Tiananmen Square protests of 1989: Wikis

  
  
  
  

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.This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.^ Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters .

^ Articles containing traditional Chinese language text .
  • Boston University School of Theology 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: News]

^ This article contains Chinese text.

Tiananmen Square protests of 1989
Tianasquare.jpg
.Tank Man — This famous photo, taken on 5 June 1989 by photographer Jeff Widener, shows the PLA's advancing tanks halting for an unknown man near Tiananmen Square.^ DAY ONE: TIANANMEN SQUARE 1989 .
  • Teaching Materials - Lesson - The China Seminar 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.globaled.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tiananmen-1989 Tiananmen, April-June 1989 .
  • Tiananmen-1989 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.christusrex.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tiananmen Square Tank Man - video.
  • Video: China Secret, 6 Years Ago Today on Tiananmen Square. 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC rvpark4u.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Chinese 六四事件
Literal meaning June Fourth Incident
alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 天安門事件
Simplified Chinese 天安门事件
Literal meaning Tiananmen Incident
.The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, referred to in much of the world as the Tiananmen Square massacre and in the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the June Fourth Incident (officially to avoid confusion with two prior Tiananmen Square protests), were a series of demonstrations in and near Tiananmen Square in Beijing in the PRC beginning on 14 April 1989. Led mainly by students and intellectuals, the protests occurred in a year that saw the collapse of a number of communist governments around the world.^ Demonstrators were protesting the killing of students in China by government troops.
  • Epoch Times - Photo Essay: The Tiananmen Square Massacre 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC lib.store.yahoo.net [Source type: News]

^ DAY ONE: TIANANMEN SQUARE 1989 .
  • Teaching Materials - Lesson - The China Seminar 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.globaled.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This can be seen in the words of some of the student leaders of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 .

.The protests were sparked by the death of a pro-democracy and anti-corruption official, Hu Yaobang, whom protesters wanted to mourn.^ The protests were sparked by the death of a pro-market, pro-democracy, and anti-corruption official, Hu Yaobang, whom protesters wanted to mourn.

^ E-Mail Print Share GENEVA  —  A U.N. panel has urged the Chinese government to apologize to the victims of its 1989 crackdown on pro-democracy protesters in Tiananmen Square.
  • FOXNews.com - U.N. Urges China to Apologize for Tiananmen Massacre - International News | News of the World | Middle East News | Europe News 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

^ The protest started as a public mourning for Hu Yaobang (who died of heart attack April 15th 1989), the General Secretary who was forced to resign because he advocated freedom of speech and freedom of press in 1986.
  • The Tiananmen Square Massacre - The Politics eZine 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.lilith-ezine.com [Source type: News]

.By the eve of Hu's funeral, 100,000 people had gathered at Tiananmen square.^ Within a week, 100,000 demonstrators filled Tiananmen Square for his funeral.
  • After Tiananmen and Prison, a Comfortable but Uneasy Life in the New China - NYTimes.com 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ By the eve of Hu's funeral, 1,000,000 people had gathered on the Tiananmen square.

^ Advertisement Organisers said before the event they were hoping 100,000 people would attend, more than double last year's turnout.
  • RTÉ News: Hong Kong marks Tiananmen anniversary 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.rte.ie [Source type: News]

[1] .The protests lacked a unified cause or leadership; participants included disillusioned Communist Party of China members and Trotskyists as well as free market reformers, who were generally against the government's authoritarianism and voiced calls for economic change[2] and democratic reform[2] within the structure of the government.^ He participated in founding the China Democratic Party in 1998.
  • The Legacy of Tiananmen: 20 Years of Oppression, Activism and Hope 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC crd-net.org [Source type: News]

^ With faulty leadership from the Communist Party, China has engineered crackdown after crackdown after crackdown.
  • Secret China - Communist Party creates problems faster than it resolves them 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC en.secretchina.com [Source type: News]

^ He spoke with the voice of standard Party authoritarianism.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.The demonstrations centered in Tiananmen Square to begin with but then later in the streets around the square, in Beijing, but large-scale protests also occurred in cities throughout China, including Shanghai, which remained peaceful throughout the protests.^ Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 .

^ The demonstrations centered on Tiananmen Square in Beijing, but large-scale protests also occurred in cities throughout China, including Shanghai, which stayed peaceful throughout the protests.
  • People never forget, June Fourth Incident/人民不會忘記, 六四事件 | Facebook 15 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TianAnMen Square , Beijing, China (50 photos) TianAnMen Square is a very large plaza at the center of Beijing, named after the ...
  • tiananmen square - Searchy Search 16 October 2009 11:011 UTC www.searchy.co.uk [Source type: News]

.The movement lasted seven weeks, from Hu's death on 15 April.^ The protests lasted seven weeks.
  • China tightens security 20 years on from Tiananmen crackdown | Top Russian news and analysis online | 'RIA Novosti' newswire 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC en.rian.ru [Source type: News]

^ The movement lasted seven weeks, from Hu's death on 15 April until tanks cleared Tiananmen Square on 4 June.

^ He died in April 15, and very soon it turned from mourning a reform leader to a demand for political reform and a democratic movement among students.
  • FRONTLINE: the tank man: interviews: xiao qiang | PBS 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.The number of deaths is not known.^ According to Nicholas D. Kristof "The true number of deaths will probably never be known, and it is possible that thousands of people were killed without leaving evidence behind.
  • People never forget, June Fourth Incident/人民不會忘記, 六四事件 | Facebook 15 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is no video footage or evidence of any kind showing violence in the square itself.^ There is no evidence anyone died in Tiananmen Square.
  • Was There A Massacre In Tiananmen Square 1989? 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.sinomania.com [Source type: News]

^ As Jay Mathews, former Beijing bureau chief for the Washington Post has said, there is no evidence anyone died in Tiananmen Square.
  • Was There A Massacre In Tiananmen Square 1989? 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.sinomania.com [Source type: News]
  • Tiananmen Square Uprising: A Perspective 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A brief video history of the Tiananmen Square Massacre, using 100 percent archive footage, and with a kicking classical sound track as a finale.
  • Video: China Secret, 6 Years Ago Today on Tiananmen Square. 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC rvpark4u.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All video evidence shows violence in the streets around the square.^ I have masses of video evidence from TV (including some that was suppresed after a first showing), plus reports appearing in the Guardian at the time.
  • The "Tiananmen Square massacre" is constantly referred to. Why have I never seen film or video footage of a single death? The cameras were there, were they not? | Notes and Queries | guardian.co.uk 16 October 2009 11:011 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ I arrived at the Square around midnight and found all 12 of my students.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Their cars, identifiable by their license plates, often park on the side streets around Tiananmen Square when protests take place.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following the conflict, the government conducted widespread raids of protesters and their supporters, cracked down on other protests around China, banned the foreign press from the country and strictly controlled coverage of the events in the PRC press.^ Following the violence, the government conducted widespread arrests of protesters and their supporters, cracked down on other protests around China, banned the foreign press from the country and strictly controlled coverage of the events in the PRC press.

^ Following the violence, the government conducted widespread arrests to suppress protestors and their supporters, cracked down on other protests around China, banned the foreign press from the country and strictly controlled coverage of the events in the PRC press.
  • People never forget, June Fourth Incident/人民不會忘記, 六四事件 | Facebook 15 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China's leader Deng Xiaoping, who ruled China from a military post and other members of the Communist Party followed his orders decided to brutally suppress the protest to send a signal that China would remain under strict communist control.
  • The Tiananmen Square Massacre - The Politics eZine 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.lilith-ezine.com [Source type: News]

.Members of the Party who had publicly sympathized with the protesters were purged, with several high-ranking members placed under house arrest, such as General Secretary Zhao Ziyang.^ Members of the Party who had publicly sympathized with the protesters were purged, with several high-ranking members placed under house arrest, such as General Secretary Zhao Ziyang.
  • People never forget, June Fourth Incident/人民不會忘記, 六四事件 | Facebook 15 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • About: Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC dbpedia2.openlinksw.com:8895 [Source type: General]

^ Zhao sutler house arrest.
  • THE ROAD TO THE TIANANMEN CRACKDOWN: AN ANALYTIC CHRONOLOGY OF C - CIA document 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That's why [political secretary to Zhao] Bao Tong is still under house arrest.
  • FRONTLINE: the tank man: interviews: xiao qiang | PBS 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.There was widespread international condemnation of the PRC government's use of force against the protesters.^ There was widespread international condemnation of the PRC government's use of force against the protesters.

^ In the 1980s, there was widespread concern by the PRC over a brain drain as graduate students were not returning to the PRC. This exodus worsened after the Tiananmen protests of 1989.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Chinese American - Famous Chinese Americans - Chinese 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.famouschinese.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "It is believed that they were protesting against a huge hike in fuel prices back home - an unpopular decision in Myanmar which has led to widespread demonstrations there as well.
  • http://bigozine2.com/fooled/burma.html 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC bigozine2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]

Naming of incident

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.In the Chinese language, the incident is most commonly known as the June Fourth Movement, the June Fourth Incident or colloquially, simply Six-four (Chinese: 六四pinyin: Liù-Sì; 4 June).^ The violent suppression of the Tiananmen Square protest caused widespread international condemnation of the PRC government In the Chinese language, the incident is most commonly known as the June Fourth Movement (simplified Chinese: 六四运动; traditional Chinese: 六四運動), the June Fourth Incident (Chinese: 六四事件), or colloquially, simply Six-four (June 4th) (Chinese: 六四).
  • People never forget, June Fourth Incident/人民不會忘記, 六四事件 | Facebook 15 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tiananmen Square China In a year fraught with sensitive Chinese anniversaries, June 4th is by far the most resonant in the United States.

^ The demonstration crackdown is always referred to as the "six-four incident" (because it occurred on June 4).
  • Schneier on Security: Google.cn Censorship 15 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

.The nomenclature of the former is consistent with the customary names of the other two great protest actions that occurred in Tiananmen Square: the May Fourth Movement of 1919, and the April Fifth Movement of 1976. 4 June refers to the day on which the People's Liberation Army cleared Tiananmen Square of protesters, although the order to proceed into Tiananmen as well as its actual operation began on the evening of 3 June.^ At day's end, the troops from the Great Hall of the People were ordered back into the building.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Long live the People's Liberation Army!
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 .

.Other names which have been used in the Chinese language include June Fourth Massacre or Chinese: 六四屠殺pinyin: Liù-Sì Túshā.^ Once the tool is enabled, positioning the mouse cursor over any Chinese character on a website displays the pinyin and definition of the character and the compound, if any, in which it is used.

^ However, when we use the proper Chinese-language search term in 6-7-8, we confirm the censorship effect marvelously.
  • Schneier on Security: Google.cn Censorship 15 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ One is mianzi ( Chinese : 面 子 ; pinyin : miàn zi ), and the other is lian ( simplified Chinese : 脸 ; traditional Chinese : 臉 ; pinyin : liǎn ), which are both used commonly in everyday speech rather than in formal writings.

.The government of the People's Republic of China has referred to the event as the Political Turmoil between Spring and Summer of 1989.^ It was an unprecedented event in the history of the People’s Republic.

^ The government of the People's Republic of China has referred to the event as the Political Turmoil between Spring and Summer of 1989 (Chinese: 春夏之交的政治風波).
  • People never forget, June Fourth Incident/人民不會忘記, 六四事件 | Facebook 15 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People's Republic of China 1949–present .

[3] .Other names, such as the 89 People's Movement (Chinese: 八九民运) are also used to describe the event broadly in its entirety.^ Whatever the case, several self-described "Maoist" political parties survive today, throughout the globe, such as found within the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement.
  • The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.chinaonline.cn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wang Dan , the top student leader of the 89 movement on the government wanted list, will host the event.
  • 1989 Tiananmen Massacre Survivors' Reunion – PRNewswire – Entrepreneur.com 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.entrepreneur.com [Source type: News]

^ The real issue at that meeting was that some people were trying to use the movement to make themselves famous, and we opposed this.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.The date May 35th is sometimes substituted for 4 June to avoid restrictions that the government of China places on the Internet.^ A number of grass-roots groups are emerging to battle repressive government Internet filtering in countries such as China and Saudi Arabia.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ China’s government also controls Internet service providers and wireless networks, he says, so computers and PDAs can be monitored and planted with bugs remotely, too.

^ China, Yahoo and AOL from The Asianist It's common knowledge that the "communist" Chinese government censors the Internet.
  • RConversation: Yahoo! & Chinese Censorship 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC rconversation.blogs.com [Source type: General]

[4] .In English, the term Tiananmen Square Massacre is often used to describe the 4 June events on most media sources.^ June 4th Tiananmen Square Massacre Anniversary.
  • Video: China Secret, 6 Years Ago Today on Tiananmen Square. 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC rvpark4u.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A brief video history of the Tiananmen Square Massacre, using 100 percent archive footage, and with a kicking classical sound track as a finale.
  • Video: China Secret, 6 Years Ago Today on Tiananmen Square. 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC rvpark4u.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Text The 20th anniversary of the Tiananmen Square massacre yesterday recalled the suppression of the democratic spirit in China.
  • 'High Noon' for Freedom - WSJ.com 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

.However, the use of this name to describe this event in English-language media is not consistent.^ As many of you are aware, a metadata dictionary used to describe the intellectual content, rights, and formats of public broadcasting media has been developed and made available for your use.

^ The city's name continues to show up in the titles of English language works of fiction (including a whodunit called The Shanghai Moon that just came out).

^ However, when we use the proper Chinese-language search term in 6-7-8, we confirm the censorship effect marvelously.
  • Schneier on Security: Google.cn Censorship 15 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

Background

Tiananmen Square as seen from the Tiananmen Gate in 2004.
.Since 1978, Deng Xiaoping had led a series of economic and political reforms which had led to the gradual implementation of a market economy and some political liberalization that relaxed the system set up by Mao Zedong.^ Since 1978, Deng Xiaoping had led a series of economic and political reforms which had led to the gradual implementation of a market economy and some political liberalization that relaxed the system set up by Mao Zedong.
  • People never forget, June Fourth Incident/人民不會忘記, 六四事件 | Facebook 15 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She came back a few days later, after doing some research and added, "Deng Xiaoping must not have known it was happening."

^ So chances are that when real political reform arrives -- which will happen -- it will come suddenly and violently rather than gradually or through some giant national party, like the collapse of the Berlin Wall.
  • http://many.corante.com/archives/authors/xiao.php 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC many.corante.com [Source type: General]

.Some students and intellectuals believed that the reforms had not gone far enough and that China needed to reform its political system[citation needed].^ Although the initial protests were made by students and intellectuals who believed that the Deng Xiaoping reforms had not gone far enough and China needed to reform its political systems, they soon attracted the support of urban workers who believed that the reforms had gone too far.
  • People never forget, June Fourth Incident/人民不會忘記, 六四事件 | Facebook 15 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students and intellectuals had been among the strongest supporters of the reforms.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Many believe this to be contrary to how he is regarded within the party and by the general public, but is rather a political means to "calm the storm" before the 17th Party Congress of the Communist Party is held in November 2007 [ citation needed ] .
  • ClownsFun @ Dikkedeur.dyndns.org - ClownsFun @ Dikkedeur.dyndns.org 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC dikkedeur.dyndns.org [Source type: News]

.They were also concerned about the social controls that the Communist Party of China still had[citation needed].^ They were concerned about the social and political controls that the Communist Party of China still had.
  • People never forget, June Fourth Incident/人民不會忘記, 六四事件 | Facebook 15 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many believe this to be contrary to how he is regarded within the party and by the general public, but is rather a political means to "calm the storm" before the 17th Party Congress of the Communist Party is held in November 2007 [ citation needed ] .
  • ClownsFun @ Dikkedeur.dyndns.org - ClownsFun @ Dikkedeur.dyndns.org 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC dikkedeur.dyndns.org [Source type: News]
  • Boston University School of Theology 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: News]

^ "China is making a lot of progress in technology, but they are still primarily a tech follower," says Rand political scientist Roger Cliff.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

.This group had also seen the political liberalization that had been undertaken in the name of glasnost by Mikhail Gorbachev, so they had been hoping for comparable reform.^ In addition, this group saw the political liberalization that had been undertaken in the name of glasnost by Mikhail Gorbachev.
  • People never forget, June Fourth Incident/人民不會忘記, 六四事件 | Facebook 15 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The student-led protest forced officials to alter Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev’s schedule during the historic Sino-Soviet Summit in May, although the students indicated in a letter that they supported Gorbachev’s reforms in the Soviet Union.
  • Tiananmen Square Massacre — The Forerunner 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC forerunner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reformers hoped for social stability, so that they could continue their difficult work.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Many workers who took part in the protests also wanted democratic reform, but opposed the new economic policies.^ In part because he speaks boldly, he rightly holds the esteem of many who know and work with him, and deserves better than thoughtless mud-slinging dressed up as news.
  • Freeman's soft spot for dictatorships - James Kirchick - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The protest, led by family members of Liang's, took place outside of the Petroleum Prospecting Department, as Liang was a retired oilfield worker.
  • China Human Rights Briefing June 1-7 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC crd-net.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the success of his economic reforms, Liu had won prestige in the eyes of many party members both in the central government and among the masses citation needed .

.That is, there were both protesters supporting and against economic liberalisation; however, almost all protesters supported political liberalization, to varying degrees[citation needed].^ I supported this demonstration because it was focused against one of the most fundamental means by which the Communist Party maintains its rule, that is, to accuse people of fabricated political crimes.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ According to various sources, 4 the death toll due to famine may have been as high as 20 to 30 million citation needed .

^ Another source, in a dinner conversation with U.S. Ambassador Winston Lord, warned that "opponents of political liberalization in the leadership would use the protests to underline the dangers of democracy."
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The Tiananmen Square protests were in large measure sparked by the death of former Secretary General Hu Yaobang, whose resignation from the position of Secretary General of the CPC was announced on 16 January 1987[citation needed].^ The Tiananmen Square protests in 1989 were in large measure sparked by the...
  • Video: China Secret, 6 Years Ago Today on Tiananmen Square. 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC rvpark4u.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Tiananmen Square protests in 1989 were in large measure sparked by the death of former Secretary General Hu Yaobang.
  • People never forget, June Fourth Incident/人民不會忘記, 六四事件 | Facebook 15 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hu Yaobang's "resignation" from the position of Secretary General of the CPC had been announced on January 16, 1987.
  • People never forget, June Fourth Incident/人民不會忘記, 六四事件 | Facebook 15 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His forthright calls for "rapid reform" and his almost open contempt of "Maoist excesses" had made him a suitable scapegoat in the eyes of Deng Xiaoping and others, after the pro-democracy student protests of 1986–1987.^ Jiang, then mayor of Shanghai, won Deng's praise for "ideological rectitude and resoluteness" for suppressing the Herald even as students in Shanghai and Beijing campuses were holding unprecedented large-scale pro-democracy demonstrations.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was the case with both Jiang Zemin and Deng Xiaoping that they retained the office of chairman even after relinquishing their other positions.
  • People s Liberation Army 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.ml-shopping.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After six weeks of protest, the government declared the Pro-democracy Movement to be a riot and mobilized troops to quell the movement.
  • Tiananmen Massacre 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.acpp.org [Source type: Original source]

[5] .Included in his resignation was also a "humiliating self-criticism", which he was forced to issue by the Central Committee of the Communist Party.^ Chinese Communist Party’s official newspaper, the real issue is his race.

^ Today, the Cultural Revolution is widely seen inside and outside of China, including the Communist Party of China , as an unmitigated disaster, and as an event to be avoided in the future.

^ The Global Times is published by the Communist Party’s official People’s Daily and is considered authoritative on security and military issues.

Hu Yaobang's sudden death, due to heart attack, on 15 April 1989 provided a perfect opportunity for the students to gather once again, not only to mourn the deceased Secretary General, but also to have their voices heard in "demanding a reversal of the verdict against him" and bringing renewed attention to the important issues of the 1986–1987 pro-democracy protests and possibly also to those of the Democracy Wall protests in 1978–1979.[6]

Protest development

.Small voluntary civilian gatherings started on 15 April around Monument to the People's Heroes in the middle of the Tiananmen Square in the form of mourning for Hu Yaobang.^ On April 5, hundreds of thousands of people were gathered in and around Tiananmen Square , turning the assembly into a form of non-violent protest.

^ On April 5, around 2 million people were gathered in and around Tiananmen Square, turning the assembly into a form of protest against the Gang of Four.
  • The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.chinaonline.cn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On that day People’s Daily published an editorial noting that, After the memorial meeting, an extremely small number of people with ulterior purposes continued to take advantage of the young students’ feelings of grief for Comrade Hu Yaobang...
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

An anonymous drawing posted in a pedestrian walkway underneath Chang'an Avenue caricatures Deng Xiaoping (seated behind the lectern) as an old Chinese emperor
.On the same date of 15 April, many students at Peking University and Tsinghua University expressed their sorrow and mourning for Hu Yaobang by posting eulogies inside the campus and erecting shrines, and joined the civilian mourning in Tiananmen Square in a piecemeal fashion.^ Tiananmen Square was then occupied by students for weeks.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Leaders of the protest inside the square, where some had attempted to erect flimsy barricades ahead of the APCs, were said to have "implored" the students not to use weapons (such as Molotov cocktails) against the oncoming soldiers.
  • People never forget, June Fourth Incident/人民不會忘記, 六四事件 | Facebook 15 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the “clearing” of Tiananmen Square, 5,000 soldiers were injured, and 2,000 civilians and “rebels” were also injured, 300 soldiers and “law-breaking criminals” died, including 23 university students.
  • Tiananmen Massacre 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.acpp.org [Source type: Original source]

.Organized student gatherings started outside of Beijing on a small scale in Xi'an and Shanghai on 16 April.^ Zheng Xuguang ( 郑旭光 ) : Zheng, born in Xi'an, Shaanxi, was a student at Beijing Aviation Institute.
  • The Legacy of Tiananmen: 20 Years of Oppression, Activism and Hope 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC crd-net.org [Source type: News]

^ Document 4 , a U.S. embassy cable from December 24, 1986, reports on a small student demonstration in Beijing on the evening of December 23, 1986.
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ When students organized demonstrations in the millions, something not seen since the Cultural Revolution, youths from outside Beijing rode the trains into Beijing and relied on the hospitality of train workers and Beijing residents, just as their counterparts had ridden the trains freely during the Cultural Revolution.

.On the afternoon of 17 April in Beijing, 500 students from China University of Political Science and Law marched to the eastern gate of the Great Hall of the People, part of Tiananmen Square, and commenced mourning activities for Hu Yaobang.^ "Political Science and Law is here!"

^ People are setting themselves on fire in Tiananmen Square in the heart of Beijing...
  • Video: China Secret, 6 Years Ago Today on Tiananmen Square. 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC rvpark4u.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On that day People’s Daily published an editorial noting that, After the memorial meeting, an extremely small number of people with ulterior purposes continued to take advantage of the young students’ feelings of grief for Comrade Hu Yaobang...
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The gathering in front of the Great Hall of the People was soon deemed obstructive to the normal operation of the building, so police intervened and attempted to disperse the students by persuasion.^ He had a wiry build and sported a flattop crew cut that made him look more a police cadet than student.

^ One of the more florid campus wall posters that I managed to snap a photo of was a florid eulogy to the Great Hall of the People as a symbol of representative rule.

^ The building is 84 feet tall, contains 24,000 square feet of space and can accommodate 2,000 people in the main hall.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

.The gathering featured speakers from various backgrounds giving public speeches (mostly anonymous) commemorating Hu Yaobang, expressing their concerns of social problems.^ People gathered in Tiananmen Square to commemorate Hu and raise seven demands, including reversing the verdict on Hu Yaobang, publicizing the assets of high ranking government officials; lifting restrictions on demonstrations; and allowing press freedom.
  • Tiananmen Massacre 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.acpp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Before dawn on April 22, students gathered at Tiananmen for Hu Yaobang's official funeral.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Chinese government held an official ceremony to commemorate the former CCP General Secretary Hu Yaobang.
  • Tiananmen Massacre 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.acpp.org [Source type: Original source]

.Starting at midnight on the night of 17 April, three thousand students from Peking University marched from the campus towards Tiananmen Square, and soon nearly a thousand students from Tsinghua University joined the ranks.^ They continued their march toward Tiananmen Square.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Around midnight on April 17, we set out from Beijing University.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Tiananmen Square was then occupied by students for weeks.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Upon arrival, they soon joined forces with students and civilians who were in the Square earlier.^ During the “clearing” of Tiananmen Square, 5,000 soldiers were injured, and 2,000 civilians and “rebels” were also injured, 300 soldiers and “law-breaking criminals” died, including 23 university students.
  • Tiananmen Massacre 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.acpp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Liu Xiaobo told me, "If we don't join the students in the Square and face the same kind of danger, then we don't have any right to speak."
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The summary notes that students expect that the "Goddess of Democracy" statue they erected in the square would "anger top leaders and prompt a response."
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.As its size grew, the gathering gradually evolved into a protest, as students began to draft a list of pleas and suggestions (List of Seven Demands) that they wanted the government to listen to and carry through.^ They demand dialogue with the government.

^ People gathered in Tiananmen Square to commemorate Hu and raise seven demands, including reversing the verdict on Hu Yaobang, publicizing the assets of high ranking government officials; lifting restrictions on demonstrations; and allowing press freedom.
  • Tiananmen Massacre 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.acpp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They are also demanding that the central government allow public discussion of this issue and permit domestic media to openly discuss this issue.
  • CNN - Zhu Muzhi - June 2, 1999 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the morning of 18 April, the students remained in the square.^ "Students wanted democracy: Zhu," South China Morning Post , April 15, 1999, p.
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Document 8 , a State Department intelligence summary submitted to the Secretary on the morning of June 2, notes that hard-liners "remain unable to resolve the leadership crisis or to remove students from Tiananmen Square."
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ On the morning of April 26 we had just announced in our first press conference the establishment of the Beijing Association of College Students (BACS, gao zi lian ).

.Some gathered around the Monument to the People's Heroes singing patriotic songs and listening to impromptu speeches by student organizers.^ By the way, talking of enthusiasm to know what was going on, just walking down the streets, you would find groups of people gathered around a telegraph pole.

^ On April 5, hundreds of thousands of people were gathered in and around Tiananmen Square , turning the assembly into a form of non-violent protest.

^ The strikers gathered around the monument in the middle of the rectangular quad, bringing to mind the way the protesters in recent days had gravitated to the Monument of the People’s Heroes, which commemorated martyrdom in Mao’s calligraphy, in the very heart of Tiananmen Square.

.Another group of students sat in front of the Great Hall of the People, the office of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress; they demanded to see members of the Standing Committee and show them the List of Seven Demands.^ Seven people volunteered to be on the organizing committee.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Hu was last held in a psychiatric hospital between March 2 and March 16 to prevent him from petitioning during the annual sessions of the National People’s Congress and the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference.
  • China Human Rights Briefing June 1-7 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC crd-net.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was a Standing Committee member, vice president of the Guangzhou Patriotic Union (GZPU), in charge of the Operation Section of GZPU and was mainly responsible for protests in the provincial government square.
  • The Legacy of Tiananmen: 20 Years of Oppression, Activism and Hope 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC crd-net.org [Source type: News]

.Meanwhile, a few thousand students gathered in front of the Zhongnanhai building complex, the residence of the government, demanding to see government leaders and get answers to their earlier demands.^ Surrounded by the media, the student leaders made the rounds of government offices to present their conditions for further talks.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ I watched the student movement on T.V. It was exciting to see so many people demanding democracy, but I was worried by the general, intangible nature of their demands.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ At Xinhuamen, the entrance to the old palace compound where China's top leaders live and work, the students waited for an answer.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Students tried to muscle their way through the gate by pushing, but security and police, locking arms, formed a cordon that eventually deterred students' attempts to enter through the gate.^ Faced with the threat of armed repression, the students tried to mobilize even greater public support.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Well, the way I see it, if the students were wrong, you wouldn't have to send the police or the soldiers!
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The amateur security got woollier and woollier as we pushed towards the center, so we temporarily split up when he got permission to enter a controlled area that I couldn’t enter.

Students then staged a sit-in. .Some government officials did unofficially meet with student representatives, but without an official response, frustrations continued to mount.^ On April 29, the government held a meeting with representatives of the official student union of Beijing.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevertheless, U.S. officials were still hoping to see the standoff between the government and the student demonstrators resolved peacefully.
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Although Chinese companies are increasing having to survive without government subsidiaries, many foreign companies still need strong relations with government officials.
  • Partner Schools 2008: March 2008 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: General]
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 20 April, police finally dispersed the students in front of the Zhongnanhai by force, to ensure proper function of the building complex.^ I kept telling the students that if we encountered the police, we should not force our way past them.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ On April 26, therefore, the front-page headline in the state-run People’s Daily labeled the large student presence a “riot.” .
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some students went into the Radio Budapest building to broadcast their manifesto, but were stopped by the AVH police; when the crowd demanded their release, the police fired on them, killing several.
  • Tiananmen Square Remembered, An Eye-Witness Account 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

The police employed batons and minor clashes were reported. .The protests in Tiananmen Square gained momentum after news of the confrontation between students and police spread; the belief by students that the Chinese media was distorting the nature of their activities also led to increased support.^ Tiananmen Square was then occupied by students for weeks.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ After the Tiananmen protests of 1989 , Pelosi became a supporter of the Chinese democracy movement and vocal critic of the government of the People's Republic of China and sponsored the Chinese Student Protection Act of 1992 .
  • Nancy Pelosi - OpenCongress Wiki 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.opencongress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nancy Pelosi - OpenCongress Wiki 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC wiki.opencongress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Remember that high inflation was the hottest spark that ignited the Tiananmen Protests of 1989, and how it was not just students that demonstrated but working class also.
  • China, the US, and the Market that Still Knows Best - Drorism* 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.drorism.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the night of 21 April, the day before Hu's funeral, some 100,000 students marched on Tiananmen Square, gathering there before the square could be closed off for the funeral.^ Over 100,000 students gathered at Tiananmen Square under surveillance of 10,000 military police.
  • Tiananmen Massacre 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.acpp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the day of the 70th anniversary of the May 4th Movement, over 100,000 students marched to Tiananmen Square.
  • Tiananmen Massacre 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.acpp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Before dawn on April 22, students gathered at Tiananmen for Hu Yaobang's official funeral.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.From 21 April to 23 April, students from Beijing called for a strike at universities, which included teachers and students boycotting classes.^ During the “clearing” of Tiananmen Square, 5,000 soldiers were injured, and 2,000 civilians and “rebels” were also injured, 300 soldiers and “law-breaking criminals” died, including 23 university students.
  • Tiananmen Massacre 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.acpp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Principal Shadowing and Teacher Confucian Room List April 8-21, 2008 .
  • Partner Schools 2008: March 2008 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: General]

^ Railing against this rather pleasant and natural inclination, strident wall posters at Shida and Beida called for continuing the student strike.

.The government, which was well aware of the political storm caused by the now-legitimized 1976 Tiananmen Incident, was alarmed.^ The mindset, even the words, were identical to the editorial which came out after the Tiananmen Incident of 1976.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Before the tragedy of Tiananmen in 1989, the 1980s were a period of intense political ferment, when democracy was debated inside the government, think tanks, universities, and intellectual salons.
  • Foreign Affairs 多少好文啊 - Windows Live 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC swlion.spaces.live.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the Plenum, the Qingming Tiananmen Square incident was also politically rehabilitated.
  • i love peru 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.iloveperu.net76.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.chinaonline.cn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 26 April, following an internal speech made by Deng Xiaoping, the CPC's official newspaper People's Daily issued a front-page editorial titled Uphold the flag to clearly oppose any turmoil, attempting to rally the public behind the government, and accused "extremely small segments of opportunists" of plotting civil unrest.^ The alleged mastermind behind the turmoil was that unrepentant reactionary, Deng Xiaoping.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The immediate cause of the march was a notorious editorial, issued by the Party’s mouthpiece, the People’s Daily , on April 26.

^ A People's Daily editorial denounced the demonstrations.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

[7] .The statement enraged the students, and on 27 April about 50,000 students assembled on the streets of Beijing, disregarding the warning of military action made by authorities, and demanded that the government retract the statement.^ Surrounded by the media, the student leaders made the rounds of government offices to present their conditions for further talks.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Big March of April 27 took place, on the student side, the newborn student organization was not only very frail, but had also borne the blow of blackmail from the government in advance.

^ On April 29, the government held a meeting with representatives of the official student union of Beijing.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.In Beijing, a majority of students from the city's numerous colleges and universities participated with support of their instructors and other intellectuals.^ After the June 4 th massacre, he continued to organize the "Empty School Movement" and remained active in organizing the rescue of student activists and intellectuals who escaped from Beijing after the student movement was crushed.
  • The Legacy of Tiananmen: 20 Years of Oppression, Activism and Hope 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC crd-net.org [Source type: News]

^ It’s fascinating to me that in an interview with four students from the university in Beijing, when shown the picture of the Tank Man, they were baffled.
  • Random Thoughts of a History Major » Uncategorized 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC kadams311.umwblogs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We passed incoming delegations of farmers, workers, intellectuals and merchants parading in support of the students, even military supply factories got into the act.

.The students rejected official Communist Party-controlled student associations and set up their own autonomous associations.^ Interview transcripts • a crackdown defender • a victim's mother • former Communist Party official • Premier Zhu Rongji .
  • CNN - Zhu Muzhi - June 2, 1999 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Chinese Communist Party’s official newspaper, the real issue is his race.

^ Beijing eventually instructed local officials to ensure that the "leading role" of the Communist Party was maintained.
  • Foreign Affairs 多少好文啊 - Windows Live 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC swlion.spaces.live.com [Source type: Original source]

.The students viewed themselves as Chinese patriots, as the heirs of the May Fourth Movement for "science and democracy" of 1919. The protests also evoked memories of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1976 which had eventually led to the ousting of the Gang of Four.^ This clip explains the information filtering mechanism Google designed for the Chinese government and how a search for "Tiananmen Square" .
  • Video: China Secret, 6 Years Ago Today on Tiananmen Square. 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC rvpark4u.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sculptures were also awarded to: Li Lu, deputy leader of the Chinese Pro Democracy movement of Tiananmen Square, listed on the Chinese government's "most wanted" list, Vaclev Havel, President of the Czech Republic, Coretta Scott King .

^ He was a Standing Committee member, vice president of the Guangzhou Patriotic Union (GZPU), in charge of the Operation Section of GZPU and was mainly responsible for protests in the provincial government square.
  • The Legacy of Tiananmen: 20 Years of Oppression, Activism and Hope 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC crd-net.org [Source type: News]

.From their origins as a memorial to Hu Yaobang, who was seen by the students as an advocate of democracy, the students' activities gradually developed over the course of their demonstration from protests against corruption into demands for freedom of the press and an end to, or the reform of, the rule of the PRC by the Communist Party of China and Deng Xiaoping, the de facto paramount Chinese leader.^ The cause of the Student Movement restructured to the demand of freedom of press, crackdown on corruption and political reform.
  • Tiananmen Massacre 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.acpp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is remarkable that the protest grew to the point where it was seen as a serious threat to Communist Party rule.
  • Tiananmen Square Remembered, An Eye-Witness Account 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Hu Yaobang had been the General Secretary of the Party and Deng Xiaoping's chosen successor.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Partially successful attempts were made to reach out and network with students in other cities and with workers.^ In the early morning of April 27th, students set out from campuses all over the city and walked toward Tiananmen Square, the political center of China.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Without the people of Beijing: the workers, the farmers from the outskirts of the city, and the street merchants, the students couldn't have persisted for long.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ With the workers, once it got to the question of overthrowing the Communist Party, and a new workers' and students' government, they weren't willing to swallow that unless they were totally convinced that I was serious in what I was saying.

[citation needed]
.While the protests lacked a unified cause or leadership, participants were generally against authoritarianism and voiced calls for democratic reform[2] within the structure of the government.^ Four years after the Orange Revolution brought a million people out onto the streets of Kyiv to protest against falsified elections and authoritarian government, Ukraine’s political elite has yet to fulfill the promises that were made on the Maidan.
  • Events 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.ned.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many prominent generals of the People's Liberation Army who were instrumental in the founding of the PRC voiced their concern and opposition to the Cultural Revolution, calling it a "mistake".

^ In an echo of the dynamic that initiated market reforms in the 1980s, the center now encourages governance experimentation at the local level, albeit within boundaries.
  • Foreign Affairs 多少好文啊 - Windows Live 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC swlion.spaces.live.com [Source type: Original source]

.Unlike the Tiananmen protests of 1987, which consisted mainly of students and intellectuals, the protests in 1989 commanded widespread support from the urban workers who were alarmed by the new economic reforms, growing inflation, and corruption.^ Students and intellectuals had been among the strongest supporters of the reforms.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Remember that high inflation was the hottest spark that ignited the Tiananmen Protests of 1989, and how it was not just students that demonstrated but working class also.
  • China, the US, and the Market that Still Knows Best - Drorism* 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.drorism.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Document 5 , an intelligence summary from U.S. Pacific Command, reports that thousands of protesters filled Tiananmen Square on New Year’s Day 1987, and that, "Some 24 ‘troublemakers’ reportedly were taken away by the police for ‘education and examination.’" On January 17, another intelligence summary ( Document 6 )reports that noted reformer and Communist Party General Secretary Hu Yaobang had resigned, apparently "a result of the recent student demonstrations."
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.In Beijing, they were supported by a large number of people.^ They called on people to go and show their support.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ In the days after the end of the protest at Tiananmen, large numbers of people were arrested all over China.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead, it was a success brought about largely by the unprecedented support of the great masses of Beijing.

.Similar numbers were found in major cities throughout China such as Urumqi, Shanghai, and Chongqing; and later in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Chinese communities in North America and Europe.^ A number of grass-roots groups are emerging to battle repressive government Internet filtering in countries such as China and Saudi Arabia.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ Articles are carefully researched and reviewed by Chinese people in Taiwan, Hong Kong, as well as mainland China.
  • http://many.corante.com/archives/authors/xiao.php 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC many.corante.com [Source type: General]

^ U.S. Asia India China Europe Americas en Español em Português Login/Register to set your edition Set my edition Today's Paper Video Columns Blogs Topics Journal Community .
  • 'High Noon' for Freedom - WSJ.com 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

Protests escalate

"The Goddess of Democracy" carved by students from the Central Academy of Fine Arts and erected in the Square during the protest.
.Zhao Ziyang speaks on 19 May 1989. Wen Jiabao, then Director of the Central Party Office, was also present (2nd from right in black).^ Or did Zhao Ziyang's remarks indicate deep rifts in the central government that must be exploited by pushing harder, going farther?
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ In the predawn hours of May 19, a worn and haggard Zhao Ziyang appeared suddenly on Tiananmen Square.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The document also anticipates a Communist Party Central Committee plenum that will ratify the removal of party secretary Zhao Ziyang, and name a new leader.
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

This was Zhao's last public appearance before he was placed under house-arrest, where he remained until his death
.On 4 May, approximately 100,000 students and workers marched in Beijing making demands for free media and a formal dialogue between the authorities and student-elected representatives.^ On April 29, the government held a meeting with representatives of the official student union of Beijing.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Without the people of Beijing: the workers, the farmers from the outskirts of the city, and the street merchants, the students couldn't have persisted for long.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ On 6 May, more than 20,000 students and teachers walked to the Sorbonne to remonstrate.
  • Tiananmen Square Remembered, An Eye-Witness Account 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

.A declaration demanded the government to accelerate political reform.^ Commenting on prospects for future political reforms, the document asserts that, "There is probably little residual faith that the government can be counted on to move forward on demands for political freedoms, an open and accurate press, and an end to official corruption."
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The cause of the Student Movement restructured to the demand of freedom of press, crackdown on corruption and political reform.
  • Tiananmen Massacre 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.acpp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The students' chant was for democracy, their demands for political reform.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

[2]
.The government rejected the proposed dialogue, only agreeing to talk to members of appointed student organizations.^ When the Big March of April 27 took place, on the student side, the newborn student organization was not only very frail, but had also borne the blow of blackmail from the government in advance.

^ "We agree with the students' demand for democratic rights, but they are not actually talking about power.

^ I explained that one of the top student leaders agreed to talk to us.

.On 13 May, two days prior to the highly-publicized state visit by the reform-minded Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, huge groups of students occupied Tiananmen Square and started a hunger strike, insisting the government withdraw the accusation made in the People's Daily editorial and begin talks with the designated student representatives.^ On May 15th, the government planned to welcome Gorbachev at Tiananmen Square.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The editorial of the “People’s Daily”, mouthpiece of the Central government, designated the Student Movement as “riot”.
  • Tiananmen Massacre 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.acpp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviet President received an ecstatic reception; on the second day of Gorbachev's visit, 1 million people massed in Tiananmen Square.
  • Tiananmen Square Remembered, An Eye-Witness Account 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

.Hundreds of students went on hunger strikes and were supported by hundreds of thousands of protesting students and part of the population of Beijing, for one week.^ The Beijing students were tired but tempered from weeks of demos and the hunger strike.

^ Thousands went on strike.
  • Tiananmen Square Remembered, An Eye-Witness Account 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Unable to achieve a consensus within the Independent Student Unions, the people in favor of a hunger strike bypassed the new organization and made personal appeals to the students.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Protests and strikes began at colleges in other cities, with many students traveling to Beijing to join the demonstration.^ Weifang is located just 300 miles southeast of Beijing, making it easy for protesters to travel to the capital even after the city took an initial precaution of sending security agents to train and bus stations.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But there were also protests involving university students in other years ending with that number, including 1999.

^ Johnson reported that in Weifang, like many other cities, this policy led to "tragic decisions," and that the cruelty of the police "only increased after higher-level officials started fining their subordinates for each protester who arrived in the capital."
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Generally, the demonstration at Tiananmen Square was well-ordered, with daily marches of students from various Beijing area colleges displaying their solidarity with the boycott of college classes and with the developing demands of the protest.^ Tiananmen Square was then occupied by students for weeks.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ "Clearly, officials at every level are under the strictest orders to take the anniversary very seriously," he writes, looking at a Beijing Daily article about Liu Qi, Beijing's party secretary, conducting an inspection of "stability preservation work" around Peking University and Tiananmen Square.

^ He spoke on the approach of the 20th anniversary of the June 4, 1989, crackdown, which reportedly left hundreds of unarmed civilians dead in central Beijing when the army moved in on the protesters in Tiananmen square with tanks and live ammunition.
  • `Fear of collapse’ bars reassessment of Tiananmen crackdown 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: News]

.The students sang The Internationale, the world socialist anthem, on their way to and within the square.^ Because you had the eyes and ears of workers, students, peasants round the world on this Square, every day, on the radio, in the newspapers, on the television - looking at the Square, and hearing what was going on.

^ But in the Square itself the students had their own network of loudspeakers, and they would blare out still louder the Internationale.

^ In this way, students develop into capable individuals of incorruptible integrity who will be able to save the world.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

[8] .The students even showed a surprising gesture of respect to the government by helping police arrest three men from Hunan Province, including Yu Zhijian, Yu Dongyue, and Lu Decheng who had thrown ink on the large portrait of Mao that hangs from Tiananmen, just north of the square.^ The government had to release the arrested students and sack the three officials.
  • Tiananmen Square Remembered, An Eye-Witness Account 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ During the student demonstrations of 1989 three men from Mao's own home province of Hunan splattered the great portrait with ink.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ It was at that time that I left Tiananmen Square with three students who helped me escape to the south.

[9][10] .The three young men were later sentenced to prison for, respectively, life, 20 years, and 16 years.^ Zhang was sentenced to three years re-education through hard labour in 1992 due to his request for early discharge from the army.
  • Tiananmen Massacre 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.acpp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the group, Li was found guilty of "inciting subversion" after he posted comments online critical of local officials and was sentenced to eight years in prison.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ Among software professionals, the average age was 26.5, and 79 percent were men; 42 percent of software/knowledge workers had over three years of experience.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

[11] .However, two were freed after 10 years and Yu Dongyue after nearly 17 years.^ Numbers today, however, show the majority of recent job losses has been in the manufacturing sector, which shed nearly 2.7 million jobs in the last three years.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ However, 1989 was 17 years ago now.
  • Across The Pacific 跨越太平洋: A Burgeoning Middle Class 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC helenwang.rdvp.org [Source type: News]

^ The country faces a new birth peak in the next 10 years, when nearly 200 million people enter childbearing age.

Hunger strikes

.The students ultimately decided that in order to sustain their movement and impede any loss of momentum, a hunger strike would need to be enacted.^ Unable to achieve a consensus within the Independent Student Unions, the people in favor of a hunger strike bypassed the new organization and made personal appeals to the students.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ But all the students had put so much into the hunger strike, how could the government simply ignore us?
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, during the hunger strike some students were actually eating.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.The students' decision to undertake the hunger strike was a defining moment in their movement.^ Unable to achieve a consensus within the Independent Student Unions, the people in favor of a hunger strike bypassed the new organization and made personal appeals to the students.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of the students who had flocked to Hu Yaobang's funeral and then celebrated the May Fourth Movement declared a hunger strike and vowed to stay in Tiananmen Square until the Communist Party granted political reforms.
  • Tiananmen Square Remembered, An Eye-Witness Account 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ At around 3:30, the four people on the hunger strike came to talk to the students.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.The hunger strike began in May 1989 and grew to include "more than one thousand persons".^ Unable to achieve a consensus within the Independent Student Unions, the people in favor of a hunger strike bypassed the new organization and made personal appeals to the students.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The next step I use is to let them know I want more than one scarf.
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By Dror Poleg on May 30, 2009 8:30 AM @ j4evh7: One more thing.
  • China, the US, and the Market that Still Knows Best - Drorism* 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.drorism.com [Source type: Original source]

[12] .The hunger strike brought widespread support for the students and "the ordinary people of Beijing rallied to protect the hunger strikers...because the act of refusing sustenance and courting government reprisals convinced onlookers that the students were not just seeking personal gains but (were) sacrificing themselves for the Chinese people as a whole".^ The Beijing students were tired but tempered from weeks of demos and the hunger strike.

^ This is not just students but most average people.
  • CNN - Zhu Muzhi - June 2, 1999 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Student hunger strikers and supporters are in danger of being punished.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

[13]
.The hunger strike not only gained significant support nationally for the students, but also rang further alarms in China's top leadership.^ Unable to achieve a consensus within the Independent Student Unions, the people in favor of a hunger strike bypassed the new organization and made personal appeals to the students.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ At Xinhuamen, the entrance to the old palace compound where China's top leaders live and work, the students waited for an answer.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ But all the students had put so much into the hunger strike, how could the government simply ignore us?
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.The national press, then still relatively free to cover ongoing events without propagating the party line, aired the talks between Premier Li Peng and student leaders on the evening of 18 May.^ On the evening of May 19th, Premier Li Peng addressed an emergency meeting of state and army leaders.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Surrounded by the media, the student leaders made the rounds of government offices to present their conditions for further talks.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ It was against the rules of martial law for journalists to interview student leaders and I wasn’t even on a work visa.

.During the talks Wu'er Kaixi, Wang Dan, and others openly accused the government for being too slow to react and rebuked Li Peng personally for lacking the "sincerity to conduct real discussions". The discussion did not yield much results, but gained student leaders prominent airtime on China's national television.^ Li Peng met for the first timeombative televised 'dialogue'* wiih student leaders.
  • THE ROAD TO THE TIANANMEN CRACKDOWN: AN ANALYTIC CHRONOLOGY OF C - CIA document 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Certainly, some - perhaps many - escaped, including the two charismatic student leaders, Wang Dan and Chai Ling, who were smuggled out of the country.
  • Tiananmen Square Remembered, An Eye-Witness Account 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ According to student leader Shen Tong in his book, Almost a Revolution, the trigger for the famous hunger-strikes of 1989 was a "dazibao" (big-character poster), a form of public political discussion that gained prominence in the Cultural Revolution and subsequently outlawed.
  • The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.chinaonline.cn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] Li Peng and other leaders, however, maintained the government was only trying to "maintain order", but alluded to the students actions as "patriotic".
.As the hunger strike escalated, numerous political and civil organizations around the country voiced their concern for the students, many empathizing with their positions.^ Certainly, some - perhaps many - escaped, including the two charismatic student leaders, Wang Dan and Chai Ling, who were smuggled out of the country.
  • Tiananmen Square Remembered, An Eye-Witness Account 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Unable to achieve a consensus within the Independent Student Unions, the people in favor of a hunger strike bypassed the new organization and made personal appeals to the students.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Many prominent generals of the People's Liberation Army who were instrumental in the founding of the PRC voiced their concern and opposition to the Cultural Revolution, calling it a "mistake".

.The Chinese Red Cross issued a special notice and sent in a large number of personnel to provide medical services to the hunger strikers on the Square.^ Emergency medical teams were sent in to ensure the health of the hunger strikers.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the Chinese Red Cross , 2,600 hundred people died during the crackdown, but "quickly retracted that figure under intense pressure from the government.
  • Hit & Run > Chas Freeman: The ChiComs Were "Overly Cautious" at Tiananmen Square - Reason Magazine 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.reason.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The protester’s resourcefulness seemed to know no limits, however, and a fleet of buses were soon driven to the Square, providing a safe, dry shelter for the weakened hunger strikers.

.For the first time, on 19 May, two of the highest ranked members of China's central leadership, Premier Li Peng and General Secretary Zhao Ziyang went to Tiananmen personally in an attempt to neutralize the situation.^ Actually, Zhao Ziyang was the first to promote it.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ A very public example of this occurred during the Tiananmen protests of 1989 when Wu'er Kaixi scolded Premier Li Peng for being late to a meeting with the demonstrators.
  • Partner Schools 2008: March 2008 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: General]
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Zhu Muzhi, secretary-general of the China Society for Human Rights Studies, spoke in May with CNN Beijing Bureau Chief Rebecca MacKinnon.
  • CNN - Zhu Muzhi - June 2, 1999 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.At 4:50 am, Zhao Ziyang went to the Square and made a speech urging the students to end the hunger strike.^ Unable to achieve a consensus within the Independent Student Unions, the people in favor of a hunger strike bypassed the new organization and made personal appeals to the students.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, by the lime he again went out into Tiananmen Square for an emotional meeting with the students oo the evening cfay.
  • THE ROAD TO THE TIANANMEN CRACKDOWN: AN ANALYTIC CHRONOLOGY OF C - CIA document 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NPC cadres were urged soeat's aad Yang Shaogfcun's speeches made at Xishan.
  • THE ROAD TO THE TIANANMEN CRACKDOWN: AN ANALYTIC CHRONOLOGY OF C - CIA document 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Part of his speech was to become a famous quote, when he said, referring to the older generation of people in China, "We are already old, it doesn't matter to us any more." In contrast, the students were young and he urged them to stay healthy and not to sacrifice themselves so easily.^ Internet filtering and young people References .
  • Internet filtering and young people - Cyberspace Law and Policy Centre - UNSW research project on content regulation and censorship 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC cyberlawcentre.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I watched the student movement on T.V. It was exciting to see so many people demanding democracy, but I was worried by the general, intangible nature of their demands.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ I wanted to talk more to this enigmatic man who had been observing us and the people’s reaction to us with insight and attention.

.Zhao's emotional speech was applauded by some students on the Square; it would be his last public appearance.^ But some of the workers and students stayed in the Square.

^ The summary notes that students expect that the "Goddess of Democracy" statue they erected in the square would "anger top leaders and prompt a response."
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This can be seen in the words of some of the student leaders of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 .

.Partially successful attempts were made to negotiate with the PRC government, who were located nearby in Zhongnanhai, the Communist Party headquarters and leadership compound.^ We made the government agree to face-to-face negotiations.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of the success of his economic reforms, Liu had won prestige in the eyes of many party members both in the central government and among the masses citation needed .

^ Like most leftists feel about anyone who has become successful outside of Government.
  • small dead animals: For "Tony The Media Moley" 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.smalldeadanimals.com [Source type: General]

.Because of the visit of Mikhail Gorbachev, foreign media were present in China in large numbers.^ Still, Japan retains a lead in the number of individual Internet users, largely because of strong growth in mobile phone connections.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ That week a historic meeting, years in preparation, was to take place: the President of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, was coming to China.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ As many as 3,000 China tourists, the number Ma first proposed, could come to the island per day, Taiwan media said.

.Their coverage of the protests was extensive and generally favorable towards the protesters, but pessimistic that they would attain their goals.^ Outraged by Li Peng’s decision, 200,000 students in the Square announced they would continue the hunger strike to protest.
  • Tiananmen Massacre 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.acpp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Already townspeople were swarming towards the protest, and they too knew how to play they ambiguity game.

^ They generally differ from paleoconservatives , in that they are in favor of more personal and economic freedom .
  • Boston University School of Theology 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Toward the end of the demonstration, on 30 May, a statue of the Goddess of Democracy was erected in the Square and came to symbolize the protest to television viewers worldwide.^ The summary notes that students expect that the "Goddess of Democracy" statue they erected in the square would "anger top leaders and prompt a response."
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In this context, it may also be necessary to revisit the status of the National Television Preservation Foundation.

^ That day, students at the nearby Central Art Academy were finishing work on a statue, which they called the Goddess of Democracy.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.The Standing Committee of the Politburo, along with the party elders (retired but still-influential former officials of the government and Party), were at first hopeful that the demonstrations would be short-lived or that cosmetic reforms and investigations would satisfy the protesters.^ GE YANG - Former government official .
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ WU GUOGUANG - Former government official .
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Zhao's allies in the party Standing Committee and the .
  • THE ROAD TO THE TIANANMEN CRACKDOWN: AN ANALYTIC CHRONOLOGY OF C - CIA document 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They wished to avoid violence if possible, and relied at first on their far-reaching Party apparatus in attempts to persuade the students to abandon the protest and return to their studies.^ In the 1980s, there was widespread concern by the PRC over a brain drain as graduate students were not returning to the PRC. This exodus worsened after the Tiananmen protests of 1989.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

^ In its introduction it notes that while civilian casualties probably did not reach the figure of 3,000 used in some press accounts, "they surely far outnumbered official figures."
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Demonstrations continued into May, when they merged with ceremonies to mark the 70th anniversary of the May Fourth Movement - an expression of intellectual discontent that swept China as students returned from Europe at the end of the First World War.
  • Tiananmen Square Remembered, An Eye-Witness Account 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

.One barrier to effective action was that the leadership itself supported many of the demands of the students, especially the concern with corruption.^ Understanding how they got that way may well increase one’s confidence in dealing with them effectively and de-escalating conflict, especially when one is in a triggered state.
  • Rad Geek People’s Daily 2009-06-07 – Shameless Self-promotion Sunday #54 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC radgeek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I watched the student movement on T.V. It was exciting to see so many people demanding democracy, but I was worried by the general, intangible nature of their demands.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The cause of the Student Movement restructured to the demand of freedom of press, crackdown on corruption and political reform.
  • Tiananmen Massacre 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.acpp.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, one large problem was that the protests contained many people with varying agendas, and hence it was unclear with whom the government could negotiate, and what the exact demands of the protesters were.^ Despite this, the government said China would be self-sufficient in the future and could meet rising consumer demands.

^ A few days after the demonstrations took place, Beijing had to rein them in because many protesters were taking advantage of the melee to vent their grievances against the central government.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many people in Beijing felt it in those days of protest: the sense of being lifted out of their daily drudgery by a cause greater than themselves.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

The confusion and indecision among the protesters was also mirrored by confusion and indecision within the government. .The official media mirrored this indecision as headlines in the People's Daily alternated between sympathy with the demonstrators and denouncing them.^ A People's Daily editorial denounced the demonstrations.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ But the story, posted initially to People’s Daily Online , was removed by day’s end, a sign that some important officials at least were not pleased.

^ Nevertheless, U.S. officials were still hoping to see the standoff between the government and the student demonstrators resolved peacefully.
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Among the top leadership, General Secretary Zhao Ziyang was strongly in favour of a soft approach to the demonstrations, while Li Peng was seen to argue in favour of military action.^ After Hu Yaobang’s funeral on April 22, Zhao Ziyang, the then General-secretary of the Party, went to visit North Korea, leaving the mess to Party functionaries to be handled in an “old fashioned” way that led to the issuing of the April 26 Editorial.

^ Oapril, according to Hong Kong press, the pen* Suiting Conunittee again met (without party General Secretary Zhao, who wai lull in North Korea) and under Li Peng's chairmanthip toughened iu itanec.
  • THE ROAD TO THE TIANANMEN CRACKDOWN: AN ANALYTIC CHRONOLOGY OF C - CIA document 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the first several days, only six of China'srovinces made sutemenls^ backing Li Peng and the military crackdownVH^L .
  • THE ROAD TO THE TIANANMEN CRACKDOWN: AN ANALYTIC CHRONOLOGY OF C - CIA document 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ultimately the decision to forcefully intervene on the demonstrations was made by a group of Party elders, who saw abandonment of single-party rule as a return of the chaos of the Cultural Revolution.^ Some commentators argue that the Cultural Revolution years saw the Chinese people leave behind many uncritical habits of conformist and authoritarian thinking.
  • The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.chinaonline.cn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are no politically significant groups within China that defend the Cultural Revolution.
  • The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.chinaonline.cn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the abandonment of collectivization at the end of the Cultural Revolution, a power vacuum emerged in the countryside.
  • Foreign Affairs 多少好文啊 - Windows Live 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC swlion.spaces.live.com [Source type: Original source]

[15] .Although most of these people had no official position, they were able to control the military.^ In fact, most of these people are men.

^ Jiang's persecution has thus put these policemen and officials in a position in which they have to choose between profit and freedom from punishment on the one hand, or living according to their moral principles on the other.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Global Times is published by the Communist Party’s official People’s Daily and is considered authoritative on security and military issues.

.Deng Xiaoping was chairman of the Central Military Commission and was able to declare martial law; Yang Shangkun was President of the People's Republic of China, which, although a symbolic position under the 1982 Constitution, was legally the commander-in-chief of the armed forces.^ On May 24, executive vice chairman Yang Shangkun spoke to the Central Military Commission: "Although martial law has been declared, some of the martial law tasks have in fact not been carried out...
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Martial law had been declared.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Deng Xiaoping, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, gave a warm reception to the officers of the Martial Law Troops.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.The Party elders believed that lengthy demonstrations were a threat to the stability of the country.^ Few in the central leadership seem to have anticipated the extent to which the Olympic Games would stoke the persistent political challenges to the legitimacy of the Communist Party and the stability of the country.

^ Yang Shaagkun spoke at this meeting, outlining Zhao's "crimes" againu ihc party and people and discussing lhe threat lhe demonstrator* puaed to the country.
  • THE ROAD TO THE TIANANMEN CRACKDOWN: AN ANALYTIC CHRONOLOGY OF C - CIA document 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jiang believed that the explosive spread of Falun Gong throughout the country in the later half of the 1990’s posed both a threat and an opportunity.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The demonstrators were seen as tools of advocates of "bourgeois liberalism" who were pulling the strings behind the scenes, as well as tools of elements within the party who wished to further their personal ambitions.^ Pelosi coordinated Murtha's call for withdrawal from behind the scenes while trying to appease the part of the party that opposed Murtha's plan.
  • Nancy Pelosi - OpenCongress Wiki 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.opencongress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nancy Pelosi - OpenCongress Wiki 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC wiki.opencongress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was launched by Mao Zedong , the chairman of the Communist Party of China, on May 16 , 1966 , who alleged that "liberal bourgeois" elements were permeating the party and society at large who wanted to restore Capitalism .

^ Deng stated that "a liberation of thoughts" and "an accurate view leading to accurate results" was needed within the party.
  • The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.chinaonline.cn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]

Nationwide and outside mainland China

.At the beginning of the movement, the Chinese news media had a rare opportunity to broadcast the news without heavy government censorship.^ Although Chinese companies are increasing having to survive without government subsidiaries, many foreign companies still need strong relations with government officials.
  • Partner Schools 2008: March 2008 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: General]
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chinese leaders see an opportunity to take the reins away in many areas, including digital media, cell phone technology, and computer software and hardware.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ But the Chinese government still maintains a blackout over news from Tibet, which experienced its biggest uprising in decades this spring.

.Most of the news media were free to write and report however they wanted, due to lack of control from the central and local governments.^ So, crisis due to lack of government intervention?
  • China, the US, and the Market that Still Knows Best - Drorism* 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.drorism.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are also demanding that the central government allow public discussion of this issue and permit domestic media to openly discuss this issue.
  • CNN - Zhu Muzhi - June 2, 1999 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, due to the lack of Chinese women in the United States at that time, many of them intermarried with Americans of European descent.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

The news was spread quickly across the land. .According to Chinese news media's report, students and workers in over 400 cities, including cities in Inner Mongolia, also organized and started to protest.^ None of the deaths have been reported in the Chinese media.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The report also provides brief biographic sketches of China's new leaders including Jiang Zemin, Song Ping, Li Ruihuan, and Ding Guangen.
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Students will take notes on an organizer and will write a news article about the event after Thanksgiving.
  • Mrs. Glenn: Intelligence (Curriculum) 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC mabryonline.org [Source type: General]

[17] .People also traveled to the capital to join the protest in the Square.^ On April 5, hundreds of thousands of people were gathered in and around Tiananmen Square , turning the assembly into a form of non-violent protest.

^ China Tiananmen Square Twenty years ago, a peaceful student protest in China's capital sparked a massacre that was broadcast across the globe.
  • Tiananmen Square Remembered, An Eye-Witness Account 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ The plan as we understood it was to go around Beijing following the perimeter of the circuitous ring road, to breach Tiananmen Square and then to stage a protest at the People’s Daily compound on Chaoyang Road, but first we had to join forces with allies from other campuses.

.University students in Shanghai also took to the streets to commemorate the death of Hu Yaobang and protest against certain policies of the government.^ When the Big March of April 27 took place, on the student side, the newborn student organization was not only very frail, but had also borne the blow of blackmail from the government in advance.

^ But there were also protests involving university students in other years ending with that number, including 1999.

^ When the students of 1989 took to the streets, they too were branded as stirring up dongluan .
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.In many cases, these were supported by the universities' Party committees.^ Domestically, these parties generally support market-oriented policies.
  • Boston University School of Theology 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Jiang Zemin, then-Municipal Party Secretary, addressed the student protesters in a bandage and 'expressed his understanding', as he was a former student agitator before 1949. But at the same time, he moved swiftly to send in police forces to control the streets and to purge Communist Party leaders who had supported the students.^ Jiang Zemin and the Student Massacre of 1989 .
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just who were the so-called student leaders?

^ Certainly, some - perhaps many - escaped, including the two charismatic student leaders, Wang Dan and Chai Ling, who were smuggled out of the country.
  • Tiananmen Square Remembered, An Eye-Witness Account 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

.On 19 April, the editors of the World Economic Herald, a magazine close to reformists, decided to publish, in their 24 April #439 issue, a commemorative section on Hu.^ Posted by: Merle Underwood at April 24, 2006 3:19 PM Good article on the decline of newspapers but paperless news like this doing just fine: .
  • small dead animals: For "Tony The Media Moley" 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.smalldeadanimals.com [Source type: General]

^ Posted by: Irwin Daisy at April 24, 2006 10:45 AM Wrong link to "this" comments thread - you're leading to World Lenin's Birthday comments.
  • small dead animals: For "Tony The Media Moley" 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.smalldeadanimals.com [Source type: General]

^ We'll read the WORLD AFFAIRS ANNUAL issue of Upfront Magazine to examine a variety of statistics about the Asian region.
  • Mrs. Glenn: Intelligence (Curriculum) 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC mabryonline.org [Source type: General]

.Inside was an article by Yan Jiaqi, which commented favourably on the Beijing student protests on 18 April and called for a reassessment of Hu's purge in 1987. On 21 April, a party official of Shanghai asked the editor in chief, Qin Benli, to change some passages.^ In late 1985, and again in late 1986, Beijing and Shanghai were the site of student protests.
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ During the same meeting, Shanghai party chief Jiang Zemin asked for support for his firing of dissident Shanghai newspaper editor Qinthat Zhao had critkired sometime carlierH A .
  • THE ROAD TO THE TIANANMEN CRACKDOWN: AN ANALYTIC CHRONOLOGY OF C - CIA document 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beijing eventually instructed local officials to ensure that the "leading role" of the Communist Party was maintained.
  • Foreign Affairs 多少好文啊 - Windows Live 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC swlion.spaces.live.com [Source type: Original source]

.Qin Benli refused, so the official turned to Jiang Zemin, who demanded that the article be censored.^ During a high level meeting on July 19, Jiang Zemin officially announced confirmation of a total ban on Falun Gong.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who is Jiang Zemin?
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Section I: Who is Jiang Zemin?
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By that time, a first batch of copies of the paper had already been delivered. The remaining copies were published with a blank page.[18] .On 26 April, the "People's Daily" published its editorial condemning the student protest.^ In essence, it contradicted the April 26 editorial.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ A People's Daily editorial denounced the demonstrations.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ On that day People’s Daily published an editorial noting that, After the memorial meeting, an extremely small number of people with ulterior purposes continued to take advantage of the young students’ feelings of grief for Comrade Hu Yaobang...
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

Jiang followed this cue and suspended Qin Benli.
In Hong Kong, on 27 May 1989, over 300,000 people gathered at Happy Valley Racecourse for a gathering called "Democratic songs dedicated for China." Many Hong Kong celebrities sang songs and expressed their support for the students in Beijing. .The following day, a procession of 1.5 million people, one fourth of Hong Kong's population, led by Martin Lee, Szeto Wah and other organization leaders, paraded through Hong Kong Island.^ It's not so much follow the leader as follow other followers.

^ Foreign people cannot understand the demands of the people, so they say that economic development and the demands of the people are in opposition to one another, and say, "The people are not demanding economic development, but want other things instead."
  • CNN - Zhu Muzhi - June 2, 1999 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The advertisement actually ends not in Shanghai , but in Hong Kong, as Hong Kong people wave and welcome Haibao.

.Across the world, especially where Chinese lived, people gathered and protested.^ We will mobilize Chinese people around the world to protest martial law!
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Tiananmen Square became completely entangled with the lives of the Chinese people.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ On April 5, hundreds of thousands of people were gathered in and around Tiananmen Square , turning the assembly into a form of non-violent protest.

Many governments, such as those of the USA, Japan, etc., also issued warnings advising their own citizens not to go to the PRC.

Military action

20 May – 1 June

.Although the government declared martial law on 20 May, the military's entry into Beijing was blocked by throngs of protesters, and the army was eventually ordered to withdraw which it did on 24 May.^ The government was now ready to declare Martial Law.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Martial law had been declared.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Document 7: Memorandum of Conversation, [George Bush] Meeting with Wan Li, Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and Member of the Politburo, People’s Republic of China (May 23, 1989) By May 20, 1989, with no peaceful resolution of the crisis in sight, the Chinese government declared martial law in Beijing, hoping to intimidate the protesters to clear the square.
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

[19]
Meanwhile, the demonstrations continued. .The hunger strike was approaching the end of the third week, and the government resolved to end the matter before deaths occurred.^ The government decides life and death," he intoned with a whisper, looking around before going on, "I spent the next five years in prison.

^ However, before the INternet, I occasionally picked up a week-end paper to get the entertaiment pages.
  • small dead animals: For "Tony The Media Moley" 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.smalldeadanimals.com [Source type: General]

^ Since demonstrations and sit-down strikes no longer bothered the government we felt the next step should be a hunger strike.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.After deliberation among Communist party leaders, the use of the military to resolve the crisis was ordered, and a deep divide in the politburo resulted.^ It was rumored at the time that the Party elderly leaders were shocked by what they saw on monitoring screen inside Zhongnanhai and had to rethink how to deal with the crisis.

^ Instead, the leaders have made it their priority to uphold socio-political stability - and the Communist Party’s control over most aspects of political life.

^ Wu is a member of the Communist Party's 21-member Politburo, making him one of the most powerful men in China.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.General Secretary Zhao Ziyang was ousted from political leadership as a result of his support for the demonstrators.^ I supported this demonstration because it was focused against one of the most fundamental means by which the Communist Party maintains its rule, that is, to accuse people of fabricated political crimes.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The document also anticipates a Communist Party Central Committee plenum that will ratify the removal of party secretary Zhao Ziyang, and name a new leader.
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Hu Yaobang was named General-Secretary and Zhao Ziyang , another of Deng's protégés, was introduced into the Central Committee.

.The military also lacked unity on the issue, and purportedly did not indicate immediate support for military action, leaving the central leadership scrambling to search for individual divisions willing to comply with their orders.^ Or did Zhao Ziyang's remarks indicate deep rifts in the central government that must be exploited by pushing harder, going farther?
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ He ordered his subordinates to establish a "leadership group that will specialize in handling the 'Falun Gong' issue," On June 10, 1999, under Jiang's direct orders, the Chinese Party Central Committee officially set up an office for the "leadership group" and named it the "6-10 Office."
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This movement, aimed primarily at schoolchildren, did not have any immediate effect on Chinese politics, but it did influence a generation of youths, from whom Mao could draw support in the future.

[citation needed]

1 June – 5 June

.Soldiers and tanks from the 27th and 38th Armies of the People's Liberation Army were sent to take control of the city.^ Long live the People's Liberation Army!
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Many prominent generals of the People's Liberation Army who were instrumental in the founding of the PRC voiced their concern and opposition to the Cultural Revolution, calling it a "mistake".

^ In a throw-back to the Cultural Revolution, there were hints the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) might enter the fray.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The 27th Army was led by a commander related to Yang Shangkun. .In a press conference, US President George H. W. Bush announced sanctions on the People's Republic of China, following calls to action from members of Congress such as US Senator Jesse Helms.^ People's Republic of China 1949–present .

^ Ducros referred to U.S. President George Bush as "a moron" in Prague last week...
  • small dead animals: For "Tony The Media Moley" 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.smalldeadanimals.com [Source type: General]

^ "They depend on what I call human proxies, people who send their friends emails in China to get around the firewall," Xiao explained.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

.The President suggested intelligence he had received indicated some disunity in China's military ranks, and even the possibility of clashes within the military during those days[citation needed].^ During those early days of the student movement, we pleaded with the authorities, petitioned them like loyal subjects in traditional China.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ We also point you to some of the coverage we ran at China Beat in the days that followed.

^ During the first several days, only six of China'srovinces made sutemenls^ backing Li Peng and the military crackdownVH^L .
  • THE ROAD TO THE TIANANMEN CRACKDOWN: AN ANALYTIC CHRONOLOGY OF C - CIA document 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Intelligence reports also indicated that 27th and 28th units were brought in from outside provinces because the local PLA were considered to be sympathetic to the protest and to the people of the city[citation needed].^ Why, the people wondered, did the government decide to revert to an “old” sort of rhetoric, just because there had been some student protests?

^ The developments were even reported in muted form on government TV. In this way people in other cities, and even in the countryside, were able to follow what was going on.

^ The iCommons initiative gives jurisdictions outside the United States the chance to apply the 11 Creative Commons licenses to local copyright laws.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

.Reporters described elements of the 27th as having been most responsible for civilian deaths.^ Conservation – an umbrella term generally used to describe having the responsibility for caring for the ‘objects’ to be protected.

.After their attack on the square, the 27th reportedly established defensive positions in Beijing – not of the sort designed to counter a civilian uprising, but as if to defend against attacks by other military units.^ Two of the earliest known Chinese typewriters were designed around the turn of the century, one by a Chinese man living in the United States and the other by an American man living in China.

^ Stepped-up security in the German capital since the September 11 attacks against the United States may be partly to blame.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Less than two decades ago, all foreigners in Beijing were forced to live in designated locations, such as hotels or compounds guarded by military police.
  • Foreign Affairs 多少好文啊 - Windows Live 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC swlion.spaces.live.com [Source type: Original source]

.As word spread that hundreds of thousands of troops were approaching from all four corners of the city, Beijingers flooded the streets to block them, as they had done two weeks earlier.^ The crowds blocking the intersections didn't always disperse when fired on; or they ran away but came back to yell at the troops.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ When the troops got to Tiananmen Square, the center of the revolution, they surrounded it, and they all sat down.

^ Less then two weeks later, hundreds of students were massacred in Tiananmen Square.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.People set up barricades at every major intersection.^ You people didn't like it, so now you're setting up a democracy university.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Barricades of buses had been set up at about 6pm along the roads into the Square.

Protesters threw molotov cocktails and burned vehicles. .At about 10:30 p.m., near the Muxidi apartment buildings (home to high-level Party officials and their families), protesters threw rocks and molotov cocktails at police and army vehicles.^ [Just for reference, throwing molotov cocktail at riot police is a crime in US.] .
  • Global Voices Online » China: June 4th:Silence, Memorial and Blogger’s Saying 16 October 2009 11:011 UTC www.globalvoicesonline.org [Source type: General]

^ Oct 30, 2008 12:10 AM Defense Update reports from AUSA 2008, where some of the JLTV teams displayed the latest versions of their concept vehicles.
  • The Long War 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dipity.com [Source type: General]

^ Several Falun Dafa adherents imprisoned by local police early this year say their captors told them that their continued protests threatened to derail officials' careers.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As can be seen in numerous photographs many vehicles were set on fire in the streets all around Tiananmen some with their occupants still inside them.^ This can be seen in the words of some of the student leaders of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 .

^ Nokia has moved its software programming operation to China, for example, and many other companies are setting up research centers on par with their other laboratories around the world.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ This can be seen in the words of some of the student leaders of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.
  • The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.chinaonline.cn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There were reports of soldiers being burned alive in their armoured personel carriers others were beaten to death in the riots.^ After being arrested, sent back to Weifang and then released, she was detained again earlier this year and beaten to death, according to eyewitnesses.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They took him out, beat him up and burned him alive, there and then, as we saw in the 1984-86 uprising in South Africa.

.Then the soldiers started firing live ammunition at some of the protesters.^ So the soldiers sat down, and everyone started to sing -- soldiers and protesters each hoping, perhaps, to sing the other side into submission.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Even after the soldiers opened fire many people couldn't believe they were using live ammunition.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

Some people were hit in the apartment blocks.[20]
.The battle raged in the streets surrounding the Square, with protesters repeatedly advancing toward the People's Liberation Army (PLA) and constructing barricades with vehicles, while the PLA attempted to clear the streets using tear gas, rifles, and tanks.^ Long live the People's Liberation Army!
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The police and the army were authorized to clear the streets.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Many prominent generals of the People's Liberation Army who were instrumental in the founding of the PRC voiced their concern and opposition to the Cultural Revolution, calling it a "mistake".

.Many injured citizens were saved by rickshaw drivers who ventured into the no-man's-land between the soldiers and crowds and carried the wounded off to hospitals.^ When told they were local Falun Gong practitioners who had volunteered for this duty, he flew into a rage, turned on his heel, and stalked off.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those who carry out the persecution of Falun Gong practitioners are, themselves, victims who are often forced into a choice between their moral conscience and their job, their sense of duty to the people and their livelihood.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the attack on the square, live television coverage showed many people wearing black armbands in protest of the government, crowding various boulevards or congregating by burnt out and smoking barricades.^ He was a Standing Committee member, vice president of the Guangzhou Patriotic Union (GZPU), in charge of the Operation Section of GZPU and was mainly responsible for protests in the provincial government square.
  • The Legacy of Tiananmen: 20 Years of Oppression, Activism and Hope 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC crd-net.org [Source type: News]

^ Many people in Beijing felt it in those days of protest: the sense of being lifted out of their daily drudgery by a cause greater than themselves.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ He awakened those who were confused and saved many people's lives.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

.In a couple of cases, officers were pulled from tanks, beaten and killed by protesters.^ Yes it was terribly unfortunate for the brothers, sisters, mothers and fathers who were dismembered by tanks and killed by Chinese military officers.
  • Tiananmen Square Remembered, An Eye-Witness Account 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ As this was the case, at that time many police officers were killed.
  • CNN - Zhu Muzhi - June 2, 1999 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

[21]
Meanwhile, the PLA systematically established checkpoints around the city, chasing after protesters and blocking off the university district.
.Earlier, within the Square itself, there had been a debate between those who wished to withdraw peacefully, including Han Dongfang, and those who wished to stand within the square, such as Chai Ling.^ CHAI LING speaking to crowd in the Square .
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ CHAI LING, interview on the Square .
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Certainly, some - perhaps many - escaped, including the two charismatic student leaders, Wang Dan and Chai Ling, who were smuggled out of the country.
  • Tiananmen Square Remembered, An Eye-Witness Account 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

.At about 1:00 a.m., the army finally reached Tiananmen Square and waited for orders from the government.^ The final march to the Square was about to begin.

^ When the soldiers finally reached the square there was no massacre.” .
  • Global Voices Online » China: June 4th:Silence, Memorial and Blogger’s Saying 16 October 2009 11:011 UTC www.globalvoicesonline.org [Source type: General]

^ After about three hours I managed to get to Tiananmen Square and that in itself was a sight to behold.

.The soldiers had been told not to open fire, but they had also been told that they must clear the square by 6:00 a.m.^ I can't imagine what would have happened had they really opened fire.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The people in the Square set the buses on fire as soon as they saw the troops come.

^ She came home around 11 o'clock and said the soldiers had opened fire at Muxidi intersection, and tanks were moving through the streets.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

– with no exceptions or delays. .They made a final offer of amnesty if the few thousand remaining students would leave.^ The students said that unless the government accepted their preconditions for dialogue, they would march again.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ A few students had handguns, but they perceived themselves to be terrorists.

^ So the students thought that if they staged a hunger strike there, the government would definitely respond by May 15.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.About 4:00 a.m., student leaders put the matter to a vote: Leave the square, or stay and face the consequences.^ But some of the workers and students stayed in the Square.

^ The problem is how to get the students to leave the Square.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ (Movie clip time:5:57) Student leader (Hu dejian) said (translation from Mandarin): Many people say that at Tiananmen square about 2,000 were shot or perhaps several hundred were shot.
  • RConversation: Shi Tao's case: Yahoo! knew more than they claimed 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC rconversation.blogs.com [Source type: General]

[21]
.These APCs (Armoured Personnel Carriers) rolled on up the roads, firing ahead and off to the sides, perhaps killing or wounding their own soldiers in the process.^ These were followed by tanks and armoured personnel carriers.

^ So the soldiers sat down, and everyone started to sing -- soldiers and protesters each hoping, perhaps, to sing the other side into submission.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ To me, these young patriots had lost perspective and were fired up by peer pressure to take part in a dangerous "quest."

.BBC reporter Kate Adie spoke of "indiscriminate fire" within the square.^ The eminent and respected BBC journalist Kate Adie was there, and she seems to be in no doubt that there was a massacre.
  • RConversation: Shi Tao's case: Yahoo! knew more than they claimed 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC rconversation.blogs.com [Source type: General]

^ BBC Reporter Has Issues (VIDEO) 202 Comments Jon Gosselin: I Despise Kate, She Abused Me 1,058 Comments Gibbs, On Fox News, Criticizes Fox For Showing Dance...
  • Tiananmen Square Remembered, An Eye-Witness Account 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

.Eyewitness reporter Charlie Cole also saw Chinese soldiers firing Type 56 assault rifles into the crowd near an APC which had just been torched and its crew killed, killing and wounding many that night.^ The official Chinese government figure is 241 dead, including soldiers, and 7,000 wounded."
  • Hit & Run > Chas Freeman: The ChiComs Were "Overly Cautious" at Tiananmen Square - Reason Magazine 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.reason.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When day came, crowds had stopped busses being used to transport weapons into the city and were ejecting the soldiers.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the soldiers in a posse ran out into the crowd and captured the student.

[22] .Students who sought refuge in buses were pulled out by groups of soldiers and beaten with heavy sticks.^ Beijing citizens sought to stop initially unarmed soldiers sent to remove students who had been demonstrating freely in the square for weeks.
  • Global Voices Online » China: June 4th:Silence, Memorial and Blogger’s Saying 16 October 2009 11:011 UTC www.globalvoicesonline.org [Source type: General]

^ Some of the soldiers in a posse ran out into the crowd and captured the student.

.Even students attempting to leave the square were beset by soldiers and beaten.^ Beijing citizens sought to stop initially unarmed soldiers sent to remove students who had been demonstrating freely in the square for weeks.
  • Global Voices Online » China: June 4th:Silence, Memorial and Blogger’s Saying 16 October 2009 11:011 UTC www.globalvoicesonline.org [Source type: General]

^ Thus, by the lime he again went out into Tiananmen Square for an emotional meeting with the students oo the evening cfay.
  • THE ROAD TO THE TIANANMEN CRACKDOWN: AN ANALYTIC CHRONOLOGY OF C - CIA document 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So then, that Saturday evening, one student came back from the west of the city and said that soldiers had moved in with teargas.

.Leaders of the protest inside the square, where some had attempted to erect flimsy barricades ahead of the APCs, were said to have "implored" the students not to use weapons (such as Molotov cocktails) against the oncoming soldiers.^ This can be seen in the words of some of the student leaders of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 .

^ This can be seen in the words of some of the student leaders of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.
  • The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.chinaonline.cn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But some of the workers and students stayed in the Square.

.Meanwhile, many students apparently were shouting, "Why are you killing us?"^ As previously discussed, I don't see why when the US does something, you blame it on 'greed' and when the Chinese do something, you blame it on 'stupidity'.
  • China, the US, and the Market that Still Knows Best - Drorism* 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.drorism.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even when the troops came with the tear-gas people were running forward and shouting "You can't shoot us, you're the peoples' army!

^ Many of us who had just gathered inside the Great Hall had taken part in student movements when we were young.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Around four or five the following morning, 4 June, Charlie Cole reports to have seen tanks smashing into the square, crushing vehicles and people with their tank treads.^ On the square were tanks that crushed people and students etc.
  • RConversation: Shi Tao's case: Yahoo! knew more than they claimed 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC rconversation.blogs.com [Source type: General]

^ Using tanks to crush people?
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ But I've seen some reports that say the number of people killed by stray bullets was very high (laughs).
  • CNN - Zhu Muzhi - June 2, 1999 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

[22] By 5:40 a.m. .4 June, the Square had been cleared.^ No one had died during the clearing of the Square at dawn on June 4th.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Sinomania maintain that there was a Spanish film crew in the square who filmed the last 5000 students leaving the square just before dawn on June 4th after negotiating safe passage with the military.^ I just talked with a few students over there.

^ There were also stories of tanks running over students who were trying to leave.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The problem is how to get the students to leave the Square.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.[23] Richard Roth of CBS reported that he and a colleague were on the south portico of the Great Hall of the People (which forms one of the borders of the Square)led by Richard Roth.^ On April 5, hundreds of thousands of people were gathered in and around Tiananmen Square , turning the assembly into a form of non-violent protest.

^ The developments were even reported in muted form on government TV. In this way people in other cities, and even in the countryside, were able to follow what was going on.

^ One of the more florid campus wall posters that I managed to snap a photo of was a florid eulogy to the Great Hall of the People as a symbol of representative rule.

In the words of eyewitness CBS news correspondant Richard Roth [24]:
."Derek Williams and I were driven in a pair of army jeeps right through the square, almost along its full length, and into the Forbidden City.^ So they took me through the Square to the Forbidden City.

^ But most peasants want to go into the army, because after you serve for three years you are allowed to live in the cities - which is not the case for peasants in general.

^ To the north of Tiananmen Square is the Forbidden City, with a big poster of Mao looking down.

Dawn was just breaking. There were hundreds of troops in the square ... .But we saw no bodies, injured people, ambulances or medical personnel — in short, nothing to even suggest, let alone prove, that a "massacre" had recently occurred in that place...^ One recent scholarly account asserts that in rural China alone some 36 million people were persecuted, of whom between 750,000 and 1.5 million were killed, with roughly the same number permanently injured.

^ Until the mid-1980s, the majority of Chinese judges and prosecutors were former military personnel with little formal education of any sort, let alone legal training.
  • Foreign Affairs 多少好文啊 - Windows Live 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC swlion.spaces.live.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In China’s tightly controlled Communist society, no groups have been allowed to be independent of government authorization and oversight, let alone such a huge group.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

some have found it uncomfortable that all this conforms with what the .Chinese government has always claimed, perhaps with a bit of sophistry: that there was no "massacre in Tiananmen Square."^ When the soldiers finally reached the square there was no massacre.” .
  • Global Voices Online » China: June 4th:Silence, Memorial and Blogger’s Saying 16 October 2009 11:011 UTC www.globalvoicesonline.org [Source type: General]

^ It can no longer claim to be a revolutionary government.

^ Sep 12, 2009 7:54 AM Sheng Xue, Edmonton's new writer-in-exile, "poet, essayist and freelance journalist, fled China in 1989 following the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in which hundreds of Chinese civilians were killed w...
  • The Long War 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dipity.com [Source type: General]

On the morning of 5 June protesters tried to enter the blocked square but were shot at by the soldiers. .The soldiers shot them in the back when they were running away.^ Then, sometime after two o'clock, a couple of doctors and students came running back to the Monument and told us that the soldiers were using real bullets.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The crowds blocking the intersections didn't always disperse when fired on; or they ran away but came back to yell at the troops.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

These actions were repeated several times.[25]
.The suppression of the protest was immortalized in Western media by the famous video footage and photographs of a lone man in a white shirt standing in front of a column of tanks which were attempting to drive out of Tiananmen Square and didn't want to hurt him so had to stop.^ Compared with the now famous image of Tank Man , who poised in front a row of armed tanks and block them to advance on the street in 1989, a true repersentatives of the spirits of the protesters, today's square is so quiet as usual as if nobody even remember, not mention to struggle for it.
  • Global Voices Online » China: June 4th:Silence, Memorial and Blogger’s Saying 16 October 2009 11:011 UTC www.globalvoicesonline.org [Source type: General]

^ At the time of the Tiananmen Square protests, no politically significant groups within China defended the Cultural Revolution; the protesters were largely neoliberal in outlook.

^ Thus, by the lime he again went out into Tiananmen Square for an emotional meeting with the students oo the evening cfay.
  • THE ROAD TO THE TIANANMEN CRACKDOWN: AN ANALYTIC CHRONOLOGY OF C - CIA document 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Taken on 5 June as the column approached an intersection on the Avenue of Eternal Peace, the footage depicted the unarmed man standing in the center of the street, halting the tanks' progress.^ The producers to the documentary had taken, as a keynote: The incident in Tienanmen square, and the moment at when the singular Chinese citizen stood defiantly before the tank of the Chinese army, halting it in its course.
  • RConversation: Shi Tao's case: Yahoo! knew more than they claimed 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC rconversation.blogs.com [Source type: General]

^ She came home around 11 o'clock and said the soldiers had opened fire at Muxidi intersection, and tanks were moving through the streets.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Far from the Square on Chang'an Avenue, the Avenue of Eternal Peace, the great east-west thoroughfare, troops encountered crowds at every intersection.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.As the tank driver attempted to go around him, the "Tank Man" moved into the tank's path.^ As the driver approached the Lido, I advised him not to enter by the hotel gate but instead to go around to the back in order to directly enter the apartment complex.

^ Just before it got dark, around 5pm, about 3,000 troops moved into the Great Hall of the People, to the west of Tiananmen Square.

He continued to stand defiantly in front of the tanks for some time, then climbed up onto the turret of the lead tank to speak to the soldiers inside. .He reportedly said, "Why are you here?^ "Better not try anything or I'll have to throw you out of here," he said with a straight face.

^ I'll leave you here,” said Zhang, this time with a gentle pat on the back instead of a threatening punch.

^ Some of the students said: "Why don't you come with us and we'll introduce you to some workers who want to start an independent trade union movement."

You have caused nothing but misery." .But this is debatable, as no one was close enough to hear him besides the soldier.^ Beside me stands Lao Ni, who had seen enough excitement for one day.

.After returning to his position blocking the tanks, the man was pulled aside by a group of people, the identity of which eyewitnesses are divided on.^ His solution involved a return to an idealised view of a corporate or organic society, in which everyone had duties and responsibilities towards other people or groups.
  • Boston University School of Theology 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .Eyewitness Jan Wong is convinced the group were concerned citizens helping him away, while reporter Charlie Cole believes that "Tank Man" was probably executed after being taken from the tank by secret police, since the Chinese government could never produce him to hush the outcry from many countries.^ Why is this government being so secretive about this?
  • Internet filtering and young people - Cyberspace Law and Policy Centre - UNSW research project on content regulation and censorship 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC cyberlawcentre.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The producers to the documentary had taken, as a keynote: The incident in Tienanmen square, and the moment at when the singular Chinese citizen stood defiantly before the tank of the Chinese army, halting it in its course.
  • RConversation: Shi Tao's case: Yahoo! knew more than they claimed 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC rconversation.blogs.com [Source type: General]

^ I’d like to offer couple more reference in addition to PBS Frontline’s “The Tank Man”, where it reported the fact Chinese government did investigate this, and release casualty figure of 240 some dead (incidentally in-line with our own NSA intel estimate.
  • Global Voices Online » China: June 4th:Silence, Memorial and Blogger’s Saying 16 October 2009 11:011 UTC www.globalvoicesonline.org [Source type: General]

[22] .Time Magazine dubbed him The Unknown Rebel and later named him one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century.^ Time Magazine named him "Man of the Year."
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Wu is a member of the Communist Party's 21-member Politburo, making him one of the most powerful men in China.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I supported this demonstration because it was focused against one of the most fundamental means by which the Communist Party maintains its rule, that is, to accuse people of fabricated political crimes.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.British tabloid the Sunday Express reported that the man was 19-year-old student Wang Weilin; however, the veracity of this claim is dubious.^ Chen Gang ( 陈刚 ): Chen, 22 years old in 1989, was a student at Ningbo University.
  • The Legacy of Tiananmen: 20 Years of Oppression, Activism and Hope 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC crd-net.org [Source type: News]

^ Li Baoku ( 李宝库 ): Li, 25 years old in 1989, was a student at Zhejiang University.
  • The Legacy of Tiananmen: 20 Years of Oppression, Activism and Hope 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC crd-net.org [Source type: News]

^ Wang Xinghan ( 王星山 ): Wang, 28 years old in 1989, was a member of the hospital staff in Ningbo.
  • The Legacy of Tiananmen: 20 Years of Oppression, Activism and Hope 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC crd-net.org [Source type: News]

What happened to the 'Tank Man' following the demonstration is not known. In a speech to the President's Club in 1999, Bruce Herschensohn — former deputy special assistant to President Richard Nixon — reported that he was executed 14 days later. .In Red China Blues: My Long March from Mao to Now, Jan Wong writes that the man is still alive and hiding in mainland China.^ Many areas in mainland China have reported failures to connect to Google in the past few days, while the censored and China-hosted Google.cn is still available.
  • Global Voices Online » China: June 4th:Silence, Memorial and Blogger’s Saying 16 October 2009 11:011 UTC www.globalvoicesonline.org [Source type: General]

^ Had Mao not driven his country mad with attempts at sudden, violent change, China would not, however, now be as devoted to domestic tranquility as it is.
  • Hit & Run > Chas Freeman: The ChiComs Were "Overly Cautious" at Tiananmen Square - Reason Magazine 19 September 2009 20:12 UTC www.reason.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A year later, the Red Guard factions were dismantled entirely; Mao feared that the chaos they caused—and could still cause—might harm the very foundation of the Communist Party of China .

.In Forbidden City, Canadian children's author William Bell, claims the man was named Wang Ai-min and was killed on 9 June after being taken into custody.^ He was taken into custody at the station.

^ I’d been arrested before, for activities inappropriate for a foreigner, and didn’t relish being taken into custody again.

^ We sat there for a couple of hours, till it began to get dark, and at about 7-8 o'clock we walked across the street from the Forbidden City into Tiananmen Square.

.The last official statement from the PRC government about the "Tank Man" came from Jiang Zemin in a 1990 interview with Barbara Walters.^ Jiang Zemin came to power in the wake of the Tiananmen Square Massacre.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has coerced every Political and Judiciary branch and all levels of government into implementing secret orders issued by Jiang Zemin--"Discredit Falun Gong.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Malaysian government officially apologized last week and promised that action would be taken against the policemen involved in the incident.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

When asked about the whereabouts of the "Tank Man", Jiang responded that the young man was "I think never killed".[27]
.After order was restored in Beijing on 4 June, protests continued in much of mainland China for several days.^ Many areas in mainland China have reported failures to connect to Google in the past few days, while the censored and China-hosted Google.cn is still available.
  • Global Voices Online » China: June 4th:Silence, Memorial and Blogger’s Saying 16 October 2009 11:011 UTC www.globalvoicesonline.org [Source type: General]

^ Prices are much more affordable these days, and within three years PCs in China and India will be comparable in price to the cost of units in the United States in the early 1990s.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ Several Falun Dafa adherents imprisoned by local police early this year say their captors told them that their continued protests threatened to derail officials' careers.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There were large protests in Hong Kong, where people again wore black in protest.^ The advertisement actually ends not in Shanghai , but in Hong Kong, as Hong Kong people wave and welcome Haibao.

^ Since the conditions were not yet ripe there, he returned to Hong Kong in 1962.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

^ SideKick , a Hong Kong blogger, showed her “8964″ special watch and change her blog's appearance in total black for “indirect memorandum”.
  • Global Voices Online » China: June 4th:Silence, Memorial and Blogger’s Saying 16 October 2009 11:011 UTC www.globalvoicesonline.org [Source type: General]

.There were protests in Guangzhou, and large-scale protests in Shanghai with a general strike.^ Factory building were also largely masonry structures, usually of small scale and spaces consisting predominantly of parking areas where there were few personnel.

^ On the day after the massacre, when a general strike was called, there was a total stoppage of transport.

.There were also protests in other countries, many adopting the use of black armbands as well.^ Wikileaks [ wikipedia entry* ] at: < http://wikileaks.org/ > [Hosts alleged historical versions of lists used in various countries, as well as many other controversial documents.
  • Internet filtering and young people - Cyberspace Law and Policy Centre - UNSW research project on content regulation and censorship 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC cyberlawcentre.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the same time, many large and prominent Red Guard organizations rose in protest against other Red Guard organizations, further complicating the situation.
  • The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.chinaonline.cn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Given the potential for uses of the proposed filter systems beyond 'protection of young people' issues, there may be other organisations in other fields with an interest in aspects of the proposal.
  • Internet filtering and young people - Cyberspace Law and Policy Centre - UNSW research project on content regulation and censorship 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC cyberlawcentre.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the government soon regained control.^ But as soon as it became clear that the government was in control, the movement disappeared as quickly as it had emerged.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.A political purge followed in which officials responsible for organizing or condoning the protests were removed, and protest leaders jailed.^ "The government instructed us to limit the number of protesters or be responsible," says another government official.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to Amnesty International at least 300 people were killed in Chengdu on 5 June.^ Amnesty International said a quarter of about 4,000 people detained by police during the riots in Tibet in March are unaccounted for.

^ Among the more recent estimates, Amnesty International says at least 1,770 people were put to death in 2005.

.Troops in Chengdu used concussion grenades, truncheons, knives and electric cattle prods against civilians.^ Protesters confiscated guns, cattle prods, cleavers and knives and displayed them as proof that the government intended to use violence.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

Hospitals were ordered to not accept students and on the second night the ambulance service was stopped by police.[28]

A Chinese Government Perspective

.The rioters, taking advantage of the soldiers' restraint, blocked military and other kinds of vehicles before they smashed and burned them.^ "They are taking advantage of the Chinese people!"

^ Kun says that the most daunting task is preventing Argentina's tech talent from defecting to other countries where they can earn bigger salaries and take advantage of better educational systems.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ About 10,000 people rushed to the site and totally burned down the county party office building, and burned other offices in the county government.” “They also burned about 20 vehicles, including police cars,” the official, surnamed Huang, said.

They also seized guns, ammunitions and transceivers. Several rioters seized an armoured car and fired guns as they drove it along the street. Rioters also assaulted civilian installations and public buildings. .Several rioters even drove a public bus loaded with gasoline drums towards the Tiananmen gatetower in an attempt to set fire to it.^ In the early morning of April 27th, students set out from campuses all over the city and walked toward Tiananmen Square, the political center of China.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ They set up a public address station at the north-west corner of Tiananmen Square.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.At the same time, rioters savagely beat up, kidnapped and killed soldiers and officers.^ They savagely beat us up.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The one with the beard is a robber, he beat up someone, almost killed him," he explained.

^ They wouldn't kill them, just beat them up.

On the Chang'an Avenue, when a military vehicle suddenly broke down, rioters surrounded it and ferociously crushed the driver with bricks. At Fuchengmen, a soldier's body was hung heel over head on the overpass balustrade after he had been savagely killed. At Chongwenmen, another soldier was thrown down from the flyover and burned alive. .Near a cinema, an officer was beaten to death, disembowelled and his eyes gouged out.^ Another had his tongue cut out and then his eyes gouged out.

His body was then strung up on a burning bus. .Over 1,280 vehicles were burned or damaged in the rebellion, including over 1,000 military trucks, more than 60 armoured cars, over 30 police cars, over 120 public buses and trolley buses and over 70 motor vehicles of other kinds.^ If an underground passage or crossing area does not exist, then you will have to negotiate your way across a street in the midst of cars, taxis, buses, trucks and bicycles.
  • Partner Schools 2008: March 2008 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: General]
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The public television institutions participating in this project are responsible for producing more than 60% of the program content aired on public television, and they are currently working together on several projects related to shifting from analog to digital program distribution methods.
  • PTV Digital Archive - Part 3 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.thirteen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rubin has more than twenty years of experience managing technical and communications projects for pubic radio and television, including ten years at Thirteen.
  • PTV Digital Archive - Part 3 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.thirteen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More than 6,000 martial law officers and soldiers were injured and scores of them killed.^ Zhang Shibin ( 张士斌 ): soldier brought in to enforce martial law, refused to fire his weapon when given a mandate and as a result was sentenced to 13 years in prison.
  • The Legacy of Tiananmen: 20 Years of Oppression, Activism and Hope 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC crd-net.org [Source type: News]

^ The authorities previously caught more than three candidates out of every 10,000 for cheating every year, ministry figures showed.

^ Currently, China has more than 6,000 software companies, nearly double that of India, but exports totaled just $850 million in 2001 compared to India's $6.2 billion.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

.Such heavy losses are eloquent testimony to the restraint and tolerance shown by the martial law enforcement troops.^ Deog'a address to ihe martial law troops that day was laicr citedocument for study.
  • THE ROAD TO THE TIANANMEN CRACKDOWN: AN ANALYTIC CHRONOLOGY OF C - CIA document 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new union helped mobilize citizens to block the Martial Law Troops.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The official loudspeakers around the Square suddenly came on and announced the emergency orders of the martial law troops.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.For fear of injuring civilians by accident, they would rather endure humiliation and meet their death unflinchingly, although they had weapons in their hands.^ As far as the workers were concerned there was a fear that if they intervened in this movement, with no guarantee of victory, they would just lose their job.

.It can be said that there is no other army in the world that can exercise restraint to such an extent.^ Others said demand for such trips had plummeted by 20 percent or more.

^ Instead there was virtually no resistance, which permitted marchers to relax and reach out in a way that reflected how others were responding to them.

^ Nobody has ever said that learning a language is easy but there are some methods of instruction that are more helpful than others.
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Extract from: The Truth About the Beijing Turmoil, 1990 [29]

Number of deaths

.The number of dead and wounded remains unclear because of the large discrepancies between the different estimates.^ Still, Japan retains a lead in the number of individual Internet users, largely because of strong growth in mobile phone connections.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

Some Beijinger and journalists reported that troops burned the bodies of many citizens to destroy the evidence of the killings.[30]
.Some of the early estimates were based on reports of a figure of 2,600 from the Chinese Red Cross.^ I’d like to offer couple more reference in addition to PBS Frontline’s “The Tank Man”, where it reported the fact Chinese government did investigate this, and release casualty figure of 240 some dead (incidentally in-line with our own NSA intel estimate.
  • Global Voices Online » China: June 4th:Silence, Memorial and Blogger’s Saying 16 October 2009 11:011 UTC www.globalvoicesonline.org [Source type: General]

^ The Chinese Red Cross has continued to be an important source of aid to survivors, as discussed in this piece from the Telegraph .

^ Some estimated over half of these early immigrants were from Taishan.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

.The Chinese Red Cross has denied ever providing such a figure.^ The Chinese Red Cross has continued to be an important source of aid to survivors, as discussed in this piece from the Telegraph .

^ In a two-part piece last year, Caroline Reeves wrote about the history of the Chinese Red Cross ( part 1 , part 2 ).

[30] .According to a PBS Frontline report, this figure was quickly retracted under intense pressure from the government.^ I’d like to offer couple more reference in addition to PBS Frontline’s “The Tank Man”, where it reported the fact Chinese government did investigate this, and release casualty figure of 240 some dead (incidentally in-line with our own NSA intel estimate.
  • Global Voices Online » China: June 4th:Silence, Memorial and Blogger’s Saying 16 October 2009 11:011 UTC www.globalvoicesonline.org [Source type: General]

^ By 1999, Weifang had one of heaviest concentrations of believers in the province, with an estimated 60,000 adherents, according to an unpublished government report.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] .The official Chinese government figure is 241 dead, including soldiers, and 7,000 wounded.^ Although Chinese companies are increasing having to survive without government subsidiaries, many foreign companies still need strong relations with government officials.
  • Partner Schools 2008: March 2008 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: General]
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About 10,000 people rushed to the site and totally burned down the county party office building, and burned other offices in the county government.” “They also burned about 20 vehicles, including police cars,” the official, surnamed Huang, said.

^ The Chinese government committed $600,000 to fund the development of Sunshine Software, China's first computer software for the blind.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

[31]
.According to an analysis by Nicholas D. Kristof of The New York Times, "The true number of deaths will probably never be known, and it is possible that thousands of people were killed without leaving evidence behind.^ Citing figures from the Ministry of Health, Xinhua News Agency said 258 people were killed last year, up 32 percent from the previous year.

^ So I got on a plane leaving New York on April 26th.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ "The New York Times has a stringer in town here in Kandahar who reports things without sources," said Lieut.
  • small dead animals: For "Tony The Media Moley" 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.smalldeadanimals.com [Source type: General]

But based on the evidence that is now available, it seems plausible that about fifty soldiers and policemen were killed, along with 400 to 800 civilians."[30]
.The Chinese government has maintained that there were no deaths within the square itself, although videos taken there at the time recorded the sound of gunshots.^ At the time of the Tiananmen Square protests, no politically significant groups within China defended the Cultural Revolution; the protesters were largely neoliberal in outlook.

^ Personally, I did have some propositions in India (I’ve been there three times), but no really unpleasant experience.

^ Although Chinese companies are increasing having to survive without government subsidiaries, many foreign companies still need strong relations with government officials.
  • Partner Schools 2008: March 2008 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: General]
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.State Council claimed that the basic statistics were: "Five thousand PLA soldiers and officers wounded, and more than two thousand local people (counting students, city people, and protesters together) also wounded."^ Because of this situation, I felt that when the two sides sounded about the same, most likely more people voted to leave.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ On April 5, hundreds of thousands of people were gathered in and around Tiananmen Square , turning the assembly into a form of non-violent protest.

^ Without the people of Beijing: the workers, the farmers from the outskirts of the city, and the street merchants, the students couldn't have persisted for long.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Chinese commentators have pointed out that this obvious imbalance in casualties questions the military competence of the PLA. They also said no one died on Tiananmen Square itself.^ Local governments across the country were told in a weekend teleconference to go “all-out” to prevent regional grievances from escalating to the point that they mar the August 8-24 Beijing Games, various official accounts said.

^ At the time of the Tiananmen Square protests, no politically significant groups within China defended the Cultural Revolution; the protesters were largely neoliberal in outlook.

^ Tiananmen Square became completely entangled with the lives of the Chinese people.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

[32] .Yuan Mu, the spokesman of the State Council, said that a total of 23 people died, most of them students, along with a number of people he described as "ruffians".[33] According to Chen Xitong, Beijing mayor, 200 civilians and several dozen soldiers died.^ Yuan Mu was the government spokesman.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ I would, however, suggest you to calculate which countries killed the highest number of people (home and abroad) over the last 100, 200, or 500 years.
  • China, the US, and the Market that Still Knows Best - Drorism* 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.drorism.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was a march of about 200,000 people (some of the students, I later discovered, were quite disappointed it was not larger).

[34] .Other sources stated that 3,000 civilians and 6,000 soldiers were injured.^ Estimates of the death toll, civilians and Red Guards, from various Western and Eastern sources 4 are about 500,000 in the true years of chaos of 1966—1969.

[35] .In May 2007, CPPCC member from Hong Kong, Chang Ka-mun said 300 to 600 people were killed in Tiananmen Square.^ Citing figures from the Ministry of Health, Xinhua News Agency said 258 people were killed last year, up 32 percent from the previous year.

^ Tiananmen Square became completely entangled with the lives of the Chinese people.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ On April 5, hundreds of thousands of people were gathered in and around Tiananmen Square , turning the assembly into a form of non-violent protest.

He echoed that "there were armed thugs who weren't students."[36]
.According to Jay Mathews who was The Washington Post's first Beijing bureau chief, "A few people may have been killed by random shooting on streets near the square, but all verified eyewitness accounts say that the students who remained in the square when troops arrived were allowed to leave peacefully.^ Today it's the people's square, all right.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The problem is how to get the students to leave the Square.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ "Listen, troops have arrived northeast of Beijing.

.Hundreds of people, most of them workers and passersby, did die that night, but in a different place and under different circumstances."^ Hundreds of people, most of them workers and passersby, did die that night, but in a different place and under different circumstances.” .
  • Global Voices Online » China: June 4th:Silence, Memorial and Blogger’s Saying 16 October 2009 11:011 UTC www.globalvoicesonline.org [Source type: General]

^ However, the success of other methods, especially under drastically different circumstances, is in absolutely no way proof that keynesian methods don't work.
  • Contrary Brin: A “track record” predicting the future...? 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC davidbrin.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We felt that under no circumstances should people involved in this movement act in secrecy or use underhanded tactics.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

[37]
.US ambassador James Lilley's account of the massacre notes that US State Department diplomats witnessed Chinese troops opening fire on unarmed people and based on visits to hospitals around Beijing a minimum of hundreds had been killed.^ Sep 12, 2009 7:54 AM Sheng Xue, Edmonton's new writer-in-exile, "poet, essayist and freelance journalist, fled China in 1989 following the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in which hundreds of Chinese civilians were killed w...
  • The Long War 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dipity.com [Source type: General]

^ On April 5, hundreds of thousands of people were gathered in and around Tiananmen Square , turning the assembly into a form of non-violent protest.

^ The people in the Square set the buses on fire as soon as they saw the troops come.

[38]
.A strict focus on the number of deaths within Tiananmen Square itself does not give an accurate picture of the carnage and overall death count, since Chinese civilians were fired on in the streets surrounding Tiananmen Square.^ Sep 12, 2009 7:54 AM Sheng Xue, Edmonton's new writer-in-exile, "poet, essayist and freelance journalist, fled China in 1989 following the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in which hundreds of Chinese civilians were killed w...
  • The Long War 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dipity.com [Source type: General]

^ At the time of the Tiananmen Square protests, no politically significant groups within China defended the Cultural Revolution; the protesters were largely neoliberal in outlook.

^ Tiananmen Square became completely entangled with the lives of the Chinese people.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, students are reported to have been fired on after they left the Square, especially in the area near the Beijing concert hall.^ The people in the Square set the buses on fire as soon as they saw the troops come.

^ After jointly touring the provincial student outpost near the museum, we cut west and headed towards the broadcast tent in the center of the Square.

^ As an organizer, I understand that many students come to Beijing funded by local schools, so they need to bring a certain “title” home.

[30]
Estimates of deaths from different sources, in descending order:
.
  • 10,000 dead (including civilians and soldiers) – Soviet Union.^ Whereas each U.S.-based worker costs the company $10,000 per month, the entire Indian operation, including rent, costs Verilytics just $25,000 per month.
    • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
    • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

    [39]
  • 7,000 deaths – NATO intelligence.[39]
  • .
  • 4,000 to 6,000 civilians killed, but no one really knows – Edward Timperlake.^ By now many people -- no one knows how many -- had been killed or wounded.
    • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He disappeared into the crowd afterwards, and no one knows where he is now.
    • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

    [40]
  • Over 3700 killed, excluding disappearance or secret deaths and those denied medical treatment – PLA defector citing a document circulating among officers.[40]
  • 2,600 had officially died by the morning of 4 June (later denied) – the Chinese Red Cross.[34] .An unnamed Chinese Red Cross official estimated that, in total, 5,000 people were killed and 30,000 injured.^ One recent scholarly account asserts that in rural China alone some 36 million people were persecuted, of whom between 750,000 and 1.5 million were killed, with roughly the same number permanently injured.

    ^ Estimates of the death toll, civilians and Red Guards, from various Western and Eastern sources 4 are about 500,000 in the true years of chaos of 1966—1969.

    ^ About 10,000 people rushed to the site and totally burned down the county party office building, and burned other offices in the county government.” “They also burned about 20 vehicles, including police cars,” the official, surnamed Huang, said.

    [41]
  • .
  • Closer to 1,000 deaths, according to Amnesty International and some of the protest participants, as reported in a Time article.^ Amnesty International 2001 Annual Report .
    • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Amnesty International said a quarter of about 4,000 people detained by police during the riots in Tibet in March are unaccounted for.

    ^ Among the more recent estimates, Amnesty International says at least 1,770 people were put to death in 2005.

    [34] .Other statements by Amnesty International have characterized the number of deaths as hundreds.^ Among the more recent estimates, Amnesty International says at least 1,770 people were put to death in 2005.

    [42]
  • .
  • 300 to 1,000 according to a Western diplomat that compiled estimates.^ Estimates of the death toll, civilians and Red Guards, from various Western and Eastern sources 4 are about 500,000 in the true years of chaos of 1966—1969.

    ^ By 1999, Weifang had one of heaviest concentrations of believers in the province, with an estimated 60,000 adherents, according to an unpublished government report.
    • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [30]
  • .
  • 400 to 800 plausible according to the New York Times' Nicholas D. Kristof.^ "The New York Times has a stringer in town here in Kandahar who reports things without sources," said Lieut.
    • small dead animals: For "Tony The Media Moley" 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.smalldeadanimals.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Marx wrote about the Taiping Rebellion several times in the New York Daily Tribune and other newspapers, and his analysis and his sympathies are fascinating.

    ^ According to the New York Times , “No other person or organization in the world, including the [U.S.] State Department, has helped more Chinese prisoners.” [8] .
    • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .He developed this estimate using information from hospital staff and doctors, and from "a medical official with links to most hospitals".[30]
  • 180–500 casualties, according to a declassified NSA document which referred to early casualty estimates.^ Meanwhile, Luxoft official Derrick Robinson estimated that U.S. companies could save up to 65 percent on development costs by outsourcing to Russian firms.
    • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
    • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

    ^ Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology senior official Zhou Yuan notes that most of the core technology used in the region is still developed elsewhere, and that advances to date have come from applying those fundamental technologies.
    • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
    • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

    [43]
  • .
  • 241 dead, including soldiers, and 7,000 wounded, according to the Chinese government.^ By 1999, Weifang had one of heaviest concentrations of believers in the province, with an estimated 60,000 adherents, according to an unpublished government report.
    • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ According to records from the United States government, the first Chinese arrived in the United States around 1820.
    • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

    ^ According to the New York Times , “No other person or organization in the world, including the [U.S.] State Department, has helped more Chinese prisoners.” [8] .
    • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [31]
  • .
  • 186 named individuals confirmed dead at the end of June 2006 – Professor Ding Zilin of the Tiananmen Mothers.^ DING ZILIN - Professor .
    • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

    .The Tiananmen Mothers' list includes some people whose deaths were not directly at the hands of the army, such as a person who committed suicide after the 4 June incident.^ An example, I mean, not of every single person captured, not of every single spy who happened to be sent into Tiananmen Square and who was scared silly.

    ^ It subjected both supporters and “the enemy” to emotional blackmail, not unlike a person who threatens suicide to manipulate or punish others for their lack of attention.

    ^ He reasons that such deployments are possible because the aggregate wealth of people in developing regions is considerable, while personal devices can be kept out of the equation.
    • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
    • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

    [44]

International reaction

The events at Tiananmen were the first of their type shown in detail on Western television.[45] .International reaction denounced the Chinese government's response, particularly by Western governments and media.^ I admit I am inclined to blame the US government more than the Chinese, as of my western orientation.
  • China, the US, and the Market that Still Knows Best - Drorism* 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.drorism.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were subsequently denounced on national media, controlled by Zhang Chunqiao and Yao Wenyuan, as the "February Counter-current forces" ( Chinese : 二月逆流 ).

[46] .Criticism came from both Western and Eastern Europe, North America, Australia and some east Asian and Latin American countries.^ The Middle East, Eastern Europe, and Africa are also set to see rapid expansion.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ Asian people lived in the light of these values many centuries before Western Europe was even dreamed of.
  • China, the US, and the Market that Still Knows Best - Drorism* 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.drorism.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In some areas, Chinese Americans maintain close relationships with other Asian groups, particularly Vietnamese Americans.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

.Notably, many Asian countries remained silent throughout the protests; the government of India responded to the massacre by ordering the state television to pare down the coverage to the barest minimum, so as not to jeopardize a thawing in relations with China, and to offer political empathy for the events[47] North Korea, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, and East Germany, among others, supported the Chinese government and denounced the protests.^ After the Tiananmen protests of 1989 , Pelosi became a supporter of the Chinese democracy movement and vocal critic of the government of the People's Republic of China and sponsored the Chinese Student Protection Act of 1992 .
  • Nancy Pelosi - OpenCongress Wiki 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.opencongress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nancy Pelosi - OpenCongress Wiki 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC wiki.opencongress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chinese government, in partnership with software firms, academic institutions, and even other East Asian countries, is making major investments in the adoption of the Linux open-source operating system and the rollout of Linux-related applications.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ There is concrete evidence of a research boom in countries such as China and India, where governments are implementing plans to quickly increase their level of science and technology investment, and where a vast pool of science and engineering talent compares favorably against Europe and the United States, where interest in science and technology education is waning; Asian countries also offer lower costs than in the United States, although that advantage is narrowing.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

[46] .Overseas Chinese students demonstrated in many cities in Europe, America, the Middle East and Asia.^ Once the party took power, it enshrined the 1919 student demonstration as an icon of Chinese communism.

^ Arriving at the gate to board flights on IcelandAir in cities throughout Europe and North America, many were told that their names were on “the black list” because they practice Falun Gong.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These relationships are helped by the fact that many Vietnamese American are ethnic overseas Chinese, although most ethnic Chinese Vietnamese Americans do not classify themselves as Vietnamese American.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

[48]

Organizations

. UN: Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar was concerned at the incident, adding that the government should uphold the utmost restraint, but also noted that the UN Charter prohibits interference in member states' internal affairs (especially member states with a Security Council veto).^ The U.S. government is also concerned: Howard Schmidt of the president's Critical Infrastructure Protection Board says that ensuring the security of software outsourced to companies both overseas and within the United States is critical, using spies such as Aldrich H. Ames and Robert Hanssen as examples of internal security leaks.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ This development is critical if the new economy is to be successful, and it also dovetails with the Millennium Declaration that UN member states adopted in September 2000, he writes.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ For example, the state security apparatus has identified about 40,000 Falun Gong practitioners among staff in Communist Party and government units, state enterprises and colleges.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49]
.Europe The European Economic Community condemned the government response and cancelled all high level contacts and loans.^ After all, in his treatises on governance, Confucius laid much more store on moral authority than economic prowess or brute military force.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has coerced every Political and Judiciary branch and all levels of government into implementing secret orders issued by Jiang Zemin--"Discredit Falun Gong.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whereas the campaign of persecution has been generated by the Government of the People's Republic of China, is carried out by government officials and police at all levels, and has permeated every segment of society and every level of government in the People's Republic of China; and .
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They planned a resolution at the UNHCR criticising China's human rights record.^ The human rights record in China has dramatically worsened in recent years.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "They depend on what I call human proxies, people who send their friends emails in China to get around the firewall," Xiao explained.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ To stop being censured for its Human Rights record, in particular by the U.S. and UN .
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50][51] The EU maintains an arms embargo against China to this day.

Countries

A memorial depicting a destroyed bicycle and a tank track — symbol of the Tiananmen Square protests — in the Polish city of Wrocław
. Australia: The Prime Minister, Bob Hawke, wept at a memorial service in the Great Hall in Parliament.^ On April 22nd, a memorial ceremony for Hu Yaobang was held in the Great Hall of the People.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.The Australian government granted Chinese students a four year amnesty to stay in Australia.^ Practitioners in Australia, Europe, the United States, and elsewhere have long reported harassment from Chinese consulate officers and government agents.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The students demanded that the government grant legal status to their new organization, the Coalition of Independent Student Unions, and talk with them as equals.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite violent government repression, arrests, and killings, generation after generation the students came out to protest, inspiring other Chinese to follow them.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

[45]
. Burma: The junta supported the actions of the Chinese government, while opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi condemned them, saying: "We deplore it.^ Stanford University professor Shoucheng Zhang, who also teaches at Beijing's Tsing-hua University, says Chinese government leaders will eventually have to make decisions to protect intellectual property in the same way the West does.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ The database, supported by the Israeli and Chinese governments, is housed in a museum in the city’s former Ohel Moshe Synagogue.

^ Observers say the Chinese national government subtly supports piracy of foreign vendors' products as a sort of industrial subsidy, while corrupt local government officials utilize stolen intellectual property for financial gain.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

It happened in Burma and we wanted the world to stand by Burma, so we stand by the Chinese students."[52]
 Canada: The External Affairs Minister Joe Clark described the incident as "inexcusable" and issued a statement: "We can only express horror and outrage at the senseless violence and tragic loss of life resulting from the indiscriminate and brutal use of force against students and civilians of Peking."[53]
 Czechoslovakia: The government of Czechoslovakia supported the Chinese governments response, expressing the idea that China would overcome its problems and further develop socialism. .In response, the Chinese side "highly valued the understanding shown by the Czechoslovak Communist Party and people" for suppressing the "anti-socialist" riots in Beijing.^ The petition states, in part, "The shutdown of Century China is just another instance of the Chinese government suppressing the freedom of its people."
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ Chinese Communist Party’s official newspaper, the real issue is his race.

^ There were still many people in the Chinese Communist Party, prior to the massacre at least, who still thought of it as a revolutionary organisation taking society forward.

[54]
 France: The French Foreign Minister, Roland Dumas, said he was "dismayed by the bloody repression" of "an unarmed crowd of demonstrators."[55]
 East Germany: The leadership of the German Democratic Republic approved of the military action. .The Volkskammer passed a resolution, in which East Germany declared its support for suppressing the "counterrevolutionary riots". East German politicians Hans Modrow, Günter Schabowski and Egon Krenz visited China so as to document their support.^ Now the Chinese government hasn't reached the sophistication in repression that, if you have read The Great Game or Out of the Night , or have visited East Germany, you would know.

[56][57]
 West Germany: The West German Foreign Ministry urged China "to return to its universally welcomed policies of reform and openness."[55]
 Holy See: The Holy See of Vatican City has no official diplomatic relations with China, but Pope John Paul II expressed hope that the events in China would bring change.[55]
. Hong Kong: The military action severely affected perceptions of the mainland.^ Chan was severely repressed in China during the recent modern era with the appearance of the People's Republic, but has more recently been re-asserting itself on the mainland, and has a significant following in Taiwan and Hong Kong and among Overseas Chinese.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethnic Composition Predominantly Taiwanese; some Buddhists from Hong Kong and mainland China .
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethnic Chinese immigration to the United States since 1965 has been aided by the fact that the United States maintains separate quotas for Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

.200,000 people protested against the Chinese government's response, with the latter considering the protests as "subversive". The people of Hong Kong hoped that the chaos on the mainland would destabilize the Beijing Government and thus avert its reunification with the rest of mainland China.^ He was a Standing Committee member, vice president of the Guangzhou Patriotic Union (GZPU), in charge of the Operation Section of GZPU and was mainly responsible for protests in the provincial government square.
  • The Legacy of Tiananmen: 20 Years of Oppression, Activism and Hope 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC crd-net.org [Source type: News]

^ The petition states, in part, "The shutdown of Century China is just another instance of the Chinese government suppressing the freedom of its people."
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ A stretch of bare wall near the city center became a place where people posted their hopes and fears about the new China.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.The Sino-British Joint Declaration was also called into question.^ Just as I was about to ask her a question she was called away, disappearing for a few minutes into the shadows of the truck-sized tent.

^ This allows the Party to condemn both the Cultural Revolution and Mao's role within it, without calling into question the ideology of the Party.

[58][59] .Demonstrations continued for several days, and wreaths were placed outside the Xinhua News Agency office in the city.^ Citing figures from the Ministry of Health, Xinhua News Agency said 258 people were killed last year, up 32 percent from the previous year.

^ A stretch of bare wall near the city center became a place where people posted their hopes and fears about the new China.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The news came as the official Xinhua news agency said foreign tourists would be allowed back into Lhasa “very soon”, quoting the city’s vice mayor Chen Zhichang.

[48]
. Hungary: The Hungarian government, which was undergoing political reform, reacted strongly to the incident.^ This year China was classified among authoritarian countries that are undergoing economic reform and rapid social change, but which “have not undertaken democratic political reform,” the report said.

.The Foreign Minister described the events as a "horrible tragedy", and the government expressed "shock", adding that "fundamental human rights could not be exclusively confined to the internal affairs of any country."^ Indeed, it is the focal point for Jiang’s foreign relations, and for the past three years, Falun Gong has been the most prominent human rights issue in China.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is described by human rights advocates as the central control structure for the state terror employed against Falun Gong practitioners in China today.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Police are also monitoring the movements of Shi’s lawyer, sources said, to ensure that he makes no contact with foreign human rights groups.

.Demonstrations were held outside the Chinese embassy.^ They weren't interested in candle-light vigils outside the Chinese Embassy in London or New York.

.Hungary was the only country in Europe to have substantially reduced relations with China in the aftermath of the events.^ Europe and America are relevant because you said China is the "last standing empire", which it is not, because many "European" countries are still empires in every sense of the word.
  • China, the US, and the Market that Still Knows Best - Drorism* 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.drorism.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Unsurprisingly, the wealthiest countries in Eastern Europe--Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic--are the region's IT leaders.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

[60]
. Italy: The Italian Communist Party leader Achille Occhetto condemned the "unspeakable slaughter in progress in China".[61]
 Japan: The Japanese government called the response "intolerable" and froze loans to China.
^ China Closes Liberal Web Site CNET , 2 August 2006 Government officials in China have taken another step in limiting what Internet users in the country can access, causing an uproar among intellectuals and others critical of the Communist Party.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ Wu is a member of the Communist Party's 21-member Politburo, making him one of the most powerful men in China.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the workers, once it got to the question of overthrowing the Communist Party, and a new workers' and students' government, they weren't willing to swallow that unless they were totally convinced that I was serious in what I was saying.

.Japan was also the first member of the G7 to restore high level relations with China in the following months.^ Also last month, research organizations in Japan and China agreed to work together on smart-tag technology, following the creation of a similar smart-tag alliance involving the South Korean group RFID in March.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

[62][63]
 Kuwait: Kuwait voiced understanding of the measures taken by the Chinese authorities to protect social stability.[64]
 Macau: 150,000 protested in Macau.[65]
. Mongolia: Many reformists had been aware of the international reaction to the military action, and chose to follow the democratic changes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union.^ The Chinese Communist Party is not yet the same as the ruling party in, say, Eastern Europe or the Soviet Union.

^ In particular, there is a lot of information on developments in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union.

^ Many Eastern European concerns hope to use the IT outsourcing trend in Western Europe to their advantage and follow a similar strategy.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

[66][67]
 Netherlands: The Dutch government froze diplomatic relations with China, and summoned the Chinese Chargé d'Affaires Li Qin Ping expressing shock at the "violent and brutal actions of the People's Liberation Army."[48]
 Philippines: President Corazon Aquino expressed sadness at the incident, urging the Chinese government to "urgently and immediately take steps to stop the aggressive and senseless killing by its armed forces".[53] Socialist labor organization KMU at first initially supported the action taken by Chinese authorities, though later issued a "rectified position" which blamed "insufficient information and improper decision making process".[68]
 Poland: The Polish government criticised the response of the Chinese government but not the government itself. A government spokesman called the incident "tragic", with "sincere sympathy for the families of those killed and injured." .Daily protests and hunger strikes took place outside the Chinese embassy in Warsaw The government also expressed hope that it did not affect Sino-Polish relations.^ We had placed a lot of hope on talks with the government.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ I couldn’t think of any examples in Chinese history, though India had elevated the hunger strike to an almost spiritual art.

^ When the Big March of April 27 took place, on the student side, the newborn student organization was not only very frail, but had also borne the blow of blackmail from the government in advance.

[60]
.Romania Romania: General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party Nicolae Ceauşescu praised the military action, and in a reciprocal move, China sent Qiao Shi to the Romanian Communist Party Congress in August 1989, at which Ceauşescu was re-elected.^ We all know that the large scale, student-led pro-democracy movement that took place in China twenty years ago was triggered by the April 15, 1989, death of Hu Yaobang, the former General-secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP).

^ China Closes Liberal Web Site CNET , 2 August 2006 Government officials in China have taken another step in limiting what Internet users in the country can access, causing an uproar among intellectuals and others critical of the Communist Party.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ In China, if you wanted to express your opinions you had to speak from within the Communist Party.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

[69]
. Republic of China (Taiwan): President Lee Teng-hui issued a statement on 4 June strongly condemning the mainland Chinese response: "Early this morning, Chinese communist troops finally used military force to attack the students and others demonstrating peacefully for democracy and freedom in Tiananmen Square in Peking, resulting in heavy casualties and loss of life.^ Chinese Americans have also strongly influenced politics both in Taiwan and the People's Republic of China.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Republic of China ( Taiwan ) 1945–present .

^ Remember that high inflation was the hottest spark that ignited the Tiananmen Protests of 1989, and how it was not just students that demonstrated but working class also.
  • China, the US, and the Market that Still Knows Best - Drorism* 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.drorism.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although we anticipated this mad action of the Chinese communists beforehand, it still has moved us to incomparable grief, indignation and shock."^ Although Chinese companies are increasing having to survive without government subsidiaries, many foreign companies still need strong relations with government officials.
  • Partner Schools 2008: March 2008 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: General]
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were still many people in the Chinese Communist Party, prior to the massacre at least, who still thought of it as a revolutionary organisation taking society forward.

^ When we took action there, we were telling people throughout the country that there were still some of us who dared to fight back.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

[70] The authorities also lifted a ban on telephone communications to encourage private contacts and counter the news blackout on the mainland.[48]
. Singapore: The government offered no comment on the incident, but criticized Western calls for economic sanctions against China, dismissing them as interfering in China’s internal affairs.^ In this sense China is copying the economic structure of the Western academy.

^ Far Eastern Economic Review "No better place to start for China knowledge."

^ The three belong to what some Western experts say is a civilian cyber militia in China, launching attacks on government and private Web sites around the world.

[71]
. Soviet Union: General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev did not explicitly condemn the actions, but called for reform.^ Gorbachev met with Party leaders like Zhao Ziyang, who looked to the Soviet Union as an example of political reform; and with others, like Premier Li Peng, who were wary of everything Gorbachev represented.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ That week a historic meeting, years in preparation, was to take place: the President of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, was coming to China.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The head of the Party, General Secretary Zhao Ziyang, was a leading advocate of these reforms.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.There was an interest on building relations on a recent summit in Beijing, but the events fueled discussion on human rights and Soviet foreign policy.^ The foreign press, in Beijing to cover the Sino-Soviet summit, walked into the biggest international media story ever reported out of China.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, it is the focal point for Jiang’s foreign relations, and for the past three years, Falun Gong has been the most prominent human rights issue in China.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There's a new countdown clock in Beijing , but it is ticking away the time not until a local event begins but until the Shanghai Expo starts.

.There was some private criticism of the Chinese response.^ Responding to critics of Google's decision to filter certain content to Chinese users, CEO Eric Schmidt reiterated the company's position that it is better to have a presence in China with some restrictions than not to be there at all.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

[46] Newly formed opposition groups condemned the military action. 10 days after the incident the government expressed regret, calling for political dialogue. Public demonstrations occurred at the Chinese embassy in Moscow. A spokesman on 10 June said the Kremlin was "extremely dismayed" at the incident.[72][73]
. South Korea: The Foreign Ministry expressed "grave concern" and hoped for no further deterioration of the situation.^ The Chinese Foreign Ministry said it had no information about the talks.

^ The situation had deteriorated in a way that needed no translation.

^ No surprises, I guess, as his dad works in the Foreign Ministry.

The statement also encouraged dialogue to resolve the issue peacefully.[74]
. Sweden: The Swedish government froze diplomatic relations with China.^ China Confidential: American Diplomats and Sino-American Relations, 1945-1996.

[75]
. Thailand: The Thai government had the warmest relations with Beijing out of all ASEAN members, and expressed confidence that the "fluid situation" in China had passed its "critical point", though it was concerned that it could delay a settlement in the Cambodian–Vietnamese War.^ Local governments across the country were told in a weekend teleconference to go “all-out” to prevent regional grievances from escalating to the point that they mar the August 8-24 Beijing Games, various official accounts said.

^ On August 8 , 1966 , the Central Committee of the CCP passed its "Decision Concerning the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution" (also known as "the 16 Points").

^ I am not too interested in getting into it at this point, since it is unproductive and I am not looking for reasons to criticize China.
  • China, the US, and the Market that Still Knows Best - Drorism* 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.drorism.com [Source type: Original source]

[52]
 United Kingdom: The Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, expressed "utter revulsion and outrage", and was "appalled by the indiscriminate shooting of unarmed people." She promised to relax immigration laws for Hong Kong residents.[76]
. United States: The United States Congress and media responded indignantly to the unfolding situation.^ Public television has been responsible for the production, broadcast and dissemination of programs which form the richest audiovisual source of cultural history in the United States.” — Report to the Librarian of Congress .
  • PTV Digital Archive - Part 3 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.thirteen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On November 18, 1999, the United States Congress passed joint resolutions (House and Senate), condemning the persecution.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.President George H. W. Bush suspended military sales and visits.^ Main article: Efforts to initiate the impeachment of President George W. Bush Biography .
  • Nancy Pelosi - OpenCongress Wiki 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.opencongress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nancy Pelosi - OpenCongress Wiki 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC wiki.opencongress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President George W. Bush sent a notification to Congress that he had temporarily eased export restrictions to allow American firearms to be used by athletes competing in shooting events.

^ Main article: District of Columbia Fair and Equal Voting Rights Act of 2007 Impeachment of President George W. Bush .
  • Nancy Pelosi - OpenCongress Wiki 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.opencongress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nancy Pelosi - OpenCongress Wiki 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC wiki.opencongress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Large scale protests took place around the country.^ A few days after the demonstrations took place, Beijing had to rein them in because many protesters were taking advantage of the melee to vent their grievances against the central government.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their cars, identifiable by their license plates, often park on the side streets around Tiananmen Square when protests take place.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On January 15 , Zhou's funeral was held, and because of his popularity nationally, events commemorating Zhou across the country took place.

[55]
. Vietnam: Vietnam and China had a history of strained relations, but the Vietnamese government quietly supported the Chinese government's position.^ After the Tiananmen protests of 1989 , Pelosi became a supporter of the Chinese democracy movement and vocal critic of the government of the People's Republic of China and sponsored the Chinese Student Protection Act of 1992 .
  • Nancy Pelosi - OpenCongress Wiki 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.opencongress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nancy Pelosi - OpenCongress Wiki 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC wiki.opencongress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The petition states, in part, "The shutdown of Century China is just another instance of the Chinese government suppressing the freedom of its people."
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ Supporters of the Chinese democracy movement see the Cultural Revolution as an example of what happens when democracy is lacking and place responsibility for the Cultural Revolution on the Communist Party of China .

.Media reported on the protests but offered no commentary, and state radio added that the PLA could not have stopped the action after "hooligans and ruffians insulted or beat up soldiers" and destroyed military vehicles.^ And to know that if this movement could be married with Marxist ideas, no power on earth could stop it.

^ Most mainland Chinese only know what the state-run media report.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I never said anything about the state of Israel and have no idea why you keep bringing it up.
  • China, the US, and the Market that Still Knows Best - Drorism* 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.drorism.com [Source type: Original source]

.The government expressed that it wanted better relations with China, but did not want to go to the "extremes of Eastern Europe or Tiananmen" – referring to its own stability.^ In 1853 Marx wrote a piece for the Daily Tribune called "Revolution in China and in Europe" that encapsulates his own understanding of what the Taiping revolution was, and what brought it about.

^ This piece is excerpted from Philip J. Cunningham’s manuscript of his forthcoming book, Tiananmen Moon , part of an on-going China Beat feature of excerpts from Cunningham's book .

^ They said "We are not going to be identified with the government, after what it did last night."

[77]
 Yugoslavia: The national news agency Tanjug in the non-aligned country said the protest became a "symbol of destroyed illusions and also a symbol of sacrificed ideals which have been cut off by machine gun volleys and squashed under the caterpillars of heavy vehicles."[61]

Aftermath

Arrests and persecution

.Chinese authorities summarily tried and executed many of the workers they arrested in Beijing.^ But if they left, would they be betraying the many workers and citizens who had already died to protect them and support their stand?
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The Chinese will probably try to impose forks, knives and spoons on us because they will feel we are incapable of using chopsticks .
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As an organizer, I understand that many students come to Beijing funded by local schools, so they need to bring a certain “title” home.

.In contrast, the students – many of whom came from relatively affluent backgrounds and were well-connected – received much lighter sentences.^ I was overwhelmed with a sense of awe and an ecstatic sense of well-being to see so many people moving together with so much spirit and so little friction.

^ In the first few days after my son was killed, many friends, colleagues and students came to express their sympathy.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ And what is truly sad is that some students, and some famous, well-connected people, are working hard to help the government, to prevent it from taking such measures.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Wang Dan, the student leader who topped the most wanted list, spent seven years in prison.^ Just who were the so-called student leaders?

^ The government decides life and death," he intoned with a whisper, looking around before going on, "I spent the next five years in prison.

^ Duan ( 段 ): born in 1965, teacher at a secondary School in Qiyang county, was sentenced to 3 years in prison in the same case as Wang Liulan.
  • The Legacy of Tiananmen: 20 Years of Oppression, Activism and Hope 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC crd-net.org [Source type: News]

.Many of the students and university staff implicated were permanently politically stigmatized, some never to be employed again.^ There I had some excellent discussions at the university with the students.

.Some dissidents were able to escape to overseas under Hong Kong-based Operation Yellowbird.^ Software vendors save money by sending a lot of their software development overseas, and some officials are beginning to fear that foreign-based developers could deliberately insert vulnerabilities in the software.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ Ethnic Composition Predominantly Taiwanese; some Buddhists from Hong Kong and mainland China .
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of its 150 members come from Taiwan, some from Hong Kong, and virtually all became practicing Buddhists only after their arrival in the United States.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

[78]
.Smaller protest actions continued in other cities for a few days.^ A few days after the demonstrations took place, Beijing had to rein them in because many protesters were taking advantage of the melee to vent their grievances against the central government.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some university staff and students who had witnessed the killings in Beijing organised or spurred commemorative events upon their return to school.^ As we emerge on the street, two campus security agents plead with some flustered students to immediately return to campus.

^ After the June 4 th massacre, he continued to organize the "Empty School Movement" and remained active in organizing the rescue of student activists and intellectuals who escaped from Beijing after the student movement was crushed.
  • The Legacy of Tiananmen: 20 Years of Oppression, Activism and Hope 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC crd-net.org [Source type: News]

^ By Alec Ash It was the young students at Peking University ninety years ago on May 4, 1919, who changed China’s future.

.At Shanghai's prestigious Jiaotong University, for example, the party secretary organised a public commemoration event, with engineering students producing a large metal wreath.^ Most students at Shanghai University live on campus - and in dormitories that are terrible.

^ I could not see any student or worker with knowledge of the events of the last weeks now joining the Communist Party with revolutionary illusions in it.

^ In 1937, after obtaining his B.S. in Electrical Engineering from the National Chiao Tung University in Shanghai, he had served for the next ten years in Central Elec.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

.However, these commemorations were quickly put down, with those responsible being purged.^ However, they also on average have birth rates lower than those of American whites, and as such their population is aging relatively quickly.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to receive these bribes officers must quickly obtain the addresses of those who appeal in Beijing.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During and after the demonstration, the authorities attempted to arrest and prosecute the student leaders of the Chinese democracy movement, notably Wang Dan, Chai Ling, Zhao Changqing and Wuer Kaixi.^ I watched the student movement on T.V. It was exciting to see so many people demanding democracy, but I was worried by the general, intangible nature of their demands.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Supporters of the Chinese democracy movement see the Cultural Revolution as an example of what happens when democracy is lacking and place responsibility for the Cultural Revolution on the Communist Party of China .

^ After the May 27th decision to leave was overturned by people like Chai Ling, the students were in a predicament: they couldn't leave, yet by simply hanging on, the movement was losing its appeal, and the number of people coming to the Square was dwindling.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Wang Dan was arrested, convicted and sent to prison, then allowed to emigrate to the United States on the grounds of medical parole.^ L-1 visa holders are allowed to remain in the United States for up to seven years.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

As a lesser figure in the demonstrations, Zhao was released after six months in prison. .However, he was once again incarcerated for continuing to petition for political reform in China.^ This year China was classified among authoritarian countries that are undergoing economic reform and rapid social change, but which “have not undertaken democratic political reform,” the report said.

Wuer Kaixi escaped to Taiwan. He is married and holds a job as a political commentator on Taiwanese national radio.[79] Chai Ling escaped to France, and then to the United States. .In a public speech given at the University of Michigan in November, 2007,[80] Wang Dan commented on the current status of former student leaders: Chai Ling started a hi-tech company in the US and was permitted to return to China and do business, while Li Lu became an investment banker in Wall Street and started a company.^ At Xinhuamen, the entrance to the old palace compound where China's top leaders live and work, the students waited for an answer.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ A stretch of bare wall near the city center became a place where people posted their hopes and fears about the new China.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ As in any high-stakes system—the SAT, Wall Street, publication in prestigious fora—one finds some individuals willing to take enormous risks.

.Wang Dan said his plan was to find an academic job in the US after receiving his PhD from Harvard University, although he was eager to return to China if permitted.^ Although China and India do not track the specific numbers of scientists and technologists who emigrate or return, a net outflow is likely.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ If you get overloaded with gifts and other educational necessities you find in China for the return trip, I suggest you purchase a second suitcase in China.
  • Partner Schools 2008: March 2008 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: General]
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Berkman Centre for Internet and Society at Harvard University, US .
  • Internet filtering and young people - Cyberspace Law and Policy Centre - UNSW research project on content regulation and censorship 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC cyberlawcentre.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Party leadership expelled Zhao Ziyang from the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (PSC), because he opposed martial law, and Zhao remained under house arrest until his death.^ Not until after Mao's death would he emerge as China's new paramount leader.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ In China, if you wanted to express your opinions you had to speak from within the Communist Party.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Today, the Cultural Revolution is widely seen inside and outside of China, including the Communist Party of China , as an unmitigated disaster, and as an event to be avoided in the future.

Hu Qili, the other member of the PSC who opposed the martial law but abstained from voting, was also removed from the committee. He was, however, able to retain his party membership, and after "changing his opinion", was reassigned as deputy minister of Machine-Building and Electronics Industry. Another reform-minded Chinese leader, Wan Li, was also put under house arrest immediately after he stepped out of an airplane at Beijing Capital International Airport upon returning from his shortened trip abroad, with the official excuse of "health reasons." When Wan Li was released from his house arrest after he finally "changed his opinion" he, like Qiao Shi, was transferred to a different position with equal rank but mostly ceremonial role. .Several Chinese ambassadors abroad claimed political asylum.^ "A Chinese person told me that the British Embassy is offering political asylum to student activists.

[81][82]
.The event elevated Jiang Zemin – then Mayor of Shanghai – to become the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China.^ In the evening of April 25, Jiang Zemin, in the name of the General Secretary of the Communist Party, wrote a letter to the members of the Standing Committee of the Politburo and other relevant leaders.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Supporters of the Chinese democracy movement see the Cultural Revolution as an example of what happens when democracy is lacking and place responsibility for the Cultural Revolution on the Communist Party of China .

^ On October 24, 1997, six months after Deng died, Jiang Zemin appointed 152 new generals.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Jiang's decisive actions in Shanghai, in closing down reform-leaning publications and preventing deadly violence, won him support from party elders in Beijing.^ Jiang, then mayor of Shanghai, won Deng's praise for "ideological rectitude and resoluteness" for suppressing the Herald even as students in Shanghai and Beijing campuses were holding unprecedented large-scale pro-democracy demonstrations.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sources close to security departments in Beijing said Jiang was poised to take more drastic steps to reach his goal of eradicating the sect before the forthcoming 80th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, there is no shortage of consumer goods, at least in Beijing or Shanghai, from cars down to foreign cigarettes.

.Members of the government prepared a white paper explaining the government's viewpoint on the protests.^ He was a Standing Committee member, vice president of the Guangzhou Patriotic Union (GZPU), in charge of the Operation Section of GZPU and was mainly responsible for protests in the provincial government square.
  • The Legacy of Tiananmen: 20 Years of Oppression, Activism and Hope 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC crd-net.org [Source type: News]

.An anonymous source within the PRC government smuggled the document out of China, and Public Affairs published it in January 2001 as the Tiananmen Papers.^ In the early morning of April 27th, students set out from campuses all over the city and walked toward Tiananmen Square, the political center of China.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ And it would give the government a sort of credit line that doesn't run out of China.
  • Contrary Brin: A “track record” predicting the future...? 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC davidbrin.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ ISuppli analyst Byron Wu explains that the success of standards within China hinges on establishing a balance between the interests of Chinese companies, foreign companies, and the Chinese government.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

.The papers include a quote by Communist Party elder Wang Zhen which alludes to the government's response to the demonstrations.^ With the workers, once it got to the question of overthrowing the Communist Party, and a new workers' and students' government, they weren't willing to swallow that unless they were totally convinced that I was serious in what I was saying.

^ No longer will any thinking worker, any thinking student, anywhere on this planet, ever, ever again have any illusions in the so-called Chinese Communist Party government.

^ Supporters of the Chinese democracy movement see the Cultural Revolution as an example of what happens when democracy is lacking and place responsibility for the Cultural Revolution on the Communist Party of China .

.State media mostly gave reports sympathetic to the students in the immediate aftermath.^ Vardi also notes that media reports heralding the exportation of technology jobs have sapped student interest in computer science, even though plenty of jobs remain in the United States.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ The Beijing Olympic Organising Committee has hired 30 cheering squads who will show spectators how it is done at Games stadia, reports Xinhua state media.

^ Most mainland Chinese only know what the state-run media report.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As a result, those responsible were all later removed. .Two news anchors who reported this event on 4 June in the daily 1900 hours (7:00 pm) news report on China Central Television were fired because they showed their sad emotions.^ We are making a news report for BBC English television.

^ By captcha on June 16, 2009 10:58 AM No, because politicians in Tokyo don't think they're white.
  • China, the US, and the Market that Still Knows Best - Drorism* 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.drorism.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Posted by The China Beat at 5/11/2009 06:30:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: 1989 , 6/4 , Philip J Cunningham , Tiananmen , Tiananmen Moon .

.Wu Xiaoyong, the son of a Communist Party of China Central Committee member, and former PRC foreign minister and vice premier Wu Xueqian were removed from the English Program Department of Chinese Radio International.^ In 1991, Ding, together with Liu Wensheng, Liu Baiyu, Gao Longyun, and Zhang Jian, founded the "Chinese Social Democratic Party" and was a member of the executive committee, serving as Minister of Planning and Establishment.
  • The Legacy of Tiananmen: 20 Years of Oppression, Activism and Hope 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC crd-net.org [Source type: News]

^ He was a Standing Committee member, vice president of the Guangzhou Patriotic Union (GZPU), in charge of the Operation Section of GZPU and was mainly responsible for protests in the provincial government square.
  • The Legacy of Tiananmen: 20 Years of Oppression, Activism and Hope 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC crd-net.org [Source type: News]

^ Also in 1959, Mao resigned as chairman of the PRC, and the government was then run by other leaders such as the new chairman Liu Shaoqi , Premier Zhou Enlai and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) general secretary Deng Xiaoping .

.Editors and other staff at the People's Daily (the newspaper of the Communist Party of China), including its director Qian Liren and Editor-in-Chief Tan Wenrui, were also removed from their posts because of reports in the paper which were sympathetic towards the students.^ This paper would report daily what was going on.

^ China Closes Liberal Web Site CNET , 2 August 2006 Government officials in China have taken another step in limiting what Internet users in the country can access, causing an uproar among intellectuals and others critical of the Communist Party.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ But the story, posted initially to People’s Daily Online , was removed by day’s end, a sign that some important officials at least were not pleased.

.Several editors were arrested, with Wu Xuecan, who organised the publication of an unauthorised Extra edition, sentenced to four years' imprisonment.^ Several Falun Dafa adherents imprisoned by local police early this year say their captors told them that their continued protests threatened to derail officials' careers.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In later years, he founded several Buddhist publications, and was promoted as editor-in-chief for many Buddhist periodicals and newsletters for various temples and wrote articles for major Taiwanese newsletters.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

.Rob Gifford, a National Public Radio journalist, said that much of the political freedoms and debate that occurred post-Mao and pre-Tiananmen ended after Tiananmen.^ In a rare public foray into such political debates, some entrepreneurs argue that the Sichuan earthquake has shown the need for much more freedom to establish private charities.

^ The Gang identified Zhou as the main political threat in post-Mao era succession.

.For instance, some of the authors of the film River Elegy (He Shang) were arrested, and some of the authors fled Mainland China.^ Ethnic Composition Predominantly Taiwanese; some Buddhists from Hong Kong and mainland China .
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

.Gifford concluded that "China the concept, China the empire, China the construct of two thousand years of imperial thinking" has forbidden and may always forbid "independent thinking" as that would lead to the questioning of China's political system.^ Even though you may not think you are rich, you will almost always be the richest person in China wherever we go.
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By Alec Ash It was the young students at Peking University ninety years ago on May 4, 1919, who changed China’s future.

^ Our culture, as well as the political system in Mainland China, suppresses the individual and promotes the collective.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Gifford added that people born after 1970 had "near-complete depoliticization" while older intellectuals no longer focus on political change and instead focus on economic reform.^ It no longer grips the minds and imaginations of the Chinese people.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Moderate cadres and academics in Beijing also think the return of Mao-style political campaigns will deal a blow to economic and political reforms.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The political, economic, and educational reforms associated with the Cultural Revolution were terminated.

[83]

Media coverage

.The Tiananmen Square protests damaged the reputation of the PRC in the West.^ At the time of the Tiananmen Square protests, no politically significant groups within China defended the Cultural Revolution; the protesters were largely neoliberal in outlook.

^ On April 5, hundreds of thousands of people were gathered in and around Tiananmen Square , turning the assembly into a form of non-violent protest.

^ This can be seen in the words of some of the student leaders of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 .

.Western media had been invited to cover the visit of Mikhail Gorbachev in May, and were thus in an excellent position to cover some of the military action live through networks such as the BBC and CNN. Protestors seized this opportunity, creating signs and banners designed for international television audiences.^ As Director of the WGBH Media Archives, Ms. Ide has a long history of providing leadership in designing and maintaining television archives.
  • PTV Digital Archive - Part 3 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.thirteen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such new definitions are needed network-wide, with broad implications for all the producers and distributors across the whole public television system.
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^ Sarnoff CEO Satyam Cherukuri wants to create a model for "global networked R&D" through offshore investments such as a new laboratory facility in Bangalore.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

.Coverage was further facilitated by the sharp conflicts within the Chinese government about how to handle the protests.^ Xiao also discussed how short messaging service--very popular in China--allowed more communication about the SARS outbreak before the government reported on it.
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^ Callahan's argument--one echoed by Google and Microsoft--is that when any government requests information, the company is frequently in the dark about how that information will be employed.
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^ That ended when about 10,000 Falun Dafa practitioners protested in downtown Beijing in April, 1999, asking the government that their group be legalized.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thus, broadcasting was not immediately stopped.
.All international networks were eventually ordered to terminate broadcasts from the city during the military action, with the government shutting down the satellite transmissions.^ When you all get to Chicago go directly to the international terminal to the Beijing departure gate.
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^ After all, in his treatises on governance, Confucius laid much more store on moral authority than economic prowess or brute military force.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Cultural Revolution, Chinese-Americans, like all overseas Chinese, generally speaking, were viewed as capitalist traitors by the People's Republic of China government.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

Broadcasters attempted to defy these orders by reporting via telephone. Footage was quickly smuggled out of the country, including the image of "the unknown rebel." The only network which was able to record some images during the night was Televisión Española of Spain (TVE).[84][85]
CBS correspondent Richard Roth and his cameraman were imprisoned during the military action. .Roth was taken into custody while in the midst of filing a report from the Square via mobile phone.^ He was taken into custody at the station.

In a frantic voice, he could be heard repeatedly yelling what sounded like "Oh, no! Oh, no!" before the phone was disconnected. .He was later released, suffering a slight injury to his face in a scuffle with Chinese authorities attempting to confiscate his phone.^ Conversely, when challenging authority and another person's standing within a community, Chinese will often attempt to cause a loss of lian or mianzi.
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Roth later explained he had actually been saying, "Let go!"
.Images of the protests would strongly shape Western views and policy toward the PRC throughout the 1990s and into the 21st century.^ Before the "Old Grey Ghost" of the Confederacy was implausibly conjured into the 21st century I believe there was a serious question asked of me, ie how I would feel about "political" trials/investigations of departed Administrations.
  • Contrary Brin: A “track record” predicting the future...? 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC davidbrin.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.There was considerable sympathy for the student protests among Chinese students in the West.^ But there were also protests involving university students in other years ending with that number, including 1999.

^ In the 1980s, there was widespread concern by the PRC over a brain drain as graduate students were not returning to the PRC. This exodus worsened after the Tiananmen protests of 1989.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite violent government repression, arrests, and killings, generation after generation the students came out to protest, inspiring other Chinese to follow them.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Almost immediately, both the United States and the European Economic Community announced an arms embargo, and China's image as a reforming country and a valuable ally against the Soviet Union was replaced by that of a repressive authoritarian regime.^ It was both directly imported and indirectly mediated, and I think no other community of Britons had such intense exposure at a time when British feelings about the United States and US cultural influence were ambivalent, to say the least.

^ A number of grass-roots groups are emerging to battle repressive government Internet filtering in countries such as China and Saudi Arabia.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
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^ Being vigilant about valuables is true for travel anywhere in the world including the United States.
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Tiananmen protests were frequently invoked to argue against trade liberalization with mainland China and by the United States' Blue Team as evidence that the PRC government was an aggressive threat to world peace and US interests.^ Is China a threat to the world?

^ There is concrete evidence of a research boom in countries such as China and India, where governments are implementing plans to quickly increase their level of science and technology investment, and where a vast pool of science and engineering talent compares favorably against Europe and the United States, where interest in science and technology education is waning; Asian countries also offer lower costs than in the United States, although that advantage is narrowing.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ At the time of the Tiananmen Square protests, no politically significant groups within China defended the Cultural Revolution; the protesters were largely neoliberal in outlook.

Meanwhile, state media was ordered to focus on dead soldiers, screening images often on television.[86] .Among overseas Chinese students, the Tiananmen Square protests triggered the formation of Internet news services such as the China News Digest and the NGO China Support Network.^ Tiananmen Square was then occupied by students for weeks.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ At the time of the Tiananmen Square protests, no politically significant groups within China defended the Cultural Revolution; the protesters were largely neoliberal in outlook.

^ A number of grass-roots groups are emerging to battle repressive government Internet filtering in countries such as China and Saudi Arabia.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

.In the aftermath of Tiananmen, organizations such as the China Alliance for Democracy and the Independent Federation of Chinese Students and Scholars were formed, although these organizations would have limited political impact beyond the mid-1990s.^ Unable to achieve a consensus within the Independent Student Unions, the people in favor of a hunger strike bypassed the new organization and made personal appeals to the students.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ At the time of the Tiananmen Square protests, no politically significant groups within China defended the Cultural Revolution; the protesters were largely neoliberal in outlook.

^ Supporters of the Chinese democracy movement see the Cultural Revolution as an example of what happens when democracy is lacking and place responsibility for the Cultural Revolution on the Communist Party of China .

Impact on domestic political trends

.The Tiananmen square protests dampened the growing concept of political liberalization in communist countries that was popular in the late 1980s; as a result, many democratic reforms that were proposed during the 1980s were swept under the carpet.^ A very public example of this occurred during the Tiananmen protests of 1989 when Wu'er Kaixi scolded Premier Li Peng for being late to a meeting with the demonstrators.
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^ At the time of the Tiananmen Square protests, no politically significant groups within China defended the Cultural Revolution; the protesters were largely neoliberal in outlook.

^ During the congress Deng famously stated that "a liberation of thoughts" was in order and the party and country needed to " seek truth from facts ".

.Although there has been an increase in personal freedom since then, discussions on structural changes to the PRC government and the role of the Communist Party of China remain largely taboo.^ China Closes Liberal Web Site CNET , 2 August 2006 Government officials in China have taken another step in limiting what Internet users in the country can access, causing an uproar among intellectuals and others critical of the Communist Party.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ In China, if you wanted to express your opinions you had to speak from within the Communist Party.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Although Chinese companies are increasing having to survive without government subsidiaries, many foreign companies still need strong relations with government officials.
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.Despite early expectations in the West that PRC government would soon collapse and be replaced by the Chinese democracy movement, by the early 21st century the Communist Party of China remained in firm control of the People's Republic of China, and the student movement which started at Tiananmen was in complete disarray.^ Tiananmen Square became completely entangled with the lives of the Chinese people.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ I'd completely lost faith in the Communist Party.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Tiananmen is the symbol of our People's Republic.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

In Hong Kong, the Tiananmen square protests led to fears that the PRC would not honour its commitments under one country, two systems in the impending handover in 1997. One consequence of this was that the new governor Chris Patten attempted to expand the franchise for the Legislative Council of Hong Kong which led to friction with the PRC. There have been large candlelight vigils attended by tens of thousands in Hong Kong every year since 1989 and these vigils have continued following the transfer of power to the PRC in 1997.
.The protests also marked a shift in the political conventions which governed politics in the People's Republic.^ Daily life in the People's Republic has been excellent preparation for the practical and dramatic demands of staging political theatre at Tiananmen.

^ Chinese Americans have also strongly influenced politics both in Taiwan and the People's Republic of China.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

^ United States Government should use every appropriate public and private forum to urge the Government of the People's Republic of China— .
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Prior to the protests, under the 1982 Constitution, the President was a largely symbolic role. .By convention, power was distributed between the positions of President, Premier, and General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, all of whom were intended to be different people, in order to prevent the excesses of Mao-style dictatorship.^ One recent scholarly account asserts that in rural China alone some 36 million people were persecuted, of whom between 750,000 and 1.5 million were killed, with roughly the same number permanently injured.

^ These political campaigns attempt to cut all ties with the traditions and culture of China, so as to leave only the Communist ideology in the hearts and minds of the people.
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^ Lin's aim was to become Vice-President, with Mao holding the position of State President.

.However, after Yang Shangkun used his reserve powers as head of state to mobilize the military, the Presidency again became a position imbued with real power.^ At the same time, Chen requested the restoration of the position of State President.

^ Lin's supporters decided to use the military power still at their disposal to oust Mao Zedong in a military coup .

^ After being confirmed as Mao's successor, Lin Biao focused on the restoration of the position of State President , which had been abolished by Mao due to Liu Shaoqi's dismissal from power.

Subsequently, the President became the same person as the General Secretary of the CPC, and wielded paramount power.
.In 1989, neither the Chinese military nor the Beijing police had adequate anti-riot gear, such as rubber bullets and tear gas commonly used in Western nations to break up riots.^ Everyone thought they'd only use rubber bullets.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Said Xie Fuzhi , national police chief: "Don't say it is wrong of them to beat up bad persons: if in anger they beat someone to death, then so be it."

^ Then, when the students started the hunger strike, using their own lives to awaken the whole nation, people felt their responsibilities, and they rose up too.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

[87] .After the Tiananmen Square protests, riot police in Chinese cities were equipped with non-lethal equipment for riot control.^ Tiananmen Square became completely entangled with the lives of the Chinese people.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ In the early morning of April 27th, students set out from campuses all over the city and walked toward Tiananmen Square, the political center of China.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ As the assembly of students flows tentatively south towards Tiananmen Square, the police back off and let the human mass proceed towards the city center.

Economic impact

There was a significant impact on the Chinese economy after the incident. .Foreign loans to China were suspended by the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, and governments;[88] tourism revenue decreased from US$2.2 billion to US$1.8 billion; foreign direct investment commitments were cancelled and there was a rise in defense spending from 8.6% in 1986, to 15.5% in 1990, reversing a previous 10 year decline.^ IDC says there were 7.8 professional developers in 2001, but predicts that number to rise to 13.3 million by 2006.
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^ China Shakes the World by James Kynge, Houghton Mifflin, 2006, ISBN-10: 0618705643 and ISBN-13: 9780618705641.
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^ Indeed, it is the focal point for Jiang’s foreign relations, and for the past three years, Falun Gong has been the most prominent human rights issue in China.
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[89] .The Chinese Premier Li Peng visited the United Nations Security Council on 31 January 1992, and argued that the economic and arms embargoes on China were a violation of national sovereignty.^ The Chinese government had always made security the top priority in preparations for the Games and that meant keeping “hostile forces” outside the national boundaries, he said.

^ Many Chinese leaders, including Chinese Premier Zhu Rongji and the Director of China's Sports Commission, Mr. Wu Shaozu, applauded the health benefits the practice brought to the nation.
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^ Increasingly, Chinese-Americans were seen as sources of business and technical expertise and capital who could aid in China's development (economic and otherwise).
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[90]
.In the immediate aftermath of the protests, some within the Chinese government attempted to curtail free market reforms that had been undertaken as part of Chinese economic reform and reinstitute administrative economic controls.^ The petition states, in part, "The shutdown of Century China is just another instance of the Chinese government suppressing the freedom of its people."
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ Conversely, when challenging authority and another person's standing within a community, Chinese will often attempt to cause a loss of lian or mianzi.
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the success of his economic reforms, Liu had won prestige in the eyes of many party members both in the central government and among the masses citation needed .

.However, these efforts met with stiff resistance from provincial governors and broke down completely in the early 1990s as a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union and Deng Xiaoping's trip to the south.^ Prices are much more affordable these days, and within three years PCs in China and India will be comparable in price to the cost of units in the United States in the early 1990s.
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ Acquaintances of Jiang in his early days comment that he did not possess a driving philosophy or ideology, as had his predecessors Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping.
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^ The organization was heavily criticized in the early 1990s for spending much of its focus in relief efforts outside of Taiwan, but these criticism ended after the 921 earthquake [1999], when the organization was able to draw on its logistics experience to provide disaster relief.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

.The continuance of economic reform led to economic growth in the 1990s,[citation needed] which allowed the government to regain much of the support that it had lost in 1989. In addition, none of the current PRC leadership played any active role in the decision to move against the demonstrators, and one major leadership figure Premier Wen Jiabao was Director of the Central Party Office and accompanied Zhao Ziyang to meet the demonstrators.^ A very public example of this occurred during the Tiananmen protests of 1989 when Wu'er Kaixi scolded Premier Li Peng for being late to a meeting with the demonstrators.
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the success of his economic reforms, Liu had won prestige in the eyes of many party members both in the central government and among the masses citation needed .

^ If we had moved against you, we would have had the support of the people and you could have been lynched."

.The protest leaders at Tiananmen were unable to produce a coherent movement or ideology that would last past the mid-1990s.^ This can be seen in the words of some of the student leaders of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 .

^ In the discussions they would outline to me the experiences of the past few weeks in China as far as the student movement was concerned, and their ideas as to the perspectives and the next step.

.Many of the student leaders came from relatively "well-off" sectors of society and were seen as out of touch with common people.^ Once again the internationalism of the students came out.

^ I watched the student movement on T.V. It was exciting to see so many people demanding democracy, but I was worried by the general, intangible nature of their demands.
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^ At around 3:30, the four people on the hunger strike came to talk to the students.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

A number of them were socialists[citation needed]. Many of the organizations which were started in the aftermath of Tiananmen soon fell apart due to personal infighting. .Several overseas democracy activists were supportive of limiting trade with mainland China, which significantly decreased their popularity both within China and among the overseas Chinese community.^ Xiao also discussed how short messaging service--very popular in China--allowed more communication about the SARS outbreak before the government reported on it.
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  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ Conversely, when challenging authority and another person's standing within a community, Chinese will often attempt to cause a loss of lian or mianzi.
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chan was severely repressed in China during the recent modern era with the appearance of the People's Republic, but has more recently been re-asserting itself on the mainland, and has a significant following in Taiwan and Hong Kong and among Overseas Chinese.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

.A number of NGOs based in the US, which aim to bring democratic reform to China and relentlessly protest human rights violations that occur in China, remain.^ Millions of people in China had their human rights annulled during the Cultural Revolution.

^ Rice presses China on human rights (June 30, 2008, AFP) US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice pressed China’s leaders Monday on sensitive human rights issues, but said she was encouraged by their decision to hold talks with the Dalai Lama’s envoys.

^ Thank you for giving me this opportunity to speak on the subject of human rights and rule of law in the People’s Republic of China.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

One of the oldest and most prominent of them, the China Support Network (CSN), was founded in 1989 by a group of concerned US and Chinese activists in response to Tiananmen Square

Continuing issues

Forbidden topic in mainland China

.Unlike the Cultural Revolution, about which people can still easily find information through government-approved books, magazines, websites, et cetera, this topic is forbidden by the government and accordingly generally cannot be found in mainland Chinese media or websites.^ "We want the world, the people of the world, to know about the generous spirit of the Chinese people!"

^ Find more about Cultural Revolution on Wikipedia's sister projects : .

^ Its vital role showed why the Chinese government has recently ordered a radical restructuring of the telecoms industry to prepare for the next generation of technology.

.The official media in mainland China views the military action as a necessary reaction to ensure stability.^ It was necessary in this official view, which has since become the dominant framework for the Chinese historiography of the time period, to separate the personal actions of Mao during the Cultural Revolution from his earlier heroism.

^ Any attempts to meddle in China’s internal affairs will fail.” Official Chinese media were even blunter.

^ On April 1 , 1969 , at the CCP's Ninth Congress , Lin was the big winner, officially becoming China's second-in-charge, and also had military influence that was second to none.

.As the incident is not part of any education curriculum in China, usually Chinese youth born after the military action learn of the protests from hearsay, family and foreign media.^ We are an education delegation and have come to China to learn.
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The petition states, in part, "The shutdown of Century China is just another instance of the Chinese government suppressing the freedom of its people."
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ Like most parts of China, foreigners are still so rare that people stop and stare when one walks past.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[91] .Every year there is a large rally in Victoria Park, Causeway Bay, Hong Kong, where people remember the victims and demand that the CPC's official view be changed.^ Factory building were also largely masonry structures, usually of small scale and spaces consisting predominantly of parking areas where there were few personnel.

^ He lived in Hong Kong for more than ten years, and at the earnest request of living beings, he created extensive affinities in the Dharma.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

^ "These workers who thought they were going to see big wage increases every year, that they had skills that were in demand, are not going to be seeing those wage increases," he contends.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

.In 2008, this vigil was reported for the first time in the mainstream Chinese press, but was attributed to be in support of the victims of the recent earthquake in south-east China, and no mention of Tiananmen Square was made.^ At the time of the Tiananmen Square protests, no politically significant groups within China defended the Cultural Revolution; the protesters were largely neoliberal in outlook.

^ Tiananmen Square became completely entangled with the lives of the Chinese people.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Supporters of the Chinese democracy movement see the Cultural Revolution as an example of what happens when democracy is lacking and place responsibility for the Cultural Revolution on the Communist Party of China .

[92]
Petition letters over the incident have emerged from time to time, notably from Dr. Jiang Yanyong and Tiananmen Mothers, an organization founded by a mother of one of the victims killed in 1989 where the families seek vindication, compensation for their lost sons, and the right to receive donations, particularly from abroad.[93] .Tiananmen Square is tightly patrolled on the anniversary of 4 June to prevent any commemoration on the Square.^ At dawn on June 4th, after occupying the Square for more than three weeks, all the remaining students and their teachers and supporters left Tiananmen Square.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.After the PRC Central Government reshuffle in 2004, several cabinet members mentioned Tiananmen.^ Because of the success of his economic reforms, Liu had won prestige in the eyes of many party members both in the central government and among the masses citation needed .

^ Most Politburo members are central-government officials.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unconfirmed information allegedly stated that Politburo Standing Committee member Ye Jianying would resign if Deng was not allowed back into the Central Government.

In October 2004, during President Hu Jintao's visit to France, he reiterated that "the government took determined action to calm the political storm of 1989, and enabled China to enjoy a stable development." He insisted that the government's view on the incident would not change.[94]
.In March 2004, Premier Wen Jiabao said in a press conference that during the 1990s there was a severe political storm in the PRC, amid the breakdown of the Soviet Union and radical changes in Eastern Europe.^ Then there was a sudden, total breakdown in order as the Soviet leader’s name was chanted in Chinese.

^ There has been a heavy concentration on IT security in Eastern Europe, which is mainly attributed to the region's notoriety as a hotbed of political corruption.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ "We essentially had the perfect storm in terms of jobs -- and then there were job losses," he said.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

.He stated that the Communist Central Committee successfully stabilized the open-door policy and protected the "Career of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics."^ It also aimed to continue the legitimacy in the mandate of the Communist Party and the construction of socialism - although many interpretations on Mao's ideology as well as the founding principles of the Party would change with the rise of what would later become known as Socialism with Chinese characteristics .

^ Notice of the Communist Party Central Office regarding the printing and distribution of ‘Comrade Jiang Zemin’s Letter to the Standing Committee of the Politburo and other Concerned Leading Comrades’”).
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The social and creative explosion that followed the May Fourth demonstration at Tiananmen Gate in 1919 led to the founding of the Chinese Communist Party.

[95]
.For the 20th anniversary of the event in 2009, there was a growing will by Chinese people to talk openly about the event, and to start an inquiry.^ Why was Marx not disposed to ask the basic questions about the Chinese case: who are these people?

^ There were still many people in the Chinese Communist Party, prior to the massacre at least, who still thought of it as a revolutionary organisation taking society forward.

^ "We want the world, the people of the world, to know about the generous spirit of the Chinese people!"

[96] .The Chinese government blocked the use of social networking sites such as Twitter and Flickr, and the e-mail provider Hotmail in the days leading up to the anniversary.^ The Chinese government intercepted the satellite relay and used part of the interview in a nationwide broadcast.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The best handwritten character search tool we've seen on the web is on the nciku site --this is very useful for looking up an unfamiliar character from a printed document.

^ Google decided that it would adhere to the government's requirement to block access to politically sensitive Web sites, pornography, and other content deemed objectionable by Chinese authorities while alerting users that such information is being withheld through disclaimers displayed on google.cn.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

[97] .It was also reported that Chinese airport vendors selling The Economist magazine containing an article with discourse on the 4 June anniversary had the pages with the censored article systematically removed.^ This article contains Chinese text.

^ Some Chinese travel agents have stopped selling tours to France in recent weeks, in some cases removing offerings from their Web sites.

^ Time Out Magazine Banned By China’s Censors In Run Up To Olympics (June 11, 2008, The Times of London) Beijing has declared time out on Time Out.

.Zhang Shijun, an ex-soldier who was 18 in 1989, was arrested after publishing an open letter to Hu Jintao, to encourage open talk on the issue.^ US presses China to open markets, faces dollar criticism (June 18, 2008, AFP) The United States pressed China on Tuesday to advance market-opening measures but faced criticism over its weakening dollar as the two nations opened talks to address economic issues.

^ In a Central Committee meeting on April 6, Zhang Chunqiao personally criticized Deng, who was stripped of all his positions and was put under house arrest .

^ U.S. governors, mayors and state legislators began issuing proclamations of support and encouragement to people who practice and/or support Falun Gong throughout the U.S. .
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[96] .Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Region governments have refused entry by students involved in the protests to return to mainland China.^ Their petition says right here, "We absolutely refuse to allow the existing student unions to organize dialogue with the government."
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ But there were also protests involving university students in other years ending with that number, including 1999.

^ In the 1980s, there was widespread concern by the PRC over a brain drain as graduate students were not returning to the PRC. This exodus worsened after the Tiananmen protests of 1989.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

[98][99] .On 5 June 2009, several Chinese staff at the television station in Guangzhou were suspended after they allowed around 10 seconds of the Tank Man footage and candlelight protests in Hong Kong to be broadcast on the mainland.^ But followers are allowed to practice freely in Taiwan and they have been promoting the movement at sightseeing spots popular with Chinese tourists.

^ Chinese Internet Research Conference (June 13, 14, Hong Kong) China and the Internet: Myths and Realities http://jmsc.hku.hk/blogs/circ/about/ .

^ Then they'd surround the student headquarters or the broadcast station and drive away our guards.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

[100]

History deleted inside mainland China

.Following the protests, officials banned controversial films and books, and shut down a large number of newspapers.^ In the days after the end of the protest at Tiananmen, large numbers of people were arrested all over China.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Last week, government officials ordered that the site be permanently shut down and quickly afterwards prohibited discussion about the closure in other online groups.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ "The government instructed us to limit the number of protesters or be responsible," says another government official.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Within one year, 12 percent of all newspapers, 8 percent of publishing companies, 13 percent of social science periodicals and more than 150 films were banned or shut down.^ Recently the Chinese government shut down almost 50 percent of the country's Internet cafes, while reportedly nine or more online writers in China have faced arrest recently.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ Understand this is more important than all the work researching, establishing foreign offices, and making initial contacts with freight forwarders.
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prices are much more affordable these days, and within three years PCs in China and India will be comparable in price to the cost of units in the United States in the early 1990s.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

.In addition to this, the government also announced it had seized 32 million contraband books and 2.4 million video and audio cassettes.^ In addition, the book is informative for providers of offshore services and for policy makers and analysts in or around governments.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

[101]
.Currently, due to strong Chinese government censorship including Internet censorship, the news media are forbidden to report anything related to the protests.^ None of the deaths have been reported in the Chinese media.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [This is a partial collection of current affairs media reports, including some opinion pieces relating to content regulation on the Internet with particular reference to the Australia ISP-level proposals.
  • Internet filtering and young people - Cyberspace Law and Policy Centre - UNSW research project on content regulation and censorship 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC cyberlawcentre.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Chinese companies are increasing having to survive without government subsidiaries, many foreign companies still need strong relations with government officials.
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Websites related to the protest are blocked on the mainland.[102] .A search for Tiananmen Square protest information on the Internet in Mainland China largely returns no results, apart from the government-mandated version of the events and the official view, which are mostly found on Websites of People's Daily and other heavily-controlled media.^ In the days after the end of the protest at Tiananmen, large numbers of people were arrested all over China.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ In the government's account, Tiananmen Square was now returned to the People.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ China Closes Liberal Web Site CNET , 2 August 2006 Government officials in China have taken another step in limiting what Internet users in the country can access, causing an uproar among intellectuals and others critical of the Communist Party.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

[103]
.In January 2006, Google agreed to censor their mainland China site, Google.cn, to remove information about the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre,[104] topics such as Tibetan independence, Falun Gong and the political status of Taiwan.^ Chinese citizens seeking access to Web sites containing content related to Taiwanese and Tibetan independence, Falun Gong, the Dalai Lama, the Tiananmen Square incident, opposition political parties, or a variety of anti-Communist movements will frequently find themselves blocked.
  • Internet filtering and young people - Cyberspace Law and Policy Centre - UNSW research project on content regulation and censorship 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC cyberlawcentre.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Google To Censor Search Results In China CNET , 24 January 2006 Google will launch search and news sites in China this week that will block access to information the Chinese government considers objectionable.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ As of October 14, 2002, the Falun Dafa Information Center has verified details of 493 deaths [4] since the persecution of Falun Gong in China began in 1999.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When people search for those censored topics, it will list the following at the bottom of the page in Chinese, "According to local laws and regulations and policies, some search results are not displayed."^ Chinese officials have a long track record of censoring speech and ideas, and, according to Andrew McLaughlin, senior policy counsel for Google, the new sites "will comply with local Chinese laws and regulations."
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ We will mobilize Chinese people around the world to protest martial law!
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Besides resulting in deaths, the policy has driven people underground, ruined careers and split families.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The uncensored Wikipedia articles on the 1989 protests, both in English and Chinese Wikipedia, have been attributed as a cause of the blocking of Wikipedia by the government in mainland China.^ All instruction at that time was overseen by the Chinese government’s top qigong organization, the China Qigong Scientific Research Society.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And yet now, in 1989, the government of Deng Xiaoping, faced again with protests inspired by the death of a leader, reached for the old words of denunciation.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Among Chinese in Mainland China and Taiwan, second-generation Chinese Americans known as American-born Chinese are often perceived as being a bit exotic.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

.The ban of Wikipedia in mainland China was lifted, but the link to this incident in Chinese Wikipedia remained dead.^ In the Republic of China , Chiang Kai-shek initiated the Chinese Culture Renaissance Movement to counter what he regarded as destruction of traditional Chinese values by the Communists on the mainland.

^ Posted by The China Beat at 5/13/2009 06:00:00 AM Links to this post Labels: Chinese nationalism , fenqing .

^ Falun Gong, a spiritual movement rooted in Buddhism, Taoism and traditional Chinese beliefs, has been persecuted in China, and Beijing banned it as an “evil cult” in 1999.

.In 2006, the American PBS program "Frontline" broadcast a segment filmed at Peking University, many of whose students participated in the 1989 protests.^ But there were also protests involving university students in other years ending with that number, including 1999.

^ This can be seen in the words of some of the student leaders of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 .

^ In the 1980s, there was widespread concern by the PRC over a brain drain as graduate students were not returning to the PRC. This exodus worsened after the Tiananmen protests of 1989.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

.Four present-day students were shown a picture of the Tank Man, but none of them could identify what was happening in the photo.^ With several studies identifying sustained growth and interest in computer science among college students falling off, the industry could actually experience a worker shortage.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ The bureaucracy are showing pictures of the students on the TV, and then arresting them within days.

Some responded that it was a military parade, or an artwork.
On 15 May 2007, the leader of the pro-Beijing Democratic Alliance for Betterment of Hong Kong, Ma Lik, provoked much criticism when he said that "there was not a massacre" during the protests, as there was "no intentional and indiscriminate shooting." He said Hong Kong was "not mature enough" due to believing foreigners' rash claims that a massacre took place. .He said that Hong Kong showed through its lack of patriotism and national identity that it would thus "not be ready for democracy until 2022."[105] His remarks were met with wide condemnation from the public.^ The trial was very much a litmus test, a touchstone, if you will, for democracy and rule of law in Hong Kong.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any man who would choose secession over working to restore this nation, especially over such small reasons, and so quickly, is a patriot only in fair weather, and a coward.
  • Contrary Brin: A “track record” predicting the future...? 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC davidbrin.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They aimed to save the nation through democracy and modern science, and the discarding of oppressive traditions.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

[106] He later acknowledged he might have been "rash and frivolous" with his comments but insisted that it was not a massacre.[106]
.On 4 June 2007, the anniversary of the massacre, a notice reading, "Paying tribute to the strongwilled mothers of 4 June victims" was published in the Chengdu Evening News newspaper.^ The biggest publishing news just now related to Tiananmen's 20th anniversary is the release of Zhao Ziyang's memoirs , a book that was apparently already being offered for sale in Hong Kong even before its official publication date and has been r eviewed , excerpted , and discussed in various newspapers and magazines.

^ EVENING NEWS ON CCTV, 3 JUNE 1989 .
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

[107] The matter was investigated by the Chinese government, and three editors were fired from the paper.[108][109] The clerk who approved the ad had reportedly never heard of the 4 June military action and had been told that the date was a reference to a mining disaster.[110]
.In late April 2009, Internet access to English-language media on the events at Tiananmen, including video, news reports and Wikipedia, was uncensored in mainland China for the first time.^ We are making a news report for BBC English television.

^ At the time of the Tiananmen Square protests, no politically significant groups within China defended the Cultural Revolution; the protesters were largely neoliberal in outlook.

^ [This is a partial collection of current affairs media reports, including some opinion pieces relating to content regulation on the Internet with particular reference to the Australia ISP-level proposals.
  • Internet filtering and young people - Cyberspace Law and Policy Centre - UNSW research project on content regulation and censorship 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC cyberlawcentre.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Articles were still mostly censored on the Chinese version of Google, though some videos were viewable.^ The Guardian has also launched a Chinese version , featuring a selection of its articles.

^ Some of the people were still alive I'm convinced when they were burnt, though I've got no proof of that of course.

[111] .Additionally, filming in Tiananmen Square on the 20th anniversary of the 1989 protests was discouraged by plainclothes police officers wielding umbrellas and stepping in front of the cameras of journalists near the square.^ By marching into Tiananmen Square, the students of 1989 were saying to the Party: We are the true inheritors of the democratic legacy of the May 4th Movement.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ As the assembly of students flows tentatively south towards Tiananmen Square, the police back off and let the human mass proceed towards the city center.

^ This can be seen in the words of some of the student leaders of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 .

[112][113]

EU-US arms embargo

.The European Union and United States embargo on armament sales to the PRC, put in place as a result of the violent suppression of the Tiananmen Square pro-democracy protests, still remains in place.^ At the time of the Tiananmen Square protests, no politically significant groups within China defended the Cultural Revolution; the protesters were largely neoliberal in outlook.

^ On April 5, hundreds of thousands of people were gathered in and around Tiananmen Square , turning the assembly into a form of non-violent protest.

^ This can be seen in the words of some of the student leaders of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 .

.The PRC has been calling for a lifting of the ban for many years and has had a varying amount of support from members of the Council of the European Union.^ Many prominent generals of the People's Liberation Army who were instrumental in the founding of the PRC voiced their concern and opposition to the Cultural Revolution, calling it a "mistake".

^ Tacticus2 - I am not trying to strawman you here; I have not heard you call investigation into the Bush years "political," but many that are calling for investigation into Fanny are doing just that.....
  • Contrary Brin: A “track record” predicting the future...? 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC davidbrin.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In later years, he founded several Buddhist publications, and was promoted as editor-in-chief for many Buddhist periodicals and newsletters for various temples and wrote articles for major Taiwanese newsletters.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

In early 2004, France spearheaded a movement within the EU to lift the ban. .Former German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder publicly added his voice to that of former French President Jacques Chirac to have the embargo lifted.^ But Chancellor Gerhard Schröder opted not to speak out during Jiang’s visit.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The arms embargo was discussed at a PRC-EU summit in the Netherlands between 7 December and 9, 2004. In the run-up to the summit, the PRC had attempted to increase pressure on the EU Council to lift the ban by warning that the ban could hurt PRC-EU relations.^ He had been recently warned by police that he would be detained unless he stopped talking to the foreign media and writing about human rights abuses in the run up to the Olympics.

^ Time Out Magazine Banned By China’s Censors In Run Up To Olympics (June 11, 2008, The Times of London) Beijing has declared time out on Time Out.

PRC Vice Foreign Minister Zhang Yesui had called the ban "outdated", and he told reporters, "If the ban is maintained, bilateral relations will definitely be affected." In the end, the EU Council did not lift the ban. .EU spokeswoman Françoise le Bail said there were still concerns about the PRC's commitment to human rights.^ Still, many wonder whether Wen’s primary concern is doing things right, or doing the right things.

^ The move led to angry remarks from the U.S. State Department, as well as protests by human rights groups, who said Reykjavik had bowed to Chinese pressure and put economic benefits above its commitment to global norms on civil rights.
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^ Many of the topics covered on the YTHT site were banned from state-run media coverage, including human rights issues and questions about Taiwan.
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  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

But at the time, the EU did state a commitment to work towards lifting the ban.
.The PRC continued to press for the embargo to be lifted, and some member states began to drop their opposition.^ Most of its 150 members come from Taiwan, some from Hong Kong, and virtually all became practicing Buddhists only after their arrival in the United States.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

.Jacques Chirac pledged to have the ban lifted by mid-2005. However, the Anti-Secession Law of the People's Republic of China passing in March 2005 increased cross-strait tensions, damaging attempts to lift the ban, and several EU Council members changed their minds.^ People's Republic of China 1949–present .

^ These political campaigns attempt to cut all ties with the traditions and culture of China, so as to leave only the Communist ideology in the hearts and minds of the people.
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^ Chan was severely repressed in China during the recent modern era with the appearance of the People's Republic, but has more recently been re-asserting itself on the mainland, and has a significant following in Taiwan and Hong Kong and among Overseas Chinese.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

Members of the U.S. Congress had also proposed restrictions on the transfer of military technology to the EU if they lifted the ban. Thus the EU Council failed to reach a consensus, and although France and Germany pushed to have the embargo lifted, the embargo was maintained.
Britain took charge of the EU Presidency in July 2005, making the lifting of the embargo all but impossible for the duration of that period. .Britain had always had some reservations on lifting the ban and wished to put it to the side, rather than sour EU-US relations further.^ For us to relate to Chinese culture both sides have to meet somewhere in the middle.
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As thousands join us in due time from universities situated even further away, the throng thickens, and we are surrounded by student contingents on all sides.

^ Rather than explain Six ’s features to you, we asked Ash to let us repost a piece from it.

.Other issues such as the failure of the European Constitution and the ensuing disagreement over the European Budget and Common Agricultural Policy superseded the matter of the embargo in importance.^ If the underlying issues were not given paramount importance, Internet architecture might become fragmented so that language groups could communicate internally, but not with other groups.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ Complicating matters is a relative paucity of coders, the advent of multicore processing, and the growing vulnerability to hacking and other security issues that are a natural consequence of increasing connectivity.
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ It is very common for individuals of an organization to visit the residence of their acquaintances from other organizations, bringing gifts (such as wine, cigarettes, etc.
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.Britain wanted to use its presidency to push for wholesale reform of the EU, so the lifting of the ban became even more unlikely.^ The next step I use is to let them know I want more than one scarf.
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Initially verbal struggles among activist groups became even more violent, especially when activists began to seize weapons from the Army in 1967.

^ Even after the crackdown of 1989 he would continue to push for reforms.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

The election of José Manuel Barroso as European Commission President also made a lifting of the ban more difficult. .At a meeting with Chinese leaders in mid-July 2005, he said that China's poor record on human rights would slow any changes to the EU's ban on arms sales to China.^ "The leaders exchanged views on human rights.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The human rights record in China has dramatically worsened in recent years.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But at that stage if I had stood up and said that what is needed in China is a mass revolutionary workers' party based on the ideas of Marx, Engels, Lenin and Trotsky, you would have just mopped up left, right and centre.

[114]
.Political will also changed in countries that had previously been more in favor of lifting the embargo.^ Jiang has extended financial and political favors to countries willing to accept rewards that come with strings attached.
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^ This year China was classified among authoritarian countries that are undergoing economic reform and rapid social change, but which “have not undertaken democratic political reform,” the report said.

Schröder lost the 2005 German federal election to Angela Merkel, who became chancellor on 22 November 2005 – Merkel made her position clear that she was strongly against lifting the ban. .Jacques Chirac declared he would not stand again as a candidate for the French Presidency in 2007. His successor, Nicolas Sarkozy, is also in favour of lifting the embargo like Chirac.^ Chinese people do not want French President Nicolas Sarkozy to attend the opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympics,” the China Daily said, citing an Internet survey by Sina.com.cn, a popular local website.

.That is, the French government has changed, but not the French foreign policy on this matter.^ Clearly engaged in foreign policy matters without advice and consent that put Americans in harm's way.
  • Contrary Brin: A “track record” predicting the future...? 17 September 2009 2:02 UTC davidbrin.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, the European Parliament has consistently opposed the lifting of the arms embargo to the PRC. Though its agreement is not necessary for lifting the ban, many argue it reflects the will of the European people better as it is the only directly elected European body—the EU Council is appointed by member states.^ However, due to the lack of Chinese women in the United States at that time, many of them intermarried with Americans of European descent.
  • Materialien zum Neobuddhismus: Chinesischer Buddhismus in den USA 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.payer.de [Source type: Original source]

^ With the United States no longer a member, no European country was willing to take the heat -- and the threats of Beijing withdrawing trading and investment opportunities.
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^ Many of the topics covered on the YTHT site were banned from state-run media coverage, including human rights issues and questions about Taiwan.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

The European Parliament has repeatedly opposed any lifting of the arms embargo on the PRC:
  • The resolution of 28 April 2005, on the Annual Report on Human Rights in the World 2004 and the EU's policy on the matter,
  • The resolution of 23 October 2003, on the annual report from the Council to the European Parliament on the main aspects and basic choices of CFSP, it insisted on a peaceful resolution of the Taiwan issue through dialogue across the Taiwan Straits and called on China to withdraw missiles in the coastal provinces adjacent to the Taiwan Straits, and
  • The resolution on relations between the EU, China and Taiwan and security in the Far East of 7 July 2005. The EP has noted several times that the current human rights situation in China, with regards to fundamental civil, cultural and political freedoms does not meet even the international standards recognized by China.
The arms embargo has limited China's options from where it may seek military hardware. Among the sources that were sought included the former Soviet bloc that it had a strained relationship with as a result of the Sino-Soviet split. Other willing suppliers have previously included Israel and South Africa, but American pressure has restricted future co-operation.[115]

Compensation

.Although the Chinese government never officially acknowledged wrongdoing when it came to the incident, in April 2006 a payment was made to the mother of one of the victims, the first publicized case of the government offering redress to a Tiananmen-related victim's family.^ Although Chinese companies are increasing having to survive without government subsidiaries, many foreign companies still need strong relations with government officials.
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^ The Chinese government had always made security the top priority in preparations for the Games and that meant keeping “hostile forces” outside the national boundaries, he said.

^ For example, the family of Weifang's first victim, Ms. Chen, was told to pay a $241 fine in exchange for her release.
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.The payment was termed a "hardship assistance", given to Tang Deying (唐德英) whose son, Zhou Guocong (simplified Chinese: 周国聪traditional Chinese: 周國聰) died at the age of 15 while in police custody in Chengdu on 6 June 1989, two days after the Chinese Army dispersed the Tiananmen protestors.^ Oddly enough, my birthday is on April 15, the day Hu Yaobang died.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Chinese babies named ‘Olympic Games’ (June 11, 2008, BBC News) More than 4,000 children in China have been given the name Aoyun, meaning Olympic Games, in the past 15 years.

^ In one of the more blatant and outrageous incidents in recent days, a homeless Chinese woman in Tokyo told police that she had been given money by P.R.C. agents to pretend that she was a Falun Gong practitioner and to engage in illegal actions so as to smear the image of Falun Gong.
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She was reportedly paid 70,000 yuan (approximately $10,250 USD). .This has been welcomed by various Chinese activists, but was regarded by some as a measure to maintain social stability and not believed to herald a changing of the Party's official position.^ For a person to maintain face is important with Chinese social relations because face translates into power and influence.
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chinese Communist Party’s official newspaper, the real issue is his race.

^ I explained the position he had taken in regard to the Chinese revolution and the world revolution in the 1920s and 1930s.

[116]

United Nations report

.On 21 November 2008, the U.N. Committee against Torture urged China to apologize for the incident, release dissidents still held, and conduct an investigation of the events surrounding the protest.^ On May 4 China celebrated the 70th anniversary of the demonstrations of 1919, when patriotic students had first protested against an unresponsive government.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The Malaysian government officially apologized last week and promised that action would be taken against the policemen involved in the incident.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
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^ (A) to release from detention all Falun Gong practitioners and put an end to the practices of torture and other cruel, inhumane, and degrading treatment against them and other prisoners of conscience; and .
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[117][118]

Notable participants

.
  • Zhao Ziyang, former General Secretary of the Communist Party of China
  • Li Peng, former Premier of the People's Republic of China
  • Wen Jiabao, current Premier of the People's Republic of China
  • Wang Dan, Wu'er Kaixi, Chai Ling.^ In China, if you wanted to express your opinions you had to speak from within the Communist Party.
    • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Supporters of the Chinese democracy movement see the Cultural Revolution as an example of what happens when democracy is lacking and place responsibility for the Cultural Revolution on the Communist Party of China .

    ^ Today, the Cultural Revolution is widely seen inside and outside of China, including the Communist Party of China , as an unmitigated disaster, and as an event to be avoided in the future.

    Student leaders of the protests.
  • Liu Xiaobo, famous Chinese dissident
  • Yu Dongyue, former Chinese journalist who threw paint-filled eggs onto the Mao Zedong portrait on the Square
  • Bei Dao, poet (ideological influence, during the protests was participating at a conference in Berlin)
  • Cui Jian, the so-called "father of Chinese rock," whose song "Nothing to My Name" was considered an unofficial "anthem" for students and protesters there[119][120]
  • "Tank Man", the unknown rebel who stood in front of the line of approaching military tanks

Cultural references

Execution, a painting inspired by the event became the most expensive Chinese contemporary art sold in 2007

Censored books, films and TV shows in mainland China

.
  • Political Struggles in China's Reform Era by Yang Jisheng, for featuring secret interviews with Zhao Ziyang and rejecting the Chinese government's position on the protests.^ At the time of the Tiananmen Square protests, no politically significant groups within China defended the Cultural Revolution; the protesters were largely neoliberal in outlook.

    ^ The petition states, in part, "The shutdown of Century China is just another instance of the Chinese government suppressing the freedom of its people."
    • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

    ^ Or did Zhao Ziyang's remarks indicate deep rifts in the central government that must be exploited by pushing harder, going farther?
    • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

    [121]
  • In 2006, the novel Forbidden City, by William Bell, a fictionalised version of the protests, was banned..January 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed]
  • Summer Palace was banned in 2006, ostensibly because it was screened without permission, but likely also because of its mention of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.[122]
  • Collection of June Fourth Poems, a collection of poems about the protests.^ At the time of the Tiananmen Square protests, no politically significant groups within China defended the Cultural Revolution; the protesters were largely neoliberal in outlook.

    ^ Posted by The China Beat at 5/11/2009 06:30:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: 1989 , 6/4 , Philip J Cunningham , Tiananmen , Tiananmen Moon .

    ^ Posted by The China Beat at 5/23/2009 06:04:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: 1989 , 6/4 , Philip J Cunningham , Tiananmen , Tiananmen Moon .

    [123]
  • .
  • Writings or interviews with Zhao Ziyang or Bao Tong are banned.^ Only hours after Yan Mingfu's appearance in the Square, a letter from Zhao Ziyang, writing on behalf of the Central Committee, was broadcast.
    • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

    [124][125] .As such, Conversations with Zhao Ziyang in House Arrest by Zong Fengmin was not published due to government pressure.^ Or did Zhao Ziyang's remarks indicate deep rifts in the central government that must be exploited by pushing harder, going farther?
    • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

    [126] .However, Prisoner of the State: The Secret Journal of Premier Zhao Ziyang was published in May 2009 after tapes were smuggled out of China.
  • International media programs, such as CNN, are blacked out when the anniversary on 4 June every year is mentioned on televisions in Chinese hotels and homes for foreigners.^ Whereas propaganda from state-controlled media in the People's Republic of China has inundated the public in an attempt to breed hatred and discrimination; .
    • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This investment puts India ahead of other international research hot-spots, such as Japan, Israel, Western Europe, or China.
    • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
    • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

    ^ But offshore outsourcing is becoming a bigger issue in the IT world especially with companies such as IBM announcing that thousands of software programming jobs will be shifted to India and China.
    • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
    • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

    [127]

Songs

This event has inspired many references within lyrics and album art – both in political and non-political usages.
The British rock band The Cure, during a concert in Rome on 4 June 1989, dedicated their last encore, "Faith," to "everyone that died today in China." Singer Robert Smith extended the song with improvised lyrics about a person who has a gun held to their mouth and urged to say "Yes" to the question "Do you love me?", but finally refuses to do so. .The bootlegged recording of this 15 minute version is known as "Tiananmen Faith". In the same year, Joan Baez wrote and recorded her folk anthem "China" to commemorate the democratic revolt.^ The human rights record in China has dramatically worsened in recent years.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The year 2002 marked the first time the Geneva-based United Nations Subcommittee on Human Rights did not sponsor a resolution condemning China's human rights records.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A leader of the Tiananmen protests of 1989, she wrote the following essay reflecting on the events of twenty years ago for Hong Kong’s Ming Pao newspaper, which will run the original Chinese language version soon.

Billy Joel's history-themed single "We Didn't Start the Fire", released late 1989, mentions the event in the line "China's under martial law."
The song Tin Omen by the Canadian industrial band Skinny Puppy is a reference to this uprising and massacre.
Progressive rock group Marillion wrote a song titled "The King of Sunset Town" that uses imagery from the Tiananmen Square incidents, such as "a puppet king on the Fourth of June" and "before the Twenty-Seventh came". The song was released on their album Seasons End in September 1989.
.American rock and folk music band The Hooters referred to the event in their hit song 500 Miles (from the album Zig Zag, recorded 1989), which is an updated version of the 1960s folk song.^ The rock singer was a musical rebel and effectively expressed his angst in song, but in conversation I rarely found him to be political.

The third verse begins with words: "A hundred tanks along the square, One man stands and stops them there, Someday soon the tide'll turn and I'll be free"
The band System of a Down referred to the event in the opening lines to the song "Hypnotize", which are, "Why don't you ask the kids at Tiananmen Square, was fashion the reason why they were there?"
.Shiny Happy People by R.E.M. is supposedly an ironic reference to a piece of roughly translated Chinese propaganda regarding the massacre, two years before the song was released.^ This statement is better translated as an action "disturbs the relationship with the Chinese people."
  • Principal and Teacher Shadowing Program 2009: February 2009 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.dangregg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were still many people in the Chinese Communist Party, prior to the massacre at least, who still thought of it as a revolutionary organisation taking society forward.

^ Deng may have wanted to be remembered as a man who understood the needs of the Chinese people, the Grand Architect of Reform, but the Beijing massacre will forever be a part of his legacy.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

[128] .The inference apparently relates to how politics is controlled by those with children in powerful positions, not idealistic revolting unhappy students on the ground in Tiananmen Square.^ The problem is how to get the students to leave the Square.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Tiananmen Square was then occupied by students for weeks.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Jiang Zemin came to power in the wake of the Tiananmen Square Massacre.
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.The idea is that propaganda is often used to cover up stark weaknesses in political systems.^ Duihua , dialogue, was a key part of the reformers' strategy to open up the political system.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ But it cannot be effectively used without the right ideas, without political guidance, just the same as anything else.

The song is mockingly played to encourage unknown political candidates to be upbeat even under fire.
.American thrash metal band Slayer released a song "Blood Red" on their 1990 album titled "Seasons in the Abyss", which was inspired by the Tiananmen Square incident.^ Yet here we were, setting up a union at Tiananmen Square, inspired by a student movement.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, the Hacktivismo group has released encryption-based Web access software, called Six/Four after the date of the Tiananmen Square incident, that aims to hide the origination of requests for data from government monitors.
  • OffShore Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

The song includes the lines: "Peaceful confrontation meets war machine, Seizing all civil liberties... No disguise can deface evil, The massacre of innocent people." .The same year, another American thrash metal band Testament released the song "Seven Days of May" protesting the Beijing massacre (though the assault on Tiananmen Square took place on 3 June, not in May) on their "Souls of Black" album, including the words: "In the square they play the game, That's when the tanks and the army came...^ Jiang Zemin came to power in the wake of the Tiananmen Square Massacre.
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^ Jiang can be said to be the biggest beneficiary of the June 4 th student massacre in Tiananmen Square.
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^ A key early turning point in 1989, when the protest changed from a student movement to a movement of the masses, came on April 27, when a big “illegal” march took place in Beijing.

They called the murders minimal, Described their victims as criminals... Dead souls like you and me, Who only wanted free society".
British anarchist pop band Chumbawamba released a song called "Tiananmen Square" on their 1990 album Slap!. The lyrics are built around the fact the People's Liberation Army murdered the people. .The Tank Man is also referenced ("You must've seen it, the boy in the white shirt").^ "Your Chinese is very good, but you must be careful," the soft-spoken man said, continuing to speak in impeccable English.

^ NB : After you've seen international reactions to your book, is there anything you would have done differently in it, such as sections that you would have deleted or expanded upon?

Sinéad O'Connor, on her 1990 album I Do Not Want What I Haven't Got, referenced the killings in her song "Black Boys on Mopeds" with the following opening lines: "Margaret Thatcher on TV, Shocked by the deaths that took place in Beijing".
.British goth rock outfit Siouxsie and the Banshees recorded the song "The Ghost in You" for their album Superstition in 1991. It is about a person who witnessed the massacre returning to Tiananmen Square and remembering the terrible emotions he/she experienced there.^ Jiang Zemin came to power in the wake of the Tiananmen Square Massacre.
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^ Jiang can be said to be the biggest beneficiary of the June 4 th student massacre in Tiananmen Square.
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^ An example, I mean, not of every single person captured, not of every single spy who happened to be sent into Tiananmen Square and who was scared silly.

Roger Waters referred to the massacre on the song "Watching TV" from his 1992 album Amused to Death. In 1996, Nevermore released the track titled "The Tiananmen Man" on their The Politics of Ecstasy album. .The song is about the Tank Man who famously stood in front of the tanks in the Square.^ The center of power was visibly shifted, from the Imperial City behind the gate to the broad masses in front -- all facing the leader, who stood above.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

In 2006 a Chinese folk singer Li Zhi wrote a song titled "The Square", where the sound of bullets and ambulance and voice of TAM mother Mrs. Ding were sampled.[129] In 2007 Hed PE wrote a song entitled "Tiananmen Squared" on their Insomnia album.
Calogero (French singer) also has a song called Tien An Men.
Portuguese band Kalashnikov has a song called Tiananmen Tiananmen. The chorus of the song says "Tiananmen Tiananmen, kill another yellow men"
The Italian band CCCP Fedeli alla linea included a song called "Tien An Men" in their 1990 EP Ragazza Emancipata.
.In 2009, Hong Kong indie pop band My Little Airport wrote "Donald Tsang, Please Die" after Tsang suggested that the Tiananmen Square massacre is insignificant compared to China's current economic power.^ Jiang Zemin came to power in the wake of the Tiananmen Square Massacre.
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^ Ever since Jiang Zemin came to power during the Tiananmen Square Massacre, the focal point for China’s foreign relations –including, to some extent, economic/trade relations with the west – has been human rights.
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^ As the students debated whether or not to continue their occupation of the Square, a marathon benefit concert was being held on a race track in Hong Kong.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.The lyrics include "Imagine today Donald someone chopped off your hand, twenty years later that somebody has become the Chief Executive.^ At the 16th Party Congress later this year, Jiang Zemin is slated to step down from his post as Party boss, handing the reigns to China’s “fourth generation” of leaders.
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Will you stop seeking justice because of his achievement?"[130]
Punk Band, Rancid, Make reference to Tiananmen Square in their song "Arrested in Shanghai", with the line "So I protest the massacres at the Tiananmen Square//My friends said yo, stay away man, you better not go fucking back there". The song reflects issues of media censorship and the lack of Democratic freedom in China today[131]
.Australian hip-hop group Hilltop Hoods mentions Tiananmen Square in one of their songs.^ One Australian man threatened, "if you don’t write a sequel, I’ll go to Tiananmen to shout your name until you do so!"

^ According to Officer Zhao, perhaps as few as one in ten practitioners arrested at Tiananmen Square is reported.
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^ Thousands of students mill about, excitedly falling into groups and lining up to take to the streets and march to Tiananmen Square.

"I feel like throwing a flag of protest in Tiananmen Square"

Sports

.Simultaneously occurring during the height of the Tiananmen Square protest massacre was the 1989 French Open grand slam tennis tournament, which was eventually won by Chinese American Michael Chang, who at age 17 became the youngest man to win a Grand Slam, a record that still stands.^ Tiananmen Square became completely entangled with the lives of the Chinese people.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Jiang Zemin came to power in the wake of the Tiananmen Square Massacre.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jiang can be said to be the biggest beneficiary of the June 4 th student massacre in Tiananmen Square.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Chang's memorable fourth round victory over world number one Ivan Lendl occurred on 5 June 1989—the day after the height of the massacre—and he frequently refers to the Tianamen Square massacre as providing added impetus to win the tournament:
."A lot of people forget that Tiananmen Square was going on.^ A lot of people will die in the Square tonight.
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^ Go to Tiananmen Square to uphold justice!
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Tiananmen Square became completely entangled with the lives of the Chinese people.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.The crackdown that happened was on the middle Sunday at the French Open, so if I was not practicing or playing a match, I was glued to the television, watching the events unfold...I often tell people I think it was God's purpose for me to be able to win the French Open the way it was won because I was able to put a smile on Chinese people's faces around the world at a time when there wasn't much to smile about."^ There were thousands of people around.

^ "We want the world, the people of the world, to know about the generous spirit of the Chinese people!"

^ By Niv Horesh Shanghai is in many ways the face of the new People’s Republic.

[132]

Television

A primetime special[133] hosted by Tom Brokaw honored both the Tiananmen Square pro-democracy demonstrations in Beijing and the fall of the Berlin Wall in that momentous year for human rights around the world, 1989.
The series South Park featured an episode that centered around the boys watching the fictitious Russel Crowe Show. In one segment of the fictional show, host Russel Crowe visits Tiananmen Square (which he calls "Teeny-Man Square"), and mentions a "bonzer massacre back in '89".
.On 24 September 1990, the series Star Trek: The Next Generation referenced a starship called the USS Tiananmen Square as one of the many starships destroyed in a battle against the Borg, in the Battle at Wolf 359, in the Emmy Award winning episode "The Best Of Both Worlds, Part 2", in honor of the protestors.^ Many of them take AIMUN a competition held by Beida and their goal is to win the best delegate/delegation award.

^ He said Intel ``continued to actively look at opportunities to invest in both here in India, in Asia in general and the world.''
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  • Language Development Computing News 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ And the greatest disrespect that we could ever pay to those martyrs of the world revolution is to allow them to die in vain - to allow them to die without drawing out the lessons for the next battle.

CNN news anchor Kyra Phillips drew criticism in March 2006 when she compared the 2006 youth protests in France, in which it was later determined that no one was killed, to the Tiananmen Square protests, saying "Sort of brings back memories of Tiananmen Square, when you saw these activists in front of tanks."[134] CNN's Chris Burns told French Foreign Minister Philippe Douste-Blazy that her comments were "regrettable" and would receive some disciplinary actions.[135]
.In April 2006, the PBS series Frontline produced an episode titled "The Tank Man", which examined his role in the 1989 Tiananmen Square Protests and the change that has overtaken the P.R.C. economically and politically since.^ A key early turning point in 1989, when the protest changed from a student movement to a movement of the masses, came on April 27, when a big “illegal” march took place in Beijing.

^ In the early morning of April 27th, students set out from campuses all over the city and walked toward Tiananmen Square, the political center of China.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The city was quite subdued during the 1989 student protest movement, and has since 1991 been smothered in preferential central-government funding.

.In The Simpsons episode Goo Goo Gai Pan when the family visits Beijing, there is a plaque reading, "On this spot in 1989, nothing happened", in Tiananmen Square, a reference to the Chinese Government's denial and censorship of the protests.^ Tiananmen Square became completely entangled with the lives of the Chinese people.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ An example, I mean, not of every single person captured, not of every single spy who happened to be sent into Tiananmen Square and who was scared silly.

^ BERLIN, April 11, 2002 – At times during Chinese President Jiang Zemin's visit to Germany, downtown Berlin has felt more like Tiananmen Square to protestors against Chinese human rights abuses.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Selma also mirrored the scene of the "Tank Man" when she stood in front of a line of tanks led by Madame Wu.
On the 3 June 2009 the BBC aired the documentary "Kate Adie returns to Tiananmen", in which reporter Kate Adie revisits China and recalls the events she witnessed in 1989.[136]

Movies

.The movie Rapid Fire, starring Brandon Lee, depicts images of the Tiananmen Square killings.^ When the students of 1989 occupied Tiananmen Square, they made their headquarters here, beneath images of other students who changed China's history.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

.In the movie, Brandon Lee's character is the son of a US "government employee" who died in the Tiananmen Square massacre; it is this death that leads to the cynicism and anger of Lee's character through-out much of the movie.^ Jiang Zemin came to power in the wake of the Tiananmen Square Massacre.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Less then two weeks later, hundreds of students were massacred in Tiananmen Square.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the sake of their selfish interests and their private dealings they are trying to cause our movement to collapse and get us out of the Square before the government becomes so desperate that it takes action.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

Near the end, Powers Booth's character hands him a folder that, it is assumed, contains additional information behind his father's death.
.Summer Palace (2006) by Chinese director Lou Ye contains re-enacted scenes from Beijing streets during the days of the protests in Tiananmen Square.^ Tiananmen Square became completely entangled with the lives of the Chinese people.
  • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ BERLIN, April 11, 2002 – At times during Chinese President Jiang Zemin's visit to Germany, downtown Berlin has felt more like Tiananmen Square to protestors against Chinese human rights abuses.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few days after the demonstrations took place, Beijing had to rein them in because many protesters were taking advantage of the melee to vent their grievances against the central government.
  • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Keesing's Record of World Events". Volume 35, p. 36587. 1989.
  2. ^ a b c d e Nathan, Andrew J. (January/February 2001). "The Tiananmen Papers". Foreign Affairs. http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20010101faessay4257-p0/andrew-j-nathan/the-tiananmen-papers.html. 
  3. ^ Editorial (30 May 2009). "The day China trampled on freedom". The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/news/opinion/editorial/the-day-china-trampled-on-freedom/2009/05/29/1243456737644.html. 
  4. ^ AFP (4 June 2009). "China tightens information controls for Tiananmen anniversary". The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/world/china-tightens-information-controls-for-tiananmen-anniversary-20090604-bvxf.html. 
  5. ^ Spence, Jonathan D. (1999). The Search for Modern China. p. 685. New York: Norton.
  6. ^ Spence, Jonathan D. (1999). The Search for Modern China. p. 697. New York: Norton.
  7. ^ "Full text of the 4-26 Editorial". Xinhua News Agency. 23 February 2005. http://news.xinhuanet.com/ziliao/2005-02/23/content_2609426.htm. 
  8. ^ Amnesty International (30 August 1989). Preliminary Findings on Killings of Unarmed Civilians, Arbitrary Arrests and Summary Executions Since 3 June 1989. p. 19.
  9. ^ The Gate of Heavenly Peace. Long Brow Group. 1995.
  10. ^ "Interview with Liu Binyan". Human Rights Watch. 1989. http://www.hrw.org/campaigns/china-99/liubinyan.htm. 
  11. ^ Macartney, Jane (23 May 2009).Mao portrait saboteurs Yu Dongyue and Yu Zhijian granted asylum in America. The Times.
  12. ^ Xiaobo, Liu; Jeffrey N Wasserstrom and Elizabeth Perry (Editors) (1994). "That Holy Word, "Revolution"". Popular Protest and Political Culture in Modern China. Westview Press. p. 315. ISBN 978-0813320427. OCLC 30623957. 
  13. ^ Calhoun, Craig C. (1994). Popular Protest and Political Culture in Modern China. Westview Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-8133-2043-4.
  14. ^ Exiled Tiananmen dissident back in Taiwan. Yahoo! News. 4 June 2009.
  15. ^ Delury, John. (24 May 2009). Tiananmen Square revisited. Pakistan Daily Times
  16. ^ Miles, J. A. R. (1997). The Legacy of Tiananmen: China in Disarray. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-08451-7.
  17. ^ "Tens of Millions of Protesters". Frontline. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/tankman/view/. 
  18. ^ Kate Wright, the Political Fortunes of the World Economic Herald, Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, nr 23, pp 121–132 (1990)
  19. ^ "Secretary of State's Morning Summary for 3 June 1989". US State Dept Documents. George Washington University. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB16/documents/09-01.htm. Retrieved 4 August 2008. 
  20. ^ "Interview with Timothy Brook". Pbs.org. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/tankman/interviews/brook.html. Retrieved 9 November 2009.  See Timothy Brook.
  21. ^ a b "Interview with John Pomfret". Pbs.org. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/tankman/interviews/pomfret.html. Retrieved 9 November 2009. 
  22. ^ a b c Picture Power:Tiananmen Standoff BBC News. Last updated 7 October 2005.
  23. ^ Was there a massacre in Beijing http://www.sinomania.com/CHINANEWS/tiananmen_perspective.html#body
  24. ^ There was no Tiananmen Square Massacre CBS News http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503543_162-5061672-503543.html
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  28. ^ Cheng, Chu-Yuan (1990). Behind the Tiananmen Massacre: Social, Political and Economic Ferment in China. p. 139. Westview Press, Inc., Oxford.
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  32. ^ Wanniski, Jude. (5 June 2004). Remembering Tiananmen Square. Lewrockwell.com.
  33. ^ China Makes Zhao Purge Formal, But He Still Gets to Be a Comrade, New York Times, 1 July 1989
  34. ^ a b c How Many Really Died? Time magazine, 4 June 1990
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  43. ^ "Secretary of State's Morning Summary for 4 June 1989". George Washington University. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB16/documents/13-01.htm. Retrieved 4 August 2008. 
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  56. ^ Bundeszentrale f. politische Bildung: Zusammenbruch des SED-Regimes
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Further reading

  • Binyan, Liu; Ruan Ming and Xu Gang (1989). Tell the World: What happened in China and Why. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0394583709. OCLC 20392647. 
  • Black, George; Robin Munro (1993). .Black Hands of Beijing: Lives of Defiance in China's Democracy Movement.^ I went to China to hear and see at first hand this movement in the most populous country in the world, with one quarter of the world's population.

    .New York: John Wiley.^ John Kamm’s Third Way,” The New York Times; March 3, 2002 .
    • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 978-0471579779. OCLC 27186722 243766880 27186722.
     
  • Calhoun, Craig C; Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom and Elizabeth Perry (Editors) (1994). ."Science, Democracy, and the Politics of Identity". Popular Protest and Political Culture in Modern China.^ These political campaigns attempt to cut all ties with the traditions and culture of China, so as to leave only the Communist ideology in the hearts and minds of the people.
    • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Many Chinese today—both young and old—have a sense of pride, a feeling that China is finally “getting it right.” What is emerging in China—culturally, socially, economically, and politically—looks different from the conception of “modernity” that many Westerners hold dear.

    ^ Like the Tiananmen protests of 1989, it has left countless scars below the surface of society, and has become another marker on China's painful path to modernization.
    • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Westview Press. pp. 140–7. ISBN 978-0813320427. OCLC 30623957.
     
  • Salisbury, Harrison (1992). .The New Emperors: China in the Era of Mao and Deng.^ Not until after Mao's death would he emerge as China's new paramount leader.
    • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Jiang has mobilized a Mao-era mass movement against the quasi-Buddhist group, which is characterized as part of an “anti-China international movement.” .
    • Jiang Zemin’s Personal Crusade: 23 September 2009 3:59 UTC back.faluninfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ NARRATION In Mao's era Tiananmen became the symbol of the new China.
    • THE GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE - TRANSCRIPT 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tsquare.tv [Source type: Original source]

    New York: Avon. ISBN 978-0380720255. OCLC 28306886.
     
  • Spence, Jonathan D (1999). "Testing the Limits". The Search for Modern China. .New York: W. W. Norton & Company.^ New York: W.W. Norton.

    ISBN 978-0393973518. OCLC 59383489 39143093 59383489.
     
  • Wong, Jan (1997). .Red China Blues: My Long March from Mao to Now (Trade paperback, 416 pages ed.^ Most interestingly, a 98-year-old woman, very very infirm, came along who had been on the Long March, and who knew Mao.

    ^ For a one-stop shop of interesting pieces on China, check out this page at The Guardian for a week-long feature called “China at the Crossroads” ( 十字路口的中国 ).

    ). Doubleday. ISBN 978-0385482325. OCLC 37690446.
     
  • Zhang, Liang (pseudonym) (2001) (in Chinese). June Fourth: The True Story. Xianggang: Ming jing chu ban she. ISBN 978-1586481223. OCLC 46859114 50791624 60716940 243498894 46859114 50791624 60716940. 
  • Zhang, Liang (pseudonym) (Compiler) (2002). The Tiananmen Papers (Andrew J. Nathan and Perry Link (Editors) ed.). New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1586480127. OCLC 223096511 237407905 45087023 59551415 186473494 223096511 237407905 45087023 59551415.  Review and synopis of the book is in the journal Foreign Affairs at The Tiananmen Papers

Internet video

External links

  • China Internet Maintenance Day – The birth of China Internet Maintenance Day (CIMD)

Simple English

The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 is the name for a series of protests that occurred in April and June of that year. China refers to them as the June Fourth Incident, most of the world calls it the Tiananmen Square massacre. There were other protests on Tiananmen square in 1919 and 1976. The protests of 1989 were organised by different groups of students, intellectuals and labour activists. There was no common cause or leadership in the protests; most protesters did not like the way the Communist party of China ran the economy, though.[1] Some people also wanted a change towards more democracy.[2] Most people protested on Tianmen Square in Beijing, but some also did in other cities, like Shanghai. The protests in cities other than Beijing stayed peaceful.

On June 4, the government forcefully dissolved the protests. This left many people injured or dead. The exact number is not known today, different people have different numbers. The Chinese government speaks about 200-300 victims, the New York Times says there were between 300 and 800 and the Chinese Red Cross talks about 2,000 - 3,000.

The official Chinese position on the events was that the protests needed to be dispersed in order not to harm the stability of the country.

Many of the scenes were shown around the world over western media( the most famous image is that showing a man standing in front of a file of tanks in the middle of the square).

As said before, the cause of the protests was the corruption of the Comunist Party then and ,over all, the economic politics that the Government were taking during the previous 10 years, which, although helped in some way the level of life for farmers and people who lived in the countryside, was awful for intellectuals, students, and industrial workers, who feared the unemployment rising and social problems.

It is said this was one of the little pacific-purposed, overcrowded demonstrations that have been in all modern history.

References


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 13, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, which are similar to those in the above article.