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Thomas Lawrence, Self-portrait, 1787

Sir Thomas Lawrence RA (13 April 1769 – 7 January 1830) was a leading English painter, remembered for his portraits, though he also painted ambitious narrative subjects.

Contents

Biography

Thomas Lawrence, Alexander MacKenzie, (c.1800), National Gallery of Canada.

He was born in Bristol. His father was an innkeeper, first at Bristol and afterwards at Devizes, and at the age of six Lawrence was already being shown off to the guests of the Bear as an infant prodigy who could sketch their likenesses and declaim speeches from Milton. In 1779 the elder Lawrence had to leave Devizes, having failed in business and Thomas's precocious talent began to be the main source of the family's income; he had gained a reputation along the Bath road. His debut as a crayon portrait painter was made at Oxford, where he was well patronized, and in 1782 the family settled in Bath, where the young artist soon found himself fully employed in taking crayon likenesses of fashionable people at a guinea or a guinea and a half a head. In 1784 he gained the prize and silver-gilt palette of the Society of Arts for a crayon drawing after Raphael's "Transfiguration," and presently beginning to paint in oil.

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Early career

Thomas Lawrence, Portrait of Elizabeth Farren, c.1790, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City

Abandoning the idea of going on the stage which he had briefly entertained, Lawrence came to London in 1787, was kindly received by Sir Joshua Reynolds, and became a student at the Royal Academy. He began to exhibit almost immediately, and his reputation increased so rapidly that he became an associate of the Academy in 1791. The death of Sir Joshua in 1792 opened the way to further successes. Lawrence was at once appointed painter to the Dilettanti Society, and principal painter to King George III in lieu of Reynolds. In 1794 he was a Royal Academician, and he became the fashionable portrait painter of the age, his sitters including England's most notable people, and ultimately most of the crowned heads of Europe. Caroline of Brunswick was one of his favourite subjects, and is reputed to have been his lover for a time.

Financial difficulty

Thomas Lawrence, Lord Seaforth, (c.1805), courtesy Figge Art Museum, Davenport, USA

Financial problems plagued Lawrence. In 1796, Lord Seaforth, one of Lawrence's close patrons, gave him £1,000 (equivalent to about £77 thousand in present day terms[1]) to relieve him from his financial difficulties. Lawrence painted several portraits for Lord Seaforth, including a full-length portrait of Seaforth's daughter, Mary.

Recognition

In 1815 Lawrence was knighted; in 1818 he went to Aachen to paint the sovereigns and diplomats gathered there for the third congress, and visited Vienna and Rome, everywhere receiving flattering marks of distinction from princes, due as much to his courtly manners as to his merits as an artist. After eighteen months he returned to England, and on the very day of his arrival was chosen president of the Academy in place of Benjamin West, who had died a few days before. He held the office from 1820 to his death. He was never married.

Thomas Lawrence, Portrait of Marguerite, Countess of Blessington, 1819, Wallace Collection, London

Sir Thomas Lawrence had all the qualities of personal manner and artistic style necessary to make a fashionable painter, and among English portrait painters he takes a high place, though not as high as that given to him in his lifetime. His more ambitious works of history painting in the classical style, such as his once celebrated "Satan," are practically forgotten, as is the fate of most such efforts by Britishj artists of the period, including Reynolds.

The best display of Lawrence's work is in the Waterloo Gallery of Windsor, a collection of much historical interest, along with his famous painting of the Duke of Wellington. "Master Charles William Lambton" also known as "The Red Boy" (1825), painted for Lord Durham at the price of 600 guineas, is regarded as one of his best portraits. There are works in most British museums, especially the National Gallery, London, and Tate Britain, and many in American museums, exported during the early 20th century craze there for English portraits. "Pinkie" in The Huntington is a good example. The Vatican Pinacoteca has a swagger portrait of himself presented by George IV as almost its only British work. The Life and Correspondence of Sir T. Lawrence, by DE Williams, appeared in 1831.

See also

References

  1. ^ UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Measuring Worth: UK CPI.

External links

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Court offices
Preceded by
Sir Joshua Reynolds
Principal Painter in Ordinary to the King
1792–1830
Succeeded by
Sir David Wilkie
Cultural offices
Preceded by
Benjamin West
President of the Royal Academy
1820–1830
Succeeded by
Sir Martin Archer Shee

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