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Threonine
L-Threonin - L-Threonine.svg
L-threonine-3D-sticks2.png
IUPAC name
Other names 2-Amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid
Identifiers
CAS number 80-68-2 Yes check.svgY,
72-19-5 (L-isomer)
PubChem 6288
EC number 201-300-6
Properties
Molecular formula C4H9NO3
Molar mass 119.12 g mol−1
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
 Yes check.svgY (what is this?)  (verify)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Threonine (abbreviated as Thr or T)[1] is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH(OH)CH3. Its codons are ACU, ACA, ACC, and ACG. This essential amino acid is classified as polar. Together with serine and tyrosine, threonine is one of three proteinogenic amino acids bearing an alcohol group.

The threonine residue is susceptible to numerous posttranslational modifications. The hydroxy side chain can undergo O-linked glycosylation. In addition, threonine residues undergo phosphorylation through the action of a threonine kinase. In its phosphorylated form, it can be referred to as phosphothreonine.

Contents

Stereoisomerism

L-Threonin - L-Threonine.svg D-Threonine.svg
L-Threonine (2S,3R) and D-Threonine (2R,3S)
L-allo-Threonine.svg D-allo-Threonine.svg
L-allo-Threonine (2S,3S) and D-allo-Threonine (2R,3R)


With two chiral centers, threonine can exist in four possible stereoisomers with the following configurations: (2S,3R), (2R,3S), (2S,3S) and (2R,3R). However, the name L-threonine is used for one single enantiomer, (2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid. The second stereoisomer (2S,3S), which is rarely present in nature, is called L-allo-threonine. The two stereoisomers (2R,3S)- and (2R,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid are only of minor importance.

Biosynthesis

As an essential amino acid, threonine is not synthesized in humans, hence we must ingest threonine in the form of threonine-containing proteins. In plants and microorganisms, threonine is synthesized from aspartic acid via α-aspartyl-semialdehyde and homoserine. Homoserine undergoes O-phosphorylation; this phosphate ester undergoes hydrolysis concomitant with relocation of the OH group.[2] Enzymes involved in a typical biosynthesis of threonine include:

  1. aspartokinase
  2. α-aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase
  3. homoserine dehydrogenase
  4. homoserine kinase
  5. threonine synthase.
Threonine biosynthesis

Metabolism

Threonine is metabolized in two ways:

Sources

Foods high in threonine include cottage cheese, poultry, fish, meat, lentils, and sesame seeds.

Racemic threonine can be prepared from crotonic acid by alpha-functionalization using mercury(II) acetate.[3]

References

  1. ^ "Nomenclature and symbolism for amino acids and peptides (IUPAC-IUB Recommendations 1983)", Pure Appl. Chem. 56 (5): 595–624, 1984, doi:10.1351/pac198456050595  .
  2. ^ Lehninger, Albert L.; Nelson, David L.; Cox, Michael M. (2000), Principles of Biochemistry (3rd ed.), New York: W. H. Freeman, ISBN 1-57259-153-6  .
  3. ^ Carter, Herbert E.; West, Harold D. (1940), "dl-Threonine", Org. Synth. 20: 101, http://www.orgsyn.org/orgsyn/orgsyn/prepContent.asp?prep=cv3p0813  ; Coll. Vol. 3: 813  .

External links

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