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Ticks
Adult deer tick, Ixodes scapularis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Subclass: Acarina
Superorder: Parasitiformes
Order: Ixodida
Superfamily: Ixodoidea
Families
Ixodidae - Hard ticks
Argasidae - Soft ticks
Nuttalliellidae
Diversity
18 genera, c. 900 species
.Tick is the common name for the small arachnids in superfamily Ixodoidea that, along with other mites, constitute the Acarina.^ Ticks are the common name that people use to refer to the small rabbit arachnids that belongs to the superfamily Ixodoidea constituting Acarina.

^ SOFT TICKS (ARGASIDAE) HARD TICKS (IXODIDAE) Health Conditions Caused By Ticks The ticks constitute the superfamily Ixodoidea of the order Acarina, which includes the mites, but their larger size and leathery cuticle distinguish the ticks from the mites.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 9 part 3] Pests Attacking Mand and His Pets 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.entomology.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note: The pesticide names listed in this publication are common names of active ingredients of insecticides available for use against ticks.
  • Minnesota Ticks and Their Control 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.extension.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ticks are ectoparasites (external parasites), living by hematophagy on the blood of mammals, birds, and occasionally reptiles and amphibians.^ Ticks are an essential food source for many reptiles, birds, and amphibians.
  • Nature & Science » Biology Resources » Integrated Pest Management Manual 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nature.nps.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Ticks are parasites , and they must find a mammal host for blood.
  • American Dog tick 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fcps.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ticks are blood sucking ectoparasites (a parasite that lives on the exterior of an animal).
  • Paralysis Ticks in Cats (with pictures) - Cat-World 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cat-world.com.au [Source type: General]

.Ticks are vectors of a number of diseases, including Lyme disease, Q fever, Colorado tick fever, tularemia, tick-borne relapsing fever, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis and Tick-borne meningoencephalitis, as well as anaplasmosis in cattle and canine jaundice.^ Can I get Lyme disease from any tick bite?
  • Tick Encounter Resource Center - Faq 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.tickencounter.org [Source type: General]

^ In addition, soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are vectors of tick-borne relapsing fever.
  • Public-Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual - Mites and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC entomology.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to Lyme disease, the black-legged tick is a vector of human anaplasmosis and babesiosis.
  • Public Health and Medical Entomology | Purdue | Biology | Entomology | Insects | Ticks | Diseases | Monitoring | Control | Hot Topics | Agriculture | Extension 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC extension.entm.purdue.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]

Contents

Habitats and behaviors

.Ticks are blood-feeding parasites that are often found in tall grass and shrubs where they will wait to attach to a passing host.^ They climb to the top of a tall blade of grass and wait for a host to pass.
  • Cathy Morrissey 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC ocean-beach.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Being flightless, hard ticks "wait" for passing vertebrate hosts.
  • Public Health and Medical Entomology | Purdue | Biology | Entomology | Insects | Ticks | Diseases | Monitoring | Control | Hot Topics | Agriculture | Extension 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC extension.entm.purdue.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is from these advantageous positions that they wait for a suitable host to pass by.
  • Ticks: Identification, Tick Control, Lyme Disease 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.pestproducts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A tick will attach itself to its host by inserting its chelicerae (cutting mandibles) and hypostome (feeding tube) into the skin.^ When attaching, a tick will slice open the skin with the mouthparts and then attach itself.
  • Ticks info 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spokaneoutdoors.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fleas and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To obtain blood, the tick will attach to the host by inserting its mouthparts into the skin.
  • Ticks : Environmental Health : NYC DOHMH 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC nyc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When feeding, the tick uses its chelicerae (teeth) to cut the victim's skin and then inserts its mouthparts.
  • Public-Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual - Mites and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC entomology.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The hypostome is covered with recurved teeth and serves as a hammer.^ The hypostome enters the wound and becomes embedded by the recurved teeth which are mainly found on the ventral surface ( Fig.

[2]
.Physical contact is not the only method of transportation for ticks.^ Repellents Permanone , a tick repellent containing permethrin, may be applied to clothing only (avoid skin contact).
  • Tick Pamphlet under revision 11/26 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC ticsys.tamu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Permanone, a tick repellent containing permethrin, may be applied to clothing only (avoid skin contact).
  • untitled 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC cipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ticks must be removed from dogs to obtain control -- even outdoor only dogs which family members come in contact with on a daily basis.
  • TICKS: Tick Elimination, Control Ticks with Dust, Spray 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.pestproducts.com [Source type: General]

.Ticks can't jump or fly, although they may drop from their perch and fall onto a host.^ Ticks do not fly, jump, or actively pursue a host.

^ Ticks can’t jump - they only crawl.
  • Ticks, Lyme Disease and Bluebirding 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sialis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They also secrete a cement that hardens and holds the tick onto the host.
  • Ticks info 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spokaneoutdoors.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fleas and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some species stalk the host from ground level, emerging from cracks or crevices located in the woods or even inside a home or kennel, where infestations of "seed ticks" (the six-legged stage of newborn ticks) can attack in numbers up to 30,000 at a time[citation needed].^ This tick is a 3-host species.
  • Public-Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual - Mites and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC entomology.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some 30 species of ticks occur in Colorado.
  • Colorado Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ext.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some common tick species .

.Weak or elderly dogs, puppies, and cats are particularly endangered and can die from anemia from a sudden influx of seed ticks[citation needed].^ Examine dogs and cats frequently for ticks.
  • untitled 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC cipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is estimated that over 75,000 dogs and cats are paralysed in Australia each year and unfortunately, too many die .....
  • Chinaroad Lowchens of Australia - Ticks, fleas, bees, flies, snakes and other gremlins! And how to deal with them! 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.lowchensaustralia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regular treatment of dogs (and possibly cats) for ticks (completed under the direction and care of a veterinarian).
  • Ticks & Mites Pest Library: Dog Ticks, Bird Mites, Ticks Carrying Lyme Disease & Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.terminix-triad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Seed ticks also attack horses, cattle, moose, lions and other mammals, causing anemia, various diseases, paralysis and even death.^ Lyme disease: dogs, cattle, horses, small mammals .

^ Ticks can cause disease and illness directly.
  • Ticks info 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spokaneoutdoors.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fleas and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ticks can carry Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, encephalitis, tularemia, tick paralysis, and Lyme disease, so it is important to prevent tick infestations in domestic dogs.
  • Dog Owner's Guide: The critters on our critters 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.canismajor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such infestations can be difficult to detect until thousands have attached themselves to an animal and eradication can be difficult.^ Detecting shadows, vibrations, exhaled carbon dioxide or other host odors, the tick then drops from their tall perch to attach themselves to their host.
  • TICKS: Tick Elimination, Control Ticks with Dust, Spray 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.pestproducts.com [Source type: General]

^ These things attach themselves to animals or to humans.

^ Nymphs seek shelter and are inactive until the following spring, when they attach to another animal, feed, drop off and molt into the adult stage.
  • Public-Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual - Mites and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC entomology.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3][4]
Mature ticks are harder to see. .Frequent grooming and chemicals for control may control the spread of seed ticks and adults.^ Non-chemical Control of Ticks .
  • TICKS: Tick Elimination, Control Ticks with Dust, Spray 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.pestproducts.com [Source type: General]

^ Treating yards with chemicals that kill ticks (ascaricides) is sometimes effective but exposes you and your pets to chemicals that may not be safe.
  • Tick Bites - Yahoo! Health 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Besides tick bites, Lyme disease may be spread by contact with infected body fluids.
  • Ticks info 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spokaneoutdoors.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fleas and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]
.Changes in temperature and day length are some of the factors signalling a tick to seek a host.^ Bionomics Hard ticks and some species of soft ticks seek their hosts by climbing vegetation and awaiting vibrations or shadows to announce the arrival of a host.
  • Public-Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual - Mites and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC entomology.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These factors combine to enhance the blood meal of the tick and facilitate transmission of infectious agents to the host.
  • Tick-borne Diseases - August 1, 2001 - American Family Physician 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For each species of tick, the geographic distribution, habitat, hosts, life cycle, seasonal abundance, responses to environmental factors, and direct and indirect medical effects are described.
  • Nature & Science » Biology Resources » Integrated Pest Management Manual 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nature.nps.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Ticks can detect heat emitted or carbon dioxide respired from a nearby host.^ Attraction to the host is due to heat and carbon dioxide concentrations.

^ If heat or carbon dioxide is detected by the tick, it will seek it out and climb onto the host as it passes.
  • Public-Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual - Mites and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC entomology.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When they detect vibrations and chemical cues such as host odors or exhaled carbon dioxide, ticks will fall from their perch or stretch out (holding on to their perch with only 2 or 4 of their rear legs) and hope to snag or attach onto a passing host (e.g., a mammal with a fur coat or pants and socks worn by humans.
  • Ticks: Identification, Tick Control, Lyme Disease 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.pestproducts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They will generally drop off the animal when full, but this may take several days.^ After several days of feeding they drop off and again molt.
  • Public-Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual - Mites and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC entomology.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During feeding a tick may extract up to 8 ml of blood, they can take 100X their body weight in blood.
  • Ticks info 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spokaneoutdoors.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fleas and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I called a vet and they told me that I had to come and buy advantix and it will take 24 hours befoe the ticks fell off.

.In some cases ticks will live for some time on the blood of an animal.^ Most ticks are parasites of warm-blooded animals and must take one or more blood meals in order to survive and reproduce.
  • Tick Pamphlet under revision 11/26 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC ticsys.tamu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • untitled 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC cipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fleas feed on animal blood and can trigger problems including skin irritation, allergic reactions, anemia and in rare cases, death.
  • Dog Tip: Fleas, Ticks, Mosquitoes - Prevention and Treatment 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.paw-rescue.org [Source type: General]

^ There are various products available which give small animals some protection for ticks.
  • untitled 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC cipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ticks are more active outdoors in warm weather, but can attack a host at any time.^ Most ticks are parasites of warm-blooded animals and must take one or more blood meals in order to survive and reproduce.
  • Tick Pamphlet under revision 11/26 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC ticsys.tamu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • untitled 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC cipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hunters should be on the look out for ticks leaving a cooling carcass and looking for a warm host.

^ Ticks can carry more than one infection at a time, so multiple infections can be transmitted in a single bite, making it more difficult to get a clear diagnosis.

[6]
.Ticks can be found in most wooded or forested regions throughout the world.^ This is an extremely common tick of dogs found throughout the world.

^ This is a widely distributed tick throughout the world.

^ Ticks may attach themselves anywhere on a dog, but are most often found on the ears and neck and between the toes.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 9 part 3] Pests Attacking Mand and His Pets 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.entomology.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are especially common in areas where there are deer trails or human tracks.^ In infested areas, the deer tick is common wherever deer and woodland mice frequent.

^ They are attracted by the scent of animals, and humans most often encounter them near roads, paths, trails and recreational areas.
  • untitled 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC cipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rat control may intensify the attack on humans, but this mite will bite humans even when there is an abundance of host rats on which they can feed.
  • Public-Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual - Mites and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC entomology.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ticks are especially abundant near water, where warm-blooded animals come to drink, and in meadows wherever shrubs and brush provide woody surfaces and cover.^ Most ticks are parasites of warm-blooded animals.
  • untitled 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC cipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It lives near bodies of water where animals drink as well.
  • Ticks & Mites Pest Library: Dog Ticks, Bird Mites, Ticks Carrying Lyme Disease & Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.terminix-triad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most ticks are parasites of warm-blooded animals and must take one or more blood meals in order to survive and reproduce.
  • Tick Pamphlet under revision 11/26 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC ticsys.tamu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • untitled 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC cipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Population control

.Ticks are a vector for a number of diseases including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other Tick-borne disease.^ Can I get Lyme disease from any tick bite?
  • Tick Encounter Resource Center - Faq 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.tickencounter.org [Source type: General]

^ Prevention of Tick-borne Diseases .
  • Tick-borne Diseases - August 1, 2001 - American Family Physician 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rocky Mountain spotted fever: dogs .

Case study of the American Deer Tick

.The blacklegged or deer tick (Ixodes scapularis) is dependent on the white-tailed deer for reproduction.^ Deer ticks ( Ixodes sp .
  • Ticks, Lyme Disease and Bluebirding 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sialis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Deer tick ( Ixodes scapularis ).
  • Public-Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual - Mites and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC entomology.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis .
  • Ticks — Entomology — Penn State University 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC ento.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Larval and nymph stages (immature ticks that cannot reproduce) of the deer tick feed on birds and small mammals.^ Larvae and nymphs are abundant in the summer and feed on small mammals and lizards.

^ There is a stage where the nymph dog can be mistaken for the adult deer tick.

^ Any stage of the blacklegged tick can feed on humans.
  • Ticks — Entomology — Penn State University 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC ento.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The adult female tick needs a large 3 day blood meal from the deer before she can reproduce and lay her 2000 or more eggs.^ Once attached to a deer, a female will suck blood for a few days.
  • Tale of the Tick: How Lyme Disease is Expanding Northward | Northern Woodlands Magazine 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC northernwoodlands.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The adult female lays a mass of 1000-3000 eggs after engorging on a dog's blood.
  • untitled 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC cipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A female lays about 3,000 eggs before she dies.
  • Public Health and Medical Entomology | Purdue | Biology | Entomology | Insects | Ticks | Diseases | Monitoring | Control | Hot Topics | Agriculture | Extension 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC extension.entm.purdue.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Deer are the primary host for the adult deer tick and are key to the reproductive success of the tick.^ They are the main reproductive host for the adult stage of black-legged ticks.
  • Tick Encounter Resource Center - Faq 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.tickencounter.org [Source type: General]

^ Deer ticks are small: the larva about the size of a period; a nymph, a poppy seed; and adult, a sesame seed.

^ Otobius megnini - Spinose ear tick ( 1 host, adults free living).

[7] .See the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station and Connecticut Department of Public Health joint publication "Tick Management Handbook" for more details of the tick's life cycle and dependence on deer.^ Ticks are parasitic during their life cycle.
  • Public-Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual - Mites and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC entomology.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tick life cycle.
  • ENY-206/IG088: Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC edis.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For each species of tick, the geographic distribution, habitat, hosts, life cycle, seasonal abundance, responses to environmental factors, and direct and indirect medical effects are described.
  • Nature & Science » Biology Resources » Integrated Pest Management Manual 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nature.nps.gov [Source type: Academic]

[8]
.Numerous studies have shown that abundance and distribution of deer ticks are correlated with deer densities.^ For each species of tick, the geographic distribution, habitat, hosts, life cycle, seasonal abundance, responses to environmental factors, and direct and indirect medical effects are described.
  • Nature & Science » Biology Resources » Integrated Pest Management Manual 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nature.nps.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies have shown that migrating birds have helped disperse infected ticks to new areas.
  • Fleas and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Burning typically improves deer browse in the area; thus increased deer abundance may result in the movement of ticks back into the area.
  • Nature & Science » Biology Resources » Integrated Pest Management Manual 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nature.nps.gov [Source type: Academic]

[7][9][10][11]
.When the deer population was reduced by 74% at a 248-acre (100 ha) study site in Bridgeport, Connecticut, for example, the number of nymphal ticks collected at the site decreased by 92%.^ Total numbers of ticks may not be significantly reduced by Damminix.

^ The drag is inspected for ticks at fixed intervals, for example, 10 paces in an area of relatively high tick density or 100 meters in less dense infestations.
  • Public-Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual - Mites and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC entomology.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Researchers have shown that one application of a certain insecticide made at the peak of nymphal populations (very early in June for Westchester County) has reduced tick populations 68 to 97 percent.

[7] .The relationship between deer abundance, tick abundance, and human cases of Lyme disease was well documented in the Mumford Cove Community in Groton, Connecticut, from 1996 to 2004. The deer population in Mumford Cove was reduced from about 77 deer per square mile to about 10 deer per square mile (4 deer per square kilometer) after 2 years of controlled hunting.^ Can I get Lyme disease from any tick bite?
  • Tick Encounter Resource Center - Faq 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.tickencounter.org [Source type: General]

^ Lyme disease is transmitted by ticks, but few cases have been reported in Florida.
  • ENY-206/IG088: Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC edis.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tick-transmitted diseases of humans .

.After the initial reduction the deer population was maintained at low levels.^ Theoretically, sterile hybrid Boophilus ticks could be used to eradicate low-level Boophilus populations.

^ Ostfeld contends that wherever gypsy moths are at low to moderate levels, mice are the key control agent keeping populations in check.
  • Tale of the Tick: How Lyme Disease is Expanding Northward | Northern Woodlands Magazine 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC northernwoodlands.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Exclusion of host animals (e.g., deer) can cause major reductions in populations of ticks that feed on deer.
  • Public-Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual - Mites and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC entomology.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Reducing deer densities to 10 deer per square mile (4 deer per square kilometer) was adequate to reduce by more than 90% the risk of humans contracting Lyme disease in Mumford Cove.^ The risk of Lyme disease after the bite of an infected tick has been reported to be less than 10%.
  • ISPUB - Identification And Diseases Of Common U.S. Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hypersensitivity to ticks and Lyme disease risk.
  • Tick-Borne Diseases, Introduction: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Deer Tick The deer tick, Ixodes scapularis (formerly named Ixodes dammini) is the principal vector of Lyme disease in the northeastern and north central United States.

[12] .Deer population management must serve as the main tool in any long-term strategy to reduce human incidences of Lyme disease.^ Nymphs appear to be the main vectors of Lyme disease to humans and pets.
  • Public Health and Medical Entomology | Purdue | Biology | Entomology | Insects | Ticks | Diseases | Monitoring | Control | Hot Topics | Agriculture | Extension 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC extension.entm.purdue.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tick treatment is a must because they can transmit human diseases such as relapsing fever, Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, equine encephalitis, Colorado tick fever, and several forms of ehrlichiosis.
  • Tick Control - Pest Control Products | Flea Tick Control | Natural Tick Control at Pest Products Online 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.pestproductsonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Deer Tick The deer tick, Ixodes scapularis (formerly named Ixodes dammini) is the principal vector of Lyme disease in the northeastern and north central United States.

[13]
.A 2006 study by Penn State's Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics indicated that reducing the deer population in small areas may lead to higher tick densities, resulting in more tick-borne infections in rodents leading to a high prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis and creating a tick hot-spot.^ This may lead to irritation and infection.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 9 part 3] Pests Attacking Mand and His Pets 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.entomology.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prevention of Tick-borne Diseases .
  • Tick-borne Diseases - August 1, 2001 - American Family Physician 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Also Lyme disease and Tick-borne encephalitis.
  • TAGS Inc. Australia - Tick Identification (Australia) 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.tickalert.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14]

Other control measures

Male tick size comparison to a match.
.The parasitic Ichneumon wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri has long been investigated for its potential to control tick populations.^ When deer populations increase, the tick population also increases, thus heightening the potential for transmission.

^ Several insecticides and acaricides that provide effective control of tick populations in small infested areas.
  • Nature & Science » Biology Resources » Integrated Pest Management Manual 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nature.nps.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Recently, releases of the parasitic wasp Hunterellus hookeri have been made on several small islands on the New England coast.
  • Nature & Science » Biology Resources » Integrated Pest Management Manual 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nature.nps.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It lays its eggs into ticks; the hatching wasps kill their host.^ The eggs hatch into seed ticks in 36-57 days.
  • untitled 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC cipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hatched seed ticks attach to small rodents, feed, detach and develop into the nymphal stage.
  • Public-Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual - Mites and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC entomology.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To dispose of the tick, drop it into alcohol to kill it, then dispose of it.
  • Fleas and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another natural form of control for ticks is the guineafowl, a bird species which consumes mass quantities of ticks.^ Each tick requires a considerable quantity of blood to become replete, and therefore large numbers of them can extract enough blood to cause the death of a bird.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 9 part 3] Pests Attacking Mand and His Pets 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.entomology.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These shrubs propagate rapidly due to a lack of natural control factors, creating the kind of dense shelter that is perfect mouse and tick habitat.
  • Tale of the Tick: How Lyme Disease is Expanding Northward | Northern Woodlands Magazine 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC northernwoodlands.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If not soon removed, some species (wood ticks) can cause a form of paralysis known as "tick paralysis."
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 9 part 3] Pests Attacking Mand and His Pets 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.entomology.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed] Just 2 birds can clear 2 acres (8,100 m2) in a single year.
.Topical (drops/dust) flea/tick medicines may be toxic to animals and humans.^ Transmission from animal to human *may* be possible.
  • Fleas and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The American dog tick may carry Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, and other diseases from animals to people.
  • ENY-206/IG088: Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC edis.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, these changes have placed both humans and their pets in more direct contact with wild animals and the ticks that feed on them.

.Phenothrin (85.7%) in combination with Methoprene was a popular topical flea/tick therapy for felines.^ Some topical flea and tick control products for dogs such as Frontline and K9 Advantix contain mosquito repellent.
  • Dog Tip: Fleas, Ticks, Mosquitoes - Prevention and Treatment 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.paw-rescue.org [Source type: General]

^ Specific recommendations from "Flea Control" for houses with pregnant women or crawling infants are for a combination of microencapsulated pyrethrins (eg Sectrol from 3M) and methoprene.
  • Fleas and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Insect growth regulators (IGR) like lufenuron, methoprene, and pyriproxyfen can be used alone or in combination with other flea control/flea-killing products.
  • Dog Tip: Fleas, Ticks, Mosquitoes - Prevention and Treatment 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.paw-rescue.org [Source type: General]

.Phenothrin kills adult fleas and ticks.^ The Insect growth regulators do not kill adult fleas, but they have little or no toxicity to non-insects as they very specifically target the flea larvae, preventing its transition to adult stage.
  • Fleas and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chemicals used to control and kill pre-adult fleas indoors include Precor.
  • Dog Tip: Fleas, Ticks, Mosquitoes - Prevention and Treatment 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.paw-rescue.org [Source type: General]

^ BioSpot Topical application, kills fleas, eggs, and ticks.
  • Fleas and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Methoprene is an insect growth regulator that interrupts the insect's life cycle by killing the eggs.^ The Insect growth regulators do not kill adult fleas, but they have little or no toxicity to non-insects as they very specifically target the flea larvae, preventing its transition to adult stage.
  • Fleas and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The deer tick has a two-year life cycle: the first year, eggs and larvae are present; the second year, nymphs and adults.

^ Eggs are laid singly and the life cycle takes about a month.
  • Public-Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual - Mites and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC entomology.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency required at least one manufacturer of these products to withdraw some products and include strong cautionary statements on others, warning of adverse reactions.^ At least two treatments are required for control; one in the spring for adult and nymphal stages and the other in late summer for larval stages.
  • Nature & Science » Biology Resources » Integrated Pest Management Manual 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nature.nps.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of these host insects infest straw, wheat, stored food products, straw mattresses, and wood, and are therefore found in the home.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 9 part 3] Pests Attacking Mand and His Pets 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.entomology.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Deet was used in the majority of their other products, but they also have the one with permethrin.

[15]
.A liquid spray, duster or aerosol spray, with either a hand sprayer or a hand spreader, may be used to control tick populations.^ Premise sprays are registered for tick control.
  • ENY-206/IG088: Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC edis.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Studies on the cytogenetics of tick species may eventually provide a useful means of investigating phylogenetic relationships and may also provide a taxonomic tool for studying living tick specimens.

^ To spray Ivory in your yard, use a garden sprayer attachment such as the one made by Ortho Sprayer.
  • Dog Tip: Fleas, Ticks, Mosquitoes - Prevention and Treatment 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.paw-rescue.org [Source type: General]

Example species

.
Engorged deer tick attached to back of toddler's head.
^ Ticks do not attach themselves to the skin in a spiral manner, but simply push their head into the skin.
  • Ticks, article and experiment - borislavdopudja.net 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.borislavdopudja.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While she’s fully engorged, a male tick that also happens to be hitchhiking on the deer can find and breed her.
  • Tale of the Tick: How Lyme Disease is Expanding Northward | Northern Woodlands Magazine 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC northernwoodlands.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Burning typically improves deer browse in the area; thus increased deer abundance may result in the movement of ticks back into the area.
  • Nature & Science » Biology Resources » Integrated Pest Management Manual 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nature.nps.gov [Source type: Academic]

Adult thumb shown for scale.
Head of Ixodes ricinus (sheep tick)
Ixodes hexagonus

Dermacentor

.
  • Dermacentor variabilis, the American dog tick, is perhaps the most well-known of the North American hard ticks.^ American dog tick Dermacentor variabilis .
    • Ticks — Entomology — Penn State University 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC ento.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Female adult of Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick).
    • Public Health and Medical Entomology | Purdue | Biology | Entomology | Insects | Ticks | Diseases | Monitoring | Control | Hot Topics | Agriculture | Extension 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC extension.entm.purdue.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The American dog tick is the most common tick found on humans and dogs in the state.
    • Public Health and Medical Entomology | Purdue | Biology | Entomology | Insects | Ticks | Diseases | Monitoring | Control | Hot Topics | Agriculture | Extension 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC extension.entm.purdue.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This tick does not carry Lyme disease but can carry Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

Ixodes

.
  • Ixodes scapularis (formerly Ixodes dammini), known as the black-legged tick or deer tick, is common to the eastern part of North America and is known for spreading Lyme disease.
  • Ixodes pacificus, the Western black-legged tick, lives in the western part of North America and is responsible for spreading Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.^ The Rocky Mountain wood tick is the major vector of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a rickettsial disease of humans.
    • Public-Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual - Mites and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC entomology.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Deer ticks ( Ixodes sp .
    • Ticks, Lyme Disease and Bluebirding 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sialis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Can I get Lyme disease from any tick bite?
    • Tick Encounter Resource Center - Faq 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.tickencounter.org [Source type: General]

    .It tends to prefer livestock such as cows as its adult host.
  • Australia tick fauna consists of approximately 75 species, most of which fall into the Ixodidae, hard tick, family.^ Ticks are divided into two families: .
    • Ticks, article and experiment - borislavdopudja.net 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.borislavdopudja.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This is most common in one host ticks.

    ^ This tick is a 3-host species.
    • Public-Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual - Mites and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC entomology.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The most medically important tick is the Paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus.^ This is the most important genus of soft ticks from a medical standpoint.
    • Public-Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual - Mites and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC entomology.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ticks can carry Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, encephalitis, tularemia, tick paralysis, and Lyme disease, so it is important to prevent tick infestations in domestic dogs.
    • Dog Owner's Guide: The critters on our critters 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.canismajor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The two most important tick-borne diseases in the United States are Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
    • Nature & Science » Biology Resources » Integrated Pest Management Manual 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nature.nps.gov [Source type: Academic]

    It is found in a 20-kilometre band that follows the eastern coastline of Australia. .Encounters with these parasites are relatively common as this is where much of the human population resides in New South Wales and South-East Queensland.^ The relatively few species parasitic on humans in the U.S. produce dermatitis, often followed by allergic reactions.
    • Public-Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual - Mites and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC entomology.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Parasites that affect humans are a common cause of illness, particularly in underdeveloped countries.
    • Nervous Ticks | LIVESTRONG.COM 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Because of these changes, parasite life cycles that have been established between wild animals and ticks may now be able to include pet animals and humans as well.

    Although most cases of tick bite are uneventful, some can result in life threatening illnesses including paralysis, tick typhus, and severe allergic reactions both in humans and pets.

Boophilus/Rhipicephalus

.
  • The southern cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini), causes annual economic losses in the hundreds of millions of dollars to cattle producers throughout the world, and ranks as the most economically important tick globally.^ Boophilus microplus is the only species in Australia and is economically very important.
    • TAGS Inc. Australia - Tick Identification (Australia) 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.tickalert.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This is a widely distributed tick throughout the world.

    ^ Ticks of the genus Boophilus are important for their economic impact on cattle in Australia.
    • TAGS Inc. Australia - Tick Identification (Australia) 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.tickalert.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This tick also attacks sheep, horses, goats, and a few related species, but cattle are the most important hosts.^ This is most common in one host ticks.

    ^ Volatile host emanations are the most important cues in tick host-finding.

    ^ Stages of development of the tick and most Important hosts are illustrated.

    [16]

Amblyomma

.
  • The Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum, is part of the Ioxdidae family, classifying it as a hard tick.^ Lone Star ticks.
    • Nature & Science » Biology Resources » Integrated Pest Management Manual 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nature.nps.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Lone star tick ( Amblyomma americanum ).
    • Public-Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual - Mites and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC entomology.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Amblyomma americanum - Lone star tick (3 host).

    .The adult females are distinguished by a white dot or "lone star" on its back.^ Female adult of Amblyomma americanum (lone star tick).
    • Public Health and Medical Entomology | Purdue | Biology | Entomology | Insects | Ticks | Diseases | Monitoring | Control | Hot Topics | Agriculture | Extension 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC extension.entm.purdue.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Adult females are easily recognized by having long mouth parts and a white spot on the dorsal scutum.

    ^ Adult females are characterized by a pearly-white spot at the tip of the scutum and by long mouthparts.
    • Public Health and Medical Entomology | Purdue | Biology | Entomology | Insects | Ticks | Diseases | Monitoring | Control | Hot Topics | Agriculture | Extension 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC extension.entm.purdue.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The adult males can also be seen with dots and white streaks on the edge of their bodies.^ Adults are chestnut brown with white spots or streaks on their backs.
    • untitled 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC cipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This tick has been associated with transmission of Southern Tick Associated Rash Illness (STARI) in humans, which is a disease caused by a Borrelia sp.^ Tick-transmitted diseases of humans .

    ^ Chiggers are not associated with disease transmission in the U.S. .
    • Public-Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual - Mites and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC entomology.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ticks can cause disease and illness directly.
    • Fleas and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    related to the agent that causes Lyme Disease.

Fossil record

Fossil ticks are common[17]. .The oldest example is an argasid (bird) tick from Cretaceous New Jersey amber.^ Studies have shown that migrating birds have helped disperse infected ticks to new areas.
  • Fleas and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lone star tick is mainly found in the southeastern sector of the U.S., but reaches as far north as New Jersey.
  • Public-Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual - Mites and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC entomology.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The younger Baltic and Dominican ambers have also yielded examples, all of which can be placed in living genera.^ For example, if the place has been uninhabited long enough that all the adult fleas are dead, methoprene should be sufficient, otherwise use sprays that will also work on the adults.
  • Fleas and Ticks 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

References

  1. ^ Los Angeles County - Department of Health Services Vector Management Program. "Managing Common Tick Pests in Los Angeles County". http://publichealth.lacounty.gov/eh/progs/consumer/vectman/vcdocs/ticks.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  2. ^ Matthews, Bernard E. 1998. An introduction to parasitology. Cambridge University Press.
  3. ^ Transcript, Dr. Bill Samuel, Author and Associate Dean, Research, Faculty of Science, University of Alberta SUBJECT: #145 White as a Ghost: Winter Ticks and Moose Audio #145 November 23, 2004 Innovatio Alberta http://www.innovationalberta.com/article.php?articleid=517
  4. ^ Stafford, Kirby C.,III, Ph.D. , Chief Entomologist Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven "Tick Management Handbook" http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/lyme/resources/handbook.pdf.
  5. ^ Zahid Iqbal Rajput, Song-hua Hu, Wan-jun Chen,Abdullah G. Arijo, and Chen-wen Xiao, "Importance of ticks and their chemical and immunological control in livestock" J Zhejiang, Univ Sci B. 2006 November; 7(11): 912–921 http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1635821 Retrieved 2009-06-20
  6. ^ Campbell,John B., (Extension Entomologist), Thomas, Gustave D., Entomology Research Leader "Controllng Ticks" University of Nebraska Lincoln extension, Istitute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Rev. May, 2006 http://www.ianrpubs.unl.edu/epublic/pages/publicationD.jsp?publicationId=500
  7. ^ a b c Stafford K.C. 2004. Tick management handbook: an integrated guide for homeowners, pest control operators, and public health officials for the prevention of tick-associated disease. The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
  8. ^ [1] p. 46, "Deer Reduction"
  9. ^ Rand, P.W., et al. 2004. Abundance of Ixodes scapularis (acari:Ixodidae) after complete removal of deer from an isolated offshore island, endemic for Lyme disease. Journal of Medical Entomology 41:779-784
  10. ^ Walter, W.D., et al. 2002. Evaluation of immunocontraception in a free-ranging suburban white-tailed deer herd. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:186-192
  11. ^ Wilson, M.L., et al. 1990. Microgeographic distribution of immature "Ixodes dammini" ticks correlated with deer. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 4:151-159
  12. ^ DEP Wildlife Division: Managing Urban Deer in Connecticut 2nd edition June 2007
  13. ^ Telford SR 1993 Forum: perspectives on the environmental management of ticks and Lyme disease. pp164-167 in Howard S. Ginsberg, Ecology and environmental management of Lyme disease. New Brunswick, N.J. Rutgers University Press
  14. ^ http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/08/060830214714.htm Deer-free Areas May Be Haven For Ticks, Disease]
  15. ^ EPA: Pesticides - Hartz Flea and Tick Drops for Cats and Kittens to be Phased Out
  16. ^ "Chisholm, Alec H.". The Australian Encyclopaedia. Sydney: Halstead Press. 1963. 
  17. ^ Feuente, J. de la (2003) Experimental and Applied Acarology 29, 331-334.

External links

.
  • Lyme Disease: Nature Class - March 1997.
  • Stafford, Kirby C. III: Tick Bite Prevention, Connecticut Department of Public Health, Feb.^ Black-legged ticks are also carriers of a disease called human granulocytic erlichiosus or HGE. Some persons infected with Lyme disease have also contracted HGE, possibly as the result of the same tick bite.
    • Ticks & Mites Pest Library: Dog Ticks, Bird Mites, Ticks Carrying Lyme Disease & Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.terminix-triad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Through this lens, Lyme disease is a ferocious malady that is on the march north.
    • Tale of the Tick: How Lyme Disease is Expanding Northward | Northern Woodlands Magazine 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC northernwoodlands.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ticks not only carry Lyme disease, they can also carry Bartonella, Babesia, Erlichia, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and a number of other infections.

    1999.
  • Fivaz, B., T. Petney, and I. Horak. .1993. Tick Vector Biology: Medical and Veterinary Aspects.^ A concise review of tick biology, management, and medical importance was provided by Goddard (1989).
    • Nature & Science » Biology Resources » Integrated Pest Management Manual 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nature.nps.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In this article, you will find info on: tick biology and habits , identification of the two major families of ticks , ticks as vectors of Lyme Disease (and other diseases) and tick extermination .
    • Ticks: Identification, Tick Control, Lyme Disease 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.pestproducts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Springer. .ISBN 0-387-54045-8.
  • TickEncounter.org University of Rhode Island site with tick and tick-borne disease information *Ticks in Kansas, Kansas State University
  • Mites and Ticks chapter in United States Environmental Protection Agency and University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences National Public Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual on the UF/IFAS Featured Creatures Web site
  • Dermacentor variabilis, American dog tick
  • Ixodes scapularis, blacklegged or deer tick
  • Rhipicephalus sanguineus, brown dog tick
  • Wikisource-logo.svg "ticks". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.^ Deer ticks ( Ixodes sp .
    • Ticks, Lyme Disease and Bluebirding 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sialis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The disease is known to be spread by the brown dog tick.

    ^ Brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus Figure 309 .
    • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 9 part 3] Pests Attacking Mand and His Pets 11 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.entomology.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ). 1911. 

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