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Tie (typography): Wikis

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Punctuation

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colon ( : )
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quotation marks ( ‘ ’, “ ” )
semicolon ( ; )
slash/stroke ( / )
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Word dividers
spaces ( ) () () ( ) () () ()
interpunct ( · )
General typography
ampersand ( & )
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asterisk ( * )
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currency generic: ( ¤ )
specific: ฿, ¢, $, , ƒ, , , , £, , ¥, , ,
daggers ( , )
degree ( ° )
ditto mark ( )
inverted exclamation mark ( ¡ )
inverted question mark ( ¿ )
number sign/pound/hash ( # )
numero sign ( )
ordinal indicator (º, ª)
percent (etc.) ( %, ‰, )
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service mark ( )
sound recording copyright symbol ( )
tilde ( ~ )
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underscore/understrike ( _ )
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Uncommon typography
asterism ( )
falsum ( )
index/fist ( )
therefore sign ( )
because sign ( )
interrobang ( )
irony mark/percontation point ( ؟ )
lozenge ( )
reference mark ( )
tie ( )

The tie is a symbol in the shape of an arc similar to a large breve, used in Ancient Greek, phonetic alphabets, and Z notation. It can be used between two characters with spacing as punctuation, or non-spacing as a diacritic. It can be above or below, and reversed. Its forms are called tie, double breve, enotikon, ligature tie, papyrological hyphen, and undertie.

Various forms of the tie.

Contents

Ancient Greek

Papyrological hyphen or enotikon can be found on Greek as written on papyri, before space was invented.[1] The enotikon ("uniter"), is used as a word non-divider, similar to hyphen, as opposed to the hypodiastole used as a word divider. The enotikon can be both spacing and non-spacing. On computers both characters U+203F (UNDERTIE) and U+035C (COMBINING DOUBLE BREVE BELOW) can be used[2][3]

Enotikon was also used in Ancient Greek music notation, as a slur under two notes. When a syllable was sung with three notes, this slur was used in combination with a double point and a diseme over the notes.[3]

International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet uses two type of ties : the ligature tie (IPA #433), above or below two symbols ; and the undertie (IPA #509) between two symbols.

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Ligature tie

The ligature tie, also called double inverted breve, is used to represent double articulation (e.g. [k͡p]), affricates (e.g. [t͡ʃ]) or prenasalized consonant (e.g. [m͡b]) in the IPA. It is mostly found above but can also be found below when more suitable (e.g. [k͜p]).

On computers it is encoded with characters U+0361 (COMBINING DOUBLE INVERTED BREVE) and U+035C (COMBINING DOUBLE BREVE BELOW).

Undertie

The undertie is used to represent linking (absence of a break) in the IPA. For example it is used to indicate liaison (e.g. /vuz‿ave/) but can also be used for other types of sandhi.

On computers the characters used is U+203F (UNDERTIE), a spacing character, which is not to be confused with U+035C (COMBINING DOUBLE BREVE BELOW), a combining diacritic, used as an alternative to the ligature tie U+0361 (COMBINING DOUBLE INVERTED BREVE).[4]

Uralic Phonetic Alphabet

The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet uses several forms of the tie or double breve[5][6]:

  • The triple inverted breve or triple breve below indicates a triphthong
  • The double inverted breve, also known as the ligature tie, marks a diphthong
  • The double inverted breve below indicates a syllable boundary between vowels
  • The undertie is used for prosody
  • The inverted undertie is used for prosody.

American Heritage Dictionary

The double breve is used in the phonetic notation of the American Heritage Dictionary in combination with a double o, o͝o, to represent the near-close near-back vowel (ʊ in IPA).[7]

Rheinische Dokumenta

The triple breve below is used in the phonetic writing Rheinische Dokumenta for three letter combinations.[8]

Z notation

The character tie is used for sequence concatenation in Z notation. It is encoded with U+2040 (CHARACTER TIE) in Unicode. For example "s⁀t" represents the concationation sequence of sequences called s and t; and the notation "⁀/q" is the distributed concatenation of the sequence of sequences called q.[9]

Encoding tie

name character HTML code Unicode sample
non-spacing
double breve  ͝  ͝ U+035D o͝o
ligature tie  ͡  ͡ U+0361 /k͡p/
ligature tie below,
enotikon
 ͜  ͜ U+035C /k͜p/
spacing
undertie,
enotikon
‿ U+203F /vuz‿ave/
tie ⁀ U+2040 s⁀t
inverted undertie ⁔ U+2054 o⁔o

The diacritic signs triple inverted breve, triple breve, and double inverted breve have not yet been encoded for computers.

Unicode has characters similar to the tie :

  • Top parenthesis, ⏜ U+23DC, and Bottom parenthesis, ⏝ U+23DD
  • Frown, ⌢ U+2322, and Smile, ⌣ U+2323.

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Greek /h/, by Nick Nicholas.
  2. ^ Punctuation, by Nick Nicholas.
  3. ^ a b Ancient Greek music, Martin Litchfield West, 1994, p. 267.
  4. ^ SC2/WG2 N2594 - Proposal to encode combining double breve below
  5. ^ Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS, 2002-03-20.
  6. ^ Proposal to encode additional characters for the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet, Klaas Ruppel, Tero Aalto, Michael Everson, 2009-01-27.
  7. ^ Proposal for 3 Additional Double Diacritics, 2002-05-10.
  8. ^ Proposal to encode a combining diacritical mark for Low German dialect writing, Karl Pentzlin, 2008-10-25
  9. ^ The Z Notation: a reference manual, J. M. Spivey.

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