation, Concerning Body, though not made by Hobbes, was revised by him; but it is far from accurate, and not seldom, at critical places (e.g.^ This is not to say that we should ignore Hobbes's ideas on human nature - far from it.
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This is not to say that we should ignore Hobbes’s ideas on human nature – far from it.
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Even after the monarchy had been restored in 1660, Hobbes's security was not always certain: powerful religious figures, critical of his writings, made moves in Parliament that apparently led Hobbes to burn some of his papers for fear of prosecution.
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

c. vi. § 2), quite misleading. .Philosophical citations from the De corpore should always be made in the original Latin.^ Hobbes offers a further argument against his opponents' belief in immaterial things in De Corpore , in a passage in which he talks at length about the “gross errors” of philosophers.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Molesworth reprints the Latin, not from the first edition of 1655, but from the modified edition of 1668 - modified, in the mathematical chapters, in general (not exact) keeping with the English edition of 1656. The Vindex episode, referred to in the Six Lessons, becomes intelligible only by going beyond Molesworth to the original Latin edition of 1655 They were composed originally, in a somewhat different and rather more extended form, as the second part of an English treatise on Optics, completed by the year 1646. Of this treatise, preserved in Harleian MSS. 3360, Molesworth otherwise prints the dedication to the marquis of Newcastle, and the concluding paragraphs (E.W. vii.^ He showed very little interest in the strict scholastic philosophy of the time and took around six years to complete his degree.
  • Thomas Hobbes - Leviathan - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ THE SECOND PART OF COMMONWEALTH CHAPTER XVII OF THE CAUSES, GENERATION, AND DEFINITION OF A COMMONWEALTH MEN (who naturally love liberty, and dominion over others) accept the restraint of living in Commonwealths only for their own preservation, and a more contented life.
  • Thomas Hobbes - Leviathan - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And when the Endeavour is fromward something, it is generally called AVERSION. These words Appetite, and Aversion we have from the Latines; and they both of them signifie the motions, one of approaching, the other of retiring.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

467-471).
a makeshift for the proper transition required in the system from questions of .Body Natural to questions of Body Politic.^ Thus far concerning the Nature of Man, and the constitution and properties of a Body Politic.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The true and perspicuous explication of the Elements of Laws, Natural and Politic, which is my present scope, dependeth upon the knowledge of what is human nature, what is a body politic, and what it is we call a law.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For from corporal penalties nature hath bodies politic.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hobbes had in fact spent himself in his earlier constructive efforts, and at the age of seventy, having nothing to add to his doctrine of Man as it was already in one form or another before the world, was content with anything that might stand for the fulfilment of his philosophical purpose.^ One postscript before returning to Hobbes.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Intensely disputatious, Hobbes repeatedly embroiled himself in prolonged arguments with clerics, mathematicians, scientists and philosophers – sometimes to the cost of his intellectual reputation.
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The laws of nature therefore need not any publishing nor proclamation; as being contained in this one sentence, approved by all the world, Do not that to another which thou thinkest unreasonable to be done by another to thyself.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.But he had still in him more than twenty years of vigorous vitality, and, not conscious to himself of any shortcoming, looked forward, now his hands were free, to doing battle for his doctrines.^ But this is certain; by how much one man has more experience of things past, than another; by so much also he is more Prudent, and his expectations the seldomer faile him.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What then can be the meaning of this place, other than that he went of himself into the wilderness; and that this carrying of him up and down, from the wilderness to the city, and from thence into a mountain, was a vision?
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ And From Conscience Of Deserving To Be Hated To have done more hurt to a man, than he can, or is willing to expiate, enclineth the doer to hate the sufferer.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Rather than remain quiet, on finding no notice taken of his latest production, he would himself force on a new conflict with the enemy.^ But if other men will not lay down their right, as well as he, then there is no reason for anyone to divest himself of his: for that were to expose himself to prey, which no man is bound to, rather than to dispose himself to peace.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ignorance of the law of nature excuseth no man, because every man that hath attained to the use of reason is supposed to know he ought not to do to another what he would not have done to himself.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To which I answer, that the last of these Powers, is no more than the Power, or rather Command to Teach.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Wallis having meanwhile published other works and especially a comprehensive treatise on the general principles of calculus (Mathesis universalis, 1657), he might take this occasion of exposing afresh the new-fangled methods of mathematical analysis and reasserting his own earlier positions.^ Other important works include: De Corpore [ On the Body ] (1655), which deals with questions of metaphysics; De Homine [ On Man ] (1657); and Behemoth (published 1682, though written rather earlier), in which Hobbes gives his account of England's Civil Wars.
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Other important works include: De Corpore [ On the Body ] (1655), which deals with questions of metaphysics; De Homine [ On Man ] (1657); and Behemoth (published 1682, though written rather earlier), in which Hobbes gives his account of England’s Civil Wars.
  • Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ De Corpore was published in 1655, and provides Hobbes's main statements on several topics, such as method and the workings of language.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Accordingly, by the spring of 1660, he had managed to put his criticism and assertions into five dialogues under the title Examinatio et emendatio mathematicae hodiernae qualis explicatur in libris Johannis Wallisii, with a sixth dialogue so called, consisting almost entirely of seventy or more propositions on the circle and cycloid.'^ The Pentateuch Not Written By Moses And first, for the Pentateuch, it is not argument enough that they were written by Moses, because they are called the five Books of Moses; no more than these titles, The Book of Joshua, the Book of Judges, The Book of Ruth, and the Books of the Kings, are arguments sufficient to prove, that they were written by Joshua, by the Judges, by Ruth, and by the Kings.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Or as if a body were made without any quantity at all, and that afterwards more or less were put into it, according as it is intended the body should be more or less dense.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ And therefore none but kings can put into their titles, a mark of their submission to God only, Dei gratia Rex, etc.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

Wallis, however, would not take the bait. .Hobbes then tried another tack.^ Another possible reading, and one that I will try to explain more fully later, is that Hobbes is doing something a little more sophisticated.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Next year, having solved, as he thought, another ancient crux, the duplication of the cube, he had his solution brought out anonymously at Paris in French, so as to put Wallis and other critics off the scent and extort a judgment that might be withheld from a work of his.^ Aubrey reports that the two “mutually respected one another”, but also that Hobbes thought that Descartes would have been better off sticking to geometry (Aubrey 1696, 1.367).
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Other critics, however, have thought that Hobbes in fact denied the existence of God.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ God "called" us to carry out certain work in the world, and it was our duty, as a preparation for the grace which we might or might not receive, to work at that "calling" with all the energies we could command.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The artifice was successful, and no sooner had Wallis publicly refuted the solution than Hobbes claimed the credit of it, and went more wonderfully than ever astray in its defence.^ But Hobbes is more subtle than this.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ To say He hath spoken in a dream is no more than to say a man dreamed that God spake; which is no argument.
  • Thomas Hobbes - Leviathan - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The connections seem to amount to no more than that though, so it's at least rather over-dramatic to say that Hobbes was “prophetically launching Artificial Intelligence” (Haugeland 1985, 23).
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

He presently republished it (in modified form), with his remarks, at the end of a new Latin dialogue which he had meanwhile written in defence of another part of his philosophical doctrine. This was the Dialogus physicus, sive De natura aaris (L.W. iv. .233-296), fulminated in 1661 against Boyle and other friends of Wallis who, as he fancied, under the influence of that malevolent spirit, were now in London, after the Restoration, forming themselves into a society (incorporated as the Royal Society in 1662) for experimental research, to the exclusion of himself personally, and in direct contravention of the method of physical inquiry enjoined in the De corpore.^ These included debates with John Wallis and Seth Ward that centred on Hobbes's alleged squaring of the circle (Jesseph 1999), debates with John Bramhall about liberty and necessity (continuing some discussions of the 1640s), and debates with Robert Boyle about the experimental physics of the Royal Society (Shapin & Schaffer 1989).
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And by this means, as often as there is any repugnancy between the political designs of the Pope and other Christian princes, as there is very often, there ariseth such a mist amongst their subjects, that they know not a stranger that thrusteth himself into the throne of their lawful prince, from him whom they had themselves placed there; and, in this darkness of mind, are made to fight one against another, without discerning their enemies from their friends, under the conduct of another man's ambition.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ And by this means, as often as there is any repugnancy between the Politicall designes of the Pope, and other Christian Princes, as there is very often, there ariseth such a Mist amongst their Subjects, that they know not a stranger that thrusteth himself into the throne of their lawfull Prince, from him whom they had themselves placed there; and in this Darknesse of mind, are made to fight one against another, without discerning their enemies from their friends, under the conduct of another mans ambition.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.2
All the laborious manipulation recorded in Boyle's New Experiments touching the Spring of the Air (1660),(1660), which Hobbes chose, without the least warrant, to take as the manifesto of the new " academicians," seemed to him only to confirm the conclusions he had reasoned out years before from speculative principles, and he warned them that if they were not content to begin where he had left off their work would come to nought.^ And if it seems strange that Hobbes, guardian of order that he was, prompts such thoughts, remember that, at least where philosophers and lawyers were concerned, he was also a virulent anti-professional.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But supposing that these of mine are not such principles of reason; yet I am sure they are principles from authority of Scripture, as I shall make it appear when I shall come to speak of the kingdom of God, administered by Moses, over the Jews, His peculiar people by covenant.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes's only real point seems to be that there should be a "head" that decides most of the important things that the "body" does.
  • Thomas Hobbes -- Moral and Politcal Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.To as much of this diatribe as concerned himself Boyle quickly replied with force and dignity, but it was from Hobbes's old enemy that retribution came, in the scathing satire Hobbius heauton-timorumenos (1662).^ But to this he hath replied that the Christians of old deposed not Nero, nor Dioclesian, nor Julian, nor Valens, an Arian, for this cause only, that they wanted temporal forces.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And thus much concerning the time of the writing of the books of the Old Testament.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But to this he hath replyed, that the Christians of old, deposed not Nero, nor Diocletian, nor Julian, nor Valens an Arrian, for this cause onely, that they wanted Temporall forces.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Wallis, who had deftly steered his course amid all the political changes of the previous years, managing ever to be on the side of the ruling power, was now apparently stung to fury by a wanton allusion in Hobbes's latest dialogue to a passage of his former life (his deciphering for the parliament the king's papers taken at Naseby), whereof he had once boasted but after the Restoration could not speak or hear too little.^ Is there something that they would help him to do that Hobbes's theory, the lawyer's rule of thumb, or a first-year class in political theory would not do as well, or better?
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Or alternatively put, Hobbes addressed himself to this question: How can we harness the wealth and power generated by the Puritan spirit (which whether we like it or not is a modern fact of life), without leading to the political anarchy inherent in all Protestantism (of the sort he had seen in the English Civil War and throughout Europe)?
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The Project Gutenberg EBook of Leviathan, by Thomas Hobbes Copyright laws are changing all over the world.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

The revenge he took was crushing. .Professing to be roused by the attack on his friend Boyle, when he had scorned to lift a finger in defence of himself against the earlier dialogues, he tore them all to shreds with an art of which no general description can give an idea.^ The Ninth, Against Pride The question who is the better man, has no place in the condition of meer Nature; where, (as has been shewn before,) all men are equall.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To which I can give no other kind of answer but that which is given to those that urge the Scripture in like manner against the opinion of the motion of the earth.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lastly, when the question is propounded of our belief; because some are moved to believe for one, and others for other reasons, there can be rendered no one general answer for them all.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.He got, however, upon more dangerous ground when, passing wholly by the political insinuation against himself, he roundly charged Hobbes with having written Leviathan in support of Oliver's title, and deserted his royal master in distress.^ By this means it was that Julius Caesar, who was set up by the people against the senate, having won to himself the affections of his army, made himself master both of senate and people.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus even in Leviathan , with its focus on political and religious matters, Hobbes starts with a story about the workings of the mind.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is also clear, however, that the dangers of a tyrannical sovereign for Hobbes are considerable more attractive than what will occur if there is no state or if the state falls apart.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Hobbes seems to have been fairly bewildered by the rush and whirl of sarcasm with which Wallis drove him anew from every mathematical position he had ever taken up, and did not venture forth into the field of scientific controversy again for some years, when he had once followed up the physical dialogue of 1661 by seven shorter ones, with the inevitable appendix, entitled Problemata physica, una cum magnitudine circuli (L.W. iv.^ It has taken a long time, but it seems that even orthodox legal theorists are coming to agree with Hobbes that 'reason' alone cannot do the trick.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Secondly, Hobbes checks the power of the state in one important respect: it cannot demand your life, and if it does, for any reason, you are entitled to fight back.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ For they do nothing else, that will have every of their passions, as it comes to bear sway in them, to be taken for right reason, and that in their own controversies: bewraying their want of right reason by the claim they lay to it.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

297-384), in 1662.3 1 L.W. iv. .1-232. The propositions on the circle, forty-six in number (shattered by Wallis in 1662), were omitted by Hobbes when he republished the Dialogues in 1668, in the collected edition of his Latin works from which Molesworth reprints.^ Leviathan, with selected variants from the Latin edition of 1668 , Indianapolis: Hackett, 1994.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Hobbes does seem in his Answer to Bishop Bramhall and the Appendix to the Latin edition of Leviathan to believe this strange view sincerely.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He also published a Latin edition of Leviathan in 1668, in which there were some significant changes and additions relating to controversial topics, such as his treatments of the Trinity and the nature of God.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

In the part omitted, at p. 154 of the original edition, Hobbes refers to his first introduction to Euclid, in a way that confirms the story in Aubrey quoted in an earlier paragraph.
.2 Remaining at Oxford, Wallis, in fact, took no active part in the constitution of the new society, but he had been, from 1645, one of the originators of an earlier association in London, thus continued or revived.^ But as we have no imagination, whereof we have not formerly had sense, in whole or in parts; so we have no transition from one imagination to another, whereof we never had the like before in our senses.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But as wee have no Imagination, whereof we have not formerly had Sense, in whole, or in parts; so we have no Transition from one Imagination to another, whereof we never had the like before in our Senses.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The original of them all is that which we call sense, (for there is no conception in a man's mind which hath not at first, totally or by parts, been begotten upon the organs of sense).
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.This earlier society had been continued also at Oxford after the year 1649, when Wallis and others of its members received appointments there.^ Besides this Book of the Law, there was no other Book, from the time of Moses, till after the Captivity, received amongst the Jews for the Law of God.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are Christians in the dominions of several princes and states, but every one of them is subject to that Commonwealth whereof he is himself a member, and consequently cannot be subject to the commands of any other person.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Besides this Book of the Law, there was no other book, from the time of Moses till after the Captivity, received amongst the Jews for the law of God.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.3 The Problemata physica was at the same time put into English (with some changes and omission of part of the mathematical appendix), and presented to the king, to whom the work was dedicated in a remarkable letter apologizing for Leviathan. In its English form, as Seven Philosophical Problems and Two Propositions of Geometry (E.W. vii.^ As for the first division of law into divine, natural, and civil, the first two branches are one and the same law.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The title of this essay is taken from a book (1) that describes some of the most remarkable examples of the manufacturing of tradition--the creation of myths that are then projected back into history.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For example: they suppose a multitude of men to have agreed upon certain articles (which they presently call laws), declaring how they will be governed; and that done to agree farther upon some man, or number of men to see the same articles performed, and put in execution.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.1-68), the work was first published in 1682, after Hobbes's death.^ De Corpore was published in 1655, and provides Hobbes's main statements on several topics, such as method and the workings of language.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ De Cive (1642) was Hobbes's first published book of political philosophy.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes's first notable philosophical works are from around 1640.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.But all the more eagerly did he take advantage of Wallis's loose calumny to strike where he felt himself safe.^ What was the reason, when they all beleeved the Scripture, that they did not all beleeve alike; but that some approved, others disapproved the Interpretation of St. Paul that cited them; and every one Interpreted them to himself?
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And this did Moses himself write, and deliver to the Priests and Elders of Israel, to be read every seventh year to all Israel, at their assembling in the feast of Tabernacles.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What was the reason, when they all believed the Scripture, that they did not all believe alike, but that some approved, others disapproved, the interpretation of St. Paul that cited them, and every one interpreted them to himself?
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.His answer to the personal charges took the form of a letter about himself in the third person addressed to Wallis in 1662, under the title of Considerations upon the Reputation, Loyalty, Manners and Religion of Thomas Hobbes (E.W. iv.^ Thomas Hobbes considered manmade justice in his third law of nature.

^ Neither Thomas Hobbes nor his typesetters seem to have had many inhibitions about spelling and punctuation.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Temple; that he blessed the People; and that he himselfe in person made that excellent prayer, used in the Consecrations of all Churches, and houses of Prayer; which is another great mark of Supremacy in Religion.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

409-440). .In this piece, which is of great biographical value, he told his own and Wallis's " little stories during the time of the late rebellion " with such effect that Wallis, like a wise man, attempted no further reply.^ But that right of all men to all things, is in effect no better than if no man had right to any thing.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As for Example, there was a time, when in England a man might enter in to his own Land, (and dispossesse such as wrongfully possessed it) by force.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For to know, who knowes the Rules almost of any Art, is a great degree of the knowledge of the same Art; because no man can be assured of the truth of anothers Rules, but he that is first taught to understand them.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

Thus ended the second bout.
.After a time Hobbes took heart again and began a third period of controversial activity, which did not end, on his side, till his ninetieth year.^ He showed very little interest in the strict scholastic philosophy of the time and took around six years to complete his degree.
  • Thomas Hobbes - Leviathan - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor did the Church of Rome ever establish this Transubstantiation, till the time of Innocent the third; which was not above 500.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I think the difficulty is that Hobbes did not know how far back into biology he had to go, and clearly evolutionary science was not known in his time.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Little need be added to the simple catalogue of the untiring old man's labours in this last stage of his life.^ It is not enough for a man to labour for the maintenance of his life; but also to fight, if need be, for the securing of his labour.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is not enough, for a man to labour for the maintenance of his life; but also to fight, (if need be,) for the securing of his labour.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Arminians, &c., as in old time the like made Paulists, Apollonians, and Cephasians, must needs be such, as a man needeth not for the holding thereof deny obedience to his superiors.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

The first piece, published in 1666, De principiis et ratiocinatione geometrarum (L.W. iv. .385-484), was designed, as the sub-title declared, to lower the pride of geometrical professors by showing that there was no less uncertainty and error in their works than in those of physical or ethical writers.^ But this is no Body Politique, there being no Common Representative to oblige them to any other Law, than that which is common to all other subjects.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thirdly, that the Resolutions of a Monarch, are subject to no other Inconstancy, than that of Humane Nature; but in Assemblies, besides that of Nature, there ariseth an Inconstancy from the Number.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Secondly, that those Philosophers, who sayd the World, or the Soule of the World was God, spake unworthily of him; and denyed his Existence: For by God, is understood the cause of the World; and to say the World is God, is to say there is no cause of it, that is, no God.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

Wallis replied shortly in the Philosophical Transactions (August 1666). .Three years later he brought his three great achievements together in compendious form, Quadratura circuli, Cubatio sphaerae, Duplicatio cubi, and as soon as they were once more refuted by Wallis, reprinted them with an answer to the objections, in compliment to the grand-duke of Tuscany, who paid him attentions on a visit to England in 1669 (L.W. iv.^ And when the Son of a woman of Israel had blasphemed God, they that heard it, did not kill him, but brought him before Moses, who put him under custody, till God should give Sentence against him; as appears, Levit.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And when a great number of their own authority flock together in any nation, they usually give them the name of the whole nation.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Equally, they who take from God the care of mankind, take from Him his honour.
  • Thomas Hobbes - Leviathan - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

485-522). .Wallis, who had promised to leave him alone henceforward, refuted him again before the year was out.^ For as he, that is driven to contradict an assertion by him before maintained, is said to be reduced to an absurdity; so he that through passion doth, or omitteth that which before by covenant he promised not to do, or not to omit, is said to commit injustice.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Otherwise, whensoever a man lawfully promiseth, he unlawfully breaketh: But when the Soveraign, who is the Actor, acquitteth him, then he is acquitted by him that exorted the promise, as by the Author of such absolution.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was a Law that designed who were to be the Executioners; but not that any one should throw a Stone at him before Conviction and Sentence, where the Congregation was Judge.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

In 1671 he worked up his propositions over again in Rosetum'geometricum (L. W. v. 1-50), as a fragrant offering to the geometrical reader, appending a criticism (Censura brevis, pp. .50-88) on the first part of Wallis's treatise De motu, published in 1669; also he sent Three Papers to the Royal Society on selected points treated very briefly, and when Wallis, still not weary of confuting, shortly replied, published them separately with triumphant Considerations on Dr Wallis's Answer to them (E.W. vii.^ Hobbes's is the first doctrine that necessarily and unmistakably points to a thoroughly 'enlightened', i.e., a-religious or atheistic society as the solution of the social or political problem.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The first important point to notice here is the denial of the classical assumption that civil society exists prior to the individual.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Splashing of Water Drops on Solid and Wetted Surfaces: Hydrodynamics and Charge Separation ( Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 269, 555-585, 1971) .

429-448). .Next year (1672), having now, as he believed, established himself with the Royal Society, he proceeded to complete the discomfiture of Wallis by a public address to the Society on all the points at issue between them from the beginning, Lux Mathematica excussa collisionibus Johannis Wallisii et Thomae Hobbesii (L.W. v.^ Now Jesus Christ hath satisfied for the sins of all that believe in him, and therefore recovered to all believers that eternal life which was lost by the sin of Adam.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And therefore, where many sorts of worship be allowed, proceeding from the different religions of private men, it cannot be said there is any public worship, nor that the Commonwealth is of any religion at all.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If we are only now beginning to see the connections between a theory of knowledge, a theory of interpretation, a theory of judicial review, and the legitimacy of the state, we cannot blame Hobbes.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.89-150), the light, as the author R. R. (Roseti Repertor) added, being here " increased by many very brilliant rays."^ But a man may here object that the condition of subjects is very miserable, as being obnoxious to the lusts and other irregular passions of him or them that have so unlimited a power in their hands.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

Wallis replied in the Transactions, and then finally held his hand. Hobbes's energy was not yet exhausted. In 1674, at the age of eighty-six, he published his Principia et problemata aliquot geometrica, ante desperata nunc breviter explicate et demonstrate (L. W. v. 150-214), containing in the chapters dealing with questions of principle not a few striking observations, which ought not to be overlooked in the study of his philosophy. .His last piece of all, Decameron physiologicum (E.W. vii.^ CHAPTER VII OF THE ENDS OR RESOLUTIONS OF DISCOURSE Of all Discourse, governed by desire of Knowledge, there is at last an End, either by attaining, or by giving over.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.69-180), in 1678, was a new set of dialogues on physical questions, most of which he had treated in a similar fashion before; but now, in dealing with gravitation, he was able to fire a parting shot at Wallis; and one more demonstration of the equality of a straight line to the arc of a circle, thrown in at the end, appropriately closed the strangest warfare in which perverse thinker ever engaged.4 We must now turn back to trace the fortunes of Hobbes and his other doings in the last twenty years of his life.^ Consequently whereunto, those persons, that for the most part can give no other proof of being wise, take great delight to shew what they think they have read in men, by uncharitable censures of one another behind their backs.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From hence it followeth that one Church cannot be excommunicated by another: for either they have equal power to excommunicate each other, in which case excommunication is not discipline, nor an act of authority, but schism, and dissolution of charity; or one is so subordinate to the other as that they both have but one voice, and then they be but one Church; and the part excommunicated is no more a Church, but a dissolute number of individual persons.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Secondly, Hobbes checks the power of the state in one important respect: it cannot demand your life, and if it does, for any reason, you are entitled to fight back.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

.All these controversial writings on mathematics and physics represent but one half of his activity after the age of p y g Years. seventy; though, as regards the other half, it is not possible, for a reason that will be seen, to say as definitely in what order the works belonging to the period were produced.^ The other is, when imagining anything whatsoever, we seek all the possible effects that can by it be produced; that is to say, we imagine what we can do with it when we have it.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If one prophet deceive another, what certainty is there of knowing the will of God by other way than that of reason?
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What was the reason, when they all beleeved the Scripture, that they did not all beleeve alike; but that some approved, others disapproved the Interpretation of St. Paul that cited them; and every one Interpreted them to himself?
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

From the time of the Restoration he acquired a new prominence in the public eye. .No year had passed since the appearance of Leviathan without some indignant protest against the influence which its trenchant doctrine was calculated to produce upon minds longing above everything for civil repose; but after the Restoration " Hobbism " became a fashionable creed, which it was the duty of every lover of true morality and religion to denounce.^ The Savages of America, are not without some good Morall Sentences; also they have a little Arithmetick, to adde, and divide in Numbers not too great: but they are not therefore Philosophers.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now the science of Vertue and Vice, is Morall Philosophie; and therfore the true Doctrine of the Lawes of Nature, is the true Morall Philosophie.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Seeing then the Acts of Councell of the Apostles, were then no Laws, but Councells; much lesse are Laws the Acts of any other Doctors, or Councells since, if assembled without the Authority of the Civill Soveraign.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

Two or three days after Charles's arrival in London, Hobbes drew in the street the notice of his former pupil, and was at once received into favour. .The young king, if he had ever himself resented the apparent disloyalty of the " Conclusion " of Leviathan, had not retained the feeling long, and could appreciate the principles of the great book when the application of them happened, as now, to be turned in his own favour.^ That which the high priest did to Athaliah was not done in his own right, but in the right of the young King Joash, her son: But Solomon in his own right deposed the high priest Abiathar, and set up another in his place.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ As it was necessary that a man should not retain his right to every thing, so also was it, that he should retain his right to some things: to his own body (for example) the right of defending, whereof he could not transfer.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That which the High Priest did to Athaliah, was not done in his own right, but in the right of the young King Joash her Son: But Solomon in his own right deposed the High Priest Abiathar, and set up another in his place.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.He had, besides, a relish for Hobbes's wit (as he used to say, " Here comes the bear to be baited "), and did not like the old man the less because his presence at court scandalized the bishops or the prim virtue of Chancellor Hyde.^ Hobbes was faced with the idea that we should defer to the interpretation of the professional community of lawyers and he did not like it.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And this they well knew of old, who called that Nomos (that is to say, distribution), which we call law; and defined justice by distributing to every man his own.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So, if the Sovereign comes along and says "kill yourself", you can refuse because of your Right of Nature to seek your own preservation.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.He even went the length of bestowing on Hobbes (but not always paying) a pension of £loo, and had his portrait hung up in the royal 4 Wallis's pieces were excluded from the collected edition of his works (1693-1697), and have become extremely rare.^ Of course, Hobbes wants deference to the sovereign, but he does not seem to imagine that the sovereign's will can always be discovered, or even that it always exists.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I'm not sure about your claims; I've always followed Kinch Hoekstra's argument that might cannot, as it were, create a right even in Hobbes (for the Leviathan as such to be created).
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

closet. .These marks of favour, naturally, did not lessen Hobbes's self-esteem, and perhaps they explain, in his later writings, a certain slavishness toward the regal authority, which is wholly absent from his rational demonstration of absolutism in the earlier works.^ These Articles, are they, which otherwise are called the Lawes of Nature: whereof I shall speak more particularly, in the two following Chapters.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nature it selfe cannot erre: and as men abound in copiousnesse of language; so they become more wise, or more mad than ordinary.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What makes Hobbes a truly original thinkers and a very important father of the modern state is how he moves from these assumptions about human nature to an understanding of how the modern state really works (or should work).
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

.At all events Hobbes was satisfied with the rule of a king who had appreciated the author of Leviathan, and protected him when, after a time, protection in a very real sense became necessary.^ Now Jesus Christ hath satisfied for the sins of all that believe in him, and therefore recovered to all believers that eternal life which was lost by the sin of Adam.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes, who was born in 1588, was a young man aged 22 at the time of the writing of the Tempest , but if he knew the play, he was obviously unwilling to attend at all to its vision of the world when he came to write the Leviathan .
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes go on specifically to state that the sovereign power can be acquired by forcing others to submit or ‘when men agree amongst themselves, to submit to some Man, or Assembly of men, voluntarily, on confidence to be protected by him against all others.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.His eagerness to defend himself against Wallis's imputation of disloyalty, and his apologetic dedication of the Problemata physica to the king, are evidence of the hostility with which he was being pressed as early as 1662; but it was not till 1666 that he felt himself seriously in danger.^ And the cause of it being the want of leisure from procuring the necessities of life, and defending themselves against their neighbours, it was impossible, till the erecting of great Commonwealths, it should be otherwise.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.In that year the Great Fire of London, following on the Great Plague, roused the superstitious fears of the people, and the House of Commons embodied the general feeling in a bill against atheism and profaneness.^ Temple; that he blessed the People; and that he himselfe in person made that excellent prayer, used in the Consecrations of all Churches, and houses of Prayer; which is another great mark of Supremacy in Religion.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And by these, the common people were the less apt to mutiny against their governors.
  • Thomas Hobbes - Leviathan - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And generally all actions which men doe in Common-wealths, for Feare of the law, or actions, which the doers had Liberty to omit.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

On the 17th of October it was ordered that the committee to which the bill was referred " should be empowered to receive information touching such books as tend to atheism, blasphemy and profaneness, or against the essence and attributes of God, and in particular the book published in the name of one White, 1 and the book of Mr Hobbes called the Leviathan, and to report the matter with their opinion to the House." Hobbes, then verging upon eighty, was terrified at the prospect of being treated as a heretic, and proceeded to burn such of his papers as he thought might compromise him. .At the same time he set himself, with a very characteristic determination, to inquire into the actual state of the law of heresy.^ That which totally excuseth a fact, and takes away from it the nature of a crime, can be none but that which, at the same time, taketh away the obligation of the law.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the very end of this definitional passage it might have looked as though Hobbes was straying into natural law ('for the Distinction of Right and Wrong').
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As for the first division of law into divine, natural, and civil, the first two branches are one and the same law.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.The results of his investigation were first announced in three short Dialogues added (in place of the old " Review and Conclusion," for which the day had passed) as an Appendix to his Latin translation of Leviathan (L.W. iii.^ The Vulgar Latine hath it, Regnum Sacerdotale, to which agreeth the Translation of that place (1 Pet.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

), included with the general collection of his works published at Amsterdam in 1668. In this appendix, as also in the posthumous tract, published in 1680, An Historical Narration concerning Heresy and the Punishment thereof (E.W. iv. .385-408), he aimed at showing that, since the High Court of Commission had been put down, there remained no court of heresy at all to which he was amenable, and that even when it stood nothing was to be declared heresy but what was at variance with the Nicene Creed, as he maintained the doctrine of Leviathan was not.^ But this is no Body Politique, there being no Common Representative to oblige them to any other Law, than that which is common to all other subjects.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The old certainties of king and pope have become the source of civil wars, families are killing each other over doctrinal disputes, and there is no coordinating certainty or agreement any more.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ But where there is no Punishment at all determined by the Law, there whatsoever is inflicted, hath the nature of Punishment.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.The only consequence that came of the parliamentary scare was that Hobbes could never afterwards get permission to print anything on subjects relating to human conduct.^ By considering these two problems, Hobbes assumed a materialistic view of human nature, in which human behaviour could be explained simply in terms of bodies in motion.

^ That is Wittgenstein talking, but it could just as well be Hobbes, telling us that the only thing shared by all the phenomena grouped under a single name is the name itself.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Second, Hobbes was not only critical of scholastic method because he thought its reliance on essence was 'a mistake,' he thought the scholastic essences doctrine could have a powerful and malevolent political effect.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The collected edition of his Latin works (in two quarto volumes) appeared at Amsterdam in 1668, because he could not obtain the censor's licence for its publication at London, Oxford or Cambridge.^ For how admirable soever any work be, the Admiration consisteth not in that it could be done, because men naturally beleeve the Almighty can doe all things, but because he does it at the Prayer, or Word of a man.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For how admirable soever any work be, the admiration consisteth not in that could be done, because men naturally believe the Almighty can do all things, but because He does it at the prayer or word of a man.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So the private space could be enlarged to include freedom of speech and freedom of public worship (things which Hobbes would not permit because he sensed that they were too socially disruptive).
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Other writings which he had finished, or on which he must have been engaged about this time, were not made public till after his death - the king apparently having made it the price of his protection that no fresh provocation should be offered to the popular sentiment.^ And for the manner of God's worship, there was never doubt made but that the high priest, till the time of Saul, had the supreme authority.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This was the law which Moses commanded the kings of Israel should keep a copy of:*(5) and this is the law which, having been long time lost, was found again in the Temple in the time of Josiah, and by his authority received for the law of God.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But when a covenant is made, then to break it is unjust and the definition of injustice is no other than the not performance of covenant.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.The most important of the works composed towards 1670, and thus kept back, is the extremely spirited dialogue to which he gave the title Behemoth: the History of the Causes of the Civil Wars of England and of the Counsels and Artifices by which they were carried on from the year 1640 to the year 1660.2 To the same period probably belongs the unfinished Dialogue between a Philosopher and a Student of the Common Laws of England (E.W. vi.^ In fact he spends a large part of the Dialogue Between a Philosopher and a Student of the Common Laws of England (144)   elaborating on his belief that neither the professional community of lawyers nor their 'product,' the artificial reason of the common law, is capable of resolving problems of interpretation.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Gray, supra note 45, at xi, xxxiii (interpreting A Dialogue Between a Philosopher & a Student of the Common Laws of England, supra note 20, and Hale's Reflections by the Lrd.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If the Soveraign of one Common-wealth, subdue a people that have lived under other written Lawes, and afterwards govern them by the same Lawes, by which they were governed before; yet those Lawes are the Civill Lawes of the Victor, and not of the Vanquished Common-wealth, For the Legislator is he, not by whose authority the Lawes were first made, but by whose authority they now continue to be Lawes.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

1-160), a trenchant criticism of the constitutional theory of English government as upheld by Coke. .Aubrey takes credit for having tried to induce Hobbes to write upon the subject in 1664 by presenting him with a copy of Bacon's Elements of the Laws of England, and though the attempt was then unsuccessful, Hobbes later on took to studying the statutebook, with Coke upon Littleton. One other posthumous production also (besides the tract on Heresy before mentioned) may be referred to this, if not, as Aubrey suggests, an earlier time - the two thousand and odd elagiac verses in which he gave his 1 The De medio animarum statu of Thomas White, a heterodox Catholic priest, who contested the natural immortality of the soul.^ If they be not, what others are so, besides the law of nature?
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Aubrey thought that was the case: 'But one may say of him, as one says of Jos.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If they be not, what others are so, besides the Law of Nature?
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

White (who died 1676) and Hobbes were friends.
2 E.W. vi. .161-418. Though Behemoth was kept back at the king's express desire, it saw the light, without Hobbes's leave, in 1679, before his death.^ For an unlearned man that is in the power of an idolatrous king or state, if commanded on pain of death to worship before an idol, he detesteth the idol in his heart: he doth well; though if he had the fortitude to suffer death, rather than worship it, he should do better.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

view of ecclesiastical encroachment on the civil power; the quaint verses, disposed in his now favourite dialogue-form, were first published, nine years after his death, under the title Historia ecclesiastics (L.W. v. 341-408), with a preface by Thomas Rymer.
.For some time Hobbes was not even allowed to utter a word of protest, whatever might be the occasion that his enemies took to triumph over him.^ It has taken a long time, but it seems that even orthodox legal theorists are coming to agree with Hobbes that 'reason' alone cannot do the trick.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For if it were by their authority he took that yoke upon him, and not by their persuasion, then by the same authority he might cast it off; but this is unlawful.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I'm not sure about your claims; I've always followed Kinch Hoekstra's argument that might cannot, as it were, create a right even in Hobbes (for the Leviathan as such to be created).
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

In 1669 an unworthy follower - Daniel Scargil by name, a fellow of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge - had to recant publicly and confess that his evil life had been the result of Hobbist doctrines. .In 1674 John Fell, the dean of Christ Church, who bore the charges of the Latin translation of Anthony Wood's History and Antiquities of the University of Oxford (1670), struck out all the complimentary epithets in the account of his life, and substituted very different ones; but this time the king did suffer him to defend himself by publishing a dignified letter (Vit.^ "Of these men that have companyed with us, all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us, beginning from the Baptisme of John unto that same day that he was taken up from us, must one be ordained to be a Witnesse with us of his Resurrection:" where, by this word Must, is implyed a necessary property of an Apostle, to have companyed with the first and prime Apostles in the time that our Saviour manifested himself in the flesh.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the age of 84 Hobbes wrote his autobiography in Latin verse and at 86 he published a translation of the Illiad and Odyssey .

^ But, it is (saith hee) the same danger, to choose one that is not a Christian, for King, and not to depose him, when hee is chosen.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

Auct.
pp. xlvii.-l.), to which Fell replied by adding to the translation when it appeared a note full of the grossest insults. And, amid all his troubles, Hobbes was not without his consolations. .No Englishman of that day stood in the same repute abroad, and foreigners, noble or learned, who came to England, never forgot to pay their respects to the old man, whose vigour and freshness of intellect no progress of the years seemed able to quench.^ For not only they have all their natural changes, but the change of any one man be enough, with eloquence and reputation, or by solicitation and faction, to make that law to-day, which another by the very same means, shall abrogate to-morrow.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And this they well knew of old, who called that Nomos (that is to say, distribution), which we call law; and defined justice by distributing to every man his own.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And first, concerning an Elective King, whose power is limited to his life, as it is in many places of Christendome at this day; or to certaine Yeares or Moneths, as the Dictators power amongst the Romans; If he have Right to appoint his Successor, he is no more Elective but Hereditary.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

Among these was the grand-duke of Tuscany (Ferdinand II.), who took away some works and a portrait to adorn the Medicean library.
His pastimes in the latest years were as singular as his labours. .The autobiography in Latin verse, with its playful humour, occasional pathos and sublime self-complacency, was thrown off at the age of eighty-four.^ At the age of 84 Hobbes wrote his autobiography in Latin verse and at 86 he published a translation of the Illiad and Odyssey .

At eighty-five, in the year 1673, he sent forth a translation of four books of the Odyssey (ix.-xii.) in rugged but not seldom happily turned .English rhymes; and, when he found this Voyage of Ulysses eagerly received, he had ready by 1675 a complete translation of both Iliad and Odyssey (E.W. x.^ On the Sublime (English) (as Translator) Stories from the Odyssey (English) (as Author) Stories from Thucydides (English) (as Author) Havens, Munson Aldrich .
  • Browse By Author: H - Project Gutenberg 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Browse By Author: H - Project Gutenberg 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.gutenberg.net [Source type: Original source]

),
prefaced by a lively dissertation ." Concerning the Virtues of an Heroic Poem," showing his unabated interest in questions of literary style.^ This, of course, was a central concern of Plato'sthe old question about power corruptingand for Plato, as for Aristotle, the best defense was the education in virtue given to the rulers.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

After 1675, he passed his time at his patron's seats in Derbyshire, occupied to the last with intellectual work in the early morning and in the afternoon hours, which it had long been his habit to devote to thinking and to writing. Even as late as August 1679 he was promising his publisher " somewhat to print in English." The end came very soon afterwards. A suppression of urine in October, in spite of which he insisted upon being conveyed with the family from Chatsworth to Hardwick Hall towards the end of November, was followed by a paralytic stroke, under which he sank on the 4th of December, in his ninety-second year. .He lies buried in the neighbouring church of Ault Hucknall.^ Thomas Hobbes 1588-1679 Hobbes gravestone in Ault Hucknall church, Derbyshire, England .
  • Thomas Hobbes - Leviathan - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was tall and erect in figure, and lived on the whole a temperate life, though he used to say that he had been drunk about a hundred times.^ And though at that time the patriarchs and many other faithful men were dead, yet as it is in the text, they "lived to God"; that is, they were written in the Book of Life with them that were absolved of their sins, and ordained to life eternal at the resurrection.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For it were a strange interpretation to say Moses spake of his own sepulchre (though by prophecy), that it was not found to that day wherein he was yet living.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Besides the discretion of times, places, and persons, necessary to a good fancy, there is required also an often application of his thoughts to their end; that is to say, to some use to be made of them.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

His favourite exercise was tennis, which he played regularly even after the age of haracter- seventy. Socially he was genial and courteous, though in argument he occasionally lost his temper. As a friend he was generous and loyal. Intellectually bold in the extreme, he was curiously timid in ordinary life, and is said to ha`e had a horror of ghosts. .He read little, and often boasted that he would have known as little as other men if he had read as much.^ That a man be willing when others are so too, as for peace, and defense of himself he shall think it necessary, to lay down this right to all things; and be contended with so much liberty against other men, as he would allow other men against himself.

^ So when a man compoundeth the image of his own person, with the image of the actions of an other man; as when a man imagins himselfe a Hercules, or an Alexander, (which happeneth often to them that are much taken with reading of Romants) it is a compound imagination, and properly but a Fiction of the mind.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alternatively, I could go into more detail, thus running the risk that I would often be repeating well-known truths.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

He appears to have had an illegitimate daughter for whom he made generous provision. .In the National Portrait Gallery there is a portrait of him by J. M. Wright, and two others are in the possession of the Royal Society.^ The two former, having given them caution against danger from him, the latter gives them caution against danger from others.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We are therefore to consider what other ground there was of their obligation to obey him.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For two men conspiring, one to seem lame, the other to cure him with a charme, will deceive many: but many conspiring, one to seem lame, another so to cure him, and all the rest to bear witnesse; will deceive many more.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.As already suggested, it cannot be allowed that Hobbes falls into any regular succession from Bacon; neither can it be said that he handed on the torch to Locke.^ And therefore, where many sorts of worship be allowed, proceeding from the different religions of private men, it cannot be said there is any public worship, nor that the Commonwealth is of any religion at all.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, it shies away from political theories that venture to suggest that you cannot give a purely conceptual explanation of the obligation to obey law.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But of them, to whom neither God the Father, nor our Saviour ever spake, it cannot be said, that the Person whom they beleeved, was God.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was the one English thinker of the first rank in the long period of two generations separating Locke from Bacon, but, save in the chronological sense, there is no true relation of succession among the three.^ But this is true also, that for whatsoever a dispensation is due for the necessity, for the same there needs no dispensation when there is no law that forbids it.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ But because in sense, to one and the same thing perceived, sometimes one thing, sometimes another succeedeth, it comes to passe in time, that in the Imagining of any thing, there is no certainty what we shall Imagine next; Onely this is certain, it shall be something that succeeded the same before, at one time or another.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lastly, when the question is propounded of our Beleefe; because some are moved to beleeve for one, and others for other reasons, there can be rendred no one generall answer for them all.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.It would be difficult even to prove any ground of affinity among them beyond a desposition to take sense as a prime factor in the account of subjective experience: their common interest in physical science was shared equally by rationalist thinkers of the Cartesian school, and was indeed begotten of the time.^ In other words, they fail to recognize that in 'natural science' signification depends on 'the will of the writer,' in common conversation on 'vulgar use,' and in theology on 'the sense that [words] carry in the Scripture.'
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But it is in another sense; for there it signifieth as much as "books written or placed after his natural philosophy": but the Schools take them for books of supernatural philosophy: for the word metaphysics will bear both these senses.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ It is manifest therefore that the Right which the Common-wealth (that is, he, or they that represent it) hath to Punish, is not grounded on any concession, or gift of the Subjects.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Backwards, Hobbes's relations are rather with Galileo and the other inquirers who, from the beginning of the 17th century, occupied themselves with the physical world in the manner that has come later to be distinguished by the name of science in opposition to philosophy.^ Having declared what I mean by the word conception, and other words equivalent thereunto, I come to the conceptions themselves, to show their difference, their causes, and the manner of their production as far as is necessary for this place.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For there are very few so foolish, that had not rather governe themselves, than be governed by others: Nor when the wise in their own conceit, contend by force, with them who distrust their owne wisdome, do they alwaies, or often, or almost at any time, get the Victory.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And it is incident most to them that are conscious of the fewest abilities in themselves; who are forced to keep themselves in their own favour by observing the imperfections of other men.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.But even more than in external nature, Hobbes was interested in the phenomena of social life, presenting themselves so impressively in an age of political revolution.^ But Hobbes is more subtle than this.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For to accuse requires less eloquence (such is man's nature) than to excuse; and condemnation, than absolution, more resembles justice.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But Hobbes, like Marx and Feuerbach, is critical of the pretense that a desired quality is somehow inherently present in an external object.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.So it came to pass that, while he was unable, by reason of imperfect training and too tardy development, with all his pains, to make any contribution to physical science or to mathematics as instrumental in physical research, he attempted a task which no other adherent of the new " mechanical philosophy " conceived - nothing less than such a universal construction of human knowledge as would bring Society and Man (at once the matter and maker of Society) within the same principles of scientific explanation as were found applicable to the world of Nature.^ In this state of nature man has no obligation to respect others.

^ Thomas Hobbes exaggerated in using this approach in various forms of knowledge such as his study of physical nature, the nature of man and the nature of human society.

^ That a man be willing when others are so too, as for peace, and defense of himself he shall think it necessary, to lay down this right to all things; and be contended with so much liberty against other men, as he would allow other men against himself.

.The construction was, of course, utterly premature, even supposing it were inherently possible; but it is Hobbes's distinction, in his century, to have conceived it, and he is thereby lifted from among the scientific workers with whom he associated to the rank of those philosophical thinkers who have sought to order the whole domain of human knowledge.^ Secondly, that those Philosophers, who sayd the World, or the Soule of the World was God, spake unworthily of him; and denyed his Existence: For by God, is understood the cause of the World; and to say the World is God, is to say there is no cause of it, that is, no God.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes's answer was brilliant, logically ruthless, for a long time extremely unpopular (especially among those dreaming of a restoration of the old order or those who found his vision of human beings morally unacceptable), but ultimately extraordinarily influential in creating the modern liberal state.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Let them be silenced by the laws of those to whom the teachers of them are subject; that is, by the laws civil: for disobedience may lawfully be punished in them that against the laws teach even true philosophy.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

The effects of his philosophical endeavour may be traced on a variety of lines. Upon every subject that came within the sweep of his system, except mathematics and physics, his thoughts have been productive of thought. .When the first storm of opposition from smaller men had begun to die down, thinkers of real weight, beginning with Cumberland and Cudworth, were moved by their aversion to his analysis of the moral nature of man to probe anew the question of the natural springs and the rational grounds of human action; and thus it may be said that Hobbes gave the first impulse to the whole of that movement of ethical speculation that, in modern times, has been carried on with such remarkable continuity in England.^ Men may as well ask why Christ, that could have given to all men faith, piety, and all manner of moral virtues, gave it to some only, and not to all: and why he left the search of natural causes and sciences to the natural reason and industry of men, and did not reveal it to all, or any man supernaturally; and many other such questions, of which nevertheless there may be alleged probable and pious reasons.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ For to accuse requires less eloquence (such is man's nature) than to excuse; and condemnation, than absolution, more resembles justice.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By concoction, I understand the reducing of all commodities which are not presently consumed, but reserved for nourishment in time to come, to something of equal value, and withal so portable as not to hinder the motion of men from place to place; to the end a man may have in what place soever such nourishment as the place affordeth.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.In politics the revulsion from his particuar conclusions did not prevent the more clear-sighted of his opponents from recognizing the force of his supreme demonstration of the practical irresponsibility of the sovereign power, wherever seated, in the state; and, when in a later age the foundations of a positive theory of legislation were laid in England, the school of Bentham - James Mill, Grote, Molesworth - brought again into general notice the writings of the great publicist of the 17th century, who, however he might, by the force of temperament, himself prefer the rule of one, based his whole political system upon a rational regard to the common weal.^ The Name Of Pontifex It is also from the Roman Heathen, that the Popes have received the name, and power of PONTIFEX MAXIMUS. This was the name of him that in the ancient Common-wealth of Rome, had the Supreme Authority under the Senate and People, of regulating all Ceremonies, and Doctrines concerning their Religion: And when Augustus Caesar changed the State into a Monarchy, he took to himselfe no more but this office, and that of Tribune of the People, (than is to say, the Supreme Power both in State, and Religion;) and the succeeding Emperors enjoyed the same.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But because this right could not be obtained by force, it concerned the safety of every one, laying by that right, to set up men, with sovereign authority, by common consent, to rule and defend them: whereas if there had been any man of power irresistible, there had been no reason why he should not by that power have ruled and defended both himself and them, according to his own discretion.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor To Dispute The Soveraign Power: Thirdly, in consequence to this, they ought to be informed, how great fault it is, to speak evill of the Soveraign Representative, (whether One man, or an Assembly of men;) or to argue and dispute his Power, or any way to use his Name irreverently, whereby he may be brought into Contempt with his People, and their Obedience (in which the safety of the Common-wealth consisteth) slackened.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Finally, the psychology of Hobbes, though too undeveloped to guide the thoughts or even perhaps arrest the attention of Locke, when essaying the scientific analysis of knowledge, came in course of time (chiefly through James Mill) to be connected with the theory of associationism developed from within the school of Locke, in different ways, by Hartley and Hume; nor is it surprising that the later associationists, finding their principle more distinctly formulated in the earlier thinker, should sometimes have been betrayed into affiliating themselves to Hobbes rather than to Locke.^ But Hobbes is more subtle than this.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet again Hobbes is turned into Locke through misreadings of his political thought.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ More examples of vain philosophy, brought into religion by the doctors of School divinity, might be produced; but other men may if they please observe them of themselves.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. The Fourth Part 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

For his ethical theories see Ethics.
Sufficient information is given in the Vitae Hobbianae auctarium (L. W. i. p. lxv. ff.) concerning the frequent early editions of .Hobbes's separate works, and also concerning the works of those who wrote against him, to the end of the 17th century.^ In his lifetime Hobbes wrote many works.

^ Secondly, that those Philosophers, who sayd the World, or the Soule of the World was God, spake unworthily of him; and denyed his Existence: For by God, is understood the cause of the World; and to say the World is God, is to say there is no cause of it, that is, no God.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those that concern the Commonwealth only may without breach of equity be pardoned; for every man may pardon what is done against himself, according to his own discretion.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

In the 18th century, after Clarke's Boyle Lectures of 1704-1705, the opposition was less express. .In 1750 The Moral and Political Works were collected, with life, &c., by Dr Campbell, in a folio edition, including in order, Human Nature, De corpore politico, Leviathan, Answer to Bramhall's Catching of the Leviathan, Narration concerning Heresy, Of Liberty and Necessity, Behemoth, Dialogue of the Common Laws, the Introduction to the Thucydides, Letter to Davenant and two others, the Preface to the Homer, De mirabilibus Pecci (with English translation), Considerations on the Reputation, &c., of T. H. In 1812 the Human Nature and the Liberty and Necessity (with supplementary extracts from the Questions of 1656) were reprinted in a small edition of 250 copies, with a meritorious memoir (based on Campbell) and dedication to Horne Tooke, by Philip Mallet.^ One is their Writt, or Letters from the Soveraign: the other is the Law of the Common-wealth.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1640 he wrote “The Elements of Laws, Natural and Politic;” in 1642 he published De Cive (The Citizen); in 1655 he wrote De Corpore (Concerning the Body); in 1658 he published De Homine (Concerning Man); and later on in France he wrote the famous work called Leviathan .

^ Less than capital are stripes, wounds, chains, and any other corporal pain not in its own nature mortal.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

Molesworth's edition (1839-1845), dedicated to Grote, has been referred to in a former note. .Of translations may be mentioned Les Elemens philosophiques du citoyen (1649) and Le Corps politique (1652), both by S. de Sorbiere, conjoined with Le Traite de la nature humaine, by d'Holbach, in 1787, under the general title Les Ouvres philosophiques et politiques de Thomas Hobbes; a translation of the first section, " Computatio sive logica," of the De corpore, included by Destutt de Tracy with his Elemens d'ideologie (1804); a translation of Leviathan into Dutch in 1678, and another(anonymous)into German - Des Englanders Thomas Hobbes Leviathan oder der kirchliche and biirgerliche Staat (Halle, 1794, 2 vols.^ What I'd like to do before looking at Hobbes's text is to explore the first point I mentioned: the transformation of social attitudes towards money which created the social context for Hobbes's book.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ They are the translation of the title of the sixth chapter of Suarez's first book, Of the Concourse, Motion, and Help of God.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This they have observed, that instead of a sacerdotal kingdom, translate, a kingdom of priests: for they may as well translate a royal priesthood, as it is in St. Peter, into a priesthood of kings.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

); a translation of the De cive by J. H. v. Kirchmann - T. Hobbes: Abhandlung fiber den Burger, &c. (Leipzig, 1873). Important later editions are those of Ferdinand Tonnies, Behemoth (1889), on which see Croom Robertson's Philosophical Remains (1894), p. 45 1; Elements of Law (1889).

Biographical and Critical Works

.There are three accounts of Hobbes's life, first published together in 1681, two years after his death, by R. B. (Richard Blackbourne, a friend of Hobbes's admirer, John Aubrey), and reprinted, with complimentary verses by Cowley and others, at the beginning of Sir W. Molesworth's collection of the Latin Works: (1) T. H. Malmesb.^ Is there something that they would help him to do that Hobbes's theory, the lawyer's rule of thumb, or a first-year class in political theory would not do as well, or better?
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Underneath the work of Harvey, Hobbes, Descartes, and Newton (and many others) is clearly a desire to seek for an understanding of nature and the religious life in something other than traditional interpretations of scripture and established religious authority.
  • On Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ So the answers to the first two questions I posed--what theory of language Hobbes puts in place of essentialism and what exactly Hobbes is doing, when he himself defines law--are rather complicated.
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

vita
(pp. xiii.-xxi.), written by Hobbes himself, or (as also reported) by T. Rymer, at his dictation; (2) Vitae Hobbianae auctarium (pp. xxii.-lxxx.), turned into Latin from Aubrey's English; (3) T. H. Malmesb. vita carmine expressa (pp. lxxxi.- xcix.), written by Hobbes at the age of eighty-four (first published by itself in 1680). .The Life of Mr T. H. of Malmesburie, printed among the Lives of Eminent Men, in 1813, from Aubrey's papers in the Bodleian, &c.^ For if, as in Adam, all die, that is, have forfeited Paradise and eternal life on earth, even so in Christ all shall be made alive; then all men shall be made to live on earth; for else the comparison were not proper.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For if as in Adam, all die, that is, have forfeited Paradise, and Eternall Life on Earth; even so in Christ all shall be made alive; then all men shall be made to live on Earth; for else the comparison were not proper.
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

(vol. ii. pt. ii. pp. .593-637), contains some interesting particulars not found in the Auctarium. All that is of any importance for Hobbes's life is contained in G. Croom Robertson's Hobbes (1886) in Blackwood's Philosophical Classics, and Sir Leslie Stephen's Hobbes (1904) in the " English Men of Letters " series, both of which deal fully with his philosophy also.^ The English philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, an original thinker but not a lawyer nor even primarily interested in legal philosophy, came close to the imperative conception when he said: 'Law properly is the word of him that by right hath command over others.'
  • Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism by James Boyle 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And do seriously contend, that besides Peter and John, and all the rest of the men that are, have been, or shall be in the world, there is yet somewhat else that we call man, (viz.
  • Thomas Hobbes: The Elements of Law Natural and Politic 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "As by the offence of one, Judgment came upon all men to condemnation, even so by the righteousnesse of one, the free gift came upon all men to Justification of Life."
  • Leviathan / Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

See also F. Tunnies, Hobbes Leben and Lehre (1896), Hobbes-Analekten (1904 foil.); G. Zart, Einfluss der englischen Philosophie seit Bacon auf die deutsche Philosophie des 18ten Jahrh. (Berlin, 1881); G. Brandt, Thomas Hobbes: Grundlinien seiner Philosophie (1895); G. Lyon, La Philos. de .Hobbes (1893); J. M. Robertson, Pioneer Humanists (1907); J. Rickaby, Free Will and Four English Philosophers (1906), pp.^ Wikipedia Sketches From My Life By The Late Admiral Hobart Pasha (English) (as Author) Hobbes, John Oliver, 1867-1906 .
  • Browse By Author: H - Project Gutenberg 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Browse By Author: H - Project Gutenberg 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.gutenberg.net [Source type: Original source]

.1 -72; J. Watson, Hedonistic Theories (1895); W. Graham, English Political Philosophy from .Flobbes to Maine (1899);; W. J. H. Campion, Outlines of Lectures on Political Science (1895).^ It is generally accepted that Leviathan is the most celebrated and challenging work of political philosophy written in English.
  • Mary Midgley: Thomas Hobbes invented the modern ego | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Church and the Barbarians Being an Outline of the History of the Church from A.D. 461 to A.D. 1003 (English) (as Author) Sketches of Travel in Normandy and Maine (English) (as Commentator) Huttunen, Evert, 1884-1924 .
  • Browse By Author: H - Project Gutenberg 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Browse By Author: H - Project Gutenberg 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.gutenberg.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Mohammedanism Lectures on Its Origin, Its Religious and Political Growth, and Its Present State (English) (as Author) Hurlbert, William Henry, 1827-1895 .
  • Browse By Author: H - Project Gutenberg 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Browse By Author: H - Project Gutenberg 16 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.gutenberg.net [Source type: Original source]

(G. C. R.; X.)


Simple English

Thomas Hobbes
File:Thomas Hobbes (portrait).jpg
Thomas Hobbes
Full name Thomas Hobbes
Era 17th-century philosophy
(Modern Philosophy)
Region Western Philosophers
School Social contract, realism
Main interests Political philosophy, history, ethics, geometry
Notable ideas modern founder of the social contract tradition; life in the state of nature is "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short"

Thomas Hobbes (April 5, 1588 - December 4, 1679) was a philosopher from England. His most famous book is Leviathan (1651).

Hobbes mainly wrote about government and law -- he was a political philosopher. He tried to show that the best kind of government has one leader with total power. But the most interesting thing about Hobbes was the way he argued. He started by looking at human nature. He said that humans are very selfish and that we are willing to hurt each other if we think it will help us. He also said that, naturally, humans are all equal because we are all strong enough to kill each other -- even a child can kill a strong man while he sleeps. Then he imagined what things would be like without a government. He said that it would be terrible -- a "state of war". There wouldn't be enough stuff for everyone, and people would disagree about who got what. Some people would fight each other, and everyone else would be very worried about their own safety. No one would be able to trust anyone else or make plans for the future. Life would be "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short" (people would be alone, poor, mean, and would not live for long).

Next, Hobbes argues that it would be a good idea for everyone to stop fighting and choose a leader ("the Sovereign"). Everyone should agree to obey the leader, and give him all their power. Then the leader is supposed to make laws to keep things safe. Once the leader is in place, everyone has to obey him, even those who disagree with him. This is because everyone already agreed to obey him no matter what. This plan of giving so much power to the leader is risky, but Hobbes says that it's still a good idea. He says it's better to be mostly safe under an all-powerful leader, than to be in a state of war.

Hobbes wanted his argument to be like math, with each step leading to the next. But many people disagreed with his argument. Some said that Hobbes was in favor of rebellion, because he said that people were naturally equal. Others said that humans are not as selfish as Hobbes thought. Today, most people do not like the idea of an all-powerful government. But Hobbes's argument was a very important one, and philosophers who are interested in government still study Hobbes's books very carefully.


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