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Bone: Tibia
Gray260.png
Plan of ossification of the tibia. From three centers.
Gray's subject #61 256
MeSH Tibia

The tibia, shinbone, or shankbone is the larger and stronger of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates and connects the knee with the ankle bones. The tibia is named for the greek aulos flute, also known as a tibia. It is commonly recognised as the strongest wieght bearing bone in the body.

Contents

In humans

The tibia is found medial anterior to the fibula. It is the second largest bone in the human body, the largest being the femur. The tibia articulates with the femur superiorly, the fibula laterally and with the talus inferiorly.

Gender differences

In the male, its direction is vertical, and parallel with the bone of the opposite side. In the female, it has a slightly oblique direction downward and laterally, to compensate for the greater obliqueness of the femur.

Structure

It is prismoid in form, expanded above, where it enters into the knee-joint, contracted in the lower third, and again enlarged but to a lesser extent below.

The superior tibiofibular articulation is an arthrodial joint between the lateral condyle of the tibia and the head of the fibula. The inferior tibiofibular articulation (tibiofibular syndesmosis) is formed by the rough, convex surface of the medial side of the lower end of the fibula, and a rough concave surface on the lateral side of the tibia. The tibia is connected to the fibula by an interosseous membrane, forming a type of joint called a syndesmoses. The forward flat part of the tibia is called the fibia, often confused with the fibula.

Blood supply

The tibia derives its arterial blood supply from two sources:[1]

  1. the nutrient artery (main source)
  2. periosteal vessels derived from the anterior tibial artery

Strength

The tibia has been modeled as taking an axial force during walking that is up to 4.7 bodyweight. Its bending moment in the sagittal plane in the late stance phase is up to 71.6 bodyweight times millimetre.[2]

In other animals

The structure of the tibia in most other tetrapods is essentially similar to that in humans. The tuberosity of the tibia, a crest to which the patellar ligament attaches in mammals, is instead the insertion point for the tendon of the quadriceps muscle in reptiles, birds, and amphibians, which have no patella.[3]

Additional images

See also

References

  1. ^ NELSON G, KELLY P, PETERSON L, JANES J. "Blood supply of the human tibia". J Bone Joint Surg Am 42-A: 625–36. PMID 13854090. 
  2. ^ Wehner T, Claes L, Simon U. (2009). Internal loads in the human tibia during gait. Clin Biomech 24(3):299-302. PMID 19185959 doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2009.01.002
  3. ^ Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. p. 205. ISBN 0-03-910284-X. 

This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Spiralia
Cladus: Lophotrochozoa
Phylum: Mollusca
Classis: Gastropoda
Subclassis: Orthogastropoda
Superordo: Caenogastropoda
Ordo: Sorbeoconcha
Subordo: Hypsogastropoda
Infraordo: Littorinimorpha
Superfamilia: Stromboidea
Familia: Strombidae
Subfamilia: Rostellariinae
Genus: Tibia
Species: T. curta - T. fusus - T. insulaechorab - T. melanocheilus

Name

Tibia (Röding, 1798)

Type specimen

Murex fusus (Linnaeus, 1758)

References

  • Röding, P.F. 1798. Museum Boltenianum ... Pars secunda continens Conchylia sive Testacea univalvia, bivalvia & multimalvia: I-VII: 1-199.
  • Kroenberg, G.C. & Burger, A.W. 2002. On the subdivision of Recent Tibia-like gastropods (Gastropoda, Stromboidea), with the recognition of the family Rostellariidae Gabb, 1868, and a note on the type species of Tibia Röding, 1798. Vita Malacologica 1: 39-48.
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Tibia on Wikimedia Commons.

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Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From StrategyWiki, the free strategy guide and walkthrough wiki

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Tibia
Box artwork for Tibia.
Developer(s) CipSoft GmbH
Publisher(s) CipSoft GmbH
Designer(s) Piotrek Internationekczy
Release date(s)
Genre(s) MMORPG
System(s) Windows, formerly also Linux
Mode(s) Multiplayer
System requirements (help) 18 MB hard disk space, DirectX 5, Internet access.

Tibia is one of the oldest PC MMORPGS. Shortcomings are offset by the resulting small download size and modest system requirements.

Tibia's success can also be attributed to the fact that a large portion of the game, which can be downloaded from an official website, is still playable free of charge. This is in contrast to larger, more recent MMORPGs, which must be bought at a store and only provide short trial periods.

For a monthly fee, players can upgrade to a "premium account", unlocking some additional areas and game features such as spells and outfits. These players also have priority login rights on the often congested game servers. Currently, those servers are located in the United States and Germany.

Although servers are located only in Germany and the United States, players arrive from all over the world, with significant groups from the US, Sweden, Mexico, Brazil and The Netherlands.

Players mostly spend their online time training their characters' skill levels, hunting a large population of monsters with numerous weapons and magical spells, and scouring the vast continent for treasures and fortune. They interact with other players for conversation, to trade various objects, or to form parties to take on even stronger foes. Guilds are also important for many players and provide a way in which to co-operate as a team. Examples of heavily developed guilds such as The Pirates of Tibia, a recreation of the pirates in the golden days of piracy in real life, based on old code of conduct articles in a mix with the regular guild structure style makes them an impressing long runner known as almost unbeatable in their gameworld. There are many other known roleplaying guilds in Tibia, such as the oldest one; The Mercenaries, an organized and relatively calm guild, yet deadly if someone pays them well.

On most of the game's servers, players are also allowed to attack and kill each other, although there is a system in place to keep hostile actions under control. Some servers do not allow such player versus player combat at all, while others encourage it by rewarding experience for kills.

Before game updates, test servers are run to find and repair bugs and glitches within the update. These servers are first available for testing to players that hold official positions such as tutors, senior tutors and gamemasters. The test server is then usually opened to the general Tibian public. Because no permanent change to a player's character occurs on the test server, it is also an opportunity for players to explore, attack and fight in wars, without their main character on a normal server being affected.

After learning the basics of the game on an introductory island reserved for new players called Rookgaard, players may choose one of four classical roleplaying vocations: The Knight, excelling in close combat, the Paladin, mainly a distance fighter, the Druid a spellcaster specializing in defensive (primarily healing) spells, or the Sorcerer, a more aggressive spellcaster specializing in offensive (primarily attack) spells. The main difference between the classes is the rate at which a character's skill levels increase. For example, a Knight will improve his sword fighting skill faster than any other character class.

Monsters players encounter in the game range from non-aggressive dogs and deer, to easy-to-kill rats, dangerous orcs, fierce dragons, demons and also the aggressive boss monsters such as Orshabaal.

Contents

Table of Contents

Getting Started
Walkthrough

Support And Rules

The Tibian support is based on a hierarchy of ranks, starting from lowest to highest: Tutor, Senior Tutor, The now defunct Counsellor, Gamemaster, and finally Customer Support

Tutors can take a simple test on their account page, and after 3 months of tutorship tutors become senior tutor. Senior tutors have the additional responsibilities of monitoring the public forums, and reporting illegal threads. Eg,Swearing,posting hack site links etc. Also, Senior Tutors report any remarks made by players which are against the game rules. Senior Tutors replaced the former rank of Counsellor, ask CIP has faith in people with no actual experience in answering rule violations and they were most recently moved up to the rank of Gamemaster. Many players disagree with this method, but much to their dismay, the CIPsoft had no comment on the matter.

Support itself is lacking at best, as cheating is at an extreme level, and with the current update it has grown to epidemic proportions. Account Sharing, Multi-Clienting and a plethora of other violations plague the game, but CIPsoft takes the time to use a ban on players who accidentally use a cuss word or use the game-chat to talk about Real life, as the RL-Chat itself is hardly ever used. Bans are commonly handed out to players who have done nothing wrong, while leaving the real account sharing players on the USA worlds unnoticed.

Customer Support should only be a last resort for players seeking assistance as the members send out email assistance which is generated by a bot and is almost all of the time the same letterhead that tells the same information to every player, regardless of the reason of banishment. It also should be noted that when a player receives a ban in game, whether it be justified or not, a removal of the banishment is against CIP code and is never acceptable.

References

Tibia has been noted to include several References to J. R. R. Tolkien's three-part novel The Lord of the Rings and its legendarium, suggesting that Tibia's creators were heavily influenced by these works:

  • Similarly to The Lord of the Rings, Tibia uses the theme of Norse mythology, including races of Elves, Dwarves, and Orcs. It also references names from Norse mythology, such as Durin, that Tolkien refers to.
  • Several monsters in Tibia are closely related to those in The Lord of the Rings such as giant spiders or orcs.
  • A non-player character quotes from The Fellowship of the Ring (the first part of The Lord of the Rings).
  • In Tibia, the underground dwarven city of Kazordoon has a similar name to the dwarven city of Khazad-dûm in The Lord of the Rings.
  • In the city of Thais, you can find Frodo's pub and Sam's shop. Both of them are main characters in Tolkien's book.
  • In the city of Liberty Bay, there is a small sewer and a locked room with 4 tortoises and a rat, along with weapons such as a katana and throwing stars, in reference to the 90's TV show and movie "Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles"
  • The monster Orshabaal, was an idea copied from a monster called the Gatekeeper in The Dark Age game.
  • The island of Goroma, with a large volcano, is also an idea copied from the server Veronia, which contains a large volcano and other similar secrets.

Other references can be found throughout the game:

  • Somewhere within the dwarven caves, there is a sleeping beauty locked in a room with seven dwarves, a witch and an apple that cannot be grabbed. This is in relation to the Disney movie Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.
  • In King Tibianus' court, his guards are named Harsky and Stutch. These are similar to Starsky and Hutch.
  • In the Jakundaf Desert, there is a complex cave system that contains a book that refers to the "Holy Hand Grenade" from Monty Python and the Holy Grail.
  • The game also contains several references to human anatomy, starting with the title Tibia (the shin bone) itself. Fibula, Sternum and Femur are all places in the game as well as bones in the human body.
  • In a bar in one of the games cities, the player can read a sign which informs the player that "Crossbows n' Tulips" will be playing soon in the bar. This is a parody of Guns and Roses.
  • Some of the gravestones in Tibia mention penguins and windows, referring to the Linux penguin, Tux, and the Microsoft Windows operating system.
  • In a tomb, there is a floor[1] that resembles the layout of Pacman.
  • Numerous NPC's in the game talk about "Excalibug" being the ultimate weapon, similar to Excalibur in King Arthur stories.
  • There's a place called "Hard Rock Tavern", a reference to Hard Rock Cafe.

Game modifications

Note: The following practices are likely in violation of the program's license or Terms of Service.

It is possible to edit the graphics of the game by modifying certain files, a technique that can be used to create interface skins or change the actual game sprites. These modified files are then exchanged on web sites and internet forums (such as [2]). Some such modifications may give players unfair advantages, for example when trees and other large objects are made invisible so that items hidden behind them can be easily detected. This is considered as cheating.

Other modifications include AFK tools and aimbots. These are also considered cheating and looked down upon by the official community but the usage of these tools is rampant. The first popular cheating application for Tibia was Tibia GG, followed by TibiaSuite. Tibiasuite did not become very popular, but TibiaSuite2 became one of the most used cheats on Tibia. Unfortunately for users, TibiaSuite2 had a back door that sent a persons account details to the creator of the program. Later other cheats took its place such as TibiaBot NG and BlackdProxy. Currently, there are several cheats available, but many require an additional payment after a short trial. However, many people have found a crack which can be used to tackle the 'trial' problem so that they can use the program forever.

Cheats are very popular in Tibia. In fact, the number of cheaters were so high that the game creators started to include cheats in the official client since the version 7.8 . The official cheats are actually: aimbot, lighthack and autohealer.

Misc:

The Dark Age is a game that has evolved from Tibia.

External links

Official website

English fan sites

multiplayer online roleplaying game (English and Deutsch)


Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

Tibia

Developer(s) Cipsoft GmbH
Publisher(s) Cipsoft GmbH
Designer(s) Stephan Börzsönyi, Guido Lübke, Ulrich Schlott and Stephan Vogler
Release date 1996
Genre MMORPG
Mode(s) Multiplayer
Age rating(s) ESRB: RP
Platform(s) Windows, Linux
Input Keyboard, mouse
System requirements 35 MB free space on your hard disk, DirectX 5, Internet access
Credits | Soundtrack | Codes | Walkthrough

Contents

About

One of the oldest and most successfull still running rpg's in Europe, Tibia has been running for over 10 years and has been frequently updated ever since its beginning. Updates happen seasonally, Summer and Winter being content updates, Spring and fall being technical updates.

Gameplay

In tibia you can play as one of four vocations: A Druid, Sorcerer, Knight or Paladin . The main challenge in tibia is to develop the skills of your character by killing a variety of creatures, exploring the vast amount of areas or simply socializing with Tibia's diverse community. Tibia Run's on two dimentional Graphics which makes it ideal for those who are not running the most up-to-date software or using the best and newest hardware. Although the graphics are not as visually exciting as some other famous mmorpg's this game can be richer than other games in terms of its community, sense of adventure and teamwork.

Screenshots

External Link

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Simple English

]] The tibia, shinbone, or shankbone is the larger and stronger of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates. It connects the knee with the ankle bones.

Other Uses:

Tibia Online is a popular MMORPG.








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