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Thomas Jefferson
Jefferson portrait by Charles Willson Peale

In office
March 4, 1801 – March 4, 1809
Vice President Aaron Burr (1801–1805),
George Clinton (1805–1809)
Preceded by John Adams
Succeeded by James Madison

In office
March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801
President John Adams
Preceded by John Adams
Succeeded by Aaron Burr

In office
March 22, 1790 – December 31, 1793
President George Washington
Preceded by New Office
John Jay
as United States Secretary of Foreign Affairs
then as Acting-Secretary of State
Succeeded by Edmund Randolph

In office
1785–1789
Appointed by Congress of the Confederation
Preceded by Benjamin Franklin
Succeeded by William Short

In office
1783–1784

In office
June 1, 1779 – June 3, 1781
Preceded by Patrick Henry
Succeeded by William Fleming

In office
1775–1776

In office
1769–1776

Born April 13 [O.S. April 2] 1743
Shadwell, Virginia
Died July 4, 1826 (aged 83)
Charlottesville, Virginia
Political party Democratic-Republican
Spouse(s) Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson
Children Martha Washington Jefferson, Jane Randolph Jefferson, stillborn son, Mary Wayles Jefferson, Lucy Elizabeth Jefferson I, Lucy Elizabeth Jefferson II.
Alma mater The College of William & Mary
Occupation statesman, planter, lawyer
Religion see below
Signature "Th: Jefferson"
~ Thomas Jefferson ~
.Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826)[2] was the third President of the United States (1801–1809), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and—for his promotion of the ideals of republicanism in the United States—one of the most influential Founding Fathers.^ Thomas Jefferson got one.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He Thomas Jefferson was one of the members most welcome in that body.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Jefferson was born April 13, 1743.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jefferson envisioned America as the force behind a great "Empire of Liberty"[3] that would promote republicanism and counter the imperialism of the British Empire.^ Could it be so might it please God, he would desire once more to see the sun, once more to look abroad on the scene around him on the great day of liberty.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I do not believe any policy which has behind it the threat of military force is justified as part of the basic foreign policy of the United States except to defend the liberty of our own people.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps this apparently trivial incident may transfer It looks likely to me; for, if we can great seat of empire into America.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Major events during his presidency include the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806), as well as escalating tensions with both Britain and France that led to war with Britain in 1812, after he left office.^ Northwestern Exploring Expedition under Lewis and Clark.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Early in January, 1803, the President decided to hasten matters by sending James Monroe to France, to be associated with Robert R. Livingston, our minister to that country, as commissioners for the purchase of New Orleans and the Floridas.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When news of the transfer of Louisiana to France reached this side of the water, Jefferson was greatly exercised over it, and had notions of off-setting it by some joint action with Great Britain.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.As a political philosopher, Jefferson was a man of the Enlightenment and knew many intellectual leaders in Britain and France.^ When news of the transfer of Louisiana to France reached this side of the water, Jefferson was greatly exercised over it, and had notions of off-setting it by some joint action with Great Britain.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.He idealized the independent yeoman farmer as exemplar of republican virtues, distrusted cities and financiers, and favored states' rights and a strictly limited federal government.^ True federalism is when the people of the states set limits to the central government.

^ Fundamentally, federalism means states rights.

^ I believe the states can best govern our home concerns and the federal government our foreign ones.

.Jefferson supported the separation of church and state[4] and was the author of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1779, 1786).^ James I. (when our separate legislature was established) were assigned to me; the British statutes from that period to the present day to Mr. Wythe, and the Virginia laws to Mr. Pendleton.

^ Jefferson, having been occupied in the years 1778 and 1779 in the important service of revising the laws of Virginia, was elected governor of that state, as successor to Patrick Henry, and held the situation when the state was invaded by the British arms.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Jefferson was mentored from ages 19 to 23, as the author of An Evaluation of Thomas Jefferson Education stated.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

.He was the eponym of Jeffersonian democracy and the cofounder and leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, which dominated American politics for 25 years.^ The Federalists had controlled the national government for twelve years, or ever since its organization, and they were determined to prevent the elevation of Jefferson, the founder of the new Republican party.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson was the founder and head of the new order of things, and of the republican party, soon to take the name of democratic, which controlled all the country with the exception of New England.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ About the quote : From "Political Parties: A Sociological Study of the Oligarchical Tendencies of Modern Democracy", Collier Books, 1962, p.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jefferson served as the wartime Governor of Virginia (1779–1781), first United States Secretary of State (1789–1793), and second Vice President (1797–1801).^ "In 1797 he was chosen Vice President.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To his contemporaries and a later political age, Jefferson, in spite of his culture and the aristocratic strain in his blood, is known as the advocate of popular sovereignty and the champion of democracy in matters governmental, as United States minister to France between the years 1784-89, as Secretary of State under Washington, and as U. S. President from 1801 to 1809.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The exciting canvas established one fact: there was no man in the United States so devotedly loved and so fiercely hated as Thomas Jefferson.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.A polymath, Jefferson achieved distinction as, among other things, a horticulturist, political leader, architect, archaeologist, paleontologist, inventor, and founder of the University of Virginia.^ I defy the wit of man to invent a possible case or to suggest any one thing on earth which shall be for the interests of Virginia, Pennsylvania & Massachusetts, and which will not also be for the interest of the other states.

^ Political leaders in capitalist countries who cheer the collapse of socialism in other countries continue to favor socialist solutions in their own.

^ University of Virginia founded, of which Jefferson was Rector until his death.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

When President John F. Kennedy welcomed 49 Nobel Prize winners to the White House in 1962 he said, "I think this is the most extraordinary collection of talent and of human knowledge that has ever been gathered together at the White House – with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone."[5] To date, Jefferson is the only president to serve two full terms in office without vetoing a single bill of Congress. Jefferson has been consistently ranked by scholars as one of the greatest of U.S. presidents.

Contents

Early life and education

Childhood

.Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743[2] into a family closely related to some of the most prominent individuals in Virginia, the third of ten children.^ Thomas Jefferson was born April 13, 1743.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Jefferson was born in Shadwell, Albemarle County,Va., April 2,1743.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Jefferson descended from ancestors who had been settled in Virginia for some generations, was born near the spot on which he died, in the county of Albemarle, on the 2d of April, (old style,) 1743.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

Two died in childhood.[6] .His mother was Jane Randolph, daughter of Isham Randolph, a ship's captain and sometime planter, first cousin to Peyton Randolph, and granddaughter of wealthy English gentry.^ His mother's name was Jane Randolph.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jefferson's father was Peter Jefferson, a planter and surveyor in Albemarle County (Shadwell, then Edge Hill, Virginia.^ His father's name was Peter Jefferson.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Jefferson descended from ancestors who had been settled in Virginia for some generations, was born near the spot on which he died, in the county of Albemarle, on the 2d of April, (old style,) 1743.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His father, Peter Jefferson, was a planter, owning an estate of about 2,000 acres, cultivated, as was usual in Virginia, by slave labor.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

) He was of Welsh descent. When Colonel William Randolph, an old friend of Peter Jefferson, died in 1745, Peter assumed executorship and personal charge of William Randolph's estate in Tuckahoe as well as his infant son, Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr. That year the Jeffersons relocated to Tuckahoe where they would remain for the next seven years before returning to their home in Albemarle. Peter Jefferson was then appointed to the Colonelcy of the county, an important position at the time.[7]

Education

In 1752, Jefferson began attending a local school run by William Douglas, a Scottish minister. At the age of nine, Jefferson began studying Latin, Greek, and French. .In 1757, when he was 14 years old, his father died.^ His father died in 1757, when Thomas was but fourteen years of age.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jefferson inherited about 5,000 acres (20 km²) of land and dozens of slaves.^ While Jefferson was the author of the instrument, John Adams, more than any one man or half a dozen men brought about its adoption.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His father, Peter Jefferson, was a planter, owning an estate of about 2,000 acres, cultivated, as was usual in Virginia, by slave labor.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

He built his home there, which eventually became known as Monticello.
.After his father's death, he was taught at the school of the learned minister James Maury from 1758 to 1760. The school was in Fredericksville Parish near Gordonsville, Virginia, twelve miles (19 km) from Shadwell, and Jefferson boarded with Maury's family.^ The death of his father-in-law doubled Jefferson's estate, a year after his marriage.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While still indulging our thoughts, on the coincidence of the death of this venerable man with the anniversary of independence, we learn that Jefferson, too, has fallen.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His home was among the mountains of Central Virginia on a farm, called Shadwell, 150 miles northwest of Williamsburg.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.There he received a classical education and studied history and science.^ Before that time, he had the education standard to his day and status: a classical education, heavy on Greek, Latin, history, and memorizing boring things.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Julie M. Smith 6/2/2008 at 11:15 am Let me add: I think the desire to study classics in science and math is a good one, but their place is in a “history of science” course, not science (or math) itself.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Researcher 6/3/2008 at 5:14 pm Structured Unschooling Culminating in Classical Education and Self-directed Study would result in SUCCESS. .
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1760 Jefferson entered the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg at the age of 16; he studied there for two years, graduating with highest honors in 1762. At William & Mary, he enrolled in the philosophy school and studied mathematics, metaphysics, and philosophy under Professor William Small, who introduced the enthusiastic Jefferson to the writings of the British Empiricists, including John Locke, Francis Bacon, and Isaac Newton (Jefferson called them the "three greatest men the world had ever produced").^ Most of Jefferson’s studies were at private schools.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He entered William and Mary College in the spring of 1760, when he was seventeen years old.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After two years of college life he began the study of law in 1763.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[8] He also perfected his French, carried his Greek grammar book wherever he went, practiced the violin, and read Tacitus and Homer. A keen and diligent student, Jefferson displayed an avid curiosity in all fields and, according to the family tradition, frequently studied fifteen hours a day. .His closest college friend, John Page of Rosewell, reported that Jefferson "could tear himself away from his dearest friends to fly to his studies."^ Jefferson always relished the period of his brief retirements to his Virginia home, where he could enjoy his library, entertain his friends, and overlook his estates.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No office or honor could take away Jefferson's pride as a cultivator of the soil.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.While in college, Jefferson was a member of a secret organization called the F.H.C. Society.^ The college established a core pedagogy and, after trying a few different names, settled on calling it “A Thomas Jefferson Education.” (More on its specifics later.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

He lodged and boarded at the College in the building known today as the Sir Christopher Wren Building, attending communal meals in the Great Hall, and morning and evening prayers in the Wren Chapel. .Jefferson often attended the lavish parties of royal governor Francis Fauquier, where he played his violin and developed an early love for wines.^ Jefferson appears to have been imbued with an early love of letters and science, and to have cherished a strong disposition to pursue these objects.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[9] After graduating in 1762 with highest honors, he read law with George Wythe and was admitted to the Virginia bar in 1767.

After college

.On October 1, 1765, Jefferson's oldest sister Jane died at the age of 25.[10] Jefferson fell into a period of deep mourning, as he was already saddened by the absence of his sisters Mary, who had been married several years to Thomas Bolling, and Martha, who had wed earlier in July to Dabney Carr.^ Downloads: 0 Thomas Jefferson Views: 10 .
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ THE INFLUENCE OF JEFFERSON'S SISTER. Among those who exerted a marked influence on Jefferson's early years was his oldest and favorite sister Jane.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His father died in 1757, when Thomas was but fourteen years of age.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[10] Both had moved to their husbands' residences, leaving younger siblings Elizabeth, Lucy, and the two toddlers as his companions. .Jefferson was not comforted by the presence of Elizabeth or Lucy as they did not provide him with the same intellectual stimulation as his older siblings had.^ Everywhere that it was possible for Jefferson to the helping hand he did so with a delicacy and a tact, that won him multitudes of friends and stamped him as one of nature's noblemen.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All the Federalists voted for Burr with the single exception of Huger of South Carolina, not because of any love for Burr, but because he did not hate him as much as he did Jefferson.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Why were they permitted to hold When did he What was his What was Jefferson's opinion on the subject?
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[10]
.Jefferson would go on to handle many cases as a lawyer in colonial Virginia, managing more than a hundred cases each year between 1768 and 1773 in General Court alone, while acting as counsel in hundreds of cases.^ Admitted to the bar of the General Court of Virginia when 21 years of age.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He became a lawyer in his twenty-fourth year, and was successful from the first, his practice soon growing to nearly five hundred cases annually, which yielded an income that would be a godsend to the majority of lawyers in these days.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It had been the custom for years for the powerful Christian to pay those savages to let their ships alone, because it was cheaper to do so than to maintain a fleet to fight them.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[11] .Jefferson's client list included members of the Virginia's elite families, including members of his mother's family, the Randolphs.^ What is the story of What is the story of Jefferson and the horse What was the peculiar relationship between Jefferson and Patrick Who were some of the brilliant members of the Virginia assembly?
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson was present as a member of the convention, which met in the parish church at Richmond, in March, 1775, to consider the course that Virginia should take in the impending crisis.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington, Jefferson and Patrick Henry were members of the committee appointed to arrange a plan for preparing Virginia to act her part in the struggle.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[11]

Monticello

Jefferson's Home Monticello
Monticello
Montecello depicted on 1956 regular issue
.In 1768 Thomas Jefferson started the construction of Monticello, a neoclassical mansion.^ Further, TJE is almost completely at odds with what Thomas Jefferson himself outlined as a > proper education, which you can read about here, starting on page 271.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Further, TJE is almost completely at odds with what Thomas Jefferson himself outlined as a proper education, which you can read about here , starting on page 271.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

.Starting in childhood, Jefferson had always wanted to build a beautiful mountaintop home within site of Shadwell.^ They can and will be inspired to assume our values as we show them an example of building our homes and lives within that context every day.” .
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They can and will be inspired to assume our values as we show them an example of building our homes and lives within that context every day.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson always relished the period of his brief retirements to his Virginia home, where he could enjoy his library, entertain his friends, and overlook his estates.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[12][13] .Jefferson went greatly in debt on Monticello by spending lavishly on his Monticello Estate to create a neoclassical environment, based on his study of the brilliant architect Andrea Palladio and The Orders.^ Monticello, the home of Jefferson, was blessed at every period of long life with a swarm of merry children whom, although not his own, he greatly loved.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Whenever Jefferson went home to Monticello or returned thence to his duties, he frequently stopped with Mr. Madison.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[14]
Monticello was also Thomas Jefferson's slave plantation. .Throughout a period lasting seventy years, Thomas Jefferson owned over 600 slaves.^ Monticello, the home of Jefferson, was blessed at every period of long life with a swarm of merry children whom, although not his own, he greatly loved.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His father, Peter Jefferson, was a planter, owning an estate of about 2,000 acres, cultivated, as was usual in Virginia, by slave labor.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But Jefferson was not the officer to forget or neglect his duties to his own government, during the five years spent in France.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many of the slaves at the Monticello plantation intermarried amongst each other and produced children.^ The man who produces while others dispose of his product is a slave.

^ That other kinds of property were pretty equally distributed thro' all the colonies: there were as many cattle, horses, & sheep, in the North as the South, & South as the North; but not so as to slaves.

.Jefferson only paid a few of his trusted slaves in important positions for work done or for performing difficult tasks like cleaning chimneys or privies.^ The administrations of Jefferson were marked not only by many important national events, but were accompanied by great changes in the people themselves.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although there are no direct workday references, Jefferson’s slaves probably worked from dawn to dusk, with shorter or longer days according to the season.^ The exciting canvas established one fact: there was no man in the United States so devotedly loved and so fiercely hated as Thomas Jefferson.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Six Miracles of Socialism: There is no unemployment, but no one works.

^ Americans no longer have the freedom to direct their own lives Today, it is the government that is free free to do whatever it wants.

Fragmentary records indicate a rich spiritual life at Monticello slave quarters, incorporating both Christian and African traditions. .Although there is no record that Jefferson instructed slaves in grammar education, several enslaved men at Monticello could read and write.^ The exciting canvas established one fact: there was no man in the United States so devotedly loved and so fiercely hated as Thomas Jefferson.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By that time, it was clear that no break could be made in the Jefferson columns and it was impossible to elect Burr.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Besides, there is no rational similarity between the public school of the 1760s and today’s public education.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

[15]

Towards revolution

.Besides practicing law, Jefferson represented Albemarle County in the Virginia House of Burgesses beginning in 1769. Following the passage of the Coercive Acts by the British Parliament in 1774, he wrote a set of resolutions against the acts, which were expanded into A Summary View of the Rights of British America, his first published work.^ Colonial About the time of the meeting of the Convention, called in 1775, to choose delegates for the Continental Congress at Philadelphia, at which Patrick Henry was present, the youthful Jefferson, now known as an able political writer, wrote his “Summary View of the Rights of British America"—a trenchant protest against English taxation of the Colonies, which had considerable influence in creating public feeling favorable to American Independence.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence followed, on the part of the United States, the non-Importation Act, the Embargo Act of 1807-08, and other retaliatory measures of Jefferson's administration, coupled with reprisals at sea and other expedients to offset British empressment of American sailors and the right of search, so ruthlessly and annoyingly put in force against the newborn nation and her maritime people.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ View In 1774 he published a Summary of the Rights of British America, a valuable production among those intended to show the dangers which threatened the liberties of the country, and to encourage the people in their defense.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Previous criticism of the Coercive Acts had focused on legal and constitutional issues, but Jefferson offered the radical notion that the colonists had the natural right to govern themselves.^ The strongest reason for the people to retain the right to bear arms is, as a last resort, to protect themselves against tyranny in government.

^ Whatever the issue, let freedom offer us a hundred choices, instead of having government force one answer on everyone.

^ But for this ground there was no foundation in compact, in any acknowledged principles of colonization, nor in reason: expatriation being a natural right, and acted on as such, by all nations, in all ages.

[16] .Jefferson also argued that Parliament was the legislature of Great Britain only, and had no legislative authority in the colonies.^ The administrations of Jefferson were marked not only by many important national events, but were accompanied by great changes in the people themselves.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When news of the transfer of Louisiana to France reached this side of the water, Jefferson was greatly exercised over it, and had notions of off-setting it by some joint action with Great Britain.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson clung to the idea of connection with great Britain.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[16] .The paper was intended to serve as instructions for the Virginia delegation of the First Continental Congress, but Jefferson's ideas proved to be too radical for that body.^ Jefferson was an influential member of the body from the first.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In September, 1774, his "Draught of Instructions" for Virginia's delegation to the congress in Philadelphia was presented.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS AND LAWYERS. Mr. Jefferson wrote in his autobiography regarding the Continental Congress in 1783: "Our body was little numerous, but very contentious.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[16] .Nevertheless, the pamphlet helped provide the theoretical framework for American independence, and marked Jefferson as one of the most thoughtful patriot spokesmen.^ Jefferson's discharge of his diplomatic duties was marked by great ability, diligence, and patriotism; and while he resided at Paris, in one of the most interesting periods, his character for intelligence, his love of knowledge and of the society of learned men, distinguished him in the highest circles of the French capital.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I can see calling nineteenth century American writings as classics today, but that is hardly what Jefferson would have thought.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An Evaluation of Thomas Jefferson Education 7 they arrived at GWC they thought that all the students would get one-on-one mentors.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

Drafting a declaration

.Jefferson served as a delegate to the Second Continental Congress beginning in June 1775, soon after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War.^ When Washington, June, 20, 1775, received his commission as commander-in-chief of the American army, Jefferson succeeded to the vacancy thus created, and the next day took his seat in congress.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In June, 1775, he was elected a member of the continental Congress, as successor to Peyton Randolph, who had retired on account of ill health, and took his seat in that body on the 21st of the same month.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS AND LAWYERS. Mr. Jefferson wrote in his autobiography regarding the Continental Congress in 1783: "Our body was little numerous, but very contentious.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.When Congress began considering a resolution of independence in June 1776, Jefferson was appointed to a five-man committee to prepare a declaration to accompany the resolution.^ Appointed Chairman of the Committee to prepare the Declaration of Independence.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The committee for drawing the declaration of Independence desired me to do it.

^ On the 15th of May, 1776, the convention of Virginia instructed their delegates in Congress to propose to that body to declare the colonies independent of G. Britain, and appointed a commee to prepare a declaration of rights and plan of government.

The committee selected Jefferson to write the first draft probably because of his reputation as a writer. .The assignment was considered routine; no one at the time thought that it was a major responsibility.^ Everyone carries a part of society on his shoulders; no one is relieved of his share of responsibility by others.

^ The whole of the Bill [of Rights] is a declaration of the right of the people at large or considered as individuals It establishes some rights of the individual as unalienable and which consequently, no majority has a right to deprive them of.

^ The Government is like a baby's alimentary canal, with a happy appetite at one end and no responsibility at the other.

[17] .Jefferson completed a draft in consultation with other committee members, drawing on his own proposed draft of the Virginia Constitution, George Mason's draft of the Virginia Declaration of Rights, and other sources.^ The committee for drawing the declaration of Independence desired me to do it.

^ They were both members of the committee for preparing the declaration of independence, and they constituted the sub-committee appointed by the other members to make the draft.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The difference is said to have been but of a Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Adams, standing thus at the head of committee, were requested by the other members to act as a sub-committee to prepare the draft; and Mr. Jefferson drew up the paper.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[18]

Political career from 1774 to 1800

Rudolph Evans' statue of Jefferson with excerpts from the Declaration of Independence to the right
Rudolph Evans' statue of Jefferson with excerpts from the Declaration of Independence to the right
.Jefferson showed his draft to the committee, which made some final revisions, and then presented it to Congress on June 28, 1776. After voting in favor of the resolution of independence on July 2, Congress turned its attention to the declaration.^ They were both members of the committee for preparing the declaration of independence, and they constituted the sub-committee appointed by the other members to make the draft.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The ultimate question whether the house would agree to the resolution of the committee was accordingly postponed to the next day, when it was again moved and S. Carolina concurred in voting for it.

^ It was discussed on the second, and third, and fourth days of the month, in committee of the whole, and on the last of those days, being reported from that committee, it received the final approbation and sanction of congress.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Over several days of debate, Congress made a few changes in wording and deleted nearly a fourth of the text, most notably a passage critical of the slave trade, changes that Jefferson resented.^ It was discussed on the second, and third, and fourth days of the month, in committee of the whole, and on the last of those days, being reported from that committee, it received the final approbation and sanction of congress.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The FOURTH OF JULY, therefore, But the signatures of the members present were made to it, being then engrossed on parchment, on the second day of August.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the draft of the Declaration was submitted to the Congress it made eighteen suppressions, six additions and ten alterations; and nearly every one was an improvement.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[19] On July 4, 1776, the wording of the Declaration of Independence was approved. .The Declaration would eventually become Jefferson's major claim to fame, and his eloquent preamble became an enduring statement of human rights.^ It’s amazingly late and I don’t really have time right now to tell you why the majority of you are so off-base, so I will content myself with the unsupported statement.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson then declared that he would have permitted the King to reign, believing that with the restraints thrown around him, he would have made a successful monarch.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The man of professional science examined his plan, and listened with profound attention and deference to Mr. Jefferson's explanations of it, and to his eloquent illustration of the advantages it would secure.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[19]

State legislator

About 50 men, most of them seated, are in a large meeting room. Most are focused on the five men standing in the center of the room. The tallest of the five is laying a document on a table.
.
In John Trumbull's painting Declaration of Independence, the five-man drafting committee is presenting its work to the Continental Congress.
^ The committee for drawing the declaration of Independence desired me to do it.

^ They were both members of the committee for preparing the declaration of independence, and they constituted the sub-committee appointed by the other members to make the draft.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But it was not the object of the Declaration to produce It was not to invent reasons for independence, but to For great and sufficient causes it those which governed the congress.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

Jefferson is the tall figure in the center laying the Declaration on the desk.
.In September 1776, Jefferson returned to Virginia and was elected to the new Virginia House of Delegates.^ In September, 1774, his "Draught of Instructions" for Virginia's delegation to the congress in Philadelphia was presented.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At this juncture, on the return of Jefferson from the French mission, and after a visit to his home in Virginia, Washington offered him the post of Secretary of State, which he accepted, and entered upon the duties of that office in New York in March, 1791.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In his draft of instructions for Virginia's delegates to the Congress which was to meet in Philadelphia in September, 1774, he used some plain language to George III. 18.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.During his term in the House, Jefferson set out to reform and update Virginia's system of laws to reflect its new status as a democratic state.^ Jefferson, having been occupied in the years 1778 and 1779 in the important service of revising the laws of Virginia, was elected governor of that state, as successor to Patrick Henry, and held the situation when the state was invaded by the British arms.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ ANECDOTES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF JEFFERSON. JEFFERSON'S BRIDAL JOURNEY. Jefferson and his young bride, after the marriage ceremony, set out for their Monticello home.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When news of the transfer of Louisiana to France reached this side of the water, Jefferson was greatly exercised over it, and had notions of off-setting it by some joint action with Great Britain.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.He drafted 126 bills in three years, including laws to abolish primogeniture, establish freedom of religion, and streamline the judicial system.^ And with respect to the first, I proposed to abolish the law of primogeniture, and to make real estate descendible in parcenary to the next of kin, as personal property is by the statute of distribution.

^ The bill for establishing religious freedom, the principles of which had, to a certain degree, been enacted before, I had drawn in all the latitude of reason & right.

^ Jefferson's committee abolished the frightful penalties of the ancient code; he set on foot the movement for the improvement of public education; he drew the bill for the establishment of courts of law in the State, and prescribing their methods and powers; he destroyed the principle of primogeniture, and brought about the removal of the capital from Williamsburg to Richmond.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1778, Jefferson's "Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge" led to several academic reforms at his alma mater, including an elective system of study—the first in an American university.^ An Evaluation of Thomas Jefferson Education 8 psychology and biblical studies from Coral Ridge Baptist University in Utah.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet the American Revolution seems first to have awakened the thinking part of the French nation in general from the sleep of despotism in which they were sunk.

^ But the cause of knowledge, in a more enlarged sense, the cause of general knowledge and of a popular education, had no warmer friends, nor more powerful advocates, than Mr. Adams and Mr. Jefferson.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.While in the state legislature Jefferson proposed a bill to eliminate capital punishment for all crimes except murder and treason.^ All murderers are punished unless they kill in large numbers and to the sound of trumpets.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In that one of the bills for organizing our judiciary system which proposed a court of chancery, I had provided for a trial by jury of all matters of fact in that as well as in the courts of law.

^ I accordingly prepared three bills for the Revisal, proposing three distinct grades of education, reaching all classes.

.His effort to reform the death penalty law was defeated by just one vote,[20] and such crimes as rape remained punishable by death in Virginia until the 1960s.^ It was characteristic of Jefferson's nobility that one of his first efforts was to undo, so far as he could, the mischief effected by the detested Sedition law.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One declares so many things to be a crime that it becomes impossible to live without breaking laws.

^ See if the law benefits one citizen at the expense of another by doing what the citizen himself cannot do without committing a crime.

[21] He succeeded in passing an act prohibiting the importation of slaves but not slavery itself.

Governor of Virginia

.Jefferson served as governor of Virginia from 1779–1781. As governor, he oversaw the transfer of the state capital from Williamsburg to the more central location of Richmond in 1780. He continued to advocate educational reforms at the College of William and Mary, including the nation's first student-policed honor code.^ The illustrous statesman was born April 13, 1743, at “Shadwell," his father's home in the hill country of central Virginia, about 150 miles from Williamsburg, once the capital of the State, and the seat of William and Mary college, where Jefferson received his higher education.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson's committee abolished the frightful penalties of the ancient code; he set on foot the movement for the improvement of public education; he drew the bill for the establishment of courts of law in the State, and prescribing their methods and powers; he destroyed the principle of primogeniture, and brought about the removal of the capital from Williamsburg to Richmond.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson, having been occupied in the years 1778 and 1779 in the important service of revising the laws of Virginia, was elected governor of that state, as successor to Patrick Henry, and held the situation when the state was invaded by the British arms.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1779, at Jefferson's behest, William and Mary appointed George Wythe to be the first professor of law in an American university.^ Robert Cottrol, George Washington University law professor .

^ In 1779, George Wythe was made a professor of law at the College of William & Mary, but this did not mean that he trained lawyers.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Shortly after Jefferson became a member of the bar, Oxford University created the Regis Professorship of Law, which was held by William Blackstone and marked the entry of the common law into the university curriculum.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

.Dissatisfied with the rate of changes he wanted to push through, he later became the founder of the University of Virginia, which was the first university in the United States at which higher education was completely separate from religious doctrine.^ The former wanted to style him 'His Highness, George Washington, President of the United States, and Protector of their Liberties.'
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first establishment in Virginia which became permanent was made in 1607.

^ As It is, perhaps, not wonderful, that, when the constitution of the United States went first into operation, different opinions should be entertained as to the extent of the powers conferred by it.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

Virginia was invaded twice by the British led first by Benedict Arnold and then by Lord Cornwallis during Jefferson's term as governor. .He, along with Patrick Henry and other leaders of Virginia, were but ten minutes away from being captured by Banastre Tarleton, a British colonel leading a cavalry column that was raiding the area in June 1781.[22] Public disapproval of his performance delayed his future political prospects, and he was never again elected to office in Virginia.^ The house being obliged to attend at that time to some other business, the proposition was referred to the next day, when the members were ordered to attend punctually at ten o'clock.

^ I never heard either of them speak ten minutes at a time, nor to any but the main point which was to decide the question.

[23] He was, however, appointed by the state legislature to Congress in 1783.

Member of Congress

.The Virginia state legislature appointed Jefferson to the Congress of the Confederation on 6 June 1783, his term beginning on 1 November.^ I was appointed by the legislature a delegate to Congress, the appointment to take place on the 1st.

^ President Jefferson Davis' first address to the Confederate Congress .

^ THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS AND LAWYERS. Mr. Jefferson wrote in his autobiography regarding the Continental Congress in 1783: "Our body was little numerous, but very contentious.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was a member of the committee set up to set foreign exchange rates, and in that capacity he recommended that the American currency should be based on the decimal system.^ Financier, Robert Morris, to report to them a table of rates at which the foreign coins should be received at the treasury.

^ In the following November, he took his seat in congress at Annapolis, and during that session he proposed and caused the adoption of our present system of decimal currency.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jefferson also recommended setting up the Committee of the States, to function as the executive arm of Congress when Congress was in session.^ As a conclusion, I would just like to state that a Thomas Jefferson Education is not something that is set up in opposition to professional, skills-focused, and accredited education.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The remissness of Congress, and their permanent session, began to be a subject of uneasiness and even some of the legislatures had recommended to them intermissions, and periodical sessions.

^ Report of the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, 97th Congress, Second Session (February 1982) .

He left Congress when he was elected a minister plenipotentiary on 7 May 1784. He became Minister to France in 1785.

Minister to France

Memorial plaque on the Champs-Élysées, Paris, France, marking where Jefferson lived while he was Minister to France. <a name=.The plaque was erected after World War I to commemorate the centenary of Jefferson's founding of the University of Virginia."^ University of Virginia founded, of which Jefferson was Rector until his death.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ JEFFERSON AND THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA. In the epitaph of Jefferson, written by himself, there is no mention of his having been Governor of Virginia, Plenipotentiary to France, Secretary of State, Vice President and President of the United States.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/1/6/3/6321797774066233.jpg" width="220" height="260" class="thumbimage" />
Memorial plaque on the Champs-Élysées, Paris, France, marking where Jefferson lived while he was Minister to France. The plaque was erected after World War I to commemorate the centenary of Jefferson's founding of the University of Virginia.
.Because Jefferson served as minister to France from 1785 to 1789, he was not able to attend the Philadelphia Convention.^ "In 1785 he was appointed Minister to France.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.He generally supported the new constitution despite the lack of a bill of rights and was kept informed by his correspondence with James Madison.^ The real fabric of American society is not all those flags you see on people's cars...it's in the Bill of Rights and in our constitutional form of government.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The new president selected an able cabinet, consisting of James Madison, Secretary of State; Albert Gallatin, Secretary of the Treasury; Henry Dearborn, Secretary of War; Robert Smith,Secretary of the Navy; Gideon Granger, Postmaster-general; Levi Lincoln, Attorney General.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

While in Paris, he lived in a home on the Champs-Élysées. .He spent much of his time exploring the architectural sites of the city, as well as enjoying the fine arts that Paris had to offer.^ No court in Europe had at time in Paris a representative commanding or enjoying higher regard for political knowledge or for general attainments, than the minister of this then infant republic.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.He became a favorite in the salon culture and was a frequent dinner guest of many of the city's most prominent people.^ I think many (if not most) people follow this method when debating a point, but I have not thought that about your posts before.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

In addition, he frequently entertained others from French and European society. He and his daughters were accompanied by two slaves of the Hemings family from Monticello. Jefferson paid for James Hemings to be trained as a French chef (Hemings later accompanied Jefferson as chef when he was in Philadelphia). Sally Hemings, James' sister, had accompanied Jefferson's younger daughter overseas. .Jefferson is believed to have begun his long-term relationship with Sally Hemings in Paris.^ I do not believe that the government should have its long nose poked into the private consensual relationships between people.

.Both the Hemings learned French during their time in the city.^ Structure Time, not Content” means that the parents sets aside time as “learning time” but do not mandate which activities will be done during that time.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

[24]
.From 1784 to 1785, Jefferson was one of the architects of trade relations between the United States and Prussia.^ The one now proposed is imperfect in itself, and unequal between the States.

^ The Union was formed by the voluntary agreement of the States; and these, in uniting together, have not forfeited their Nationality, nor have they been reduced to the condition of one and the same people.

^ One reason the United States finds itself at the edge of a foreign policy disaster is its underinformed citizenry, a key weakness in democracy.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Prussian ambassador Friedrich Wilhelm von Thulemeyer and John Adams, both living in the Hague, and Benjamin Franklin in Paris, were also involved.^ The occasion, fellow-citizens, requires some account of the lives and services of John Adams and Thomas Jefferson.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Adams had received his appointment to the court of London while engaged at Paris, with Dr. Franklin and myself, in the negotiations under our joint commissions.

^ Franklin at Passy, communicated to him our charge, and we wrote to Mr. Adams, then at the Hague to join us at Paris.

[25]
.Despite his numerous friendships with the social and noble elite, when the French Revolution began in 1789, Jefferson sided with the revolutionaries.^ Hamilton abhorred the French revolution, with its terrifying excesses, and Jefferson declared that no horror equalled that of France's old system of government.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. Mr. Jefferson always believed the cause of the French Revolution to be just.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

Secretary of State

.After returning from France, Jefferson served as the first Secretary of State under George Washington (1790–1793).^ At this juncture, on the return of Jefferson from the French mission, and after a visit to his home in Virginia, Washington offered him the post of Secretary of State, which he accepted, and entered upon the duties of that office in New York in March, 1791.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ THE FINANCIAL DIARY OF THOMAS JEFFERSON. Thomas Jefferson kept a financial diary and account book from January 1st 1791, to December 28th, 1803, embracing the last three years of his service as Secretary of State under Washington, the four years of his VicePresidency under John Adams, and the first three years following his own election to the Presidency.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To his contemporaries and a later political age, Jefferson, in spite of his culture and the aristocratic strain in his blood, is known as the advocate of popular sovereignty and the champion of democracy in matters governmental, as United States minister to France between the years 1784-89, as Secretary of State under Washington, and as U. S. President from 1801 to 1809.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton began sparring over national fiscal policy, especially the funding of the debts of the war, with Hamilton believing that the debts should be equally shared, and Jefferson believing that each state should be responsible for its own debt (Virginia had not accumulated much debt during the Revolution).^ During the campaign of 1800, Hamilton sounded the trumpet of alarm, when he declared in response to a toast: "If Mr. Pinckney is not elected, a revolution will be the consequence, and within four years I will lose my head or be the leader of a triumphant army."
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Our commerce increased enormously, for the leading nations of Europe were warring with one another; money came in fast and most of the national debt was paid.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson kept his seat, reined in his restive steed, and put an equally effective rein upon his own temper.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.In further sparring with the Federalists, Jefferson came to equate Hamilton and the rest of the Federalists with Tories and monarchists who threatened to undermine republicanism.^ With organizations of the machinery of government came presently the founding of parties, especially the rise of the Republican or Democratic party, as it was subsequently called, in opposition to the Federalist party, then led by Hamilton, Jay, and Morris.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Federalists had controlled the national government for twelve years, or ever since its organization, and they were determined to prevent the elevation of Jefferson, the founder of the new Republican party.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He it was who was put forward on the Republican side for the Presidency, while Adams, still favored by the Federalists and himself desiring a second term of office, became the Federalist candidate.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

He equated Federalism with "Royalism," and made a point to state that "Hamiltonians were panting after...and itching for crowns, coronets and mitres."[26] Jefferson and James Madison founded and led the Democratic-Republican Party. He worked with Madison and his campaign manager John J. Beckley to build a nationwide network of Republican allies to combat Federalists across the country.
.Jefferson strongly supported France against Britain when war broke out between those nations in 1793. Historian Lawrence S. Kaplan notes Jefferson's "visceral support for the French cause," while agreeing with Washington that the nation should not get involved in the fighting.^ Between these two men, as chiefs of the principal departments of government, President Washington had an anxious time of it in keeping the peace, for each was insistently arrayed against the other, not only in their respective attitudes toward England and in the policy of the administration in the then threatening war with France, but also as to the powers the National Government should be entrusted with in relation to the legislatures of the separate states.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He further was opposed to the great financier and aristocrat for his leanings toward England and against France, in the war that had then broken out between these nations, and for his sharp criticism of the draft of the message to Congress on the relations of France and England, which Jefferson had penned, and which was afterwards to influence Washington in issuing the Neutrality Proclamation of 1793.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The pertinent question: if Americans did not want these wars should they have been compelled to fight them?
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[27] .The arrival in 1793 of an aggressive new French minister, Edmond-Charles Genêt, caused a crisis for the Secretary of State, as he watched Genêt try to violate American neutrality, manipulate public opinion, and even go over Washington's head in appealing to the people; projects that Jefferson helped to thwart.^ At this juncture, on the return of Jefferson from the French mission, and after a visit to his home in Virginia, Washington offered him the post of Secretary of State, which he accepted, and entered upon the duties of that office in New York in March, 1791.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To his contemporaries and a later political age, Jefferson, in spite of his culture and the aristocratic strain in his blood, is known as the advocate of popular sovereignty and the champion of democracy in matters governmental, as United States minister to France between the years 1784-89, as Secretary of State under Washington, and as U. S. President from 1801 to 1809.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Immediately on his return to his native country he was placed by Washington at the head of the department of State.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

According to Schachner, Jefferson believed that political success at home depended on the success of the French army in Europe:[28]
Aquatint of Thomas Jefferson in profile by Tadeusz Kościuszko
Thomas Jefferson, aquatint by Tadeusz Kościuszko
Jefferson still clung to his sympathies with France and hoped for the success of her arms abroad and a cordial compact with her at home. He was afraid that any French reverses on the European battlefields would give "wonderful vigor to our monocrats, and unquestionably affect the tone of administering our government. Indeed, I fear that if this summer should prove disastrous to the French, it will damp that energy of republicanism in our new Congress, from which I had hoped so much reformation."

Break from office

.Jefferson at the end of 1793 retired to Monticello where he continued to orchestrate opposition to Hamilton and Washington.^ At the close of his second term in the Presidential chair (1809) Jefferson retired once more, and finally, to “Monticello," after over forty years of almost continuous public service.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In this opposition to his chief and able colleague, and feeling strongly on the matters which constantly brought him into collision with the centralizing designs of the President and the preponderating influence in the Cabinet hostile to his views, Jefferson resigned his post in December, 1793, and retired for a time to his estate at Monticello.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To this, Hamilton, however, magnanimously objected, and in the end Jefferson secured the Presidential prize, while to Burr fell the VicePresidency.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, the Jay Treaty of 1794, orchestrated by Hamilton, brought peace and trade with Britain – while Madison, with strong support from Jefferson, wanted, Miller says, "to strangle the former mother country" without going to war.^ Today the only countries without strong multiparty political systems are the United States and a number of third world military dictatorships.

^ It was deemed by them an unwarrantable stretch of the Constitution on Jefferson's part, both in negotiating for it as a then foreign possession without authority from Congress, and in pledging the country's resources in its acquisition.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first brought here as slaves were by a Dutch ship; after which the English commenced the trade and continued it until the revolutionary war.

."It became an article of faith among Republicans that 'commercial weapons' would suffice to bring Great Britain to any terms the United States chose to dictate."^ This was done in accord with the Southern understanding of what would be in keeping with the United States Constitution.

^ He it was who was put forward on the Republican side for the Presidency, while Adams, still favored by the Federalists and himself desiring a second term of office, became the Federalist candidate.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It will be remembered that the hope of the colonies new States, even after the war had continued for a considerable time, was not so much independence as to extort justice from Great Britain.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

Jefferson, in retirement, strongly encouraged Madison.[29]

Election of 1796 and Vice Presidency

.As the Democratic-Republican candidate in 1796 he lost to John Adams, but had enough electoral votes to become Vice President (1797–1801).^ "In 1797 he was chosen Vice President.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ About the quote : in a letter to John Adams, 1796.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson, 73; Burr, 73; John Adams, 65; C. There being a tie between the leading candidates, election was thrown into the House of Representatives, which assembled on the 11th of February, 1801, to make choice between Burr and Jefferson.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.He wrote a manual of parliamentary procedure, but otherwise avoided the Senate.^ While presiding in this capacity over the deliberations of the senate, he compiled and published a Manual of Parliamentary Practice, a work of more labor and more merit than is indicated by its size.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.With the Quasi-War, an undeclared naval war with France, underway, the Federalists under John Adams started a navy, built up the army, levied new taxes, readied for war, and enacted the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798. Jefferson interpreted the Alien and Sedition Acts as an attack on his party more than on dangerous enemy aliens; they were used to attack his party, with the most notable attacks coming from Matthew Lyon, a representative from Vermont.^ Collecting more taxes than is absolutely necessary is legalized robbery.

^ The Federalists had controlled the national government for twelve years, or ever since its organization, and they were determined to prevent the elevation of Jefferson, the founder of the new Republican party.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The difference is said to have been but of a Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Adams, standing thus at the head of committee, were requested by the other members to act as a sub-committee to prepare the draft; and Mr. Jefferson drew up the paper.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jefferson and Madison rallied support by anonymously writing the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which declared that the federal government had no right to exercise powers not specifically delegated to it by the states.^ The only maxim of a free government ought to be to trust no man living with power to endanger the public liberty.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The minister retired unwillingly from these concessions, which indeed authorized the exercise of powers very offensive in a free state.

^ Reviews Shared by: Zhan Guanghui Categories Tags Thomas Jefferson , the Declaration of Independence , the University of Virginia , United States , John Adams , president of the United States , the American , declaration of independence , author of the Declaration of Independenc...
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Resolutions meant that, should the federal government assume such powers, its acts under them could be voided by a state.^ True federalism is when the people of the states set limits to the central government.

^ They answered candidly that no funds could be obtained until the new government should get into action, and have time to make it's arrangements.

^ But such was the state of my family that I could not leave it, nor could I expose it to the dangers of the sea, and of capture by the British ships, then covering the ocean.

.The Resolutions presented the first statements of the states' rights theory, that later led to the concepts of nullification and interposition.^ The first occurred in 1798, when Virginia and Kentucky passed nullification resolutions.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

Election of 1800

.Working closely with Aaron Burr of New York, Jefferson rallied his party, attacking the new taxes especially, and ran for the Presidency in 1800. Consistent with the traditions of the times, he did not formally campaign for the position.^ The Federalists had controlled the national government for twelve years, or ever since its organization, and they were determined to prevent the elevation of Jefferson, the founder of the new Republican party.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By that time, it was clear that no break could be made in the Jefferson columns and it was impossible to elect Burr.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Federal nominees were John Adams for president and Charles Cotesworth Pinckney for vice-president, while the Republican vote was divided between Jefferson and Aaron Burr.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

Before the passage of the Twelfth Amendment, a problem with the new union's electoral system arose. .He tied with Burr for first place in the electoral college, leaving the House of Representatives (where the Federalists still had some power) to decide the election.^ The tie between Jefferson and Burr caused the election to be thrown into the House of Representatives, where the Federalists were still strong, and who, in their dislike of Jefferson, reckoned on finally giving the Presidency to Burr.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ WOULD MAKE NO PROMISES FOR THE PRESIDENCY. While the Presidential election was taking place in the House of Representatives, amid scenes of great excitement, strife and intrigue, which was to decide whether Jefferson or Burr should be the chief magistrate of the nation, Jefferson was stopped one day, as he was coming out of the Senate chamber, by Gouverneur Morris, a prominent leader of the Federalists.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before and for some years after the Revolution, the majority were content to leave the task of thinking, speaking and acting to the representatives, first of the crown and then to their influential neighbors.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

Portrait of Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale
Portrait of Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800
.After lengthy debate within the Federalist-controlled House, Hamilton convinced his party that Jefferson would be a lesser political evil than Burr and that such scandal within the electoral process would undermine the still-young regime.^ We have said that we are actively pursuing it, that we would like to achieve it within a few years, and that significant funds are needed to complete this process.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Federalists had controlled the national government for twelve years, or ever since its organization, and they were determined to prevent the elevation of Jefferson, the founder of the new Republican party.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps the removal of trade restrictions throughout the world would do more for the cause of universal peace than can any political union of peoples separated by trade barriers.

.The issue was resolved by the House, on February 17, 1801, after thirty-six ballots, when Jefferson was elected President and Burr Vice President.^ This committee was elected by ballot, on the following day, consisted of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By that time, it was clear that no break could be made in the Jefferson columns and it was impossible to elect Burr.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1801 he was elected president, in opposition to Mr. Adams, re-elected in 1805, by a vote approaching toward unanimity.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Burr's refusal to remove himself from consideration created ill will with Jefferson, who dropped Burr from the ticket in 1804 after Burr killed Hamilton in a duel.^ Jefferson was re-elected in 1804, by a vote of 162 to 14 for Pinckney, who carried only two States out of the seventeen.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were enacted when Jefferson was Vice President and the creation of the brilliant Alexander Hamilton, whose belief was in a monarchy rather than a republic.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson's supporters expected him to turn out a part at least of the Federalists, who held nearly all the offices, but he refused, on the principle that a competent and honest office holder should not be removed because of his political opinions.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, Jefferson's win over the Federalist John Adams in the general election was derided in its time for how the electoral college was set up under the three-fifths compromise at the Constitutional convention.^ General condition of the Country at the time of Jefferson's election the Presidency.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ John Quincy Adams has stated that at that time the "Essex Junto" agreed upon a New England convention to consider the expediency of secession.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This committee was elected by ballot, on the following day, consisted of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jefferson owed part of his election to the South's inflated number of Electors due to slave-holdings, which meant that twelve of Jefferson's electoral votes—his margin of victory—were derived from citizenry who were denied the vote and their full humanity.^ When the electoral votes were Jefferson and Burr, it was found, had each received seventy-three votes; while Adams secured sixty-five and Pinckney sixty-four votes.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson was re-elected in 1804, by a vote of 162 to 14 for Pinckney, who carried only two States out of the seventeen.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The contest ended by Adams securing the Presidency by three votes (71 to 68) over Jefferson, who thus, acording to the usage of the time, became Vice-President.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[30][31] .After his election in 1800, Jefferson was derided as the "Negro President", with critics like the Mercury and New-England Palladium of Boston writing on January 20, 1801, that Jefferson had the gall to celebrate his election as a victory for democracy when he won "the temple of Liberty on the shoulders of slaves."^ General condition of the Country at the time of Jefferson's election the Presidency.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By this slender chance did republic escape a calamity, and secure the election of Jefferson for president with Burr for vice-president.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This measure might have been for an agricultural people, but it could not be borne by a commercial and manufacturing one, like New England, whose goods must find their market abroad.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[31][32]

Presidency 1801–1809

US $1 coin bearing full face engraving of Jefferson
Presidential Dollar of Thomas Jefferson
Jefferson repealed many federal taxes, and sought to rely mainly on customs revenue. .He pardoned people who had been imprisoned under the Alien and Sedition Acts, passed in John Adams' term, which Jefferson believed to be unconstitutional.^ A libertarian is a person who believes that no one has the right, under any circumstances, to initiate force against another human being, or to advocate or delegate its initiation.

^ This committee was elected by ballot, on the following day, consisted of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The occasion, fellow-citizens, requires some account of the lives and services of John Adams and Thomas Jefferson.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

He repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801 and removed many of Adams' "midnight judges" from office, which led to the Supreme Court deciding the important case of Marbury v. Madison. He began and won the First Barbary War (1801–1805), America's first significant overseas war, and established the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1802.
.In 1803, despite his misgivings about the constitutionality of Congress's power to buy land, Jefferson bought Louisiana from France, doubling the size of the United States.^ About the quote : Truman (1884-1972) was president of the United States.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The exciting canvas established one fact: there was no man in the United States so devotedly loved and so fiercely hated as Thomas Jefferson.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As It is, perhaps, not wonderful, that, when the constitution of the United States went first into operation, different opinions should be entertained as to the extent of the powers conferred by it.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.The land thus acquired amounts to 23 percent of the United States today.^ Today the only countries without strong multiparty political systems are the United States and a number of third world military dictatorships.

^ The treaty with the United States describes the land as said territory, with all its rights and appurtenances, as fully and in the same manner as have been acquired by the French Republic, in virtue of the above-mentioned treaty concluded with his Catholic Majesty."
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Today, we in "the land of the free" are taxed at about 50 percent when you add federal, state, and local taxes.

[33]
.In 1807 his former vice president, Aaron Burr, was tried for treason on Jefferson's order, but was acquitted.^ The Federal nominees were John Adams for president and Charles Cotesworth Pinckney for vice-president, while the Republican vote was divided between Jefferson and Aaron Burr.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By this slender chance did republic escape a calamity, and secure the election of Jefferson for president with Burr for vice-president.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were enacted when Jefferson was Vice President and the creation of the brilliant Alexander Hamilton, whose belief was in a monarchy rather than a republic.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the trial Chief Justice John Marshall subpoenaed Jefferson, who invoked executive privilege and claimed that as president he did not need to comply.^ As a president," writes the Dr. John Lord, “he is not to be compared with Washington for dignity, for wisdom, for consistency, or executive ability.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Federal nominees were John Adams for president and Charles Cotesworth Pinckney for vice-president, while the Republican vote was divided between Jefferson and Aaron Burr.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By this slender chance did republic escape a calamity, and secure the election of Jefferson for president with Burr for vice-president.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.When Marshall held that the Constitution did not provide the president with any exception to the duty to obey a court order, Jefferson backed down.^ By this slender chance did republic escape a calamity, and secure the election of Jefferson for president with Burr for vice-president.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All the Federalists voted for Burr with the single exception of Huger of South Carolina, not because of any love for Burr, but because he did not hate him as much as he did Jefferson.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This remark, I am aware, may supposed to have its exception in one measure, the alteration of the constitution as to the mode of choosing President; but it is true in its general application.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jefferson's reputation was damaged by the Embargo Act of 1807, which was ineffective and was repealed at the end of his second term.^ These unscrupulous acts occurred in Jefferson's second term; and, failing in his conspiracy, Burr deservedly brought upon himself national obloquy, as well as prosecution for treason, though nothing came of the latter.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Embargo Act was a grievous mistake of Jefferson, though its purpose was commendable.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the close of his second term in the Presidential chair (1809) Jefferson retired once more, and finally, to “Monticello," after over forty years of almost continuous public service.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1803, President Jefferson signed into law a bill that excluded blacks from carrying the U.S. mail.^ And in the Elementary bill they inserted a provision which completely defeated it, for they left it to the court of each county to determine for itself when this act should be carried into execution, within their county.

^ John Adams received 71 votes and Jefferson 68, which accordance with the law at that time made him vice-president.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

Historian John Hope Franklin called the signing "a gratuitous expression of distrust of free Negroes who had done nothing to merit it." [34]
.On March 3, 1807, Jefferson signed a bill making slave importation illegal in the United States.^ The exciting canvas established one fact: there was no man in the United States so devotedly loved and so fiercely hated as Thomas Jefferson.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Illegal aliens have always been a problem in the United States.

^ Adams and Mr. Jefferson, fellow-citizens, were successively presidents of the United States.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[35][36]

Administration, Cabinet and Supreme Court appointments 1801–1809

The Jefferson Cabinet
Office Name Term
President Thomas Jefferson 1801–1809
Vice President Aaron Burr 1801–1805
George Clinton 1805–1809
Secretary of State James Madison 1801–1809
Secretary of Treasury Samuel Dexter 1801
Albert Gallatin 1801–1809
Secretary of War Henry Dearborn 1801–1809
Attorney General Levi Lincoln, Sr. 1801–1804
John Breckinridge 1805–1806
Caesar A. Rodney 1807–1809
Secretary of the Navy Benjamin Stoddert 1801
Robert Smith 1801–1809

States admitted to the Union:
  • Ohio – March 1, 1803
Painting of Jefferson wearing fur collar by Rembrandt Peale, 1805
Painting of Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale (1805)

Father of a university

Also see: History of the University of Virginia
.After leaving the Presidency, Jefferson continued to be active in public affairs.^ At the close of his second term in the Presidential chair (1809) Jefferson retired once more, and finally, to “Monticello," after over forty years of almost continuous public service.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.He also became increasingly concerned with founding a new institution of higher learning, specifically one free of church influences where students could specialize in many new areas not offered at other universities.^ But if secondary sources are ignored, then one misses the chance of learning from what others have learned from the primary sources.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After reading the new TJED companion, I created a life learning plan for my children with my husband and found the process very instructive.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary was an establishment purely of the Church of England, the Visitors were required to be all of that Church; the Professors to subscribe it's 39 Articles, it's Students to learn it's Catechism, and one of its fundamental objects was declared to be to raise up Ministers for that church.

.Jefferson believed educating people was a good way to establish an organized society, and felt schools should be paid for by the general public, so less wealthy people could obtain student membership as well.^ We thought, that on this subject a systematical plan of general education should be proposed, and I was requested to undertake it.

^ They answered candidly that no funds could be obtained until the new government should get into action, and have time to make it's arrangements.

^ This would throw on wealth the education of the poor; and the justices, being generally of the more wealthy class, were unwilling to incur that burthen, and I believe it was not suffered to commence in a single county.

[37] A letter to Joseph Priestley, in January 1800, indicated that he had been planning the University for decades before its establishment.
.His dream was realized in 1819 with the founding of the University of Virginia.^ University of Virginia founded, of which Jefferson was Rector until his death.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Upon its opening in 1825, it was then the first university to offer a full slate of elective courses to its students.^ Without guidance, your student may choose another elective instead of seminary, or another course instead of an institute class.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

.One of the largest construction projects to that time in North America, it was notable for being centered about a library rather than a church.^ That being said, I am very passionate about TJE and if people ask me about homeschooling, I will likely tell them more about TJE than they really wanted to know.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While Jefferson was the author of the instrument, John Adams, more than any one man or half a dozen men brought about its adoption.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Accredited institutions are strictly prohibited from granting credit for such “life experience” greater than about one year of equivalent classroom work3.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

.No campus chapel was included in his original plans.^ The politicians who originally planned the system probably had no idea how it would turn out.

.Until his death, Jefferson invited students and faculty of the school to his home.^ University of Virginia founded, of which Jefferson was Rector until his death.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jefferson is widely recognized for his architectural planning of the University of Virginia grounds, an innovative design that is a powerful representation of his aspirations for both state sponsored education and an agrarian democracy in the new Republic.^ Washington had only a common school education, while Jefferson was a classical scholar and could express his thoughts in excellent Italian, Spanish and French, and both were masters of their temper.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Onward and upward was ever His interests were wide and intense, ranging from Anglo-Saxon roots to architectural designs, from fiddling to philosophy, from potatoes to politics, from rice to religion.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Jefferson was mentored from ages 19 to 23, as the author of An Evaluation of Thomas Jefferson Education stated.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

His educational idea of creating specialized units of learning is physically expressed in the configuration of his campus plan, which he called the "Academical Village." Individual academic units are expressed visually as distinct structures, represented by Pavilions, facing a grassy quadrangle, with each Pavilion housing classroom, faculty office, and homes. Though unique, each is visually equal in importance, and they are linked with a series of open air arcades that are the front facades of student accommodations. Gardens and vegetable plots are placed behind and surrounded by serpentine walls, affirming the importance of the agrarian lifestyle.
His highly ordered site plan establishes an ensemble of buildings surrounding a central rectangular quadrangle, named The Lawn, which is lined on either side with the academic teaching units and their linking arcades. The quad is enclosed at one end with the library, the repository of knowledge, at the head of the table. The remaining side opposite the library remained open-ended for future growth. .The lawn rises gradually as a series of stepped terraces, each a few feet higher than the last, rising up to the library set in the most prominent position at the top, while also suggesting that the Academical Village facilitates easier movement to the future.^ It is always easier to fight for ones principles than to live up to them.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It would be easier to subjugate the entire universe through force than the minds of a single village.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

Stylistically, Jefferson was a proponent of the Greek and Roman styles, which he believed to be most representative of American democracy by historical association. Each academic unit is designed with a two story temple front facing the quadrangle, while the library is modeled on the Roman Pantheon. .The ensemble of buildings surrounding the quad is an unmistakable architectural statement of the importance of secular public education, while the exclusion of religious structures reinforces the principle of separation of church and state.^ So starved for revenue are our states that they are all too willing to abdicate to the federal government their responsibilities for public education, criminal justice, employment, and environmental protection.

^ The principles of Thomas Jefferson Education are not a religious philosophy.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

The campus planning and architectural treatment remains today as a paradigm of building of structures to express intellectual ideas and aspirations. .A survey of members of the American Institute of Architects identified Jefferson's campus as the most significant work of architecture in America.^ He Thomas Jefferson was one of the members most welcome in that body.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Libertarians have quietly become America's best organized and most significant third party.

^ Madison was Jefferson's most intimate friend, and was a member of congress at the time the above entry was made Jan.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

The University was designed as the capstone of the educational system of Virginia. .In his vision, any citizen of the state could attend school with the sole criterion being ability.^ I approached GWC about being a host after traveling to California to attend a seminar because I felt that others in the Dallas area could benefit from having the seminars close by.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

Death

Obelisk at Thomas Jefferson's gravesite
Jefferson's gravesite
.Jefferson died on July 4, 1826, the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence.^ Horace Greeley in referring to the co-incidence, said there was as much probability of a bushel of type flung into the street arranging themselves so as to print the Declaration of Independence, as there was of Jefferson and Adams expiring on the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of that instrument; and yet one alternative of the contingency happened and the other never can happen.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A reverent hush fell upon country, at the thought of these two great men, one the author of the Declaration of Independence and the other the man who brought about its adoption, dying on the fiftieth anniversary of its signing, and many saw a sacred significance in the fact.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the year wore on, he expressed a wish to live until the fiftieth anniversary of the nation's independence, a wish that, as in the case of his distinguished contemporary, John Adams, was granted by the favor of Heaven, and he died on the 4th of July, mourned by the whole country.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.He died a few hours before John Adams, his compatriot in their quest for independence, then great political rival, and later friend and correspondent.^ As the year wore on, he expressed a wish to live until the fiftieth anniversary of the nation's independence, a wish that, as in the case of his distinguished contemporary, John Adams, was granted by the favor of Heaven, and he died on the 4th of July, mourned by the whole country.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Count de Vergennes had died a few days before the meeting of the Assembly, & the Count de Montmorin had been named Minister of foreign affairs in his place.

^ In the serene sunset of life, the "Sage of Monticello" peacefully passed away on the afternoon of July 4, 1826, and a few hours later, John Adams, at his home in Quincy, Mass., breathed his last.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

Adams is often rumored to have referenced Jefferson in his last words, unaware of his passing.[38]
.Although he was born into one of the wealthiest families in North America, Thomas Jefferson was deeply in debt when he died.^ Thomas Jefferson got one.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The exciting canvas established one fact: there was no man in the United States so devotedly loved and so fiercely hated as Thomas Jefferson.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An Evaluation of Thomas Jefferson Education 7 they arrived at GWC they thought that all the students would get one-on-one mentors.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

.Jefferson's trouble began when his father-in-law died, and he and his brothers-in-law quickly divided the estate before its debts were settled.^ The death of his father-in-law doubled Jefferson's estate, a year after his marriage.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His father, Peter Jefferson, was a planter, owning an estate of about 2,000 acres, cultivated, as was usual in Virginia, by slave labor.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His father died when his son was but fourteen, and to him he bequeathed the Roanoke River estate, afterwards rebuilt and christened “Monticello."
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.It made each of them liable for the whole amount due – which turned out to be more than they expected.^ You cannot keep out of trouble by spending more than you earn.

^ They don’t have the experience or knowledge of how homeschooling works, and they’re far more likely to hurt than help.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In all honesty, I’ve never been against my children returning to a more mainstream educational setting, after they turn 8.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

.Jefferson sold land before the American Revolution to pay off the debts, but by the time he received payment, the paper money was worthless amid the skyrocketing inflation of the war years.^ A liberal is someone who feels a great debt to his fellow man, which debt he proposes to pay off with your money.

^ Jefferson managed to pay off many of his small debts with his first year's salary as President.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The cession of the territory was contained in one paper, another fixed the amount to be paid and the mode of payment, a third arranged the method of settling the claims due to Americans.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Cornwallis ravaged Jefferson's plantation during the war, and British creditors resumed their collection efforts when the conflict ended.^ Jefferson, however, was not consistent with himself, for he frequently called General Washington "Your Excellency," during the war, and also when he was a private citizen at Mt.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

Jefferson suffered another financial setback when he cosigned notes for a relative who reneged on debts in the financial Panic of 1819. .Only Jefferson's public stature prevented creditors from seizing Monticello and selling it out from under him during his lifetime.^ ANECDOTES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF JEFFERSON. JEFFERSON'S BRIDAL JOURNEY. Jefferson and his young bride, after the marriage ceremony, set out for their Monticello home.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson was re-elected in 1804, by a vote of 162 to 14 for Pinckney, who carried only two States out of the seventeen.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the close of his second term in the Presidential chair (1809) Jefferson retired once more, and finally, to “Monticello," after over forty years of almost continuous public service.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

After his death, his possessions were sold at auction. .In 1831, Jefferson's 552 acres (223 hectares) were sold to James T. Barclay for $7,000, equivalent to $143 thousand today.^ His father, Peter Jefferson, was a planter, owning an estate of about 2,000 acres, cultivated, as was usual in Virginia, by slave labor.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[39] .Thomas Jefferson is buried on his Monticello estate, in Charlottesville, Virginia.^ His father, Peter Jefferson, was a planter, owning an estate of about 2,000 acres, cultivated, as was usual in Virginia, by slave labor.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson always relished the period of his brief retirements to his Virginia home, where he could enjoy his library, entertain his friends, and overlook his estates.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Jefferson (1743-1846), U.S. President, Notes on the State of Virginia, 1782 .

.In his will, he left Monticello to the United States to be used as a school for orphans of navy officers.^ With the public interests, the state of my mind concurred in recommending the change of scene proposed; and I accepted the appointment, and left Monticello on the 19th.

His epitaph, written by him with an insistence that only his words and "not a word more" be inscribed (notably omitting his service as Governor of Virginia, Vice-President and President), reads:
"HERE WAS BURIED THOMAS JEFFERSON
AUTHOR OF THE DECLARATION OF AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE
OF THE STATUTE OF VIRGINIA FOR RELIGIOUS FREEDOM
AND FATHER OF THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA."
Below the epitaph, on a separate panel, is written
BORN APRIL 2. 1743. O.S.
DIED JULY 4. 1826.
.The initials O.S. are a notation for Old Style and that is a reference to the change of dating that occurred during Jefferson's lifetime from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar under the British Calendar (New Style) Act 1750.^ Peace is a daily, a weekly, a monthly process, gradually changing opinions, slowly eroding old barriers, quietly building new structures.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the Embargo Act, the New England ships were rotting and It was not long before she became crumbling to pieces at her wharves.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[40]

Appearance and temperament

Jefferson was a thin, tall man, who stood at approximately six feet and remarkably straight.[41]
."The Sage of Monticello" cultivated an image that earned him the other nickname, "Man of the People."^ Can anything be more ridiculous than that a man has a right to kill me because he lives on the other side of the water, and because his ruler has quarrel with mine, although I have none with him?
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.He affected a popular air by greeting White House guests in homespun attire like a robe and slippers.^ He addressed friendly and affectionate letters to Kosciusko and others, and invited them to be his guests at the White House.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Dolley Madison, wife of James Madison (Jefferson's secretary of state), and Jefferson's daughters relaxed White House protocol and turned formal state dinners into more casual and entertaining social events.^ Madison came into the House in 1776.

^ Some two years after Jefferson's assumption of office, Ohio was admitted as a State into the Union.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Three of these men, who met together in that unpretentious inn, were Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and James Monroe (then President of the United States).
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[42] .Although a foremost defender of a free press, Jefferson at times sparred with partisan newspapers and appealed to the people.^ Paramount among the responsibilities of a free press is the duty to prevent any part of the government from deceiving the people...
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The structure of Jefferson’s education was entirely typical for his time and place (although he and Wythe did develop a close intellectual relationship which would be an ideal outcome of any educational system).
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

[43]
Jefferson's writings were utilitarian and evidenced great intellect, and he had an affinity with languages. He learned Gaelic to translate Ossian, and sent to James Macpherson for the originals.
.As President, he discontinued the practice of delivering the State of the Union address in person, instead sending the address to Congress in writing (the practice was eventually revived by Woodrow Wilson); he gave only two public speeches during his Presidency.^ Some two years after Jefferson's assumption of office, Ohio was admitted as a State into the Union.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That we are to stand by the president, right or wrong is not only unpatriotic and servile, but is morally treasonable to the American public.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I believe this, on the contrary, I believe it is the only one where man, at the call of the laws, would fly to the standard of the law, and would meet invasions of the public order as his own personal concern."
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

Jefferson had a lisp[44] and preferred writing to public speaking partly because of this. .He burned all of his letters between himself and his wife at her death, creating the portrait of a man who at times could be very private.^ It is more remarkable that its author should have lived to see fulfilled to the letter what could have seemed to others, at the time, but the extravagance of youthful fancy.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was so honest a man, & so able a one that he was greatly indulged even by those who could not feel his scruples.

^ But this repeal was strongly opposed by Mr. Pendleton, who was zealously attached to ancient establishments; and who, taken all in all, was the ablest man in debate I have ever met with.

Indeed, he preferred working in the privacy of his office than the public eye.[45]

Interests and activities

.Jefferson was an accomplished architect who was extremely influential in bringing the Neo-Palladian style—popular among the Whig aristocracy of Britain—to the United States.^ The exciting canvas established one fact: there was no man in the United States so devotedly loved and so fiercely hated as Thomas Jefferson.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Three of these men, who met together in that unpretentious inn, were Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and James Monroe (then President of the United States).
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The former wanted to style him 'His Highness, George Washington, President of the United States, and Protector of their Liberties.'
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

The style was associated with Enlightenment ideas of republican civic virtue and political liberty. .Jefferson designed his home Monticello near Charlottesville, Virginia.^ ANECDOTES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF JEFFERSON. JEFFERSON'S BRIDAL JOURNEY. Jefferson and his young bride, after the marriage ceremony, set out for their Monticello home.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson had completed his sixty-sixth year when he relinquished the presidency to his friend and pupil, James Madison, and retired to his loved Virginia home.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Monticello, the home of Jefferson, was blessed at every period of long life with a swarm of merry children whom, although not his own, he greatly loved.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Nearby is the University of Virginia, the only university ever to have been founded by a U.S. president.^ University of Virginia founded, of which Jefferson was Rector until his death.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ JEFFERSON AND THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA. In the epitaph of Jefferson, written by himself, there is no mention of his having been Governor of Virginia, Plenipotentiary to France, Secretary of State, Vice President and President of the United States.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

Jefferson designed the architecture of the first buildings as well as the original curriculum and residential style. .Monticello and the University of Virginia are together one of only four man-made World Heritage Sites in the United States of America.^ The exciting canvas established one fact: there was no man in the United States so devotedly loved and so fiercely hated as Thomas Jefferson.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Reviews Shared by: Zhan Guanghui Categories Tags Thomas Jefferson , the Declaration of Independence , the University of Virginia , United States , John Adams , president of the United States , the American , declaration of independence , author of the Declaration of Independenc...
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is hard to believe that the following proceedings took place within the present hundred years in the United States of America, and yet they did.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jefferson also designed Poplar Forest, near Lynchburg, in Bedford County, Virginia, as a private retreat from his very public life.^ He was very fond of the violin, as were a great many of the Virginia During twelve years of his life, he practiced on that instrument people.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When on March 4, 1809, Jefferson withdrew forever from public life, he was in danger of being arrested in Washington for debt.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "From the time of his final retirement from public life Mr. Jefferson lived as becomes a wise man.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jefferson contributed to the design of the Virginia State Capitol, which was modeled after the Maison Carrée, an ancient Roman temple at Nîmes in southern France.^ JEFFERSON AND THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA. In the epitaph of Jefferson, written by himself, there is no mention of his having been Governor of Virginia, Plenipotentiary to France, Secretary of State, Vice President and President of the United States.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Jefferson (1743-1846), U.S. President, Notes on the State of Virginia, 1782 .

Jefferson's buildings helped initiate the ensuing American fashion for Federal architecture.
.Jefferson invented many small practical devices, such as a rotating book stand and (in collaboration with Charles Wilson Peale) a number of improvements to the polygraph, a device that made a copy of a letter as he wrote the original.^ The book makes it sound like he invented the idea of a modern-day classical education, when in reality there are many before him along that road.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson managed to pay off many of his small debts with his first year's salary as President.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I recall thinking that the original book needed a good copy editor.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

[46] Monticello included automatic doors, the first swivel chair, and other convenient devices invented by Jefferson. His interest in mechanical drawing devices included the use of the physiognotrace. In 1802, Charles Willson Peale sent a watercolor sketch of this instrument to Thomas Jefferson,[47] along with a detailed explanation. The drawing now sits with the Jefferson Papers in the Library of Congress. .In 1804, Charles Fevret de Saint-Memin created an oval silhouette likeness of Jefferson using the physiognotrace, which became one of the best known likenesses of Jefferson in his day.^ This was not known until the next day, 12th when the whole ministry was changed, except Villedeuil, of the Domestic department, and Barenton, Garde des sceaux.

^ It is sobering to reflect that one of the best ways to get yourself a reputation as a dangerous citizen these days is to go about repeating the very phrases which our founding fathers used in the struggle for independence.

^ The signs of unanimity became unmistakable on the Second, and two days later, as every one knows.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[48]
Jefferson's interests included archeology, a discipline then in its infancy. He has sometimes been called the "father of archeology" in recognition of his role in developing excavation techniques. .When exploring an Indian burial mound on his Virginia estate in 1784, Jefferson avoided the common practice of simply digging downwards until something turned up.^ His father, Peter Jefferson, was a planter, owning an estate of about 2,000 acres, cultivated, as was usual in Virginia, by slave labor.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson always relished the period of his brief retirements to his Virginia home, where he could enjoy his library, entertain his friends, and overlook his estates.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1767, he led me into the practice of the law at the bar of the General court, at which I continued until the revolution shut up the courts of justice.

.Instead, he cut a wedge out of the mound so that he could walk into it, look at the layers of occupation, and draw conclusions from them.^ He could not make a His voice would sink downwards instead of rising upwards out of But as regards legal learning he was in the front rank.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I appreciate the concerns that have been raised but I would hope that they would not prevent someone from looking further into TJE to find out if it is for them or not.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A textbook that takes original sources and interprets those sources and draws conclusion for the reader is objectionable because it shuts down thinking instead of encouraging it.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

Thomas Jefferson enjoyed his fish pond at Monticello. It was about three feet (1 m) deep and mortar lined. He used the pond to keep fish which were recently caught as well as to keep eels fresh. Recently restored, the pond can be seen from the west side of Monticello.
In 1780, he joined Benjamin Franklin's American Philosophical Society. He served as president of the society from 1797 to 1815.
Jefferson was interested in birds. .His Notes on Virginia contains a list of the birds found in his home state, though there are "doubtless many others which have not yet been described and classed."^ There are many terrorist states in the world, but the United States is unusual in that it is officially committed to international terrorism.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In my own Branch there is only one other home schooling family and they Unschool.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The only way to protect their young children from this indoctrination is to either leave the state (and many are in fact doing that) or home schooling.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

He also comments that the drawings of Virginia birds by the English naturalist Mark Catesby "are better as to form and attitude, than colouring, which is generally too high."
Jefferson was an avid wine lover and collector, and a noted gourmet. .During his years in France (1784–1789), he took extensive trips through French and other European wine regions, and bought wine to send back to the United States.^ In the post now vacated by Franklin, Jefferson remained for five years, until the meeting of the French Estates-General and the outbreak of the Revolution against absolute monarchy and the theory of the State in France upon which it rested.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The situation was for a time so grave as to incite to war preparations in the United States, and to threatened naval demonstrations against France.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the United States is no longer, as it once was, a federal union of diverse states and regions.

.He is noted for the bold pronouncement: "We could in the United States make as great a variety of wines as are made in Europe, not exactly of the same kinds, but doubtless as good."^ The United States found herself hemmed in between the two professional belligerents of Europe—a perilous position for the young power.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Union was formed by the voluntary agreement of the States; and these, in uniting together, have not forfeited their Nationality, nor have they been reduced to the condition of one and the same people.

^ In England it was a great point gained at the Revolution, that the commissions of the judges, which had hitherto been during pleasure, should thenceforth be made during good behavior.

While there were extensive vineyards planted at Monticello, a significant portion were of the European wine grape Vitis vinifera and did not survive the many vine diseases native to the Americas.
.In 1801, he published A Manual of Parliamentary Practice that is still in use.^ What have you to say about Jefferson's "Manual of Parliamentary Practice?"
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He presided with dignity and great acceptability, and his "Manual of Parliamentary Practice" is still the accepted authority in nearly all of our deliberative bodies.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While presiding in this capacity over the deliberations of the senate, he compiled and published a Manual of Parliamentary Practice, a work of more labor and more merit than is indicated by its size.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1812, Jefferson published a second edition.^ I am fairly certain that the only change made in the second edition was the addition of the first chapter or two, not written when the first was published.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

.After the British burned Washington, D.C. and the Library of Congress in August 1814, Jefferson offered his own collection of books to the nation.^ Congress in 1814, paid him $23,000 for his library Some time afterward a neighbor obtained his name was not half its value.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ National uniformity is being imposed by the political class that runs Washington, the economic class that owns Wall Street and the cultural class in charge of Hollywood and the Ivy League.

^ DeMille is the author of 3 books and numerous articles, including: Mexico and World Government, Germany and the European Community, Thomas Jefferson Education and “Rethinking National Security”.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

In January 1815, Congress accepted his offer, appropriating $23,950 for his 6,487 books. The foundation was laid for a great national library. .Today, the Library of Congress' website for federal legislative information is named THOMAS, in honor of Jefferson.^ 'My name is Thomas Jefferson.'
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are many good sources of information that promote Thomas Jefferson Education1.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To increase your understanding of the 5 Environments, read A Thomas Jefferson Education, or see our website for a seminar near you.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

[49] In 2007, Jefferson's two-volume 1764 edition of the Qur'an was used by Rep. Keith Ellison for his swearing in to the House of Representatives.[50]

Political philosophy and views

Jefferson's 1818 letter to Mordecai Manuel Noah
In his May 28, 1818, letter to Mordecai Manuel Noah, Jefferson expressed his faith in humanity and his views on the nature of democracy.
.Jefferson was a leader in developing republicanism in the United States.^ The exciting canvas established one fact: there was no man in the United States so devotedly loved and so fiercely hated as Thomas Jefferson.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Adams and Mr. Jefferson, fellow-citizens, were successively presidents of the United States.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Three of these men, who met together in that unpretentious inn, were Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and James Monroe (then President of the United States).
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

He insisted that the British aristocratic system was inherently corrupt and that Americans' devotion to civic virtue required independence. In the 1790s he repeatedly warned that Hamilton and Adams were trying to impose a British-like monarchical system that threatened republicanism. He supported the War of 1812, hoping it would drive away the British military and ideological threat from Canada.
.Jefferson's vision for American virtue was that of an agricultural nation of yeoman farmers minding their own affairs.^ In Jefferson's own mind, just what was the essence of his political gospel we ascertain from a succinct yet comprehensive passage in his able First Inaugural Address.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.His agrarianism stood in contrast to the vision of Alexander Hamilton, who envisioned a nation of commerce and manufacturing, which Jefferson said offered too many temptations to corruption.^ The administrations of Jefferson were marked not only by many important national events, but were accompanied by great changes in the people themselves.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were enacted when Jefferson was Vice President and the creation of the brilliant Alexander Hamilton, whose belief was in a monarchy rather than a republic.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There once was a man from Nantucket, Who wanted to sell me a bucket, But he could not, because, There were too many laws, So he threw up his hands and said, "Vote Libertarian!"

Jefferson's deep belief in the uniqueness and the potential of America made him the father of American exceptionalism. In particular, he was confident that an underpopulated America could avoid what he considered the horrors of class-divided, industrialized Europe.
.Jefferson's republican political principles were heavily influenced by the Country Party of eighteenth century British opposition writers.^ The Federalists had controlled the national government for twelve years, or ever since its organization, and they were determined to prevent the elevation of Jefferson, the founder of the new Republican party.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson was the founder and head of the new order of things, and of the republican party, soon to take the name of democratic, which controlled all the country with the exception of New England.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

He was influenced by John Locke (particularly relating to the principle of inalienable rights). Historians find few traces of any influence by his French contemporary, Jean-Jacques Rousseau.[51]

Jefferson's views of banks and bankers

His opposition to the Bank of the United States was fierce: "I sincerely believe, with you, that banking establishments are more dangerous than standing armies; and that the principle of spending money to be paid by posterity, under the name of funding, is but swindling futurity on a large scale."[52] Nevertheless Madison and Congress, seeing the financial chaos caused by the War of 1812, disregarded his advice and created the Second Bank of the United States in 1816.
.Jefferson wrote numerous letters to colleagues where he often defined his views about banking.^ Summary of Our View Our misgivings about Thomas Jefferson Education and George Wythe College fall into three main categories: .
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

Among the most definitive is his letter of May 28, 1816, to John Tyler Excerpt:
"... The system of banking we have both equally and ever reprobated . I contemplate it as a blot left in all our constitutions, which, if not covered, will end in their destruction, which is already hit by the gamblers in corruption, and is sweeping away in its progress the fortunes and morals of our citizens. ..."[53]

Individual Rights

.Jefferson believed that each individual has "certain inalienable rights."^ I believe that every individual is naturally entitled to do as he pleases with himself and the fruits of his labor, so far as it in no way interferes with any other men's rights.

.That is, these rights exist with or without government; man cannot create, take, or give them away.^ Remember that a government big enough to give you everything you want is also big enough to take away everything you have.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Protecting the rights of even the least individual among us is basically the only excuse the government has for even existing.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He had repaired thence to London, without returning to the Hague to take leave of that government.

It is the right of "liberty" on which Jefferson is most notable for expounding. .He defines it by saying, "Rightful liberty is unobstructed action according to our will within limits drawn around us by the equal rights of others.^ Rightful liberty is unobstructed action according to our will within limits drawn around us by the equal rights of others.

^ We combat the materialistic spirit within and without us, and are convinced that a permanent recovery of our people can only proceed from within on the foundation of the common good before the individual good.

^ Whether he chooses or not, every man is drawn into the greatest historical struggle, the decisive battle into which our epoch has plunged us.

.I do not add 'within the limits of the law,' because law is often but the tyrant's will, and always so when it violates the rights of the individual."^ I do not add "within the law," because law is often but the tyrant's will, and always so when it violates the rights of the individual.

^ All initiation of force is a violation of someone else's rights, whether initiated by an individual or the state, for the benefit of an individual or group of individuals, even if it's supposed to be for the benefit of another individual or group of individuals.

^ Rightful liberty is unobstructed action according to our will within limits drawn around us by the equal rights of others.

[54] .Hence, for Jefferson, though government cannot create a right to liberty, it can indeed violate it.^ But I agree with the Delcaration of Independence, which says that the government's job is to secure our rights (our inalienable rights, among which are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness).

^ And liberty cannot be preserved without a general knowledge among the people, who have a right, from the frame of their nature, to knowledge, as their great Creator, who does nothing in vain, has given them understandings and a desire to know.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

.The limit of an individual's rightful liberty is not what law says it is but is simply a matter of stopping short of prohibiting other individuals from having the same liberty.^ Each and every time someone says "there ought to be a law" they are saying that men with guns should enforce their will on innocent others.

^ But I agree with the Delcaration of Independence, which says that the government's job is to secure our rights (our inalienable rights, among which are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness).

^ Third, we say it is really a matter of no importance either one way or the other.

.A proper government, for Jefferson, is one that not only prohibits individuals in society from infringing on the liberty of other individuals, but also restrains itself from diminishing individual liberty.^ The only proper purpose of a government is to protect man's rights, which means: to protect him from physical violence.

^ Humanity is quite a unique species, since it is the only one with the means to wipe itself out.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Government is like a baby's alimentary canal, with a happy appetite at one end and no responsibility at the other.

.Jefferson's commitment to equality was expressed in his successful efforts to abolish primogeniture in Virginia, the rule by which the first born son inherited all the land.^ And with respect to the first, I proposed to abolish the law of primogeniture, and to make real estate descendible in parcenary to the next of kin, as personal property is by the statute of distribution.

^ If in other lands the press and books and literature of all kinds are censored, we must redouble our efforts here to keep them free.

^ The abolition of primogeniture, and equal partition of inheritances removed the feudal and unnatural distinctions which made one member of every family rich, and all the rest poor, substituting equal partition, the best of all Agrarian laws.

[55]
.Jefferson believed that individuals have an innate sense of morality that prescribes right from wrong when dealing with other individuals—that whether they choose to restrain themselves or not, they have an innate sense of the natural rights of others.^ That we are to stand by the president, right or wrong is not only unpatriotic and servile, but is morally treasonable to the American public.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I hope....that mankind will at length, as they call themselves responsible creatures, have the reason and sense enough to settle their differences without cutting throats...
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is nothing politically right that is morally wrong.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.He even believed that moral sense to be reliable enough that an anarchist society could function well, provided that it was reasonably small.^ I hope....that mankind will at length, as they call themselves responsible creatures, have the reason and sense enough to settle their differences without cutting throats...
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have no reason to believe this student would not tell the truth and we deem it to be a reliable report.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Reading commentaries of, connections drawn from, and explications of, wrestles with, those writings is valuable as well and provides even greater depth of insight.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

On several occasions, he expressed admiration for the tribal, communal way of living of Native Americans:[56] Jefferson is sometimes seen as a philosophical anarchist.[57]
.He said in a letter to Colonel Carrington: "I am convinced that those societies (as the Indians) which live without government, enjoy in their general mass an infinitely greater degree of happiness than those who live under the European governments."^ I predict future happiness for Americans if they can prevent the government from wasting the labors of the people under the pretense of taking care of them.

^ If people let government decide what foods they eat and what medicines they take, their bodies will soon be in as sorry a state as are the souls of those who live under tyranny.

^ Those (who) seek to establish systems of Government based on the regimentation of all Human Beings by a handful of individual rulers...call this a new order.

.However, Jefferson believed anarchism to be "inconsistent with any great degree of population."^ However, Thomas Jefferson was an > adult with a college degree when he was mentored by Wythe.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Thomas Jefferson was an adult with a college degree when he was mentored by Wythe.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

[58] Hence, he did advocate government for the American expanse provided that it exists by "consent of the governed."
In the Preamble to his original draft of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson wrote:
.We hold these truths to be sacred & undeniable; that all men are created equal & independent, that from that equal creation they derive rights inherent & inalienable, among which are the preservation of life, & liberty, & the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these ends, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any form of government shall become destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, & to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles & organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety & happiness.^ When the government fears the people, it is liberty.

^ The truth is that all men having power ought to be mistrusted.

^ The purpose of government is to rein in the rights of the people.

[59]
.Jefferson's dedication to "consent of the governed" was so thorough that he believed that individuals could not be morally bound by the actions of preceding generations.^ They answered candidly that no funds could be obtained until the new government should get into action, and have time to make it's arrangements.

^ I sincerely, then, believe with you in the general existence of a moral instinct.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ [Statists] believe that government should make decisions for individuals.

This included debts as well as law. .He said that "no society can make a perpetual constitution or even a perpetual law.^ We are not alike and no law can make us so.

^ Our Constitution is not a body of law to govern the people; it was formulated to govern the government, to make government the servant and not the master of the people.

^ When it dies there, no constitution, no law, no court can save it.

The earth belongs always to the living generation." .He even calculated what he believed to be the proper cycle of legal revolution: "Every constitution then, and every law, naturally expires at the end of nineteen years.^ The proper direction of man's thought is not toward the creation of new laws for government, but toward the acceptance of every person's moral dignity.

^ I believe it is the only one where every man, at the call of the law, would fly to the standard of the law; would meet invasions of public order as his own personal concern.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I believe that every individual is naturally entitled to do as he pleases with himself and the fruits of his labor, so far as it in no way interferes with any other men's rights.

If it is to be enforced longer, it is an act of force, and not of right." .He arrived at nineteen years through calculations with expectancy of life tables, taking into account what he believed to be the age of "maturity"—when an individual is able to reason for himself.^ We have, indeed, the tomb close, but it has closed only over mature years, over longprotracted public service, over the weakness of age, and over life itself only when the ends of living had been fulfilled.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It has been said too that in carrying slaves into the estimate of the taxes the state is to pay, we do no more than those states themselves do, who alwais take slaves into the estimate of the taxes the individual is to pay.

^ I believe that every individual is naturally entitled to do as he pleases with himself and the fruits of his labor, so far as it in no way interferes with any other men's rights.

[60] He also advocated that the national debt should be eliminated. He did not believe that living individuals had a moral obligation to repay the debts of previous generations. He said that repaying such debts was "a question of generosity and not of right."[61]

State's Rights

.Jefferson's very strong defense of States' rights, especially in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798, set the tone for hostility to expansion of federal powers.^ Fundamentally, federalism means states rights.

^ In the United States we have, in effect, two governments We have the duly constituted Government Then we have an independent, uncontrolled and uncoordinated government in the Federal Reserve System, operating the money powers which are reserved to Congress by the Constitution.

^ That had he lived in a state where the representation, originally equal, had become unequal by time & accident he might have submitted rather than disturb government; but that we should be very wrong to set out in this practice when it is in our power to establish what is right.

.However, some of his foreign policies did strengthen the government.^ Always there has been some terrible evil at home or some monstrous foreign power that was going to gobble us up if we did not blindly rally behind it.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.Most important was the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, when he used the implied powers to annex a huge foreign territory and all its French and Indian inhabitants.^ Entering with all his heart into the cause of liberty, his ability, patriotism, and power with the pen, naturally drew upon him a large participation in the most important concerns.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The purchase was, in fact, within those implied powers of the Constitution which had always been contended for by the Federalists, and such leaders as Hamilton and Morris acknowledged this.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Louisiana with an area exceeding all the rest of the United States, was bought from France in 1803, for $15,000,000, and from the territory were afterward carved the states of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, the Dakotas, Montana, Oklahoma, the Indian Territory and most of the states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Colorado and Wyoming.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

The population was estimated to be 97,000 as of the 1810 census.[62] .His enforcement of the Embargo Act of 1807, while it failed in terms of foreign policy, demonstrated that the federal government could intervene with great force at the local level in controlling trade that might lead to war.^ I believe the states can best govern our home concerns and the federal government our foreign ones.

^ Could it be so might it please God, he would desire once more to see the sun, once more to look abroad on the scene around him on the great day of liberty.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I expect to see trade wars, foreign policy disasters, a few race riots, a decrease in personal liberty, higher taxes, higher inflation and probably, economic collapse.

Carrying of arms

.Jefferson's commitment to liberty extended to many areas of individual freedom.^ The American heritage was one of individual liberty, personal responsibility and freedom from government Unfortunately that heritage has been lost.

In his "commonplace book," he copied a passage from Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria related to the issue of gun control. .The quote reads, "Laws that forbid the carrying of arms ...^ Laws that forbid the carrying of arms, disarm only those who are neither inclined, nor determined to commit crimes.

disarm only those who are neither inclined nor determined to commit crimes ... .Such laws make things worse for the assaulted and better for the assailants; they serve rather to encourage than to prevent homicides, for an unarmed man may be attacked with greater confidence than an armed man."^ Such laws make things worse for the assaulted and better for the assailants.

^ Instead, they make it worse.

^ They serve rather to encourage than to prevent homicides, for an unarmed man may be attacked with greater confidence than an armed man.

[63][64][65]

Corporations

Jefferson in 1816 wrote to George Logan,
In this respect England exhibits the most remarkable phenomenon in the universe in the contrast between the profligacy of it's government and the probity of it's citizens. And accordingly it is now exhibiting an example of the truth of the maxim that virtue & interest are inseparable. It ends, as might have been expected, in the ruin of it's people, but this ruin will fall heaviest, as it ought to fall on that hereditary aristocracy which has for generations been preparing the catastrophe. .I hope we shall take warning from the example and crush in it's birth the aristocracy of our monied corporations which dare already to challenge our government to a trial of strength and bid defiance to the laws of our country.^ Patriotism means loving our country, not the government.

^ Is any man so weak as now to hope for reconciliation with England, which shall leave either safety to the country and its liberties, or safety to his own life and his own honor?
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Our Constitution is not a body of law to govern the people; it was formulated to govern the government, to make government the servant and not the master of the people.

[66]

Judiciary

Trained as a lawyer, Jefferson was a gifted writer but never a good speaker or advocate and never comfortable in court. He believed that judges should be technical specialists but should not set policy. He denounced the 1803 Supreme Court ruling in Marbury v. Madison as a violation of democracy, but he did not have enough support in Congress to propose a Constitutional amendment to overturn it. He continued to oppose the doctrine of judicial review:
.To consider the judges as the ultimate arbiters of all constitutional questions [is] a very dangerous doctrine indeed, and one which would place us under the despotism of an oligarchy.^ I’m thrilled to have it all in one place.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is nothing new in the realization that the Constitution sometimes insulates the criminality of a few in order to protect the privacy of us all.

^ 'I do, sir, indeed, very much; it is certainly one of the greatest improvements in the construction of saw mills I ever witnessed.'
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

Our judges are as honest as other men and not more so. .They have with others the same passions for party, for power, and the privilege of their corps.^ They're courting disaster by encouraging others to use this same means to eliminate portions of the Constitution they don't like.

.Their maxim is boni judicis est ampliare jurisdictionem [good justice is broad jurisdiction], and their power the more dangerous as they are in office for life and not responsible, as the other functionaries are, to the elective control.^ The greater the power, the more dangerous the abuse.

^ I strongly encourage others to read the book as well as attend seminars because of the impact that they have had on my life.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The broad masses of a population are more amenable to the appeal of rhetoric than to any other force.

.The Constitution has erected no such single tribunal, knowing that to whatever hands confided, with the corruptions of time and party, its members would become despots.^ Neither of them of the assembly of great men which formed the present constitution, and neither was at any time member of congress under its provisions.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We know his He would commence with his "'Sink or swim, live or die, survive or perish, I give my hand and my heart to this vote.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The described behavior was so outlandish we have difficulty believing that any member acting as a representative of the Church would do such a thing.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

It has more wisely made all the departments co-equal and co-sovereign within themselves.[67]

Rebellion to restrain government and retain individual rights

.After the Revolutionary War, Jefferson advocated restraining government via rebellion and violence when necessary, in order to protect individual freedoms.^ The only proper purpose of a government is to protect man's rights, which means: to protect him from physical violence.

^ Government seems to operate on the principle that if even one individual is incapable of using his freedom competently, no one can be allowed to be free.

^ Protecting the rights of even the least individual among us is basically the only excuse the government has for even existing.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.In a letter to James Madison on January 30, 1787, Jefferson wrote, "A little rebellion, now and then, is a good thing, and as necessary in the political world as storms in the physical…It is a medicine necessary for the sound health of government."^ I like a little rebellion now and then.

^ The government is good at one thing.

^ I hold it, that a little rebellion, now and then, is a good thing, and as necessary in the political world as storms in the physical.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[68] .Similarly, in a letter to Abigail Adams on February 22, 1787 he wrote, "The spirit of resistance to government is so valuable on certain occasions that I wish it to be always kept alive.^ Thomas Jefferson (1743-1846), U.S. President, Letter to Abigail Adams, 22 February 1787 .

^ The spirit of resistance to government is so valuable on certain occasions, that I wish it to be always kept alive.

^ He was often more of a He reminds us of the words which 'For a wise man he Burke applied on a certain occasion to Chatham: seemed to me at that time to be governed too much by general maxims.'
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.It will often be exercised when wrong, but better so than not to be exercised at all."^ Wars of aggression are the most barbarous of all human endeavors and are, more often than not, the instruments of insane tyrants who hear voices.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I think I probably have a better handle on “the experience of most homeschoolers” than you do, but please clarify your associations with them if I’m wrong.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

[68] Concerning Shays' Rebellion after he had heard of the bloodshed, on November 13, 1787 Jefferson wrote to William S. Smith, John Adams' son-in-law, ".What signify a few lives lost in a century or two?^ What signify a few lives lost in a century or two?
  • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Jefferson - LoveToKnow 1911 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Jefferson 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC home.att.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Quotes from the Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.dojgov.net [Source type: Original source]

^ American has been on the verge of its own social destruction for the past two centuries where we have lost all since of human responsibility and decency in the country.
  • Thomas Jefferson at allvoices.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.allvoices.com [Source type: General]

^ Concerning the Shays' Rebellion after he had heard of the bloodshed, Jefferson wrote to William S. Smith , John Adams's son-in-law, "What signify a few lives lost in a century or two?
  • Sixth Grade Wiki / thomas jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC iwarner.pbworks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The tree of liberty must from time to time be refreshed with the blood of patriots and tyrants.^ The ground of liberty is to be gained by inches, and we must be contented to secure what we can get from time to time and eternally press forward for what is yet to get.

It is its natural manure."[69] .In another letter to William S. Smith during 1787, Jefferson wrote: And what country can preserve its liberties, if the rulers are not warned from time to time, that this people preserve the spirit of resistance?^ Thomas Jefferson (1743-1846), U.S. President, Letter to Abigail Adams, 22 February 1787 .

^ General condition of the Country at the time of Jefferson's election the Presidency.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Every time that we try to lift a problem from our own shoulders, and shift that problem to the hands of the government, to the same extent we are sacrificing the liberties of our people.

Let them take arms.
[68]

Self-esteem

.In a letter to Francis Hopkinson of March 13, 1789, Jefferson wrote: "I never had an opinion in politics or religion which I was afraid to own.^ I never consider a difference of opinion in politics, in religion, in philosophy, as cause for withdrawing from a friend.

^ Yet we should do Jefferson the to add that political differences of opinion never blinded him to the transcendent qualities of Washington's character, which he had known long and intimately enough to appreciate with its possible limitations, which is the best appreciation of all.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Jefferson's own mind, just what was the essence of his political gospel we ascertain from a succinct yet comprehensive passage in his able First Inaugural Address.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.A costive reserve on these subjects might have procured me more esteem from some people, but less from myself."^ Nothing is more certainly written in the book of fate than that these people (the slaves) are to be free.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of these points are ad hominem conclusions about the people involved rather than their ideas.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So, for some people, their child is the one who might save the world.” .
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

[70]

Women in politics

.Jefferson was not an advocate of women's suffrage; author Richard Morris wrote, "Abigail Adams excepted, Jefferson detested intellectual women.^ Thomas Jefferson (1743-1846), U.S. President, Letter to Abigail Adams, 22 February 1787 .

^ The author of the article An Evaluation of Thomas Jefferson Education wrote that “.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

.Annoyed by the political chatter of women in Parisian salons, he wrote home expressing the hope that 'our good ladies ...^ We have seen some good ideas that we have used in our home in the TJEd material and from other parents using TJEd methods.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

are contented to soothe and calm the minds of their husbands returning ruffled from political debate.'" While President, Jefferson wrote that "The appointment of a woman to office is an innovation for which the public is not prepared, nor am I."[71]

Religion

.The religious views of Thomas Jefferson diverged widely from the orthodox Christianity of his day.^ The principles of Thomas Jefferson Education are not a religious philosophy.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An Evaluation of Thomas Jefferson Education 5 want to study algebra, the parent should be doing algebra problems themselves for an hour a day until the child follows their example.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Summary of Our View Our misgivings about Thomas Jefferson Education and George Wythe College fall into three main categories: .
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

.Throughout his life Jefferson was intensely interested in theology, biblical study, and morality.^ An Evaluation of Thomas Jefferson Education 8 psychology and biblical studies from Coral Ridge Baptist University in Utah.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

[72] He is most closely connected with the Episcopal Church, the religious philosophy of Deism, and Unitarianism. .He is reported to have said, "Question with boldness even the existence of a God; because, if there be one, he must more approve of the homage of reason, than that of blind-folded fear."^ There is nothing more frightening than active ignorance.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If there is no sufficient reason for war, the war party will make war on one pretext, then invent another.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While Jefferson was the author of the instrument, John Adams, more than any one man or half a dozen men brought about its adoption.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

Native American policy

.Jefferson was the first President to propose the idea of a formal Indian Removal plan.^ THE TERM OF THE PRESIDENCY. Mr. Jefferson was inclined at first to have the President elected for seven years, and be thereafter ineligible.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President Jefferson Davis' first address to the Confederate Congress .

^ Jefferson managed to pay off many of his small debts with his first year's salary as President.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[73][74]
.Andrew Jackson is often erroneously credited with initiating Indian Removal, because Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830, during his presidency, and also because of his personal involvement in the forceful extermination and removal of many Eastern tribes.^ Early in 1809, congress passed an act allowing the use of the army and navy to enforce the embargo and make seizures.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But bad as it was, the Alien act, which congress passed at the same session, 1798, was ten fold worse.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It will be noted that this law precluded all free discussion of an act of congress, or the conduct of the president.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[73] .But Jackson was merely legalizing and implementing a plan laid out by Jefferson in a series of private letters that began in 1803 (for example, see letter to William Henry Harrison below).^ I'd like to see the government get out of war altogether and leave the whole field to private individuals.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[73]
.Jefferson's first promotions of Indian Removal were between 1776 and 1779, when he recommended forcing the Cherokee and Shawnee tribes to be driven out of their ancestral homelands to lands west of the Mississippi River.^ With the settlement of the western country, the Mississippi river assumed its normal function in the national development, forming out of that region the backbone of the Union.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[73]
.His first such act as president, was to make a deal with the state of Georgia that if Georgia were to release its legal claims to discovery in lands to the west, then the U.S. military would help forcefully expel the Cherokee people from Georgia.^ In particular, a wider cross-section of user experiences would be helpful before making such a value judgment.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hostile acts on her part were continued to such an extent that a declaration of war on the part of this country would have been justified.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The President was, however, sustained in his act, not only by the Senate, which ratified the purchase, but by the hearty approval and acclaim of the people.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the time, the Cherokee had a treaty with the United States government which guaranteed them the right to their lands, which was violated in Jefferson's deal with Georgia.^ The exciting canvas established one fact: there was no man in the United States so devotedly loved and so fiercely hated as Thomas Jefferson.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The economic miracle that has been the United States was not produced by socialized enterprises, by government-unon-industry cartels or by centralized economic planning.

^ The situation was for a time so grave as to incite to war preparations in the United States, and to threatened naval demonstrations against France.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[73]

Acculturation and assimilation

.Jefferson's original plan was for Natives to give up their own cultures, religions, and lifestyles in favor of western European culture, Christian religion, and a sedentary agricultural lifestyle.^ European complications, however, worked in favor of this Ere Monroe arrived at his country more than did our own efforts.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[73][74]
.Jefferson's expectation was that by assimilating them into an agricultural lifestyle and stripping them of self-sufficiency, they would become economically dependent on trade with white Americans, and would thereby be willing to give up land that they would otherwise not part with, in exchange for trade goods or to resolve unpaid debts.^ I appreciate the concerns that have been raised but I would hope that they would not prevent someone from looking further into TJE to find out if it is for them or not.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So what guidance can you offer parents who are willing to invest the time and resources into home schooling but need some help so they are not making it up as they go along?
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The purpose of this paper is to give the other side of the story, the part that one would not hear from the promoters.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

[75] In an 1803 letter to William Henry Harrison, Jefferson wrote:
To promote this disposition to exchange lands, which they have to spare and we want, for necessaries, which we have to spare and they want, we shall push our trading uses, and be glad to see the good and influential individuals among them run in debt, because we observe that when these debts get beyond what the individuals can pay, they become willing to lop them off by a cession of lands.... In this way our settlements will gradually circumscribe and approach the Indians, and they will in time either incorporate with us a citizens or the United States, or remove beyond the Mississippi. The former is certainly the termination of their history most happy for themselves; but, in the whole course of this, it is essential to cultivate their love. As to their fear, we presume that our strength and their weakness is now so visible that they must see we have only to shut our hand to crush them, and that all our liberalities to them proceed from motives of pure humanity only. Should any tribe be foolhardy enough to take up the hatchet at any time, the seizing the whole country of that tribe, and driving them across the Mississippi, as the only condition of peace, would be an example to others, and a furtherance of our final consolidation.[75]

Forced removal and extermination

.In cases where Native tribes resisted assimilation, Jefferson believed that they should be forcefully removed from their land and sent west.^ Although no sculptured marble should rise to memory, nor engraved stone bear record of their deeds, yet will their remembrance be as lasting as the land they honored.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[73] .Tribes that joined the British in the War of 1812 and massacred American settlements had to be fought against.^ Strike against war, for without you no battles can be fought!
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

As Jefferson put it in a letter to Alexander von Humboldt in 1813:
You know, my friend, the benevolent plan we were pursuing here for the happiness of the aboriginal inhabitants in our vicinities. We spared nothing to keep them at peace with one another. To teach them agriculture and the rudiments of the most necessary arts, and to encourage industry by establishing among them separate property. In this way they would have been enabled to subsist and multiply on a moderate scale of landed possession. They would have mixed their blood with ours, and been amalgamated and identified with us within no distant period of time. On the commencement of our present war, we pressed on them the observance of peace and neutrality, but the interested and unprincipled policy of England has defeated all our labors for the salvation of these unfortunate people. They have seduced the greater part of the tribes within our neighborhood, to take up the hatchet against us, and the cruel massacres they have committed on the women and children of our frontiers taken by surprise, will oblige us now to pursue them to extermination, or drive them to new seats beyond our reach.[76]
Jefferson believed assimilation was best for Indians; second best was removal to the west. The worst possible outcome would happen if Indians attacked the whites.[77] He told his Secretary of War, General Henry Dearborn (who was the primary government official responsible for Indian affairs): "if we are constrained to lift the hatchet against any tribe, we will never lay it down until that tribe is exterminated, or driven beyond the Mississipi."[78]
Jefferson portrayed
on the U.S. Nickel

On slavery

Jefferson's face in profile, US nickel, 1938–2004
1938–2004
Jefferson's face in close profile, US nickel, 2005
2005
Jefferson's face, US nickel, 2006–present
2006–present
.Jefferson was an outspoken abolitionist, but he owned many slaves over his lifetime.^ His father, Peter Jefferson, was a planter, owning an estate of about 2,000 acres, cultivated, as was usual in Virginia, by slave labor.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although these facts seem baffling, biographers point out that Jefferson was deeply in debt and had encumbered his slaves by notes and mortgages; he could not free them until he was free of debt, which never happened.^ Nothing is more certainly written in the book of fate than that these people (the slaves) are to be free.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Way back, Jami gave me a link to one of TJE’s books, pointing out that I could search inside on the Amazon site.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

[79] .As a result, Jefferson seems to have suffered pangs and trials of conscience.^ Paine Thomas was suffering almost the pangs of starvation in Paris, and Jefferson paid his passage home.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.His ambivalence was also reflected in his treatment of those slaves who worked most closely with him and his family at Monticello and in other locations.^ And from the inclusion of Vanity Fair and the typo on the Durant title, I would suggest that the list may have been compiled by someone who has not read most of the works in question.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The man who asks of freedom anything other than itself is born to be a slave.

^ I’m sure that parents who are dedicated can make the principles of TJE work for their families in terms of academic success; there seems to be anecdotal evidence for that.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

.He invested in having them trained and schooled in high quality skills.^ But we affirm that the quality of many non accredited schools is as high as many accredited schools.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Having graduated with nearly straight A’s from both high school and a respected university, I faced a dilemma.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

[80] .He wrote about slavery, "We have the wolf by the ears; and we can neither hold him, nor safely let him go.^ The gentle government that promises to hold your hand as you cross the street refuses to let go on the other side.

Justice is in one scale, and self-preservation in the other."[81]
During his long career in public office, Jefferson tried many times to abolish or limit the advance of slavery. He sponsored and encouraged Free-State advocates like James Lemen.[82] .According to a biographer, Jefferson "believed that it was the responsibility of the state and society to free all slaves."^ NEGRO COLONIZATION. Mr. Jefferson believed in the colonization of negroes to Africa, and the substitution of free white labor in their place.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The essential psychological requirement of a free society is the willingness on the part of the individual to accept responsibility for his life.

^ At the heart of western freedom and democracy is the belief that the individual man is the touchstone of value, and all society, groups, the state, exist for his benefit.

[83] In 1769, as a member of the House of Burgesses, Jefferson proposed for that body to emancipate slaves in Virginia, but he was unsuccessful.[84] In his first draft of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson condemned the British crown for sponsoring the importation of slavery to the colonies, charging that the crown "has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most sacred rights of life and liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating & carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere." However, this language was dropped from the Declaration at the request of delegates from South Carolina and Georgia.
In 1778 the legislature passed a bill he proposed to ban further importation of slaves into Virginia; although this did not bring complete emancipation, in his words, it "stopped the increase of the evil by importation, leaving to future efforts its final eradication." In 1784 his draft of what became the Northwest Ordinance stipulated that "there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude" in any of the new states admitted to the Union from the Northwest Territory.[85] In 1807, as President, he signed a bill abolishing the slave trade.
Jefferson attacked the institution of slavery in his Notes on the State of Virginia (1784):
.There must doubtless be an unhappy influence on the manners of our people produced by the existence of slavery among us.^ There is no "slippery slope" toward loss of liberty, only a long staircase where each step down must first be tolerated by the American people and their leaders.

^ It is well enough that people of the nation do not understand our banking and monetary system, for if they did, I believe there would be a revolution before tomorrow morning.

^ We combat the materialistic spirit within and without us, and are convinced that a permanent recovery of our people can only proceed from within on the foundation of the common good before the individual good.

.The whole commerce between master and slave is a perpetual exercise of the most boisterous passions, the most unremitting despotism on the one part, and degrading submissions on the other.^ Our commerce increased enormously, for the leading nations of Europe were warring with one another; money came in fast and most of the national debt was paid.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The whole point of the exercise is to make connections between the principles laid out in the book, and other sources that give them context.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Everyone carries a part of society on his shoulders; no one is relieved of his share of responsibility by others.

[86]
.In this same work, Jefferson advanced his suspicion that black people were inferior to white people "in the endowments both of body and mind."^ In this toward Hamilton and the administration, of which both men were members, Jefferson was neither selfish nor scheming, but, on the contrary, was discreet and patriotic, as well as just and high-minded.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Body and mind both unemployed, our being becomes a burthen, and every object about us loathsome, even the dearest.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[87] .However, he also wrote in the same work that black people could have the right to live free in any country where people judge them by their nature, and not as just being good for labor.^ Such people could not fail in their work.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A sentiment more unworthy of a free country could hardly be propagated.

^ "We have lived long, and this is the The treaty we have just signed will transform From this day the United vast wilderness into a flourishing country.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[88] .He also wrote, "Nothing is more certainly written in the book of fate than that these people are to be free.^ Nothing is more certainly written in the book of fate than that these people (the slaves) are to be free.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For nothing is more destructive of respect for the government and the law of the land than passing laws which cannot be enforced.

^ "For that reason, I decline to enlighten you; nothing could be more distasteful to me than what you propose, and, when you address me, I shall be obliged if you will omit the 'Mr.'
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[But] the two races...cannot live in the same government. Nature, habit, opinion has drawn indelible lines of distinction between them."[42] .According to historian Stephen Ambrose: "Jefferson, like all slaveholders and many other white members of American society, regarded Negroes as inferior, childlike, untrustworthy and, of course, as property.^ In other words, prophets like Benson have indicated the need to fight against socialism and because Scandinavians and many Americans don’t do so, their salvation may possbily be imperiled.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many other eminent men have shared the same opinion, and not a few prominent leaders among the Afro-American people.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While Teaching Textbooks has its detractors, many others like it because of its format.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

.Jefferson, the genius of politics, could see no way for African Americans to live in society as free people."^ Few The only strenuous opposition arose from some Federalists, who could see no good in any act of the Jeffersonian administration, however meritorious it might be.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is more remarkable that its author should have lived to see fulfilled to the letter what could have seemed to others, at the time, but the extravagance of youthful fancy.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Neither of these great men, fellow-citizens, could have died, at any time, without leaving an immense void in our American society.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

At the same time he trusted them with his children, with preparation of his food and entertainment of high-ranking guests. So clearly he believed that some were trustworthy.[89] .For a long-term solution Jefferson believed that slaves should be freed then deported peacefully to African colonies.^ His first important speech was in favor of the repeal of the law that compelled a master when he freed his slaves to send them out of the colony.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I believe that the entire effort of modern society should be concentrated on the endeavor to outlaw war as a method of the solution of problems between nations.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I do not believe that the government should have its long nose poked into the private consensual relationships between people.

.Otherwise, he feared war and that in his words, "human nature must shudder at the prospect held up.^ War is the blackest villainy of which human nature is capable.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To all those who walk the path of human cooperation war must appear loathsome and inhuman.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

We should in vain look for an example in the Spanish deportation or deletion of the Moors. This precedent would fall far short of our case."[90]
But on February 25, 1809, Jefferson repudiated his earlier view, writing in a letter to Abbé Grégoire:
Sir,—I have received the favor of your letter of August 17th, and with it the volume you were so kind to send me on the "Literature of Negroes." .Be assured that no person living wishes more sincerely than I do, to see a complete refutation of the doubts I have myself entertained and expressed on the grade of understanding allotted to them by nature, and to find that in this respect they are on a par with ourselves.^ It is more remarkable that its author should have lived to see fulfilled to the letter what could have seemed to others, at the time, but the extravagance of youthful fancy.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No one appreciated more than he the fact that the light of experience, as revealed in the history of the race, should be the guide of mankind.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were natives and inhabitants, respectively, of those two of the colonies which at the revolution were the largest and most powerful, and which naturally had a lead in the political affairs of the times.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.My doubts were the result of personal observation on the limited sphere of my own State, where the opportunity for the development of their genius were not favorable and those of exercising it still less so.^ My own experience with it has been that it has inspired me to delve deeper into those subjects that are of interest to me and my children.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If the personal freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution inhibit the government's ability to govern the people, we should look to limit those guarantees.

^ I wouldn’t object to well-designed regulation that would work–I just doubt very much that my state could come up with it.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

.I expressed them therefore with great hesitation; but whatever be their degree of talent it is no measure of their rights.^ The discussion, therefore, accompanied this great measure, has never been preserved, except in memory and by tradition.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Because Sir Isaac Newton was superior to others in understanding, he was not therefore lord of the person or property of others.^ Unlike crimes, they imply no malice toward others, and no interference with their persons or property.

.On this subject they are gaining daily in the opinions of nations, and hopeful advances are making toward their re-establishment on an equal footing with the other colors of the human family.^ In my own Branch there is only one other home schooling family and they Unschool.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But it is, I believe, doing no injustice to others to that the general opinion was, and uniformly has been, that in debate, on the side of independence, John Adams had no equal.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The whole town is The interests of nations, and all the dira of war, make the I sit and hear, and after having been led subject of every conversation.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.I pray you therefore to accept my thanks for the many instances you have enabled me to observe of respectable intelligence in that race of men, which cannot fail to have effect in hastening the day of their relief; and to be assured of the sentiments of high and just esteem and consideration which I tender to yourself with all sincerity.^ Thank you all for a good conversation.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Julie, thank you for all this info.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this toward Hamilton and the administration, of which both men were members, Jefferson was neither selfish nor scheming, but, on the contrary, was discreet and patriotic, as well as just and high-minded.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[91]
.In August 1814 Edward Coles and Jefferson corresponded about Coles' ideas on emancipation: "Your solitary but welcome voice is the first which has brought this to my ear, and I have considered the general silence which prevails on this subject as indicating an apathy unfavorable to every hope.^ My freedom is more important than your great idea.

^ I just would like to let you know that I understand your concerns about Thomas Jefferson Education and I wish you would have written us first to see if we could resolve some of them.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I don’t generally worry about the idea of “bad messages” getting through — my wife do employ hours working with our children to instill the proper values and perspective.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

[92]
.In 1817, as Polish general and American war of independence rebel Tadeusz Kościuszko died, Jefferson was named by Kościuszko as the executor of his will, in which the Pole asked that the proceeds from the sale of his assets be used to free, among others, Jefferson's slaves.^ But it is, I believe, doing no injustice to others to that the general opinion was, and uniformly has been, that in debate, on the side of independence, John Adams had no equal.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Using Jefferson as the namesake is so contradictory, unless he wanted the cachet, or prestige, of the name as a marketing tool instead of the substance.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson, however, was not consistent with himself, for he frequently called General Washington "Your Excellency," during the war, and also when he was a private citizen at Mt.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jefferson, 75 at the time, did not free his slaves and pleaded that he was too old to take on the duties of executor; at the same time energetically throwing himself into the creation of the University of Virginia.^ Shortly after Jefferson became a member of the bar, Oxford University created the Regis Professorship of Law, which was held by William Blackstone and marked the entry of the common law into the university curriculum.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Why do we take the time and effort to share our evaluation of the Thomas Jefferson Educational method (TJEd)?
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He did not succeed in realizing the whole of his scheme, but he did finally succeed in inducing the Legislature to pass an act in the year 1819 by which the State accepted the gift of Central College (a corporation based upon private subscriptions due to Jefferson's efforts), and converted it into the University of Virginia.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[93] Some historians have speculated that he had qualms about freeing slaves.[94]
The downturn in land prices after 1819 pushed Jefferson further into debt. .Jefferson finally emancipated his five most trusted slaves (two, his alleged mixed-race sons) and petitioned the legislature to allow them to stay in Virginia.^ Elected to the Legislature of Virginia after serving as Governor two years.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

After his death, his family sold the remainder of the slaves by auction on the lawn of his estate[93] to settle his high debts.[95]

Monuments and memorials

Jefferson has been memorialized in many ways, including buildings, sculptures, and currency. .The Jefferson Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C. on April 13, 1943, the 200th anniversary of Jefferson's birth.^ Thomas Jefferson was born April 13, 1743.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

The interior of the memorial includes a 19-foot (6 m) statue of Jefferson and engravings of passages from his writings. Most prominent are the words which are inscribed around the monument near the roof: "I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man".[96]
His original tombstone, now a cenotaph, is now located on the campus in the University of Missouri's Quadrangle.
.Jefferson, together with George Washington, Theodore Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln, was chosen by sculptor Gutzon Borglum and approved by President Calvin Coolidge to be depicted in stone at the Mount Rushmore Memorial.^ Calvin Coolidge, 30th US President .

^ The former wanted to style him 'His Highness, George Washington, President of the United States, and Protector of their Liberties.'
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Three of these men, who met together in that unpretentious inn, were Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and James Monroe (then President of the United States).
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[97]
Jefferson's portrait appears on the U.S. $2 bill, nickel, and the $100 Series EE Savings Bond.
Recent memorials to Jefferson include the commissioning of the NOAA ship Thomas Jefferson in Norfolk, Virginia on July 8, 2003, in commemoration of his establishment of a Survey of the Coast, the predecessor to NOAA's National Ocean Service; and the placement of a bronze monument in Jefferson Park, Chicago at the entrance to the Jefferson Park Transit Center along Milwaukee Avenue in 2005.

Thomas Jefferson on US Postage issues

.Thomas Jefferson's likeness over the years has been finely depicted on the various postage issues that honor him.^ As a conclusion, I would just like to state that a Thomas Jefferson Education is not something that is set up in opposition to professional, skills-focused, and accredited education.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Jefferson had the high honor of being the selected advocate of this cause.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I do not see any of his far right-wing ideas that he recanted in the Thomas Jefferson book or anything that I have heard from him.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

.The first US Postage stamp to depict Thomas Jefferson was issued in 1856, nine years after the Post Office issued its first two stamps of Washington and Franklin in 1847. (Before this time hand-stamps were used to mark and confirm payment of postage.^ Some two years after Jefferson's assumption of office, Ohio was admitted as a State into the Union.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the post now vacated by Franklin, Jefferson remained for five years, until the meeting of the French Estates-General and the outbreak of the Revolution against absolute monarchy and the theory of the State in France upon which it rested.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fifty-nine years afterwards Jefferson continued to speak of that great occasion with unabated enthusiasm.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

) .Almost as popular and famous as George Washington, Jefferson appears comparatively less often on postage issues, and unlike Washington and Franklin, appears on just one commemorative issue (1904, displayed above).^ American revolution will appear less than it is, one of the greatest events in human history.
  • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

All others occurrences depict him on regular issues.[98]
~ Regular Issues: ~
~ 1856 ~
~ 1895 ~
~ 1903 ~
~ 1923 ~
~ 1938 ~
~ 1954 ~
~ 1968 ~

Marriage and Family

Factual Wife and Children

.In 1772, at age 29 Jefferson married the 23-year-old widow Martha Wayles Skelton.^ Thomas Jefferson was mentored from ages 19 to 23, as the author of An Evaluation of Thomas Jefferson Education stated.
  • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

They had six children: Martha Jefferson Randolph (1772–1836), Jane Randolph (1774–1775), a stillborn or unnamed son (1777), Mary Jefferson Eppes (1778–1804), Lucy Elizabeth (1780–1781), and another Lucy Elizabeth (1782–1785). Martha died on September 6, 1782, after the birth of her last child. Jefferson never remarried.

Alleged children by Sally Hemings, a slave owned by Jefferson

.Jefferson is alleged to have had a long-term, intimate relationship with one of his slaves, Sally Hemings, a quadroon, who was believed to have been a half-sister to Jefferson's late wife.^ One who believes himself the master of others is nonetheless a greater slave than they.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A libertarian is a person who believes that no one has the right, under any circumstances, to initiate force against another human being, or to advocate or delegate its initiation.

^ I do not believe that the government should have its long nose poked into the private consensual relationships between people.

[99] .During the administration of President Jefferson, journalists and others alleged that he had fathered several children with Hemings after his wife's death.^ Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826 3rd US President & Founding Father) .

.Late twentieth century DNA testing (see Jefferson DNA data) indicated that a male in Jefferson's line, possibly Thomas Jefferson himself, was the father of at least one of Sally Hemings's children.^ Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826 3rd US President & Founding Father) .

^ See if the law benefits one citizen at the expense of another by doing what the citizen himself cannot do without committing a crime.

Information regarding inconclusive DNA 'evidence', etc is covered at length in the Sally Hemings page.

Writings

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "The Thomas Jefferson Papers Timeline: 1743 -1827". http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/jefferson_papers/mtjtime1.html. Retrieved 2009-07-19. 
  2. ^ a b The birth and death of Thomas Jefferson are given using the Gregorian calendar. However, he was born when Britain and her colonies still used the Julian calendar, so contemporary records record his birth (and on his tombstone) as April 2, 1743. The provisions of the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, implemented in 1752, altered the official British dating method to the Gregorian calendar with the start of the year on January 1 – see the article on Old Style and New Style dates for more details.
  3. ^ Robert W. Tucker, and David C. Hendrickson, Empire of Liberty: The Statecraft of Thomas Jefferson (1990)
  4. ^ Jefferson, Thomas. "Jefferson's Wall of Separation Letter". U.S. Constitution Online. http://www.usconstitution.net/jeffwall.html. Retrieved April 13, 2008. 
  5. ^ April 29, 1962 dinner honoring 49 Nobel Laureates (Simpson's Contemporary Quotations, 1988, from Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: John F. Kennedy, 1962, p. 347).
  6. ^ "Facts on Thomas Jefferson". Revolutionary-war-and-beyond.com. 1943-04-13. http://www.revolutionary-war-and-beyond.com/facts-on-thomas-jefferson.html. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  7. ^ Henry Stephens Randall, The Life of Thomas Jefferson
  8. ^ Merrill D. Peterson, Thomas Jefferson: Writings, p. 1236
  9. ^ Thomas Jefferson on Wine by John Hailman, 2006
  10. ^ a b c Henry Stephens Randall, The Life of Thomas Jefferson. p 41
  11. ^ a b Henry Stephens Randall, The Life of Thomas Jefferson. p 47
  12. ^ Thomas Jefferson p.214
  13. ^ TJ to John Minor August 30, 1814 Lipscomb and Bergh, WTJ 2:420-21
  14. ^ ArchitectureWeek. "The Orders – 01". http://www.architectureweek.com/topics/orders-01.html. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 
  15. ^ "nMonticello". Plantationdb.monticello.org. http://plantationdb.monticello.org/. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  16. ^ a b c Merrill D. Peterson, "Jefferson, Thomas"; American National Biography Online, February 2000.
  17. ^ Ellis, American Sphinx, 47–49.
  18. ^ Maier, American Scripture. Other standard works on Jefferson and the Declaration include Garry Wills, Inventing America: Jefferson's Declaration of Independence (1978) and Carl L. Becker, The Declaration of Independence: A Study in the History of Political Ideas (1922).
  19. ^ a b Ellis, American Sphinx, 50.
  20. ^ "Part I: History of the Death Penalty". Deathpenaltyinfo.org. http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/article.php?scid=15&did=410. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  21. ^ "Virgina Executions". Rob Gallagher. http://users.bestweb.net/~rg/execution/VIRGINIA.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  22. ^ Bennett, William J. (2006). "The Greatest Revolution". America: The Last Best Hope (Volume I): From the Age of Discovery to a World at War. Nelson Current. p. 99. ISBN 1-59555-055-0. 
  23. ^ Ferling 2004, p. 26
  24. ^ Annette Gordon-Reed, The Hemingses of Monticello: An American Family, New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2008
  25. ^ The Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States of America. Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=dmgUAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA218&lpg=PA218&dq=Thulemeier+Magdeburg&source=bl&ots=88_moQefOS&sig=78Uawff9ApALaQjVjOix13xjBug&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=10&ct=result#PPA307,M1. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  26. ^ Ferling 2004, p. 59
  27. ^ "Foreign Affairs," in Peterson, ed. Thomas Jefferson: A Reference Encyclopedia (1986) p 325
  28. ^ Schachner 1951, p. 495
  29. ^ Miller (1960), 143–4, 148–9.
  30. ^ An American History Lesson For Pat Buchana, Kenneth C. Davis, Huffington Post, July 18, 2009.
  31. ^ a b Thomas Jefferson, the 'Negro President', Gary Willis on The Tavis Smiley Show, February 16, 2004.
  32. ^ Negro President: Jefferson and the Slave Power, Review of Garry Willis's book on WNYC, February 16, 2004.
  33. ^ "Table 1.1 Acquisition of the Public Domain 1781–1867" (PDF). http://www.blm.gov/natacq/pls02/pls1-1_02.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  34. ^ [John Hope Franklin, Race and History: Selected Essays 1938–1988 (Louisiana State University Press: 1989) p. 336] and [John Hope Franklin, Racial Equality in America (Chicago: 1976), p. 24-26]
  35. ^ Martin Kelly. "Thomas Jefferson Biography – Third President of the United States". http://americanhistory.about.com/od/thomasjefferson/p/pjefferson.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-05. 
  36. ^ Robert MacNamara. "Importation of Slaves Outlawed by 1807 Act of Congress". http://history1800s.about.com/od/slaveryinamerica/a/1807slaveact.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-05. 
  37. ^ "Jefferson on Politics & Government: Publicly Supported Education". Etext.lib.virginia.edu. http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/jefferson/quotations/jeff1370.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  38. ^ Jefferson Still Survives. Retrieved on 2006-12-26.
  39. ^ Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2008. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
  40. ^ "Monticello Report: The Calendar and Old Style (O. S.)". Thomas Jefferson Foundation (Monticello.org). 2007. http://www.monticello.org/reports/life/old_style.html. Retrieved 2007-09-15. 
  41. ^ Monticello Report: Physical Descriptions of Thomas Jefferson. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
  42. ^ a b "'Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826)' at the University of Virginia". Americanpresident.org. http://www.americanpresident.org/history/thomasjefferson/biography/FamilyLife.common.shtml. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  43. ^ "Thomas Jefferson". Spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk. 1999-09-22. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/WWjefferson.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  44. ^ "Thomas Jefferson: Silent Member". http://www.awesomestories.com/biography/thomas_jefferson/thomas_jefferson_ch1.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-23. 
  45. ^ "'American Sphinx' by Joseph J. Ellis at". Futurecasts.com. http://www.futurecasts.com/Ellis,%20Jefferson,%20American%20Sphinx.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  46. ^ ""Jefferson's Inventions"". Cti.itc.virginia.edu. http://cti.itc.virginia.edu/~meg3c/classes/tcc313/200Rprojs/jefferson_invent/invent.html. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  47. ^ Physiognotrace http://lewis-clark.org/content/content-article.asp?ArticleID=2539
  48. ^ The Jefferson Encyclopedia
  49. ^ Ellis, Joseph J. (1994). "American Sphinx: The Contradictions of Thomas Jefferson". Library of Congress. http://thomas.loc.gov/. 
  50. ^ Amy Argetsinger and Roxanne Roberts (January 1, 2007). "But It's Thomas Jefferson's Koran!". Washington Post: p. C03. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/03/AR2007010300075.html. Retrieved January 3, 2007. 
  51. ^ J. G. A. Pocock, The Machiavellian Moment: Florentine Political Thought and the Atlantic Republican Tradition (1975), 533; see also Richard K. Matthews, The Radical Politics of Thomas Jefferson, (1986), p. 17, 139n.16.
  52. ^ Thomas Jefferson to John Taylor May 28, 1816, in Appleby and Ball (1999) p 209); also Bergh, ed. Writings 15:23
  53. ^ Monticello, May 28, 1816: http://yamaguchy.netfirms.com/7897401/jefferson/jefftaylor.html
  54. ^ Letter to Isaac H. Tiffany, April 4, 1819 in Appleby and Ball (1999) p 224.
  55. ^ Brown 1954, pp. 51–52
  56. ^ "Notes on Virginia". Etext.lib.virginia.edu. http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/JefVirg.html. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  57. ^ Adler, Mortimer Jerome (2000). The Great Ideas. Open Court Publishing. p. 378. 
  58. ^ Letter to James Madison, January 30, 1787
  59. ^ "Professor Julian Boyd's reconstruction of Jefferson's "original Rough draft" of the Declaration of Independence". Loc.gov. 2005-07-06. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/declara/ruffdrft.html. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  60. ^ Letter to James Madison, September 6, 1789
  61. ^ Letter to James Madison, September 6, 1789; Daniel Scott Smith, "Population and Political Ethics: Thomas Jefferson's Demography of Generations," The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 56, No. 3 (Jul., 1999), pp. 591–612 in jstor
  62. ^ [1]
  63. ^ http://quotes.liberty-tree.ca/quote/cesare_beccaria_quote_e215
  64. ^ "The James Madison Research Library and Information Center". Madisonbrigade.com. http://www.madisonbrigade.com/t_jefferson.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  65. ^ Kopel, David B. (2007-04-18). "'Gun-Free Zones' - WSJ.com". Online.wsj.com. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB117686668935873725.html. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  66. ^ Ford, ed, Paul Lester (1899). The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Vol X, 1816–1826. New York, London: G. P. Putnam's Sons. http://www.archive.org/stream/writingsofthomas10jeffiala/writingsofthomas10jeffiala_djvu.txt. 
  67. ^ Letter to William C. Jarvis, 1820
  68. ^ a b c Melton, The Quotable Founding Fathers, 277.
  69. ^ Letter to William Smith, November 13, 1787
  70. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to American Presidents". Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/presidents/article-9116912. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  71. ^ Seven Who Shaped Our Destiny, p. 133, Richard B. Morris, 1973, Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.
  72. ^ Charles Sanford, The Religious Life of Thomas Jefferson (Charlotte: UNC Press, 1987).
  73. ^ a b c d e f g Miller, Robert (July 1, 2008). Native America, Discovered and Conquered: : Thomas Jefferson, Lewis & Clark, and Manifest Destiny. Bison Books. p. 90. ISBN 978-0803215986. 
  74. ^ a b Drinnon, Richard (March 1997). Facing West: The Metaphysics of Indian-Hating and Empire-Building. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0806129280. 
  75. ^ a b Jefferson, Thomas (1803). "President Thomas Jefferson to William Henry Harrison, Governor of the Indiana Territory,". http://courses.missouristate.edu/ftmiller/Documents/jeffindianpolicy.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  76. ^ "Letter From Thomas Jefferson to Alexander von Humboldt December 6, 1813". http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/P/tj3/writings/brf/jefl224.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  77. ^ Bernard W. Sheehan, Seeds of extinction: Jeffersonian philanthropy and the American Indian‎ (1974) pp 120–21
  78. ^ James P. Ronda, Thomas Jefferson and the changing West: from conquest to conservation (1997) p. 10; text in Moore, MariJo (2006). Eating Fire, Tasting Blood: An Anthology of the American Indian Holocaust. Running Press. ISBN 978-1560258384. http://books.google.com/books?id=3oNPH4-ovFcC&pg=PA208&lpg=PA208&dq=Thomas+Jefferson+dearborn+hatchet&source=bl&ots=H7cwLd-MIA&sig=-Yro3VMQ2KKmoaQSeOl52Ndte1Q&hl=en&ei=EpG5SdXaLpK2sAOZpNAt&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=8&ct=result. 
  79. ^ Herbert E. Sloan, Principle and Interest: Thomas Jefferson and the Problem of Debt (2001) pp. 14–26, 220–1.
  80. ^ Hitchens 2005, p. 48
  81. ^ Miller, John Chester (1977). The Wolf by the Ears: Thomas Jefferson and Slavery. New York: Free Press, p. 241. The letter, dated April 22, 1820, was written to former Senator John Holmes of Maine.
  82. ^ Macnaul, W.C. (1865). The Jefferson-Lemen Compact.
  83. ^ Willard Sterne Randall, Thomas Jefferson: A Life. p 593.
  84. ^ The Works of Thomas Jefferson in Twelve Volumes at the Library of Congress.
  85. ^ Ordinance of 1787 Lalor Cyclopædia of Political Science
  86. ^ Notes on the State of Virginia, Ch 18.
  87. ^ Notes on the State of Virginia Query 14
  88. ^ "'Jefferson, Thomas, 1743–1826 . Notes on the State of Virginia ' at University of Virginia Library". Etext.lib.virginia.edu. http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=JefVirg.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=18&division=div1. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  89. ^ Flawed Founders by Stephen E. Ambrose.
  90. ^ Hitchens 2005, pp. 34–35
  91. ^ Letter of February 25, 1809 from Thomas Jefferson to French author Monsieur Gregoire, from The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (H. A. Worthington, ed.), Volume V, p. 429. Citation and quote from Morris Kominsky, The Hoaxers, pp. 110–111.
  92. ^ Twilight at Monticello, Crawford, 2008, Ch 17, p.101
  93. ^ a b Why we should all regret Jefferson's broken promise to Kościuszko, Nash&Hodges http://hnn.us/articles/48794.html
  94. ^ For your freedom and ours, the Kościuszko squadron, Olson&Cloud, pg 22–23, Arrow books ISBN 0-09-942812-1
  95. ^ Peterson 1975, pp. 991–992, 1007
  96. ^ Office of the Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record (HABS/HAER), of the National Park Service, Library of Congress (September 1994). "Documentation of the Jefferson Memorial". http://memory.loc.gov/pnp/habshaer/dc/dc0400/dc0473/sheet/00001a.tif. Retrieved 2009-09-04. 
  97. ^ National Park Service. "Carving History". Mount Rushmore National Memorial. http://www.nps.gov/archive/moru/park_history/carving_hist/carving_history.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-04. 
  98. ^ Scott Stamp Catalog, Index of Commemorative Stamps
  99. ^ "''John Wayles Paternity''". Wiki.monticello.org. 2009-05-19. http://wiki.monticello.org/mediawiki/index.php/John_Wayles. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 

References

Primary sources

.
  • Thomas Jefferson: Writings: Autobiography / Notes on the State of Virginia / Public and Private Papers / Addresses / Letters (1984, ISBN 978-0-940450-16-5) Library of America edition.^ Thomas Jefferson (1743-1846), U.S. President, Letter to Abigail Adams, 22 February 1787 .

    ^ Thomas Jefferson's First Inaugural Address .

    ^ Thomas Jefferson (1743-1846), U.S. President, Notes on the State of Virginia, 1782 .

    .There are numerous one-volume collections; this is perhaps the best place to start.
  • Thomas Jefferson, Political Writings ed by Joyce Appleby and Terence Ball.^ Thomas Jefferson got one.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We believe that there is no one universal best method for all families and all children.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There are many good sources of information that promote Thomas Jefferson Education1.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    Cambridge University Press. 1999 online
  • Lipscomb, Andrew A. and Albert Ellery Bergh, eds. .The Writings Of Thomas Jefferson 19 vol.^ Thomas Jefferson was mentored from ages 19 to 23, as the author of An Evaluation of Thomas Jefferson Education stated.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    (1907) not as complete nor as accurate as Boyd edition, but covers TJ from birth to death. .It is out of copyright, and so is online free.
  • Edwin Morris Betts (editor), Thomas Jefferson's Farm Book, (Thomas Jefferson Memorial: December 1, 1953) ISBN 1-882886-10-0. Letters, notes, and drawings—a journal of plantation management recording his contributions to scientific agriculture, including an experimental farm implementing innovations such as horizontal plowing and crop-rotation, and Jefferson's own moldboard plow.^ Thomas Jefferson (1743-1846), U.S. President, Letter to Abigail Adams, 22 February 1787 .

    ^ About the quote : as written in a letter to Thomas Jefferson.
    • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thomas Jefferson (1743-1846), U.S. President, Notes on the State of Virginia, 1782 .

    It is a window to slave life, with data on food rations, daily work tasks, and slaves' clothing. The book portrays the industries pursued by enslaved and free workmen, including in the blacksmith's shop and spinning and weaving house.
  • Boyd, Julian P. et al., eds. .The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. The definitive multivolume edition; available at major academic libraries.^ (The majority of the following information comes from “the definitive history of George Wythe College” [hereafter GWCH] available in its entirety here .
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Oliver DeMille has made himself the public face of Thomas Jefferson Education and linked his academic legitimacy with that of his method.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ From the 2000 edition of A Thomas Jefferson Education chapter 1, subheading Finding a Mentor, page 22: .
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    .31 volumes covers TJ to 1800, with 1801 due out in 2006.
  • The Jefferson Cyclopedia (1900) large collection of TJ quotations arranged by 9000 topics; searchable; copyright has expired and it is online free.
  • The Thomas Jefferson Papers, 1606–1827, 27,000 original manuscript documents at the Library of Congress online collection
  • Jefferson, Thomas.^ I think this is the most extraordinary collection of talent and of human knowledge that has ever been gathered together at the White House with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone.

    ^ Another thing that bothered me about the original book [i]A Thomas Jefferson Education[/i] was his lack of attribution to outside ideas.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Saturday, May 31, 2008 By Julie M. Smith For the uninitiated, Thomas Jefferson Education (hereafter TJE) is a method of homeschooling–a method very popular among Mormons.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Notes on the State of Virginia (1787), London: Stockdale.^ Thomas Jefferson (1743-1846), U.S. President, Notes on the State of Virginia, 1782 .

    .This was Jefferson's only book
    • Shuffelton, Frank, ed., (1998) Penguin Classics paperback: ISBN 0-14-043667-7
    • Waldstreicher, David, ed., (2002) Palgrave Macmillan hardcover: ISBN 0-312-29428-X
    • online edition
  • Cappon, Lester J., ed.^ The plagiarism that bothered me in A Thomas Jefferson Education was that he didn’t credit any other authors who had already written about modern classical education and great books study.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    The Adams-Jefferson Letters (1959)
  • Howell, Wilbur Samuel, ed. Jefferson's Parliamentary Writings (1988). .Jefferson's Manual of Parliamentary Practice, written when he was vice-President, with other relevant papers
  • Melton, Buckner F.: The Quotable Founding Fathers, Potomac Books, Washington D.C. (2004).
  • Smith, James Morton, ed.^ Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826 3rd US President & Founding Father) .

    .The Republic of Letters: The Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, 1776–1826, 3 vols.^ About the quote : as written in a letter to Thomas Jefferson.
    • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    (1995)

Biographies

  • Appleby, Joyce. .Thomas Jefferson (2003), short interpretive essay by leading scholar.
  • Bernstein, R. B. Thomas Jefferson.^ The key to Thomas Jefferson Education is to lead by example by showing your children that education is important and finding and teaching base core educational principles in areas of learning that your children love.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    (2003) Well regarded short biography.
  • Burstein, Andrew. .Jefferson's Secrets: Death and Desire at Monticello. (2005).
  • Cunningham, Noble E. In Pursuit of Reason (1988) well-reviewed short biography.
  • Crawford, Alan Pell, Twilight at Monticello, Random House, New York, (2008)
  • Ellis, Joseph.^ Alan K. Simpson, U.S. Senator, New York Times, 9/26/82 .

    "American Sphinx: The Contradictions of Thomas Jefferson". http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/jefferson_papers/mtjessay1.html. 
  • Ellis, Joseph. American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson (1996). .Prize winning essays; assumes prior reading of a biography.
  • Hitchens, Christopher (2005), Thomas Jefferson: Author of America , short biography.
  • Malone, Dumas.^ Further, TJE is almost completely at odds with what Thomas Jefferson himself outlined as a proper education, which you can read about here , starting on page 271.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I\’m grateful for the things that I have learned since first reading the Thomas Jefferson Ed.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Further, TJE is almost completely at odds with what Thomas Jefferson himself outlined as a > proper education, which you can read about here, starting on page 271.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    Jefferson and His Time, 6 vols. (1948–82). Multi-volume biography of TJ by leading expert; A short version is online.
  • Onuf, Peter. "The Scholars' Jefferson," William and Mary Quarterly 3d Series, L:4 (October 1993), 671–699. Historiographical review or scholarship about TJ; online through JSTOR at most academic libraries.
  • Padover, Saul K. Jefferson: A Great American's Life and Ideas
  • Pasley, Jeffrey L. "Politics and the Misadventures of Thomas Jefferson's Modern Reputation: a Review Essay." Journal of Southern History 2006 72(4): 871–908. Issn: 0022-4642 Fulltext in Ebsco.
  • Peterson, Merrill D. (1975). .Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation.  A standard scholarly biography.
  • Peterson, Merrill D. (ed.^ I\’m grateful for the things that I have learned since first reading the Thomas Jefferson Ed.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So the actual “Thomas Jefferson Education” involved (1) a classical education, (2) a standard college degree, and (3) mentoring as a youngish adult.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ DeMille is the author of 3 books and numerous articles, including: Mexico and World Government, Germany and the European Community, Thomas Jefferson Education and “Rethinking National Security”.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    ) .Thomas Jefferson: A Reference Biography (1986), 24 essays by leading scholars on aspects of Jefferson's career.
  • Randall, Henry Stephens (1858).^ An Evaluation of Thomas Jefferson Education 10 occupations before they choose one to pursue as a career.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The key to Thomas Jefferson Education is to lead by example by showing your children that education is important and finding and teaching base core educational principles in areas of learning that your children love.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    The Life of Thomas Jefferson (volume 1 ed.). 
  • Schachner, Nathan (1951). Thomas Jefferson: A Biography.  2 volumes.
  • Salgo, Sandor (1997). Thomas Jefferson: Musician and Violinist.  Abook detailing Thomas Jefferson's love of music.

Academic studies

  • Ackerman, Bruce. .The Failure of the Founding Fathers: Jefferson, Marshall, and the Rise of Presidential Democracy. (2005)
  • Adams, Henry.^ Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826 3rd US President & Founding Father) .

    ^ About the quote : This quote is not from founding father John Adams, but from the Pulitzer Prize-winning modern composer and conductor of the same name (2001).
    • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    .History of the United States of America during the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson (1889; Library of America edition 1986) famous 4-volume history
    • Wills, Garry, Henry Adams and the Making of America (2005), detailed analysis of Adams' History
  • Banning, Lance.^ Thomas Jefferson (1743-1846), U.S. President, Letter to Abigail Adams, 22 February 1787 .

    ^ Clarence Carson, A Basic History Of The United States .

    ^ Thomas Jefferson (1743-1846), U.S. President, Notes on the State of Virginia, 1782 .

    The Jeffersonian Persuasion: Evolution of a Party Ideology (1978)
  • Brown, Stuart Gerry (1954). .The First Republicans: Political Philosophy and Public Policy in the Party of Jefferson and Madison. 
  • Channing; Edward.^ I place economy among the first and most important of republican virtues, and public debt as the greatest of the dangers to be feared.

    The Jeffersonian System: 1801–1811 (1906), "American Nation" survey of political history
  • Dunn, Susan. Jefferson's Second Revolution: The Election Crisis of 1800 and the Triumph of Republicanism (2004)
  • Elkins, Stanley and Eric McKitrick. The Age of Federalism (1995) in-depth coverage of politics of 1790s
  • Fatovic, Clement. "Constitutionalism and Presidential Prerogative: Jeffersonian and Hamiltonian Perspectives." .: American Journal of Political Science, 2004 48(3): 429–444. Issn: 0092-5853 Fulltext: in Swetswise, Ingenta, Jstor, and Ebsco
  • Ferling, John (2004).^ I annotated portions of Kirk’s “Roots of American Order” for a GWC political science course this spring.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    Adams vs. Jefferson: The Tumultuous Election of 1800. 
  • Finkelman, Paul. .Slavery and the Founders: Race and Liberty in the Age of Jefferson (2001), esp ch 6–7
  • Hatzenbuehler, Ronald L. "I Tremble for My Country": Thomas Jefferson and the Virginia Gentry, (University Press of Florida; 206 pages; 2007).^ Where Liberty dwells, there is my country.

    ^ Further, TJE is almost completely at odds with what Thomas Jefferson himself outlined as a > proper education, which you can read about here, starting on page 271.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just; that his justice cannot sleep forever.
    • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    Argues that the TJ's critique of his fellow gentry in Virginia masked his own reluctance to change
  • Hitchens, Christopher (2005). .Author of America: Thomas Jefferson.^ Thomas Jefferson was mentored from ages 19 to 23, as the author of An Evaluation of Thomas Jefferson Education stated.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The author of the article An Evaluation of Thomas Jefferson Education wrote that “.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ DeMille is the author of 3 books and numerous articles, including: Mexico and World Government, Germany and the European Community, Thomas Jefferson Education and “Rethinking National Security”.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    HarperCollins.
     
  • Horn, James P. P. Jan Ellen Lewis, and Peter S. Onuf, eds. The Revolution of 1800: Democracy, Race, and the New Republic (2002) 17 essays by scholars
  • Jayne, Allen. Jefferson's Declaration of Independence: Origins, Philosophy and Theology (2000); traces TJ's sources and emphasizes his incorporation of Deist theology into the Declaration.
  • Roger G. Kennedy. Mr. Jefferson's Lost Cause: Land, Farmers, Slavery, and the Louisiana Purchase (2003).
  • Knudson, Jerry W. Jefferson and the Press: Crucible of Liberty. (2006)
  • Lewis, Jan Ellen, and Onuf, Peter S., eds. Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson: History, Memory, Civic Culture. (1999)
  • McDonald, Forrest. .The Presidency of Thomas Jefferson (1987) intellectual history approach to Jefferson's Presidency
  • Matthews, Richard K. "The Radical Political Philosophy of Thomas Jefferson: An Essay in Retrieval," Midwest Studies in Philosophy, XXVIII (2004)
  • Mayer, David N. The Constitutional Thought of Thomas Jefferson (2000)
  • Onuf, Peter S. Jefferson's Empire: The Languages of American Nationhood.^ Thomas Jefferson (1743-1846), U.S. President, Letter to Abigail Adams, 22 February 1787 .

    ^ From the 2000 edition of A Thomas Jefferson Education chapter 1, subheading Finding a Mentor, page 22: .
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thomas Jefferson (1743-1846), U.S. President, Notes on the State of Virginia, 1782 .

    (2000). Online review
  • Onuf, Peter S., ed. Jeffersonian Legacies. (1993)
  • Onuf, Peter. "Thomas Jefferson, Federalist" (1993) online journal essay
  • Perry, Barbara A. "Jefferson's Legacy to the Supreme Court: Freedom of Religion." Journal of Supreme Court History 2006 31(2): 181–198. Issn: 1059-4329 Fulltext in Swetswise, Ingenta and Ebsco
  • Peterson, Merrill D. The Jefferson Image in the American Mind (1960), how Americans interpreted and remembered Jefferson
  • Rahe, Paul A. "Thomas Jefferson's Machiavellian Political Science". Review of Politics 1995 57(3): 449–481. ISSN 0034–6705 Fulltext online at Jstor and Ebsco.
  • Sears, Louis Martin. .Jefferson and the Embargo (1927), state by state impact
  • Sloan, Herbert J. Principle and Interest: Thomas Jefferson and the Problem of Debt (1995).^ The key to Thomas Jefferson Education is to lead by example by showing your children that education is important and finding and teaching base core educational principles in areas of learning that your children love.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ TJED supporter #1, it changes the “value of the principle” because the OUTCOME you see in Thomas Jefferson was not achieved by the means you are now employing.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As a conclusion, I would just like to state that a Thomas Jefferson Education is not something that is set up in opposition to professional, skills-focused, and accredited education.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    Shows the burden of debt in Jefferson's personal finances and political thought.
  • Smelser, Marshall. The Democratic Republic: 1801–1815 (1968). "New American Nation" survey of political and diplomatic history
  • Staloff, Darren. Hamilton, Adams, Jefferson: The Politics of Enlightenment and the American Founding. (2005)
  • Taylor, Jeff. Where Did the Party Go?: William Jennings Bryan, Hubert Humphrey, and the Jeffersonian Legacy (2006), on Jefferson's role in Democratic history and ideology.
  • Tucker, Robert W. and David C. Hendrickson. Empire of Liberty: The Statecraft of Thomas Jefferson (1992), foreign policy
  • Urofsky, Melvin I. "Thomas Jefferson and John Marshall: What Kind of Constitution Shall We Have?" Journal of Supreme Court History 2006 31(2): 109–125. Issn: 1059-4329 Fulltext: in Swetswise, Ingenta and Ebsco
  • Valsania, Maurizio. "'Our Original Barbarism': Man Vs. Nature in Thomas Jefferson's Moral Experience." Journal of the History of Ideas 2004 65(4): 627–645. Issn: 0022-5037 Fulltext: in Project Muse and Swetswise
  • Wagoner, Jennings L., Jr. Jefferson and Education. (2004).
  • Wiltse, Charles Maurice. The Jeffersonian Tradition in American Democracy (1935), analysis of Jefferson's political philosophy
  • PBS interviews with 24 historians

Religion

.
  • Gaustad, Edwin S. Sworn on the Altar of God: A Religious Biography of Thomas Jefferson (2001) Wm.^ I have sworn upon the altar of god, eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man.

    ^ The principles of Thomas Jefferson Education are not a religious philosophy.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    .B. Eerdmans Publishing, ISBN 0-8028-0156-0
  • Sanford, Charles B. The Religious Life of Thomas Jefferson (1987) University of Virginia Press, ISBN 0-8139-1131-1
  • Sheridan, Eugene R. Jefferson and Religion, preface by Martin Marty, (2001) University of North Carolina Press, ISBN 1-882886-08-9
  • Edited by Jackson, Henry E., President, College for Social Engineers, Washington, D. C. "The Thomas Jefferson Bible" (1923) Copyright Boni and Liveright, Inc.^ Thomas Jefferson (1743-1846), U.S. President, Letter to Abigail Adams, 22 February 1787 .

    ^ Thomas Jefferson (1743-1846), U.S. President, Notes on the State of Virginia, 1782 .

    ^ The principles of Thomas Jefferson Education are not a religious philosophy.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    Printed in the United States of America. Arranged by Thomas Jefferson. Translated by R. F. Weymouth. Located in the National Museum, Washington, D. C.

External links and sources

This audio file was created from a revision dated 2008-09-02, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)
More spoken articles
Political offices
Preceded by
John Adams
President of the United States
March 4, 1801 – March 4, 1809
Succeeded by
James Madison
Vice President of the United States
March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801
Succeeded by
Aaron Burr
Preceded by
John Jay
as United States Secretary for Foreign Affairs
United States Secretary of State
Served under: George Washington

March 22, 1790 – December 31, 1793
Succeeded by
Edmund Randolph
Preceded by
Patrick Henry
Governor of Virginia
1779 – 1781
Succeeded by
William Fleming (acting);
Thomas Nelson, Jr. (elected)
Party political offices
New political party Democratic-Republican Party presidential candidate
1796¹, 1800, 1804
Succeeded by
James Madison
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Benjamin Franklin
United States Minister Plenipotentiary to France
1785 – 1789
Succeeded by
William Short
Notes and references
1. Prior to the passage of the Twelfth Amendment in 1804, each Presidential elector would cast two ballots; the highest vote-getter would become President and the runner-up would become Vice President. Thus, in 1796, the Democratic-Republican Party fielded Jefferson as a Presidential candidate, but he came in second and therefore became Vice President.

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

We are not afraid to follow truth wherever it may lead, nor to tolerate any error so long as reason is left free to combat it.
.
If I am to succeed, the sooner I know it, the less uneasiness I shall have to go through.
^ If I am to succeed, the sooner I know it, the less uneasiness I shall have to go through.
  • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If I am to meet with a disappointment, the sooner I know it, the more of life I shall have to wear it off: and if I do meet with one, I hope in God, and verily believe; it will be the last.
  • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I shall often go wrong through defect of judgment.
  • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

If I am to meet with a disappointment, the sooner I know it, the more of life I shall have to wear it off.
.Thomas Jefferson (13 April 17434 July 1826) was the third president of the United States (1801–1809), author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), a political philosopher, and one of the most influential founders of the United States.^ Presidency 1801–1809 .
  • What is Thomas Jefferson? 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Sixth Grade Wiki / thomas jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC iwarner.pbworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Declaration of Independence as originally written by Thomas Jefferson, 1776.
  • Positive Atheism's Big List of Thomas Jefferson Quotations 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Jefferson to Joseph Priestley, 1801.

See also:
United States Declaration of Independence (1776)
Notes on the State of Virginia (1781-1785)

Contents

Sourced

The most fortunate of us, in our journey through life, frequently meet with calamities and misfortunes which may greatly afflict us; and, to fortify our minds against the attacks of these calamities and misfortunes, should be one of the principal studies and endeavours of our lives.

1760s

.
  • If I am to succeed, the sooner I know it, the less uneasiness I shall have to go through. If I am to meet with a disappointment, the sooner I know it, the more of life I shall have to wear it off: and if I do meet with one, I hope in God, and verily believe; it will be the last.^ If I am to meet with a disappointment, the sooner I know it, the more of life I shall have to wear it off: and if I do meet with one, I hope in God, and verily believe; it will be the last.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "I believe in one God, and no more; and I hope for happiness beyond this life.
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If I am to meet with a disappointment, the sooner I know it, the more of life I shall have to wear it off.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • The most fortunate of us, in our journey through life, frequently meet with calamities and misfortunes which may greatly afflict us; and, to fortify our minds against the attacks of these calamities and misfortunes, should be one of the principal studies and endeavours of our lives. The only method of doing this is to assume a perfect resignation to the Divine will, to consider that whatever does happen, must happen; and that by our uneasiness, we cannot prevent the blow before it does fall, but we may add to its force after it has fallen.^ Thomas Jefferson , to John Adams, 1813 .
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of Thomas Jefferson Quotations 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Letter to John Adams (5 July 1814).
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thomas Jefferson got one.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    .These considerations, and others such as these, may enable us in some measure to surmount the difficulties thrown in our way; to bear up with a tolerable degree of patience under this burthen of life; and to proceed with a pious and unshaken resignation, till we arrive at our journey’s end, when we may deliver up our trust into the hands of him who gave it, and receive such reward as to him shall seem proportioned to our merit.^ These considerations, and others such as these, may enable us in some measure to surmount the difficulties thrown in our way, to bear up with a tolerable degree of patience under this burden of life, and to proceed with a pious and unshaken resignation till we arrive at our journey's end, when we may deliver up our trust into the hands of Him who gave it, and receive such reward as to Him shall seem proportionate to our merits."
    • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is the condition annexed to all our pleasures, not by us who receive, but by him who gives them.
    • Thomas Jefferson's Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.namyth.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This seems like a threat to our way of life.
    • Think Progress » Ellison Takes Swearing-In Photograph With Koran 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

    .Such, dear Page, will be the language of the man who considers his situation in this life, and such should be the language of every man who would wish to render that situation as easy as the nature of it will admit.^ Such, dear Page, will be the language of the man who considers his situation in this life, and such should be the language of every man who would wish to render that situation as easy as the nature of it will admit.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I have considered it as a matter between every man and his Maker in which no other, and far less the public, had a right to intermeddle.
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of Thomas Jefferson Quotations 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I would have wished; but such as could be obtained with good humor & friendship.

    .Few things will disturb him at all: nothing will disturb him much.^ Few things will disturb him at all: nothing will disturb him much.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There is nothing new in the realization that the Constitution sometimes insulates the criminality of a few in order to protect the privacy of us all.

    ^ Nothing gives one person so much advantage over another as to remain always cool and unruffled under all circumstances.
    • The Best Thomas Jefferson Quotes | Bukisa.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bukisa.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter to John Page (15 July 1763); published in The Works of Thomas Jefferson (1905)
  • Christianity neither is, nor ever was, a part of the common law.^ Thomas Jefferson , to John Adams, 1813 .
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of Thomas Jefferson Quotations 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ [Thomas Jefferson, letter to Major John Cartwright.
    • Thomas Jefferson Quotes- ExChristian.Net - Articles 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC exchristian.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ John Adams, letter to Thomas Jefferson, Sept.
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Vol. 1 Whether Christianity is Part of the Common Law (1764).^ [Thomas Jefferson to James Fishback, 1809] -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- "Christianity neither is, nor ever was a part of the common law."
      • Thomas Jefferson Quotes- ExChristian.Net - Articles 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC exchristian.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Here then, was a space of two hundred years, during which the common law was in existence, and Christianity no part of it ...
      • Positive Atheism's Big List of Thomas Jefferson Quotations 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Letter to John Page (15 July 1763); published in The Works of Thomas Jefferson (1905) Christianity neither is, nor ever was, a part of the common law.
      • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      Published in The Works of Thomas Jefferson in Twelve Volumes, Federal Edition, Paul Leicester Ford, ed., New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1904,, p. 459.

1770s

A lively and lasting sense of filial duty is more effectually impressed on the mind of a son or daughter by reading King Lear, than by all the dry volumes of ethics, and divinity, that ever were written.
The God who gave us life, gave us liberty at the same time; the hand of force may destroy, but cannot disjoin them.
Truth will do well enough if left to shift for herself...
.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with inherent and inalienable Rights; that among these, are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness...
  • A lively and lasting sense of filial duty is more effectually impressed on the mind of a son or daughter by reading King Lear, than by all the dry volumes of ethics, and divinity, that ever were written.
    • Letter to Robert Skipwith (3 August 1771) ; also in The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (19 Vols., 1905) edited by Andrew A. Lipscomb and Albert Ellery Bergh, Vol.^ Jefferson, Thomas; edited by Bernard Mayo.
      • thomas jefferson - Bookseller-supplied photos - AbeBooks 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.abebooks.com [Source type: General]

      ^ We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

      ^ Letter to John Adams (7 November 1819) ME 15:224 : The Writings of Thomas Jefferson "Memorial Edition" (20 Vols., 1903-04) edited by Andrew A. Lipscomb and Albert Ellery Bergh, Vol.
      • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      4, p. .239.
  • The God who gave us life, gave us liberty at the same time; the hand of force may destroy, but cannot disjoin them.
    • Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774); The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (19 Vols., 1905) edited by Andrew A. Lipscomb and Albert Ellery Bergh, Vol.^ The God who gave us life, gave us liberty at the same time; the hand of force may destroy, but cannot disjoin them.
      • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Downloads: 0 Thomas Jefferson Views: 10 .
      • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Letter to John Taylor (28 May 1816): The Writings of Thomas Jefferson "Memorial Edition" (20 Vols., 1903-04) edited by Andrew A. Lipscomb and Albert Ellery Bergh, Vol.
      • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      1, p. .211.
  • Let those flatter, who fear: it is not an American art.^ Let those flatter, who fear: it is not an American art.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Those who fear and distrust the people, and wish to draw all powers from them into the hands of the higher classes.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Power is usurped from the people, first by implementing fear, then it is maintained by slandering as 'unpatriotic' those who refuse submission.
    • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774)
  • Our cause is just. Our union is perfect.^ Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774) Our cause is just.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Our union is perfect.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The logical conclusion would be, if giving up some rights produces a better society, then by giving up all our rights we could produce a perfect society.

    .Our internal resources are great, and, if necessary, foreign assistance is undoubtedly attainable.^ Our internal resources are great, and, if necessary, foreign assistance is undoubtedly attainable.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .We gratefully acknowledge, as signal instances of the Divine favour towards us, that his Providence would not permit us to be called into this severe controversy, until we were grown up to our present strength, had been previously exercised in warlike operation, and possessed of the means of defending ourselves.^ We gratefully acknowledge, as signal instances of the Divine favour towards us, that his Providence would not permit us to be called into this severe controversy, until we were grown up to our present strength, had been previously exercised in warlike operation, and possessed of the means of defending ourselves.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Although operations continued into 1810, the British were unable to destroy every pirate vessel and by 1811 the pirate attacks had resumed, although at a lower intensity than previously.
    • Thomas Jefferson - US President | Juggle.com 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.juggle.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It is ultimately up to us to separate the wheat from the chaff in whatever we expose our children to.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    .With hearts fortified with these animating reflections, we most solemnly, before God and the world, declare, that, exerting the utmost energy of those powers, which our beneficent Creator hath graciously bestowed upon us, the arms we have been compelled by our enemies to assume, we will, in defiance of every hazard, with unabating firmness and perseverence, employ for the preservation of our liberties; being with one mind resolved to die freemen rather than to live slaves.
  • No freeman shall be debarred the use of arms [within his own lands].
    • Draft Constitution for Virginia (June 1776) This quote often appears with the parenthetical omitted and with the spurious extension, "The strongest reason for the people to retain their right to keep and bear arms is as a last resort to protect themselves against tyranny in government".
  • Truth will do well enough if left to shift for herself. She seldom has received much aid from the power of great men to whom she is rarely known & seldom welcome.^ "All persons shall have full and free liberty of religious opinion; nor shall any be compelled to frequent or maintain any religious institution" [Thomas Jefferson, 1776, from Thomas Jefferson: A Reference Biography, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1986.
    • Thomas Jefferson Quotes- ExChristian.Net - Articles 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC exchristian.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Religious institutions that use government power in support of themselves and force their views on persons of other faiths, or of no faith, undermine all our civil rights.
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of Thomas Jefferson Quotations 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ No freeman shall be debarred the use of arms [within his own lands].
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .She has no need of force to procure entrance into the minds of men.^ She has no need of force to procure entrance into the minds of men.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There is no difference between communism and socialism, except in the means of achieving the same ultimate end: communism proposes to enslave men by force, socialism -- by vote.

    ^ Faced with the choice between changing one's mind and proving that there is no need to do so, almost everyone gets busy on the proof.

    .Error indeed has often prevailed by the assistance of power or force.^ Error indeed has often prevailed by the assistance of power or force.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Truth is the proper & sufficient antagonist to error.
    • Notes on Religion (October 1776), published in The Writings of Thomas Jefferson : 1816-1826 (1899) edited by Paul Leicester Ford, v.^ Truth is the proper & sufficient antagonist to error.
      • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ On the Missouri Compromise , in a letter to John Holmes (22 April 1820), published in The Writings of Thomas Jefferson : 1816-1826 (1899) edited by Paul Leicester Ford, v.
      • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ A: Deism was Thomas Jefferson's chosen religion.
      • Thomas Jefferson - US President | Juggle.com 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.juggle.com [Source type: General]

      2, p. .102
  • In the middle ages of Christianity opposition to the State opinions was hushed.^ In the middle ages of Christianity opposition to the State opinions was hushed.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The consequence was, Christianity became loaded with all the Romish follies.^ The consequence was, Christianity became loaded with all the Romish follies.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Nothing but free argument, raillery & even ridicule will preserve the purity of religion.^ Nothing but free argument, raillery and even ridicule will preserve the purity of religion.
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of Thomas Jefferson Quotations 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Nothing but free argument, raillery & even ridicule will preserve the purity of religion.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ All men [should]be free to profess and by argument to maintain their opinions in matters of religion, and ...the same [should]in no wise diminish, enlarge, or affect their civil capacities."
    • Thomas Jefferson Quotes- ExChristian.Net - Articles 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC exchristian.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Compulsion in religion is distinguished peculiarly from compulsion in every other thing.^ Thomas Jefferson , Works, 1829 edition, vol.
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of Thomas Jefferson Quotations 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Written works by Thomas Jefferson .
    • Thomas Jefferson - US President | Juggle.com 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.juggle.com [Source type: General]

    ^ A: Deism was Thomas Jefferson's chosen religion.
    • Thomas Jefferson - US President | Juggle.com 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.juggle.com [Source type: General]

    .I may grow rich by art I am compelled to follow, I may recover health by medicines I am compelled to take against my own judgment, but I cannot be saved by a worship I disbelieve & abhor.
  • Locke denies toleration to those who entertain opinions contrary to those moral rules necessary for the preservation of society; as for instance, that faith is not to be kept with those of another persuasion, … that dominion is founded in grace, or who will not own & teach the duty of tolerating all men in matters of religion, or who deny the existence of a god (it was a great thing to go so far—as he himself says of the parliament who framed the act of toleration … He says 'neither Pagan nor Mahomedan nor Jew ought to be excluded from the civil rights of the Commonwealth because of his religion.'^ Thomas Jefferson , Works, 1829 edition, vol.
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of Thomas Jefferson Quotations 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I May grow rich by art I am compelled to follow; I may recover health by medicines I am compelled to take against my own judgment; but I cannot be saved by a worship I disbelieve and abhor.
    • Thomas Jefferson Quotes 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.seekfind.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Written works by Thomas Jefferson .
    • Thomas Jefferson - US President | Juggle.com 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.juggle.com [Source type: General]

    .Shall we suffer a Pagan to deal with us and not suffer him to pray to his god?^ Shall we suffer a Pagan to deal with us and not suffer him to pray to his god?
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Why have Christians been distinguished above all people who have ever lived, for persecutions?^ Why have Christians been distinguished above all people who have ever lived, for persecutions?
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In Judges 21, He orders the murder of all the people of Jabesh-gilead, except for the virgin girls who were taken to be forcibly raped and married.
    • Think Progress » Ellison To Be Photographed With Koran Owned By Thomas Jefferson 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If I am to set the world right, it is to let go of it, to not cradle the people who live in it in my arms, and to let them decide what to do with the world they have created.
    • Thomas Jefferson's Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.namyth.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Is it because it is the genius of their religion?^ Is it because it is the genius of their religion?
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .No, it's genius is the reverse.^ No, it's genius is the reverse.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .It is the refusing toleration to those of a different opinion which has produced all the bustles and wars on account of religion.^ It is the refusing toleration to those of a different opinion which has produced all the bustles and wars on account of religion.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Difference of opinion is advantageous in religion.
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of Thomas Jefferson Quotations 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]
    • The Best Thomas Jefferson Quotes | Bukisa.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bukisa.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ All men [should]be free to profess and by argument to maintain their opinions in matters of religion, and ...the same [should]in no wise diminish, enlarge, or affect their civil capacities."
    • Thomas Jefferson Quotes- ExChristian.Net - Articles 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC exchristian.net [Source type: Original source]

    .It was the misfortune of mankind that during the darker centuries the Christian priests following their ambition and avarice combining with the magistrate to divide the spoils of the people, could establish the notion that schismatics might be ousted of their possessions & destroyed.^ It was the misfortune of mankind that during the darker centuries the Christian priests following their ambition and avarice combining with the magistrate to divide the spoils of the people, could establish the notion that schismatics might be ousted of their possessions & destroyed.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "During almost fifteen centuries has the legal establishment of Christianity been on trial.
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It was the misfortune of mankind that during the darker centuries the Christian priests, following their ambition and avarice, combining with the magistrate to divide the spoils of the people, could establish the notion that schismatics might be ousted of their possessions and destroyed.
    • Thomas Jefferson Quotes 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.seekfind.net [Source type: Original source]

    .This notion we have not yet cleared ourselves from.^ This notion we have not yet cleared ourselves from.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Thomas Jefferson Quotes 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.seekfind.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Notes on Religion (October, 1776).^ Notes on Religion (October, 1776).
      • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Notes on Religion (October 1776), published in The Works of Thomas Jefferson in Twelve Volumes , Federal Edition, Paul Leicester Ford , ed., New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1904, Vol.
      • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Thomas Jefferson , Notes on Religion, 1776.
      • Positive Atheism's Big List of Thomas Jefferson Quotations 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

      .Published in The Works of Thomas Jefferson in Twelve Volumes, Federal Edition, Paul Leicester Ford, ed., New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1904, Vol. 2, pp. 267.
  • Well aware that the opinions and belief of men depend not on their own will, but follow involuntarily the evidence proposed to their minds; that Almighty God hath created the mind free, and manifested his supreme will that free it shall remain by making it altogether insusceptible of restraint; that all attempts to influence it by temporal punishments, or burthens, or by civil incapacitations, tend only to beget habits of hypocrisy and meanness, and are a departure from the plan of the holy author of our religion, who being lord both of body and mind, yet choose not to propagate it by coercions on either, as was in his Almighty power to do, but to exalt it by its influence on reason alone; that the impious presumption of legislature and ruler, civil as well as ecclesiastical, who, being themselves but fallible and uninspired men, have assumed dominion over the faith of others, setting up their own opinions and modes of thinking as the only true and infallible, and as such endeavoring to impose them on others, hath established and maintained false religions over the greatest part of the world and through all time: That to compel a man to furnish contributions of money for the propagation of opinions which he disbelieves and abhors, is sinful and tyrannical; … that our civil rights have no dependence on our religious opinions, any more than our opinions in physics or geometry; and therefore the proscribing any citizen as unworthy the public confidence by laying upon him an incapacity of being called to offices of trust or emolument, unless he profess or renounce this or that religions opinion, is depriving him injudiciously of those privileges and advantages to which, in common with his fellow-citizens, he has a natural right; that it tends also to corrupt the principles of that very religion it is meant to encourage, by bribing with a monopoly of worldly honours and emolumerits, those who will externally profess and conform to it; that though indeed these are criminals who do not withstand such temptation, yet neither are those innocent who lay the bait in their way; that the opinions of men are not the object of civil government, nor under its jurisdiction; that to suffer the civil magistrate to intrude his powers into the field of opinion and to restrain the profession or propagation of principles on supposition of their ill tendency is a dangerous fallacy, which at once destroys all religious liberty, … and finally, that truth is great and will prevail if left to herself; that she is the proper and sufficient antagonist to error, and has nothing to fear from the conflict unless by human interposition disarmed of her natural weapons, free argument and debate ; errors ceasing to be dangerous when it is permitted freely to contradict them.

Declaration of Independence (1776)

For more quotes from and about this document, see United States Declaration of Independence
For the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.
  • When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
  • We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with inherent and inalienable Rights; that among these, are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness; that to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the people to alter or abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.
  • For the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.

1780s

.
The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants.
^ The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time, with the blood of patriots and tyrants.
  • The Best Thomas Jefferson Quotes | Bukisa.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bukisa.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The tree of liberty must from time to time be refreshed with the blood of patriots and tyrants.
  • What is Thomas Jefferson? 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Sixth Grade Wiki / thomas jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC iwarner.pbworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants.
  • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Best Thomas Jefferson Quotes | Bukisa.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bukisa.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Jefferson Quotes 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.seekfind.net [Source type: Original source]

It is its natural manure.
I had rather be shut up in a very modest cottage with my books, my family and a few old friends, dining on simple bacon, and letting the world roll on as it liked, than to occupy the most splendid post, which any human power can give.
.
I never submitted the whole system of my opinions to the creed of any party of men whatever in religion, in philosophy, in politics, or in anything else where I was capable of thinking for myself.
  • He who permits himself to tell a lie once, finds it much easier to do it a second and third time, till at length it becomes habitual; he tells lies without attending to it, and truths without the world's believing him.^ I never submitted the whole system of my opinions to the creed of any party of men whatever in religion, in philosophy, in politics, or in anything else where I was capable of thinking for myself.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He who permits himself to tell a lie once, finds it much easier to do it a second and third time, till at length it becomes habitual; he tells lies without attending to it, and truths without the world's believing him .
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I never had an opinion in politics or religion which I was afraid to own.
    • Sixth Grade Wiki / thomas jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC iwarner.pbworks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .This falsehood of tongue leads to that of the heart, and in time depraves all its good dispositions.^ This falsehood of tongue leads to that of the heart, and in time depraves all its good dispositions.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • What a stupendous, what an incomprehensible machine is man!^ Thomas Jefferson, Letter to Peter Carr, August 10, 1787 .
    • Think Progress » Ellison To Be Photographed With Koran Owned By Thomas Jefferson 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Letter to Peter Carr (19 August 1785) What a stupendous, what an incomprehensible machine is man!
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thomas Jefferson, letter to his nephew Peter Carr , August 10, 1787; from Merrill D. Peterson, ed., Thomas Jefferson: Writings , New York: Library of America, 1984, pp.
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Who can endure toil, famine, stripes, imprisonment and death itself in vindication of his own liberty, and the next moment .^ Who can endure toil, famine, stripes, imprisonment and death itself in vindication of his own liberty, and the next moment .
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It behooves every man who values liberty of conscience for himself, to resist invasions of it in the case of others: or their case may, by change of circumstances, become his own.
    • The Best Thomas Jefferson Quotes | Bukisa.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bukisa.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Fellow-citizens, there is not one of us, there is not one of us here present, who does not, at this moment, and at every moment, experience in his own condition, and in the condition of those most near and dear to him, the influence and the benefits of this liberty and these institutions.
    • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

    . . inflict on his fellow men a bondage, one hour of which is fraught with more misery than ages of that which he rose in rebellion to oppose.
    • Letter to Jean Nicholas Demeunier (24 January 1786) Bergh 17:103
  • Our liberty depends on the freedom of the press, and that cannot be limited without being lost.
    • Letter to Dr. James Currie (28 January 1786) Lipscomb & Bergh 18:ii
  • The two principles on which our conduct towards the Indians should be founded, are justice and fear. .After the injuries we have done them, they cannot love us .^ After the injuries we have done them, they cannot love us .
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    . . . .
    • Letter to Benjamin Hawkins (13 August 1786) Lipscomb & Bergh ed.^ Letter to Benjamin Hawkins (13 August 1786) Lipscomb & Bergh ed.
      • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Letter to James Madison (30 January 1787); referring to Shays' Rebellion Lipscomb & Bergh ed.
      • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Thomas Jefferson, letter to George Wythe , August 13, 1786; from Merrill D. Peterson, ed., Thomas Jefferson: Writings , New York: Library of America, 1984, p.
      • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

      .5:390
  • The basis of our government being the opinion of the people, the very first object should be to keep that right; and were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers, or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.^ The purpose of government is to rein in the rights of the people.

    ^ The basis of our government being the opinion of the people, the very first object should be to keep that right; and were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers, or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The rights of the individual should be the primary object of all governments.

    .
    • Letter to Colonel Edward Carrington (16 January 1787) Lipscomb & Bergh ed.^ Letter to James Madison (30 January 1787); referring to Shays' Rebellion Lipscomb & Bergh ed.
      • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Letter to Colonel Edward Carrington (16 January 1787) Lipscomb & Bergh ed.
      • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Letter to Colonel Edward Carrington (16 January 1787) I hold it, that a little rebellion, now and then, is a good thing, and as necessary in the political world as storms in the physical.
      • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .6:57
  • Experience declares that man is the only animal which devours his own kind; for I can apply no milder term to the governments of Europe, and to the general prey of the rich on the poor.^ Experience demands that man is the only animal which devours his own kind, for I can apply no milder term to the general prey of the rich on the poor.
    • The Best Thomas Jefferson Quotes | Bukisa.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bukisa.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Experience declares that man is the only animal which devours his own kind; for I can apply no milder term to the governments of Europe, and to the general prey of the rich on the poor.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ My only comfort and confidence is, that I shall not live to see this; and I envy not the present generation the glory of throwing away the fruits of their father's sacrifices of life and fortune, and of rendering desperate the experiment which was to decide ultimately whether man is capable of self-government.

    .
    • Letter to Colonel Edward Carrington (16 January 1787)
  • I hold it, that a little rebellion, now and then, is a good thing, and as necessary in the political world as storms in the physical.^ I like a little rebellion now and then.

    ^ Letter to Colonel Edward Carrington (16 January 1787) Lipscomb & Bergh ed.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I hold it, that a little rebellion, now and then, is a good thing, and as necessary in the political world as storms in the physical.
    • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter to James Madison (30 January 1787); referring to Shays' Rebellion Lipscomb & Bergh ed.^ Letter to James Madison , 30 Jan 1787 23.
      • What is Thomas Jefferson? 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Letter to Colonel Edward Carrington (16 January 1787) Lipscomb & Bergh ed.
      • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Letter to James Madison (30 January 1787); referring to Shays' Rebellion Lipscomb & Bergh ed.
      • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .6:65
  • God forbid we should ever be twenty years without such a rebellion.^ God forbid we should ever be twenty years without such a rebellion.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The people cannot be all, and always, well informed.^ The people cannot be all, and always, well informed.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In all history there is no war which was not hatched by the governments, the governments alone, independent of the interests of the people, to whom war is always pernicious even when successful.

    ^ Jefferson did not originate the concept of government by consent and the belief that all people are endowed with certain rights that government cannot infringe upon.

    .The part which is wrong will be discontented, in proportion to the importance of the facts they misconceive.^ The part which is wrong will be discontented, in proportion to the importance of the facts they misconceive.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Neither individuals nor nations can perform part well, until they understand and feel its importance, and comprehend and justly appreciate all the duties belonging to it.
    • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

    .If they remain quiet under such misconceptions, it is lethargy, the forerunner of death to the public liberty.^ If they remain quiet under such misconceptions, it is lethargy, the forerunner of death to the public liberty.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Health, learning, and virtue will insure your happiness; they will give you a quiet conscience, private esteem and public honor.
    • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

    ... .What country before ever existed a century and half without a rebellion?^ What country before ever existed a century and half without a rebellion?
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .And what country can preserve its liberties if their rulers are not warned from time to time that their people preserve the spirit of resistance?^ And what country can preserve its liberties if their rulers are not warned from time to time that their people preserve the spirit of resistance?
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Every time that we try to lift a problem from our own shoulders, and shift that problem to the hands of the government, to the same extent we are sacrificing the liberties of our people.

    ^ I offer my sincere prayers to the Supreme Ruler of the Universe, that He may long preserve our country in freedom and prosperity.
    • Thomas Jefferson Quotes 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.seekfind.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Let them take arms.^ Let them take arms.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • The Best Thomas Jefferson Quotes | Bukisa.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bukisa.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The remedy is to set them right as to facts, pardon and pacify them.^ The remedy is to set them right as to facts, pardon and pacify them.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The remedy is to set them right as to the facts, pardon and pacify them.
    • The Best Thomas Jefferson Quotes | Bukisa.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bukisa.com [Source type: Original source]

    .What signify a few lives lost in a century or two?^ What signify a few lives lost in a century or two?
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Thomas Jefferson - LoveToKnow 1911 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Thomas Jefferson 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC home.att.net [Source type: Original source]
    • Quotes from the Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.dojgov.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ American has been on the verge of its own social destruction for the past two centuries where we have lost all since of human responsibility and decency in the country.
    • Thomas Jefferson at allvoices.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.allvoices.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Concerning the Shays' Rebellion after he had heard of the bloodshed, Jefferson wrote to William S. Smith , John Adams's son-in-law, "What signify a few lives lost in a century or two?
    • Sixth Grade Wiki / thomas jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC iwarner.pbworks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants.^ The tree of liberty must from time to time be refreshed with the blood of patriots and tyrants.
    • What is Thomas Jefferson? 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time, with the blood of patriots and tyrants.
    • The Best Thomas Jefferson Quotes | Bukisa.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bukisa.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • The Best Thomas Jefferson Quotes | Bukisa.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bukisa.com [Source type: Original source]

    .It is its natural manure.
  • When we get piled upon one another in large cities, as in Europe, we shall become corrupt as in Europe.^ When we get piled upon one another in large cities, as in Europe, we shall become as corrupt as Europe .
    • Thomas Jefferson Quotes 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.seekfind.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Letter to William Smith , 13 Nov 1787 31.
    • What is Thomas Jefferson? 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Letter to William Stephens Smith (13 November 1787), quoted in Padover's Jefferson On Democracy When we get piled upon one another in large cities, as in Europe, we shall become corrupt as in Europe.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter to James Madison (20 December 1787), The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (19 Vols., 1905) edited by Andrew A. Lipscomb and Albert Ellery Bergh, Vol.^ Comment on establishing the University of Virginia, in a letter to Thomas Cooper (7 October 1814); published in The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (1905) edited by Andrew Adgate Lipscomb and Albert Ellery Bergh, Vol VII, p.
      • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Letter to Oliver Evans, (16 January 1814); published in The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (1905) Vol.
      • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ November 1813, ME 13:431 : The Writings of Thomas Jefferson "Memorial Edition" (20 Vols., 1903-04) edited by Andrew A. Lipscomb and Albert Ellery Bergh, Vol.
      • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      VI, p. .392.
  • I had rather be shut up in a very modest cottage with my books, my family and a few old friends, dining on simple bacon, and letting the world roll on as it liked, than to occupy the most splendid post, which any human power can give.
    • Letter to Alexander Donald (7 February 1788)
  • Paper is poverty,...^ I had rather be shut up in a very modest cottage with my books, my family and a few old friends, dining on simple bacon, and letting the world roll on as it liked, than to occupy the most splendid post, which any human power can give.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The lawn rises gradually as a series of stepped terraces, each a few feet higher than the last, rising up to the library set in the most prominent position at the top, while also suggesting that the Academical Village facilitates easier movement to the future.
    • What is Thomas Jefferson? 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]
    • Sixth Grade Wiki / thomas jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC iwarner.pbworks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I don’t think that would be the case in my family, because my children would have to talk up a storm to convince me.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    it is only the ghost of money, and not money itself. .
    • Letter to Colonel Edward Carrington (27 May 1788) ME 7:36
  • Whenever the people are well informed, they can be trusted with their own government; that whenever things get so far wrong as to attract their notice, they may be relied on to set them to rights.^ Whenever the people are well-informed, they can be trusted with their own government.
    • The Best Thomas Jefferson Quotes | Bukisa.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bukisa.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Letter to Colonel Edward Carrington (27 May 1788) ME 7:36 Whenever the people are well informed, they can be trusted with their own government; that whenever things get so far wrong as to attract their notice, they may be relied on to set them to rights.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Let the people think they govern and they will be governed.

    .
    • Letter to Richard Price (8 January 1789)
  • I never submitted the whole system of my opinions to the creed of any party of men whatever in religion, in philosophy, in politics, or in anything else where I was capable of thinking for myself. Such an addiction is the last degradation of a free and moral agent.^ Thomas Jefferson , letter to Richard Price from Paris, January 8, 1789.
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of Thomas Jefferson Quotations 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Such an addiction is the last degradation of a free and moral agent.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Thomas Jefferson Quotes- ExChristian.Net - Articles 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC exchristian.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I never considered a difference of opinion in politics, in religion, in philosophy, as cause for withdrawing from a friend.
    • The Best Thomas Jefferson Quotes | Bukisa.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bukisa.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter to Francis Hopkinson (13 March 1789)
  • I say, the earth belongs to each of these generations during its course, fully and in its own right.^ Letter to Francis Hopkinson (13 March 1789) I say, the earth belongs to each of these generations during its course, fully and in its own right.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The earth belongs always to the living generation."
    • What is Thomas Jefferson? 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Among these last, the poorest laborer stood on equal ground with the wealthiest millionaire, and generally on a more favored one whenever their rights seem to jar.
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of Thomas Jefferson Quotations 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The second generation receives it clear of the debts and incumbrances of the first, the third of the second, and so on.^ The second generation receives it clear of the debts and incumbrances of the first, the third of the second, and so on.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To wage war, you need first of all money; second, you need money, and third, you also need money.
    • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For if the first could charge it with a debt, then the earth would belong to the dead and not to the living generation.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .For if the first could charge it with a debt, then the earth would belong to the dead and not to the living generation.^ The earth belongs always to the living generation."
    • What is Thomas Jefferson? 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The earth belongs to the living, not to the dead.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • The Best Thomas Jefferson Quotes | Bukisa.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bukisa.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For if the first could charge it with a debt, then the earth would belong to the dead and not to the living generation.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    Then, no generation can contract debts greater than may be paid during the course of its own existence.

Letter to Peter Carr (1787)

.Letter to his nephew Peter Carr from Paris, France, (10 August 1787).^ Quotation ' Not Found ,' popularly alleged to have been in a letter to his nephew, Peter Carr.
  • Positive Atheism's Big List of Thomas Jefferson Quotations 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Jefferson, Letter to Peter Carr, August 10, 1787 .
  • Think Progress » Ellison To Be Photographed With Koran Owned By Thomas Jefferson 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Jefferson , to Peter Carr, 10 August 1787.
  • Positive Atheism's Big List of Thomas Jefferson Quotations 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

Published in The Works of Thomas Jefferson in Twelve Volumes, Federal Edition, Paul Leicester Ford, ed., New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1904, Vol. 5, pp. 324–327.
.
The moral sense, or conscience, is as much a part of man as his leg or arm.
^ The moral sense, or conscience, is as much a part of man as his leg or arm.
  • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There comes a time when a moral man can't obey a law which his conscience tells him is unjust.

^ "O'Meara's book proves that nature had denied Bonaparte the moral sense, the first excellence of well organized man.
  • Thomas Jefferson's Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.namyth.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is given to all human beings in a stronger or weaker degree, as force of members is given them in a greater or less degree.^ It is given to all human beings in a stronger or weaker degree, as force of members is given them in a greater or less degree.
  • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A libertarian is a person who believes that no one has the right, under any circumstances, to initiate force against another human being, or to advocate or delegate its initiation.

^ Those (who) seek to establish systems of Government based on the regimentation of all Human Beings by a handful of individual rulers...call this a new order.

It may be strengthened by exercise, as may any particular limb of the body.
.
I repeat, you must lay aside all prejudice on both sides, and neither believe nor reject anything, because any other persons, or description of persons, have rejected or believed it.
^ I repeat, you must lay aside all prejudice on both sides, and neither believe nor reject anything, because any other persons, or description of persons, have rejected or believed it.
  • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In fine, I repeat, you must lay aside all prejudice on both sides, and neither believe nor reject anything, because any other persons, or description of persons, have rejected or believed it.
  • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Religious institutions that use government power in support of themselves and force their views on persons of other faiths, or of no faith, undermine all our civil rights.
  • Positive Atheism's Big List of Thomas Jefferson Quotations 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

.Your own reason is the only oracle given you by heaven, and you are answerable, not for the rightness, but uprightness of the decision.
  • He who made us would have been a pitiful bungler, if he had made the rules of our moral conduct a matter of science.^ If you don't know your rights, you don't have any.

    ^ You only have the rights you are willing to fight for.

    ^ Your own reason is the only oracle given you by heaven, and you are answerable, not for the rightness, but uprightness of the decision.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    .For one man of science, there are thousands who are not.^ For one man of science, there are thousands who are not.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The exciting canvas established one fact: there was no man in the United States so devotedly loved and so fiercely hated as Thomas Jefferson.
    • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There are five students involved in TJE. One of them is an excellent young lady who is well adjusted and literate and intelligent.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    .What would have become of them?
    Man was destined for society.^ Man was destined for society.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .His morality, therefore, was to be formed to this object.^ His morality, therefore, was to be formed to this object.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .He was endowed with a sense of right and wrong, merely relative to this.
  • The moral sense, or conscience, is as much a part of man as his leg or arm.^ The moral sense, or conscience, is as much a part of man as his leg or arm.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He was endowed with a sense of right and wrong, merely relative to this.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If he could seriously and repeatedly affirm that he had raised himself to power without ever having committed a crime, it proves that he wanted totally the sense of right and wrong.
    • Thomas Jefferson's Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.namyth.com [Source type: Original source]

    .It is given to all human beings in a stronger or weaker degree, as force of members is given them in a greater or less degree.^ It is given to all human beings in a stronger or weaker degree, as force of members is given them in a greater or less degree.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Though vividly written, I cannot imagine someone being forced to read it and getting anything at all out if it.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A libertarian is a person who believes that no one has the right, under any circumstances, to initiate force against another human being, or to advocate or delegate its initiation.

    .It may be strengthened by exercise, as may any particular limb of the body.
    This sense is submitted, indeed, in some degree, to the guidance of reason; but it is a small stock which is required for this: even a less one than what we call common sense.^ This sense is submitted, indeed, in some degree, to the guidance of reason; but it is a small stock which is required for this: even a less one than what we call common sense.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It may be strengthened by exercise, as may any particular limb of the body.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Some may wish to go so far as to post an alert to their readers, similar to this one, pointing out that this quotation is under strong suspicion.
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of Thomas Jefferson Quotations 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    .State a moral case to a ploughman and a professor.^ State a moral case to a ploughman and a professor.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The former will decide it as well, and often better than the latter, because he has not been led astray by artificial rules.
  • Above all things, lose no occasion of exercising your dispositions to be grateful, to be generous, to be charitable, to be humane, to be true, just, firm, orderly, courageous, &c.^ No, this isn’t true at all.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Above all things, lose no occasion of exercising your dispositions to be grateful, to be generous, to be charitable, to be humane, to be true, just, firm, orderly, courageous, &c.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Your brand of superstition is no better than anyone else’s.
    • Think Progress » Ellison Takes Swearing-In Photograph With Koran 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

    .Consider every act of this kind, as an exercise which will strengthen your moral faculties and increase your worth.
  • Your reason is now mature enough to examine this object [religion].^ Your reason is now mature enough to examine this object [religion].
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Me: Your words of kindness and honesty are enough for me.
    • Thomas Jefferson's Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.namyth.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Consider every act of this kind, as an exercise which will strengthen your moral faculties and increase your worth.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .In the first place divest yourself of all bias in favour of novelty & singularity of opinion.^ In the first place divest yourself of all bias in favour of novelty & singularity of opinion.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Indulge them in any other subject rather than that of religion.^ Indulge them in any other subject rather than that of religion.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is a longing for a King, and an English King rather than any other.
    • Thomas Jefferson's Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.namyth.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This proves rather more than, that the law is not necessary to the support of religion."
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    .It is too important, & the consequences of error may be too serious.^ It is too important, & the consequences of error may be too serious.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .On the other hand shake off all the fears & servile prejudices under which weak minds are servilely crouched.^ On the other hand shake off all the fears & servile prejudices under which weak minds are servilely crouched.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But he had a Queen of absolute sway over his weak mind, and timid virtue; and of a character the reverse of his in all points.

    ^ Louis Stanislas: Thank you for reporting this situation Danny, however I fear Norman's mind games have paid off on you.
    • Thomas Jefferson's Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.namyth.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Fix reason firmly in her seat, and call to her tribunal every fact, every opinion.^ Fix reason firmly in her seat, and call on her tribunal for every fact, every opinion.
    • Thomas Jefferson Quotes- ExChristian.Net - Articles 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC exchristian.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Fix reason firmly in her seat, and call to her tribunal every fact, every opinion.
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of Thomas Jefferson Quotations 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The fact is, religion is a scourge that threatens humanity on every level — from jihads (once again, name a religion) to its war on human knowledge, reason and the Golden Rule.
    • Think Progress » Ellison Takes Swearing-In Photograph With Koran 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

    .Question with boldness even the existence of a god; because, if there be one, he must more approve the homage of reason, than that of blindfolded fear. Scan of the original page at The Library of Congress.
  • You will naturally examine first, the religion of your own country.^ Love your country but fear its government.

    ^ You will naturally examine first, the religion of your own country.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There's one for you, nineteen for me.

    .Read the Bible, then as you would read Livy or Tacitus.^ Read the Bible, then as you would read Livy or Tacitus .
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Read the Bible as you would Livy or Tacitus.
    • Thomas Jefferson Quotes- ExChristian.Net - Articles 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC exchristian.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Read the Bible, then as you would read Livy or Tacitus.
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The facts which are within the ordinary course of nature, you will believe on the authority of the writer, as you do those of the same kind in Livy and Tacitus.^ The facts which are within the ordinary course of nature, you will believe on the authority of the writer, as you do those of the same kind in Livy and Tacitus.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A few facts however which I can readily recall to your memory, will suffice to prove to you that nature has not organized you for our moral direction.
    • Thomas Jefferson's Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.namyth.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We have the same evidence of the fact as of most of those we act on, to wit: their own affirmations, and their reasonings in support of them.
    • Thomas Jefferson Quotes- ExChristian.Net - Articles 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC exchristian.net [Source type: Original source]

    .The testimony of the writer weighs in their favor, in one scale, and their not being against the laws of nature, does not weigh against them.^ The testimony of the writer weighs in their favor, in one scale, and their not being against the laws of nature, does not weigh against them.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Being tolerant does not mean that I share another one's belief.

    ^ If it does not add weight in the scale of the confederacy, it cannot add to their rights, nor weigh in argument.

    .But those facts in the Bible which contradict the laws of nature, must be examined with more care, and under a variety of faces.^ But those facts in the Bible which contradict the laws of nature, must be examined with more care, and under a variety of faces.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The second then should naturally be a statement of facts showing that I have conformed to those principles.

    ^ It recognizes as a fact of nature the structural differences inherent in man in temperament, character, and capacity and it respects those differences.

    .Here you must recur to the pretensions of the writer to inspiration from God.^ Here you must recur to the pretensions of the writer to inspiration from God.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Jami 6/3/2008 at 12:46 pm Here is the list you must have been referencing earlier, Julie.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Because these Pseudo-evangelists pretended to inspiration, as much as the others, and you are to judge their pretensions by your own reason, and not by the reason of those ecclesiastics."
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Examine upon what evidence his pretensions are founded, and whether that evidence is so strong, as that its falsehood would be more improbable than a change in the laws of nature, in the case he relates.^ Examine upon what evidence his pretensions are founded, and whether that evidence is so strong, as that its falsehood would be more improbable than a change in the laws of nature, in the case he relates.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For nothing is more destructive of respect for the government and the law of the land than passing laws which cannot be enforced.

    ^ It would be more pardonable to believe in no God at all, than to blaspheme him by the atrocious, attributes of Calvin.
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of Thomas Jefferson Quotations 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    .For example in the book of Joshua we are told the sun stood still several hours.^ For example, in the book of Joshua, we are told, the sun stood still several hours.
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For example in the book of Joshua we are told the sun stood still several hours.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For example, in the book of Joshua we are told the sun stood still for several hours.
    • Thomas Jefferson Quotes- ExChristian.Net - Articles 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC exchristian.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Were we to read that fact in Livy or Tacitus we should class it with their showers of blood, speaking of statues, beasts, etc.^ Were we to read that fact in Livy or Tacitus we should class it with their showers of blood, speaking of statues, beasts, etc.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Were we to read that fact in Livy or Tacitus, we should class it with their showers of blood, speaking of statues, beasts, etc.
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Were we to read that fact in Livy or Tacitus we should class it with their showers of blood, speaking of their statues, beasts, etc.
    • Thomas Jefferson Quotes- ExChristian.Net - Articles 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC exchristian.net [Source type: Original source]

    .But it is said that the writer of that book was inspired.^ But it is said, that the writer of that book was inspired.
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But it is said that the writer of that book was inspired.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Thomas Jefferson Quotes- ExChristian.Net - Articles 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC exchristian.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Examine therefore candidly what evidence there is of his having been inspired.^ Examine, therefore, candidly, what evidence there is of his having been inspired.
    • Thomas Jefferson Quotes- ExChristian.Net - Articles 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC exchristian.net [Source type: Original source]
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Examine therefore candidly what evidence there is of his having been inspired.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The pretension is entitled to your inquiry, because millions believe it.
    On the other hand you are astronomer enough to know how contrary it is to the law of nature that a body revolving on its axis as the earth does, should have stopped, should not by that sudden stoppage have prostrated animals, trees, buildings, and should after a certain time have resumed its revolution, & that without a second general prostration.^ Because if you can’t it’s just in your head.
    • Think Progress » Ellison To Be Photographed With Koran Owned By Thomas Jefferson 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On the other hand, you are astronomer enough to know how contrary it is to the law of nature" [Thomas Jefferson, letter to Peter Carr, Aug.
    • Thomas Jefferson Quotes- ExChristian.Net - Articles 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC exchristian.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ True, you & I know this, but your friends do not know it.
    • Thomas Jefferson's Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.namyth.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Is this arrest of the earth's motion, or the evidence which affirms it, most within the law of probabilities?
  • You will next read the new testament.^ You will next read the new testament.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Is this arrest of the earth's motion, or the evidence which affirms it, most within the law of probabilities?
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You will next read the New Testament.
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    .It is the history of a personage called Jesus.
    Keep in your eye the opposite pretensions 1. of those who say he was begotten by god, born of a virgin, suspended & reversed the laws of nature at will, & ascended bodily into heaven: and 2. of those who say he was a man of illegitimate birth, of a benevolent heart, enthusiastic mind, who set out without pretensions to divinity, ended in believing them, & was Punished capitally for sedition by being gibbeted according to the Roman law which punished the first commission of that offence by whipping, & the second by exile or death in furcâ.
  • Do not be frightened from this inquiry by any fear of its consequences.^ Keep in your eye the opposite pretensions 1.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It’s mysterious and holy for those who believe it.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Punished capitally for sedition by being gibbeted according to the Roman law which punished the first commission of that offence by whipping, & the second by exile or death in furcâ .
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .If it ends in a belief that there is no god, you will find incitements to virtue in the comfort and pleasantness you feel in its exercise, and the love of others which it will procure you.
    If you find reason to believe there is a God, a consciousness that you are acting under his eye, and that he approves you, will be a vast additional incitement; if that there be a future state, the hope of a happy existence in that increases the appetite to deserve it; if that Jesus was also a god, you will be comforted by a belief of his aid and love.
  • In fine, I repeat, you must lay aside all prejudice on both sides, and neither believe nor reject anything, because any other persons, or description of persons, have rejected or believed it.^ If it ends in a belief that there is no god, you will find incitements to virtue in the comfort and pleasantness you feel in its' exercise, and the love of others which it will procure you.
    • Thomas Jefferson Quotes- ExChristian.Net - Articles 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC exchristian.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There is no God!
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If it ends in a belief that there is no God, you will find incitements to virtue in the comfort and pleasantness you feel in its exercise, and the love of others which it will procure you.
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Your own reason is the only oracle given you by heaven, and you are answerable, not for the rightness, but uprightness of the decision.
  • When speaking of the new testament that you should read all the histories of Christ, as well of those whom a council of ecclesiastics have decided for us to be Pseudo-evangelists, as those they named Evangelists. Because these Pseudo-evangelists pretended to inspiration as much as the others, and you are to judge their pretensions by your own reason, & not by the reason of those ecclesiastics.^ If you don't know your rights, you don't have any.

    ^ Because if you can’t it’s just in your head.
    • Think Progress » Ellison To Be Photographed With Koran Owned By Thomas Jefferson 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You will next read the new testament.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Most of these are lost.^ Most of these are lost.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    There are some however still extant, collected by Fabricius which I will endeavor to get & send you.

1790s

.
I would rather be exposed to the inconveniences attending too much liberty, than those attending too small a degree of it.
  • The republican is the only form of government which is not eternally at open or secret war with the rights of mankind.^ The republican is the only form of government which is not eternally at open or secret war with the rights of mankind.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I would rather be exposed to the inconveniences attending too much liberty than to those attending too small a degree of it.

    ^ I would rather be exposed to the inconveniences attending too much liberty than those attending a too small degree of it.
    • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter to William Hunter (11 March 1790)
  • We are not to expect to be translated from despotism to liberty in a featherbed.
  • I consider the foundation of the Constitution as laid on this ground: That "all powers not delegated to the United States, by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States or to the people." To take a single step beyond the boundaries thus specially drawn around the powers of Congress, is to take possession of a boundless field of power, no longer susceptible of any definition.^ United States Constitution (1787) .
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When government accepts responsibility for people, then people no longer take responsibility for themselves.

    ^ To take a single step beyond the boundaries thus specially drawn around the powers of Congress, is to take possession of a boundless field of power, no longer susceptible of any definition.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]


    .The incorporation of a bank, and the powers assumed by this bill, have not, in my opinion, been delegated to the United States, by the Constitution...^ United States Constitution (1787) .
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The incorporation of a bank, and the powers assumed by this bill, have not, in my opinion, been delegated to the United States, by the Constitution...
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The incorporation of a bank and the powers assumed [by legislation doing so] have not, in my opinion, been delegated to the United States by the Constitution.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .They are not among the powers specially enumerated...^ They are not among the powers specially enumerated...
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They are not among the powers specially enumerated.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Opinion on creating a National Bank (1791), also quoted in The Writings of Thomas Jefferson "Memorial Edition" (20 Vols., 1903-04) edited by Andrew A. Lipscomb and Albert Ellery Bergh, Vol.^ This section was added by an editor primarily citing The Writings of Thomas Jefferson Memorial Edition (Lipscomb and Bergh, editors) (ME) 20 Vols., Washington, D.C., (1903-04) as the source.
      • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Letter to John Adams (7 November 1819) ME 15:224 : The Writings of Thomas Jefferson "Memorial Edition" (20 Vols., 1903-04) edited by Andrew A. Lipscomb and Albert Ellery Bergh, Vol.
      • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Letter to James Madison (20 December 1787), The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (19 Vols., 1905) edited by Andrew A. Lipscomb and Albert Ellery Bergh, Vol.
      • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      3, p. .146
  • I would rather be exposed to the inconveniences attending too much liberty, than those attending too small a degree of it.
    • Letter to Archibald Stuart [1] [2], Philadelphia (23 December 1791)
  • Let what will be said or done, preserve your sang-froid immovably, and to every obstacle, oppose patience, perseverance, and soothing language.^ I would rather be exposed to the inconveniences attending too much liberty than those attending a too small degree of it.
    • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Letter to Archibald Stuart [1] [2] , Philadelphia (23 December 1791) Let what will be said or done, preserve your sang-froid immovably, and to every obstacle, oppose patience, perseverance, and soothing language.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I would rather be exposed to the inconveniences attending too much liberty, than those attending too small a degree of it.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter to William Short (18 March 1792)
  • We confide in our strength, without boasting of it; we respect that of others, without fearing it.^ Letter to George Washington (16 May 1792) We confide in our strength, without boasting of it; we respect that of others, without fearing it.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Letter to William Short (18 March 1792) Delay is preferable to error.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Letter to William Short (13 April 1820) I had for a long time ceased to read newspapers, or pay any attention to public affairs, confident they were in good hands, and content to be a passenger in our bark to the shore from which I am not distant.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter to William Carmichael and William Short (1793)
  • The second office of the government is honorable and easy, the first is but a splendid misery.^ Letter to William Carmichael and William Short (1793) The second office of the government is honorable and easy, the first is but a splendid misery.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thomas Jefferson, letter to William Short , April 13, 1820, Works , Vol.
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thomas Jefferson, letter to William Short , August 4, 1820; from Merrill D. Peterson, ed., Thomas Jefferson: Writings , New York: Library of America, 1984, p.
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter to Elbridge Gerry (13 May 1797)
  • It was by the sober sense of our citizens that we were safely and steadily conducted from monarchy to republicanism, and it is by the same agency alone we can be kept from falling back.^ Letter to Elbridge Gerry (13 May 1797) It was by the sober sense of our citizens that we were safely and steadily conducted from monarchy to republicanism, and it is by the same agency alone we can be kept from falling back.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He was conducted back to his house with the same demonstrations of affection and anxiety.

    ^ Letter to Elbridge Gerry (1799) Commerce with all nations, alliance with none, should be our motto.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter to Arthur Campbell (1797)
  • A little patience, and we shall see the reign of witches pass over, their spells dissolve, and the people, recovering their true sight, restore their government to its true principles.^ Letter to Arthur Campbell (1797) A little patience, and we shall see the reign of witches pass over, their spells dissolve, and the people, recovering their true sight, restore their government to its true principles.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If the game runs sometimes against us at home we must have patience till luck turns, and then we shall have an opportunity of winning back the principles we have lost, for this is a game where principles are at stake.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ True federalism is when the people of the states set limits to the central government.

    .It is true that in the meantime we are suffering deeply in spirit, and incurring the horrors of a war and long oppressions of enormous public debt.^ It is true that in the meantime we are suffering deeply in spirit, and incurring the horrors of a war and long oppressions of enormous public debt.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ War paralyzes your courage and deadens the spirit of true manhood.
    • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    .If the game runs sometimes against us at home we must have patience till luck turns, and then we shall have an opportunity of winning back the principles we have lost, for this is a game where principles are at stake.^ If the game runs sometimes against us at home we must have patience till luck turns, and then we shall have an opportunity of winning back the principles we have lost, for this is a game where principles are at stake.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Once we understand the basic principles which must be observed if freedom is to be safeguarded against government, we may become more hesitant in turning our personal problems and responsibilities over to that agency of coercion, with its insatiable appetite for power.

    ^ In fact, many of our die-hard tjeders have now completely turned their back on this principle because of seeing the results in the children.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Resolved ...^ They also passed the Alien and Sedition Acts.

    ^ From a letter to John Taylor (June 1798), after the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts .
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Portrait of Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale , 1800 With the Quasi-War , an undeclared naval war with France, underway, the Federalists under John Adams started a navy, built up the army, levied new taxes, readied for war, and enacted the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798.
    • What is Thomas Jefferson? 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

    that it would be a dangerous delusion were a confidence in the men of our choice to silence our fears for the safety of our rights: that confidence is everywhere the parent of despotism — free government is founded in jealousy, and not in confidence; .
  • War is an instrument entirely inefficient toward redressing wrong; and multiplies, instead of indemnifying losses.^ War is an instrument entirely inefficient toward redressing wrong; and multiplies, instead of indemnifying losses.
    • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Instead of a long and bloody war for the restoration privileges, for redress of grievances, for chartered immunities, held under a British king, set before them the glorious object of entire independence, and it will breathe into them anew the breath of life.
    • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The first occurred in 1798, when Virginia and Kentucky passed nullification resolutions.
    • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter to John Sinclair (1798)
  • As pure a son of liberty as I have ever known.^ Letter to John Sinclair (1798) As pure a son of liberty as I have ever known.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Letter to John Taylor (26 November 1798), shortened in The Money Masters to "I wish it were possible to obtain a single amendment to our Constitution ...
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ From a letter to John Taylor (June 1798), after the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts .
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • It is jealousy and not confidence which prescribes limited constitutions, to bind down those whom we are obliged to trust with power...^ About Tadeusz Kościuszko , in a letter to Horatio Gates (1798) It is jealousy and not confidence which prescribes limited constitutions, to bind down those whom we are obliged to trust with power...
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The purchase was, in fact, within those implied powers of the Constitution which had always been contended for by the Federalists, and such leaders as Hamilton and Morris acknowledged this.
    • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Those with whom we act, entertaining different views, have the power and the right of carrying them into practice.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Our Constitution has accordingly fixed the limits to which, and no further, our confidence may go...^ I need go no further in this argument.
    • A Thomas Jefferson Education? | Times & Seasons 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Our Constitution has accordingly fixed the limits to which, and no further, our confidence may go...
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Constitution poses no threat to our current form of government.

    .In questions of power, then, let no more be heard of confidence in man, but bind him down from mischief by the chains of the Constitution.^ In questions of power, then, let no more be heard of confidence in man, but bind him down from mischief by the chains of the Constitution.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It would be more pardonable to believe in no god at all, than to blaspheme him by the atrocious attributes of Calvin.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Thomas Jefferson Quotes- ExChristian.Net - Articles 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC exchristian.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He seems to have thought, on this occasion, that a man can no more abandon the proper duties of his profession, than he can abandon other duties.
    • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Draft Kentucky Resolution (1798. ME 17:388)
  • I am for freedom of religion, & against all maneuvres to bring about a legal ascendancy of one sect over another.
    • Letter to Elbridge Gerry (1799)
  • To preserve the freedom of the human mind then and freedom of the press, every spirit should be ready to devote itself to martyrdom; for as long as we may think as we will, and speak as we think, the condition of man will proceed in improvement.^ Commerce with all nations, alliance with none, should be our motto.
    • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Letter to Thomas Lomax (12 March 1799) To preserve the freedom of the human mind then and freedom of the press, every spirit should be ready to devote itself to martyrdom; for as long as we may think as we will, and speak as we think, the condition of man will proceed in improvement.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Letter to Elbridge Gerry (1799) Commerce with all nations, alliance with none, should be our motto.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Letter to William Green Mumford (18 June 1799)

1800s

.
I have sworn upon the altar of god eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man.
  • When the clergy addressed General Washington on his departure from the government, it was observed in their consultation that he had never on any occasion said a word to the public which showed a belief in the Christian religion and they thought they should so pen their address as to force him at length to declare publicly whether he was a Christian or not.^ Jefferson swore his hostility, he said, to every form of tyranny over the mind of man.

    ^ Thomas Jefferson; letter to James Madison , January 30, 1787 I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man.
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | April 13 |Songkran Stone of Scone Thomas Jefferson Huguenot Day Arashiyama Jusanmairi Lia Fail 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Most prominent are the words which are inscribed around the monument near the roof: "I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man".
    • What is Thomas Jefferson? 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]
    • Sixth Grade Wiki / thomas jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC iwarner.pbworks.com [Source type: Original source]

    They did so. .However [Dr. Rush] observed the old fox was too cunning for them.^ Rush] observed the old fox was too cunning for them.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ However, he observed, the old fox was too cunning for them.
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    .He answered every article of their address particularly except that, which he passed over without notice.^ He answered every article of their address particularly except that, which he passed over without notice.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He answered every article of their address particularly, except that, which he passed over without notice."
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He passed thro' the crowd to his carriage and into it, without being in the least noticed.

    .Rush observes he never did say a word on the subject in any of his public papers except in his valedictory letter to the Governors of the states when he resigned his commission in the army, wherein he speaks of the benign influence of the Christian religion.^ Rush observes he never did say a word on the subject in any of his public papers except in his valedictory letter to the Governors of the states when he resigned his commission in the army, wherein he speaks of the benign influence of the Christian religion.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When did he become Governor of the State?
    • Thomas Jefferson 10 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When the clergy addressed General Washington on his departure from the government, it was observed in their consultation that he had never on any occasion said a word to the public which showed a belief in the Christian religion and they thought they should so pen their address as to force him at length to declare publicly whether he was a Christian or not.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .I know that Gouverneur Morris, who pretended to be in his secrets & believed himself to be so, has often told me that General Washington believed no more of that system than he himself did.^ No more than of face and stature.
    • Words of our American Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I know that Gouverneur Morris, who pretended to be in his secrets & believed himself to be so, has often told me that General Washington believed no more of that system than he himself did.
    • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I get more than a little angry at individuals that smear the memory of a dead man who is unable to defend himself.
    • The Trouble With Thomas Jefferson - Reason Magazine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • The Anas (February 1, 1800).^ The Anas (February 1, 1800).
      • Thomas Jefferson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .Published in The Works o