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Thymopoietin

PDB rendering based on 1gjj.
Available structures
1gjj, 1h9e, 1h9f
Identifiers
Symbols TMPO; TP; LAP2; CMD1T; MGC61508; PRO0868
External IDs OMIM188380 MGI106920 HomoloGene31144 GeneCards: TMPO Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE TMPO 209753 s at tn.png
PBB GE TMPO 209754 s at tn.png
PBB GE TMPO 203432 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 7112 21917
Ensembl ENSG00000120802 ENSMUSG00000019961
UniProt P42167 Q61033
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001032283 NM_001080129
RefSeq (protein) NP_001027454 NP_001073598
Location (UCSC) Chr 12:
97.43 - 97.47 Mb
Chr 10:
90.58 - 90.61 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Lamina-associated polypeptide 2, isoforms beta/gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMPO gene.[1][2]

Thymopoietin is a protein involved in the induction of CD90 in the thymus. The thymopoetin (TMPO) gene encodes three alternatively spliced mRNAs encoding proteins of 75 kDa (alpha), 51 kDa (beta) and 39 kDa (gamma) which are ubiquitously expressed in all cells. The human TMPO gene maps to chromosome band 12q22 and consists of eight exons. TMPO alpha is present diffusely expressed with the cell nucleus while TMPO beta and gamma are localized to the nuclear membrane. TMPO beta is a human homolog of the murine protein LAP2 (lamina-associated polypeptide 2). LAP2 plays a role in the regulation of nuclear architecture by binding lamin B1 and chromosomes. This interaction is regulated by phosphorylation during mitosis. Given the nuclear localization of the three TMPO isoforms, it is unlikely that these proteins play any role in CD90 induction.

Contents

Interactions

Thymopoietin has been shown to interact with Barrier to autointegration factor 1,[3] AKAP8L,[4][5] LMNB1[6][7] and LMNA.[8][9]

References

  1. ^ Harris CA, Andryuk PJ, Cline S, Chan HK, Natarajan A, Siekierka JJ, Goldstein G (Aug 1994). "Three distinct human thymopoietins are derived from alternatively spliced mRNAs". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91 (14): 6283–7. PMID 7517549.  
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: TMPO thymopoietin". http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=7112.  
  3. ^ Furukawa, K (Aug. 1999). "LAP2 binding protein 1 (L2BP1/BAF) is a candidate mediator of LAP2-chromatin interaction". J. Cell. Sci. (ENGLAND) 112 ( Pt 15): 2485–92. ISSN 0021-9533. PMID 10393804.  
  4. ^ Martins, S B; Eide T, Steen R L, Jahnsen T, Skålhegg B S, Collas P (Nov. 2000). "HA95 is a protein of the chromatin and nuclear matrix regulating nuclear envelope dynamics". J. Cell. Sci. (ENGLAND) 113 Pt 21: 3703–13. ISSN 0021-9533. PMID 11034899.  
  5. ^ Martins, Sandra; Eikvar Sissel, Furukawa Kazuhiro, Collas Philippe (Jan. 2003). "HA95 and LAP2 beta mediate a novel chromatin-nuclear envelope interaction implicated in initiation of DNA replication". J. Cell Biol. (United States) 160 (2): 177–88. doi:10.1083/jcb.200210026. ISSN 0021-9525. PMID 12538639.  
  6. ^ Furukawa, K; Kondo T (Feb. 1998). "Identification of the lamina-associated-polypeptide-2-binding domain of B-type lamin". Eur. J. Biochem. (GERMANY) 251 (3): 729–33. ISSN 0014-2956. PMID 9490046.  
  7. ^ Foisner, R; Gerace L (Jul. 1993). "Integral membrane proteins of the nuclear envelope interact with lamins and chromosomes, and binding is modulated by mitotic phosphorylation". Cell (UNITED STATES) 73 (7): 1267–79. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 8324822.  
  8. ^ Markiewicz, Ewa; Dechat Thomas, Foisner Roland, Quinlan Roy A, Hutchison Christopher J (Dec. 2002). "Lamin A/C binding protein LAP2alpha is required for nuclear anchorage of retinoblastoma protein". Mol. Biol. Cell (United States) 13 (12): 4401–13. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-07-0450. ISSN 1059-1524. PMID 12475961.  
  9. ^ Dechat, T; Korbei B, Vaughan O A, Vlcek S, Hutchison C J, Foisner R (Oct. 2000). "Lamina-associated polypeptide 2alpha binds intranuclear A-type lamins". J. Cell. Sci. (ENGLAND) 113 Pt 19: 3473–84. ISSN 0021-9533. PMID 10984438.  

Further reading

  • Harris CA, Andryuk PJ, Cline SW, Mathew S, Siekierka JJ, Goldstein G (1995). "Structure and mapping of the human thymopoietin (TMPO) gene and relationship of human TMPO beta to rat lamin-associated polypeptide 2". Genomics 28 (2): 198–205. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1131. PMID 8530026.  
  • Dechat T, Vlcek S, Foisner R (2000). "Review: lamina-associated polypeptide 2 isoforms and related proteins in cell cycle-dependent nuclear structure dynamics.". J. Struct. Biol. 129 (2-3): 335–45. doi:10.1006/jsbi.2000.4212. PMID 10806084.  
  • Twomey JJ, Goldstein G, Lewis VM, et al. (1977). "Bioassay determinations of thymopoietin and thymic hormone levels in human plasma.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74 (6): 2541–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.74.6.2541. PMID 302007.  
  • Heavner GA, Audhya T, Goldstein G (1990). "Peptide analogs of thymopentin distinguish distinct thymopoietin receptor specificities on two human T cell lines.". Regul. Pept. 27 (2): 257–62. doi:10.1016/0167-0115(90)90044-W. PMID 2158125.  
  • Audhya T, Schlesinger DH, Goldstein G (1987). "Isolation and complete amino acid sequence of human thymopoietin and splenin.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (11): 3545–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.84.11.3545. PMID 3473468.  
  • Fuccello A, Audhya T, Talle MA, Goldstein G (1984). "Immunoassay for bovine serum thymopoietin: discrimination from splenin by monoclonal antibodies.". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 228 (1): 292–8. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(84)90070-5. PMID 6364989.  
  • Hara H, Hayashi K, Ohta K, et al. (1995). "A new thymopoietin precursor gene from human thymus.". Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. 34 (5): 927–33. PMID 7703909.  
  • Goldstein G, Schlesinger DH, Audhya T (1994). "Isolation and complete amino acid sequence of human thymopoietin and splenin.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91 (13): 6249. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.13.6249. PMID 8016147.  
  • Harris CA, Andryuk PJ, Cline SW, et al. (1996). "Structure and mapping of the human thymopoietin (TMPO) gene and relationship of human TMPO beta to rat lamin-associated polypeptide 2.". Genomics 28 (2): 198–205. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1131. PMID 8530026.  
  • Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, et al. (1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction.". Anal. Biochem. 236 (1): 107–13. doi:10.1006/abio.1996.0138. PMID 8619474.  
  • Berger R, Theodor L, Shoham J, et al. (1996). "The characterization and localization of the mouse thymopoietin/lamina-associated polypeptide 2 gene and its alternatively spliced products.". Genome Res. 6 (5): 361–70. doi:10.1101/gr.6.5.361. PMID 8743987.  
  • Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, et al. (1997). "Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing.". Genome Res. 7 (4): 353–8. PMID 9110174.  
  • Furukawa K, Fritze CE, Gerace L (1998). "The major nuclear envelope targeting domain of LAP2 coincides with its lamin binding region but is distinct from its chromatin interaction domain.". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (7): 4213–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.7.4213. PMID 9461618.  
  • Furukawa K, Kondo T (1998). "Identification of the lamina-associated-polypeptide-2-binding domain of B-type lamin.". Eur. J. Biochem. 251 (3): 729–33. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.1998.2510729.x. PMID 9490046.  
  • Dechat T, Gotzmann J, Stockinger A, et al. (1998). "Detergent-salt resistance of LAP2alpha in interphase nuclei and phosphorylation-dependent association with chromosomes early in nuclear assembly implies functions in nuclear structure dynamics.". Embo J. 17 (16): 4887–902. doi:10.1093/emboj/17.16.4887. PMID 9707448.  
  • Furukawa K (1999). "LAP2 binding protein 1 (L2BP1/BAF) is a candidate mediator of LAP2-chromatin interaction.". J. Cell. Sci. 112 ( Pt 15): 2485–92. PMID 10393804.  
  • Weber PJ, Eckhard CP, Gonser S, et al. (1999). "On the role of thymopoietins in cell proliferation. Immunochemical evidence for new members of the human thymopoietin family.". Biol. Chem. 380 (6): 653–60. doi:10.1515/BC.1999.081. PMID 10430029.  
  • Dechat T, Korbei B, Vaughan OA, et al. (2000). "Lamina-associated polypeptide 2alpha binds intranuclear A-type lamins.". J. Cell. Sci. 113 Pt 19: 3473–84. PMID 10984438.  
  • Martins SB, Eide T, Steen RL, et al. (2001). "HA95 is a protein of the chromatin and nuclear matrix regulating nuclear envelope dynamics.". J. Cell. Sci. 113 Pt 21: 3703–13. PMID 11034899.  

External links

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edit
Thymopoietin

PDB rendering based on 1gjj.
Identifiers
SymbolsTMPO; TP; LAP2; CMD1T; MGC61508; PRO0868
External IDsOMIM188380 MGI106920 HomoloGene31144 GeneCards: TMPO Gene
RNA expression pattern
More reference expression data
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez711221917
EnsemblENSG00000120802ENSMUSG00000019961
UniProtP42167Q61033
RefSeq (mRNA)NM_001032283NM_001080129
RefSeq (protein)NP_001027454NP_001073598
Location (UCSC)Chr 12:
97.43 - 97.47 Mb
Chr 10:
90.58 - 90.61 Mb
PubMed search[1][2]

Lamina-associated polypeptide 2, isoforms beta/gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMPO gene.[1][2]

Thymopoietin is a protein involved in the induction of CD90 in the thymus. The thymopoetin (TMPO) gene encodes three alternatively spliced mRNAs encoding proteins of 75 kDa (alpha), 51 kDa (beta) and 39 kDa (gamma) which are ubiquitously expressed in all cells. The human TMPO gene maps to chromosome band 12q22 and consists of eight exons. TMPO alpha is present diffusely expressed with the cell nucleus while TMPO beta and gamma are localized to the nuclear membrane. TMPO beta is a human homolog of the murine protein LAP2 (lamina-associated polypeptide 2). LAP2 plays a role in the regulation of nuclear architecture by binding lamin B1 and chromosomes. This interaction is regulated by phosphorylation during mitosis. Given the nuclear localization of the three TMPO isoforms, it is unlikely that these proteins play any role in CD90 induction.

Contents

Interactions

Thymopoietin has been shown to interact with Barrier to autointegration factor 1,[3] AKAP8L,[4][5] LMNB1[6][7] and LMNA.[8][9]

References

  1. ^ Harris CA, Andryuk PJ, Cline S, Chan HK, Natarajan A, Siekierka JJ, Goldstein G (Aug 1994). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Three distinct human thymopoietins are derived from alternatively spliced mRNAs"]. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91 (14): 6283–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.14.6283. PMID 7517549. 
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: TMPO thymopoietin". http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=7112. 
  3. ^ Furukawa, K (Aug. 1999). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "LAP2 binding protein 1 (L2BP1/BAF) is a candidate mediator of LAP2-chromatin interaction"]. J. Cell. Sci. (ENGLAND) 112 ( Pt 15): 2485–92. ISSN 0021-9533. PMID 10393804. 
  4. ^ Martins, S B; Eide T, Steen R L, Jahnsen T, Skålhegg B S, Collas P (Nov. 2000). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "HA95 is a protein of the chromatin and nuclear matrix regulating nuclear envelope dynamics"]. J. Cell. Sci. (ENGLAND) 113 Pt 21: 3703–13. ISSN 0021-9533. PMID 11034899. 
  5. ^ Martins, Sandra; Eikvar Sissel, Furukawa Kazuhiro, Collas Philippe (Jan. 2003). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "HA95 and LAP2 beta mediate a novel chromatin-nuclear envelope interaction implicated in initiation of DNA replication"]. J. Cell Biol. (United States) 160 (2): 177–88. doi:10.1083/jcb.200210026. ISSN 0021-9525. PMID 12538639. 
  6. ^ Furukawa, K; Kondo T (Feb. 1998). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Identification of the lamina-associated-polypeptide-2-binding domain of B-type lamin"]. Eur. J. Biochem. (GERMANY) 251 (3): 729–33. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.1998.2510729.x. ISSN 0014-2956. PMID 9490046. 
  7. ^ Foisner, R; Gerace L (Jul. 1993). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Integral membrane proteins of the nuclear envelope interact with lamins and chromosomes, and binding is modulated by mitotic phosphorylation"]. Cell (UNITED STATES) 73 (7): 1267–79. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90355-T. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 8324822. 
  8. ^ Markiewicz, Ewa; Dechat Thomas, Foisner Roland, Quinlan Roy A, Hutchison Christopher J (Dec. 2002). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Lamin A/C binding protein LAP2alpha is required for nuclear anchorage of retinoblastoma protein"]. Mol. Biol. Cell (United States) 13 (12): 4401–13. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-07-0450. ISSN 1059-1524. PMID 12475961. 
  9. ^ Dechat, T; Korbei B, Vaughan O A, Vlcek S, Hutchison C J, Foisner R (Oct. 2000). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Lamina-associated polypeptide 2alpha binds intranuclear A-type lamins"]. J. Cell. Sci. (ENGLAND) 113 Pt 19: 3473–84. ISSN 0021-9533. PMID 10984438. 

Further reading

  • Harris CA, Andryuk PJ, Cline SW, Mathew S, Siekierka JJ, Goldstein G (1995). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Structure and mapping of the human thymopoietin (TMPO) gene and relationship of human TMPO beta to rat lamin-associated polypeptide 2"]. Genomics 28 (2): 198–205. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1131. PMID 8530026. 
  • Dechat T, Vlcek S, Foisner R (2000). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Review: lamina-associated polypeptide 2 isoforms and related proteins in cell cycle-dependent nuclear structure dynamics."]. J. Struct. Biol. 129 (2-3): 335–45. doi:10.1006/jsbi.2000.4212. PMID 10806084. 
  • Twomey JJ, Goldstein G, Lewis VM, et al. (1977). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Bioassay determinations of thymopoietin and thymic hormone levels in human plasma."]. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74 (6): 2541–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.74.6.2541. PMID 302007. 
  • Heavner GA, Audhya T, Goldstein G (1990). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Peptide analogs of thymopentin distinguish distinct thymopoietin receptor specificities on two human T cell lines."]. Regul. Pept. 27 (2): 257–62. doi:10.1016/0167-0115(90)90044-W. PMID 2158125. 
  • Audhya T, Schlesinger DH, Goldstein G (1987). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Isolation and complete amino acid sequence of human thymopoietin and splenin."]. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (11): 3545–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.84.11.3545. PMID 3473468. 
  • Fuccello A, Audhya T, Talle MA, Goldstein G (1984). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Immunoassay for bovine serum thymopoietin: discrimination from splenin by monoclonal antibodies."]. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 228 (1): 292–8. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(84)90070-5. PMID 6364989. 
  • Hara H, Hayashi K, Ohta K, et al. (1995). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "A new thymopoietin precursor gene from human thymus."]. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. 34 (5): 927–33. PMID 7703909. 
  • Goldstein G, Schlesinger DH, Audhya T (1994). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Isolation and complete amino acid sequence of human thymopoietin and splenin."]. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91 (13): 6249. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.13.6249. PMID 8016147. 
  • Harris CA, Andryuk PJ, Cline SW, et al. (1996). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Structure and mapping of the human thymopoietin (TMPO) gene and relationship of human TMPO beta to rat lamin-associated polypeptide 2."]. Genomics 28 (2): 198–205. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1131. PMID 8530026. 
  • Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, et al. (1996). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction."]. Anal. Biochem. 236 (1): 107–13. doi:10.1006/abio.1996.0138. PMID 8619474. 
  • Berger R, Theodor L, Shoham J, et al. (1996). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The characterization and localization of the mouse thymopoietin/lamina-associated polypeptide 2 gene and its alternatively spliced products."]. Genome Res. 6 (5): 361–70. doi:10.1101/gr.6.5.361. PMID 8743987. 
  • Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, et al. (1997). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing."]. Genome Res. 7 (4): 353–8. PMID 9110174. 
  • Furukawa K, Fritze CE, Gerace L (1998). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The major nuclear envelope targeting domain of LAP2 coincides with its lamin binding region but is distinct from its chromatin interaction domain."]. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (7): 4213–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.7.4213. PMID 9461618. 
  • Furukawa K, Kondo T (1998). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Identification of the lamina-associated-polypeptide-2-binding domain of B-type lamin."]. Eur. J. Biochem. 251 (3): 729–33. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.1998.2510729.x. PMID 9490046. 
  • Dechat T, Gotzmann J, Stockinger A, et al. (1998). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Detergent-salt resistance of LAP2alpha in interphase nuclei and phosphorylation-dependent association with chromosomes early in nuclear assembly implies functions in nuclear structure dynamics."]. EMBO J. 17 (16): 4887–902. doi:10.1093/emboj/17.16.4887. PMID 9707448. 
  • Furukawa K (1999). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "LAP2 binding protein 1 (L2BP1/BAF) is a candidate mediator of LAP2-chromatin interaction."]. J. Cell. Sci. 112 ( Pt 15): 2485–92. PMID 10393804. 
  • Weber PJ, Eckhard CP, Gonser S, et al. (1999). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "On the role of thymopoietins in cell proliferation. Immunochemical evidence for new members of the human thymopoietin family."]. Biol. Chem. 380 (6): 653–60. doi:10.1515/BC.1999.081. PMID 10430029. 
  • Dechat T, Korbei B, Vaughan OA, et al. (2000). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Lamina-associated polypeptide 2alpha binds intranuclear A-type lamins."]. J. Cell. Sci. 113 Pt 19: 3473–84. PMID 10984438. 
  • Martins SB, Eide T, Steen RL, et al. (2001). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "HA95 is a protein of the chromatin and nuclear matrix regulating nuclear envelope dynamics."]. J. Cell. Sci. 113 Pt 21: 3703–13. PMID 11034899. 

External links


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