Tibetan American: Wikis

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Tibetan American
Total population
9,000 (Tibet Office estimate, 2008[1])
Regions with significant populations
California (mainly Northern California), Colorado, Minnesota, Vermont, New Jersey, New York, Virginia, Maryland,
Languages

Tibetan, English

Religion

Buddhism

Related ethnic groups

certainly Tibetans, Asian Americans, Bhutanese and maybe South Asians, Nepalese Americans

The history of Tibetan-Americans in the United States is relatively short, as Tibet for centuries had few relations with other countries. The United States had limited contact or involvement with Tibet before World War II expanded to the Pacific.

Tibetans began to immigrate to the United States in the late 1950s.[2] Section 134 of the Immigration Act of 1990 gave a boost to the Tibetan immigration to the USA, by providing 1000 immigrant visas to Tibetans living in India and Nepal.[1][2] Chain migration followed, and by 1998 the Tibetan-American population had grown to around 5,500, according to a census conducted by Central Tibetan Administration. The 2000 US Census counted 5,147 US residents who reported Tibetan ancestry.[1]

An estimate of ca. 7,000 was made in 2001,[2] and in 2008 the Office of Tibet in New York informally estimated the Tibetan population in the USA at around 9,000.[1]

The migration of the Tibetans to the United States took on the pattern of 22 "cluster groups", located primarily in the Northeast, the Great Lakes region, and the Intermountain West. Other communities include Austin, Texas and Charlottesville, Virginia.

Contents

Northeast

Communities of Tibetan Americans in the Northeast exist in Boston and Amherst, Massachusetts, Ithaca, New York, New York City, and Washington, D.C., and in the states of Connecticut, Vermont and New Jersey. In New York and New Jersey, they live primarily among the large Indian American communities, particularly in the Jackson Heights neighborhood of Queens and New Brunswick, New Jersey. Around Washington, the largest community is concentrated in Rockville, Maryland with many also residing throughout Northern Virginia.

The town of Northfield, Vermont has been home for many years to the seat of the current Trijang Rinpoche. However, in sharp contrast to his predecessor, the current Trichang has been estranged from the Dalai Lama due to the Dorje Shugden controversy, and has very few followers among Tibetan Americans outside Vermont.

Great Lakes region

On the grounds of Tibetan Mongolian Buddhist Cultural Center, Bloomington, Indiana

Communities of Tibetan Americans in the Great Lakes region exist in Chicago and in the states of Minnesota, Ohio, Indiana, Wisconsin and Michigan. There is a Tibetan Mongol Buddhist Cultural Center in Bloomington, Indiana near the campus of Indiana University.[3] The late brother of the Dalai Lama was a professor at the university.

Minnesota has the second largest concentration of Tibetan Americans in the United States[4]

Western United States

Communities of Tibetan Americans in the western U.S. exist in Seattle, Washington, Portland, Oregon, Berkeley, California, several locations in Southern California, and in the states of Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Washington, and Utah.

Every year, Seattle holds an annual Tibet Festival in August.

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Colorado

Although quite small in number overall, Colorado has one of the highest concentrations of Tibetans in North America, focused on Boulder, Colorado Springs, Douglas County and Crestone. The state sports a Buddhist university, the Naropa Institute, a Buddhist commune west of Castle Rock, and several cities have Tibetan outreach organizations. Colorado Springs alone has three Tibetan stores and a restaurant.

Much of the reason behind this rather peculiar demographic is that Tibetan guerillas were secretly trained by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) at Camp Hale outside of Leadville. Camp Hale was used as a training camp for expatriate Tibetans to be inserted to foment uprising in the mountain kingdom after its invasion by the Chinese People's Liberation Army, between 1959 and 1965.

From 1958 to 1960, Anthony Poshepny trained various special missions teams, including Tibetan Khambas and Hui Muslims, for operations in China against the Communist government. Poshepny sometimes claimed that he personally escorted the 14th Dalai Lama out of Tibet, but sources in the Tibetan exile deny this.

The site was chosen because of the similarities of the Rocky Mountains in the area with the Himalayan Plateau. This was a contemporary plan of the CIA to the one that trained dissident Cubans in what later became the Bay of Pigs incident. After that failed foray, the Tibetan plan in Colorado's mountains was abandoned, but the Tibetans, having no free homeland to return to, opted to stay in the friendly environment and homelike terrain.

Immigration timeline

  • 1957–71 Tibetan resistance fighters are trained by the CIA and launch numerous incursions into Tibet.
  • 1981 Tibet Fund established in New York to provide humanitarian assistance to Tibetan refugees primarily in settlements in India and Nepal.
  • 1985 There are 524 Tibetans living in the U.S.
  • 1989 The Tibetan United States Resettlement Project (TUSRP) is established to support the resettlement of 1,000 Tibetans. Edward Bednar is appointed director.
  • 1991 As part of Fulbright scholarships administered by Tibet Fund, Berea College in Berea, Kentucky enrolls the first batch of two students with two succeeding each following year to study in 4 year undergraduate programs. The program still continues with over 20 graduates, who have mostly resettled in America.
  • 1991 Tibet House New York organizes International Year of Tibet.
  • 1992 The first group of the 1,000 Tibetans arrives in the U.S. under the TUSRP and settles in six cluster sites throughout the U.S.
  • 1993 In little more than a year since the first group of Tibetans arrived in 1992, 21 cluster sites open in 18 different states across the United States.
  • 1993–2002 Through family reunification, more Tibetans arrive to join the original 1,000. By 2002 there are approximately 8,650 Tibetans and 30 Tibetan community associations in the United States.
  • October 17, 2007 The Dalai Lama received the Congressional Gold Medal in the Capitol Rotunda in Washington. President George W. Bush was the first president to appear in public with the Dalai Lama.

Notables

See also

External links

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Global Nomads: The Emergence of the Tibetan Diaspora (Part I), by Seonaigh MacPherson (University of British Columbia), Anne-Sophie Bentz (Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies), Dawa Bhuti Ghoso
  2. ^ a b c Bhuchung K. Tsering, Enter the Tibetan Americans: Tibetan Americans establish a presence in the United States. Tibet Foundation Newsletter, February 2001.
  3. ^ Tibetan Mongol Buddhist Cultural Center, Bloomington, Indiana - official site
  4. ^ [1]

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