From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tick-borne meningoencephalitis or
Tick-borne encephalitis is a tick-borne viral infection of the central nervous system affecting
humans as well as most other mammals. It is caused by the tick-borne encephalitis
The number of cases has been increasing in most countries,
The virus can infect the brain (encephalitis), the membrane that surrounds
the brain and spinal cord (meningitis) or both (meningoencephalitis).
It is transmitted by the bite of infected deer- or sheep ticks or
(rarely) through the non-pasteurized milk of infected cows. Sexual transmission has been
documented in mice with vertical transmission to progeny. Sexual
transmission with humans has never been documented.
Ticks involved in transmission include Ixodes
persulcatus and Ixodes ricinus.
Russia and Europe report between 10-12,000 human cases annually.
The disease is incurable once manifest, but infection can be
prevented by vaccination. In humans, the disease is
lethal in approximately 1% of cases and leaves 10-20% of its
survivors with permanent neurological damage. 
The former Soviet Union did a great deal of research on all tick
borne disease including TBE viruses.
The TBE virus may be present in a seronegative strain or
subtype. In such cases a marker for TBE infection is elevated IFN-g
There are four main categories of treatment for TBE:
treatment (similar to interferon used for the treatment of Hepatitis C)
- antibiotic treatment for possible tickborne coinfections
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encephalitis". Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am.
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