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Tiger
.A Bengal Tiger (P. tigris tigris) in India's Bandhavgarh National Park.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , captive animals, umbilical hernia, surgical repair, ketamine hydrochloride immobilization, Mysore Zoo, Karnataka, India.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Das , S.C. Biodiversity in Buxa Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India : an overview.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , tiger populations monitoring, field methods, nature reserves, wildlife conservation, Dudhwa National Park, Buxa Tiger Reserve, India.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Felidae
Genus: Panthera
Species: P. tigris
Binomial name
Panthera tigris
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Subspecies
P. t. tigris
P. t. corbetti
Panthera tigris jacksoni
P. t. sumatrae
.Panthera tigris altaica
Panthera tigris amoyensis
Panthera tigris virgata
P. t.
^ Potential use of a vasectomized male for artificial insemination of the Amur tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica ) during natural estrus.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris amoyensis , captive status, endangered species status, breeding, pedigree analysis, China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ [Effect of an active search for food with feeding boxes on the stereotypic pacing in Siberian tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica ) in the Zoo Zurich .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

balica

P. t. sondaica
.Historical distribution of tigers (pale yellow) and 2006 (green).^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris corbetti , distributed on Malay Peninsula, historical hunting to extinction, man eating activities and behaviors, conservation, Malaysia .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[2]
Synonyms
Felis tigris Linnaeus, 1758[3]
Tigris striatus Severtzov, 1858
Tigris regalis Gray, 1867
.The tiger (Panthera tigris) is a member of the Felidae family; the largest of the four "big cats" in the genus Panthera.^ On the occurrence of the tiger Panthera tigris in Sikkim .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Tigers belong to the Class Carnivora; the Family Felidae; The Subfamily Pantherae, the Genus Panthera, and the species tigris.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Indochinese tiger: Panthera tigris corbetti .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[4] .Native to much of eastern and southern Asia, the tiger is an apex predator and an obligate carnivore.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , predator/prey populations, human caused depletion of prey, implications for conservation of mammalian predators, implication for survival, Asia .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As you might expect from the name, the South China tiger is found in southern regions of central and eastern China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Reaching up to 3.3 metres (11 ft) in total length and weighing up to 300 kilograms (660 pounds), the larger tiger subspecies are comparable in size to the biggest extinct felids.^ The males only weigh 220-300 pounds.
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^ Sadly, three tiger subspecies are considered to have become extinct in the past 70 years of the 20 th Century.
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^ A female of this subspecies on a verage weighs between 221 and 254 pounds while the male is somewhat heavier at 287 to 386 pounds.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[5][6] Aside from their great bulk and power, their most recognisable feature is a pattern of dark vertical stripes that overlays near-white to reddish-orange fur, with lighter underparts. .The most numerous tiger subspecies is the Bengal tiger while the largest subspecies is the Siberian tiger.^ The Bengal tiger is the more numerous of tigers.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris subspecies, 6 South China tigers, 13 Siberian tigers, 3 Bengal tigers, anesthesia, anesthetics, ketamine, ketamine + diazepam, xylazine, xylazine compound, Lumianning, 846 complex, efficacy, subspecies comparisons of effects.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Panthera species and subspecies, Siberian tigers, Bengal tigers, jaguars, leopards, black panthers, lions, anesthesic efficacy of Lumianning, effects, good sedation, analgesic, muscle relaxant, minor side effects, species and subspecies differences, neuroleptics.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Highly adaptable, tigers range from the Siberian taiga, to open grasslands, to tropical mangrove swamps. .They are territorial and generally solitary animals, often requiring large contiguous areas of habitat that support their prey demands.^ Because these cats are so large, they require large species of prey animals.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As you imagine, tigers naturally travel over large areas in search of prey.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , wild animals, identification of possible future conservation areas, priority setting, habitat identification for tigers, Paleartic region, Orient, Asia .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This, coupled with the fact that they are endemic to some of the more densely populated places on earth, has caused significant conflicts with humans.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , predator/prey populations, human caused depletion of prey, implications for conservation of mammalian predators, implication for survival, Asia .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ (Java, with an area of 132,000 kilometers and a population in excess of 130 million people, is the most densely populated island on Earth).
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris altaica , wild populations, disturbance by human activitives, population levels, population density, animal/human conflicts, Tumen River Basin , China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Of the nine subspecies of modern tiger, three are extinct and the remaining six are classified as endangered, some critically so.^ This tiger is viewed as the most critically endangered of all the living tiger subspecies.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Sadly, three tiger subspecies are considered to have become extinct in the past 70 years of the 20 th Century.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The plan is for the management of three subspecies—the Amur, Sumatran, and Indochinese tigers.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The primary direct causes are habitat destruction and fragmentation, and hunting.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris amoyensis , data from local people, transect population sampling, tiger populations, endangered species, forest fragmentation, destruction of habitats, hunting, poaching, Yihuang Provincial Reserve, Jiangxi Province, China.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Their historical range once stretched from Mesopotamia and the Caucasus through most of South and East Asia.^ The Caspian tiger once ranged over large parts of the Middle East.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Tigers have historically lived in a wide variety of climates and habitats from Turkey east to China and from Siberia south to the Indonesian islands.
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Today it has been radically reduced. .While all surviving species are under formal protection, poaching, habitat destruction and inbreeding depression continue to threaten the species.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris tigris , endangered species, threatened populations, forest, fragmentation, habitat destruction, reduced gene flow, probability of in-breeding, nature reserves, population change, reviews, wildlife conservation and management, Nepal.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ There is continued pressure due to population expansion into the tiger’s habitat as well as the loss of larger prey species.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris tigris , endangered species, threatened forest populations, forest fragmentation, habitat destruction, reduced gene flow, probability of in-breeding, nature-reserves, population change, reviews, wildlife conservation and management, Nepal.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Tigers are among the most recognisable and popular of the world's charismatic megafauna. They have featured prominently in ancient mythology and folklore, and continue to be depicted in modern films and literature. .Tigers appear on many flags and coats of arms, as mascots for sporting teams, and as the national animal of several Asian nations, including India [7].^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , endangered animals, wildlife conservation, national parks and reserves, descriptions of habitats, importance of various reserves, Sariska and Ranthambhore, Rajasthan.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Biswas, S.; Sankar, K. Prey abundance and food habit of tigers ( Panthera tigris tigris ) in Pench National Park , Madhya Pradesh , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , population density trends, wildlife conservation, national parks and reserves, Maharashtra , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Naming and etymology

.The word "tiger" is taken from the Greek word "tigris", which is possibly derived from a Persian source meaning "arrow", a reference to the animal's speed and also the origin for the name of the Tigris river.^ In this document these animals will be referred to as Panthera tigris.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris altaica , wild populations, disturbance by human activitives, population levels, population density, animal/human conflicts, Tumen River Basin , China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris altaica , wild populations, disturbance by human activitives, population levels, population density, human/animal conflicts, Tumen River Basin , China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[8][9] .In American English, "Tigress" was first recorded in 1611. It was one of the many species originally described, as Felis tigris, by Linnaeus in his 18th century work, Systema Naturae.^ Many US zoos are involved in the North American Tiger Species Survival Plan (SSP).
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , tiger hunting, wildlife hunting, historical work, 20 th century, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In vitro fertilization has been successful in at least one-third of wild cat species and kittens were born after transfer of Indian desert cat ( Felis sylvestris ornata ) embryos into a domestic cat and con-specific transfer of tiger ( Panthera tigris ) embryos.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[3][10] .The generic component of its scientific designation, Panthera tigris, is often presumed to derive from Greek pan- ("all") and theron ("beast"), but this may be a folk etymology.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris bengalensis , captive animals, animal welfare, transport concerns, crate design, neuroleptics, vehicles, Mysore Zoo to Thiruvananthapuram Zoo.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , captive animals, caging environment, housing techniques, air conditioning system design and installation, comfortable quarters, zoos.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , zoo enclosures and housing design, housing techniques, zoos and wildlife parks, Nandankanan Zoological Park , enclosure design, Orissa , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Although it came into English through the classical languages, panthera is probably of East Asian origin, meaning "the yellowish animal," or "whitish-yellow."[11]
A group of tigers[12] is rare (see below), but when seen together is termed a 'streak' or an 'ambush'.
Range of the tiger including the western part 1900 and 1990

Range and habitat

.In the past, the tiger's range was widespread in Asia, from the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea to Siberia and Indonesia.^ The Caspian tiger once ranged over large parts of the Middle East.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

During the 19th century, these cats completely vanished from western Asia, and became restricted to isolated pockets in the remaining parts of their range. Today, their range is fragmented, and extends from India in the west to China and Southeast Asia in the east. The northern limit is close to the Amur River in south eastern Siberia. .The only large island inhabited by tigers today is Sumatra.^ Approximately 400 wild Sumatran tigers are living today, primarily in the five national parks on the Indonesian island of Sumatra .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Sumatran tiger is found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra in habitat that ranges from low-land forest to sub-mountain and mountain forest with some peat-moss forest.
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^ These tigers were only found in the wild on the tiny Indonesian island of Bali .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Tigers vanished from Java and Bali during the 20th century, and in Borneo are known only from fossil remains.^ These tigers were only found in the wild on the tiny Indonesian island of Bali .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Sadly, the only known item remaining of this animal is one 1925 photograph of a dead animal hanging from a pole!
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^ Like its neighbors on the islands of Java and Sumatra, the Bali nese tiger (technical name Panthera tigris balica ) benefited, to a degree, by virtue of its geographic isolation.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

young male tiger swimming
.Tiger habitats will usually include sufficient cover, proximity to water, and an abundance of prey sources.^ Biswas, S.; Sankar, K. Prey abundance and food habit of tigers ( Panthera tigris tigris ) in Pench National Park , Madhya Pradesh , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Field surveys: assessing relative abundance of tigers and prey.
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^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , mammalian predators, field survey methods for predator and mammalian prey relative abundances assessment.
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.Bengal Tigers live in many types of forests, including wet; evergreen; the semi-evergreen of Assam and eastern Bengal; the mangrove forest of the Ganges Delta; the deciduous forest of Nepal, and the thorn forests of the Western Ghats.^ The Bengal tiger lives in a wide range of habitats, including the high altitude, cold, coniferous Himalayan forests, the steaming mangroves of the Sunderbans, the swampy reed lands, the scorched hills of the Indian peninsula, the lush wet forests of Northern India, and the arid forests of Rajasthan.
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^ Subba Rao, Madireddi V. Conserving biodiversity in the species-rich forests of Andhra Pradesh in Eastern Ghats, India.
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^ Gogoi, B.K. Immobilization of a free ranging royal Bengal tiger ( Panthera tigris tigris ) at Tezpur , Assam .
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.Compared to the lion, the tiger prefers denser vegetation, for which its camouflage colouring is ideally suited, and where a single predator is not at a disadvantage compared with the multiple felines in a pride.^ Detection of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in Stored Specimens from Large Cats ( Lions and Tigers ) .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Among the big cats, only the tiger and jaguar are strong swimmers; tigers are often found bathing in ponds, lakes, and rivers.^ Hyoid apparatus and pharynx in the lion ( Panthera leo ), jaguar ( Panthera onca ), tiger ( Panthera tigris ), cheetah ( Acinonyx jubatus ) and domestic cat ( Felis silvestris f.
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^ There are still leopards on Java and the big cats signs of pug marks and tree scratches have been attributed to these animals by The Tiger Foundation.
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^ Only Bengal tigers have been found with the white color coat.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Unlike other cats, which tend to avoid water, tigers actively seek it out.^ Other groups taking a active role in trying to protect the wild tigers are the Hornocker Wildlife Institute-Wildlife Conservation Society (HWI-WCS) and the Tigris Society.
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During the extreme heat of the day, they often cool off in pools. Tigers are excellent swimmers and can swim up to 4 miles. This cat will also carry their dead prey across lakes.

Physical characteristics, taxonomy and evolution

.The oldest remains of a tiger-like cat, called Panthera palaeosinensis, have been found in China and Java.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris amoyensis , captive status, endangered species status, breeding, pedigree analysis, China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , nature reserves, conservation, status, Meihuashan National Nature Reserve, Fujian Province , China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: lentivirus, Felis concolor , puma, tigers, Panthera tigris , lions, Panthera leo , leopard, Neofelis nebulosa , Lynx lynx , bob cat, Lynx rufus , Chinese leopard cat, Felis p.
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.This species lived about 2 million years ago, at the beginning of the Pleistocene, and was smaller than a modern tiger.^ Miacids lived when the dinosaurs roamed the earth--about 60 million years ago.
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^ This Iranian site has information about the Caspian tiger subspecies and where it lived in that area.
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^ As with many species that adapt to islands, these tigers were reported to have been smaller, darker, and have a greater density of thinner stripes than their cousins.
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The earliest fossils of true tigers are known from Java, and are between 1.6 and 1.8 million years old. Distinct fossils from the early and middle Pleistocene were also discovered in deposits from China, and Sumatra. .A subspecies called the Trinil tiger (Panthera tigris trinilensis) lived about 1.2 million years ago and is known fossils found at Trinil in Java.^ The Sumatran tiger is the smallest of the living tiger subspecies.
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^ Sumatran tiger: Panthera tigris sumatrae .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ On the occurrence of the tiger Panthera tigris in Sikkim .
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[13]
.Tigers first reached India and northern Asia in the late Pleistocene, reaching eastern Beringia (but not the American Continent), Japan, and Sakhalin.^ Johnsingh, A.J.T.; Negi, A.S. Status of tiger and leopard in Rajaji-Corbett Conservation Unit, northern India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Fossils found in Japan indicate that the local tigers were, like the surviving island subspecies, smaller than the mainland forms.^ As with many species that adapt to islands, these tigers were reported to have been smaller, darker, and have a greater density of thinner stripes than their cousins.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ At that time, few tigers could be found on the island, and trends in the decline indicated the likely extinction of the subspecies within a decade-due completely to the corruption of their habitat by the population crush of humans.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In genetic terms, the Javan tiger could have supplied an opportunity for research as valuable as that of the Bali and Sumatran subspecies, had any of its progeny survived.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

This may be due to the phenomenon in which body size is related to environmental space (see insular dwarfism), or perhaps the availability of prey. .Until the Holocene, tigers also lived in Borneo, as well as on the island of Palawan in the Philippines.^ Approximately 400 wild Sumatran tigers are living today, primarily in the five national parks on the Indonesian island of Sumatra .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Tigers have historically lived in a wide variety of climates and habitats from Turkey east to China and from Siberia south to the Indonesian islands.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Balinese tiger once lived on the island of Bali , where the last tiger was believed to have been killed in 1937.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[14]

Physical characteristics

Siberian tiger
.Tigers are among the most recognisable of all the cats.^ You can certainly recognize that this cat is a tiger but it does have some coat color differences from the Indian tigers that we see most commonly in zoos.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This curious subspecies (technical name Panthera tigris virgata ) was once the western-most of all wild tiger subspecies.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This tiger is viewed as the most critically endangered of all the living tiger subspecies.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

They typically have rusty-reddish to brown-rusty coats, a whitish medial and ventral area, a white "fringe" that surrounds the face, and stripes that vary from brown or gray to pure black. .The form and density of stripes differs between subspecies (as well as the ground coloration of the fur; for instance, Siberian tigers are usually paler than other tiger subspecies), but most tigers have over 100 stripes.^ Savant, P.V. Status of tigers within protected areas (other than tigers reserves) in Mizoram.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This tiger is viewed as the most critically endangered of all the living tiger subspecies.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The coat color is similar to the other Asian tigers, but they have very short, broad stripes spaced far apart compared to those of Bengal and Siberian tigers.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The pattern of stripes is unique to each animal, and thus could potentially be used to identify individuals, much in the same way that fingerprints are used to identify people.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , individual identification techniques, self-activated camera traps, unique facial and stripe patterns, problems with the method.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This is not, however, a preferred method of identification, due to the difficulty of recording the stripe pattern of a wild tiger.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , Panthera uncial , foot print identification method, population survey, identification techniques for individual animals.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , leopards, Panthera pardus , feeding behavior, prey preferences, wild animals, Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , wild animals, identification of possible future conservation areas, priority setting, habitat identification for tigers, Paleartic region, Orient, Asia .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It seems likely that the function of stripes is camouflage, serving to help tigers conceal themselves amongst the dappled shadows and long grass of their environment as they stalk their prey.^ They can also be active managers and use forest resources sustainably, which will help in the conservation of tigers.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The classifications used to categorize tigers by subspecies were implemented long before the details of genotyping were refined to the degree they have been today.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The stripe pattern is found on a tiger's skin and if shaved, its distinctive camouflage pattern would be preserved.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , individual identification techniques, self-activated camera traps, unique facial and stripe patterns, problems with the method.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Like other big cats, tigers have a white spot on the backs of their ears.^ There are still leopards on Java and the big cats signs of pug marks and tree scratches have been attributed to these animals by The Tiger Foundation.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: cats, behavior, tigers, lions, big cats, little cats, wild cats, effects of domestication.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Tigers (and all other carnivores) descended from civet-like animals called miacids.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

These spots, called ocelli, serve a social function, by communicating the animal's mental state to conspecifics in the gloom of dense forest or in tall grass.
Skeleton
.Tigers have the additional distinction of being the heaviest cats found in the wild.^ Descriptors: cats, behavior, tigers, lions, big cats, little cats, wild cats, effects of domestication.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These tigers were only found in the wild on the tiny Indonesian island of Bali .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ How the South China tiger in wild being in imminent danger - to suggest concurrently the hopeness [hopefulness] of saving this subspecies of tiger .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[15] They also have powerfully built legs and shoulders, with the result that they, like lions, have the ability to pull down prey substantially heavier than themselves. However, the subspecies differ markedly in size, tending to increase proportionally with latitude, as predicted by Bergmann's Rule. .Thus, large male Siberian Tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) can reach a total length of 3.5 m "over curves" (3.3 m.^ Sumatran tiger: Panthera tigris sumatrae .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ On the occurrence of the tiger Panthera tigris in Sikkim .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Actinomycotic mycetoma in the peritoneal cavity of a Siberian tiger ( Panthera tigris altica [ altaica ] ).
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

."between pegs") and a weight of 306 kilograms,[16] which is considerably larger than the sizes reached by island-dwelling tigers such as the Sumatran, the smallest living subspecies with a body weight of only 75–140 kg.^ The Sumatran tiger is the smallest of the living tiger subspecies.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Similar to the Sumatran and Bali subspecies of tiger, the Javan tiger, Panthera tigris sondaica , was uniquely isolated in both geographic and political terms to a single water-locked island.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This Iranian site has information about the Caspian tiger subspecies and where it lived in that area.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[16] .Tigresses are smaller than the males in each subspecies, although the size difference between male and female tigers tends to be more pronounced in the larger subspecies of tiger, with males weighing up to 1.7 times as much as the females.^ Descriptors: Sumatran tigers, Panthera tigris sumatrae , zoo housing, more natural open air space, influence on behavior of enclosure size and design, environmental enrichment, 4 week behavioral observation after introduction, female adapted, male shows stereotypical movements, Heidelberg Zoo, Germany.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Indochinese subspecies is smaller and darker than the Bengal .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As with many species that adapt to islands, these tigers were reported to have been smaller, darker, and have a greater density of thinner stripes than their cousins.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[17] .In addition, male tigers have wider forepaw pads than females.^ Behavioral differences of male and female Amur tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica ) in captivity.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Time budget of behavior and activity rhythm between male and female amur tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica ) under enclosed habitat.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The length of tigers is about 8-8 ½ feet for females, but males can grow to slightly over 10 feet.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This difference is often used by biologists in determining the gender of tigers when observing their tracks.^ Sharma, Sandeep; Jhala, Yadvendradev; Sawarkar, Vishwas B. Gender discrimination of tigers by using their pugmarks.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , recognizing males and females, gender metrics, discrimination, footprint measurements, tracks, size.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[18] .The skull of the tiger is very similar to that of the lion, though the frontal region is usually not as depressed or flattened, with a slightly longer postorbital region.^ These tigers were adapted to inhabit this very arid region.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The coat color is similar to the other Asian tigers, but they have very short, broad stripes spaced far apart compared to those of Bengal and Siberian tigers.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

The lion's skull has broader nasal openings. However, due to the amount of skull variation in the two species, usually, only the structure of the lower jaw can be used as a reliable indicator of species.[19]

Subspecies

A Bengal tigress with her cub.
.There are nine recent subspecies of tiger, three of which are extinct.^ Sadly, three tiger subspecies are considered to have become extinct in the past 70 years of the 20 th Century.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Genetic variability and geographic structure of three subspecies of tigers ( Panthera tigris ) based on MHC class I variation.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Currently living populations: Bengal tiger: Panthera tigris tigris Indochinese tiger: Panthera tigris corbetti Siberian (Amur) tiger: Panthera tigris altaica South China tiger: Panthera tigris amoyensis Sumatran tiger: Panthera tigris sumatrae Recently extinct subspecies: .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Their historical range (severely diminished today) ran through Bangladesh, Siberia, Iran, Afghanistan, India, China, and southeast Asia, including some Indonesian islands.^ Its home range included Afghanistan , Iran , Iraq , Turkey , and portions of Russia .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Javan tiger ranged on the Indonesian island of Java .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Sumatran tiger is found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra in habitat that ranges from low-land forest to sub-mountain and mountain forest with some peat-moss forest.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

The surviving subspecies, in descending order of wild population, are:
.
  • The Bengal tiger or the Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is the most common subspecies of tiger and is found primarily in India and Bangladesh.^ On the occurrence of the tiger Panthera tigris in Sikkim .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Bengal tiger, Royal Bengal tiger, and Indian tiger: Panthera tigris tigris .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Indochinese tiger: Panthera tigris corbetti .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [20] .It lives in varied habitats: grasslands, subtropical and tropical rainforests, scrub forests, wet and dry deciduous forests, and mangroves.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , prey availability, food habits, behaviors, activity patterns within home range, distribution in habitat, tropical dry forest, Panna Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh , India .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Estimation of tiger densities in the tropical dry forests of Panna, Central India , using photographic capture-recapture sampling.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Bagchi, S.; Goyal, S.P.; Sankar, K. Prey abundance and prey selection by tigers ( Panthera tigris ) in a semi-arid, dry deciduous forest in western India .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Males in the wild usually weigh 205 to 227 kg (450 to 500 lb), while the average female will weigh about 141 kg.^ The females weigh between 220-290 pounds and are about 7 ½ feet long.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ After about 103 days of gestation, female tigers of all the subspecies produce a litter of between 1 and 5 cubs (2-3 is average).
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The males weigh about 330-430 pounds and grow to between 8 ½ feet to about 9 ½ feet.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [21] .However, the northern Indian and the Nepalese Bengal tigers are somewhat bulkier than those found in the south of the Indian Subcontinent, with males averaging around 235 kilograms (520 lb).^ Tiger ecology and conservation in the Indian Subcontinent.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Wild tiger ecology & conservation in the Indian subcontinent eco-region.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ As you might expect from the name, the South China tiger is found in southern regions of central and eastern China .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [21] While conservationists already believed the population to be below 2,000,[22] the most recent audit by the Indian Government's National Tiger Conservation Authority has estimated the number at just 1,411 wild tigers (1165–1657 allowing for statistical error), a drop of 60% in the past decade.[23] .Since 1972, there has been a massive wildlife conservation project, known as Project Tiger, to protect the Bengal tiger.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris tigris , endangered species, wildlife conservation, habitat loss, Russia Federation, Russian Far East.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Descriptors: Rhinoceros , Panthera tigris , tigers, endangered species, wildlife conservation, laws and regulations.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , endangered animals, wildlife conservation, national parks and reserves, descriptions of habitats, importance of various reserves, Sariska and Ranthambhore, Rajasthan.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Despite increased efforts by Indian officials, poaching remains rampant and at least one Tiger Reserve (Sariska Tiger Reserve) has lost its entire tiger population to poaching.^ Men and tigers in Sariska Tiger Reserve, India .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , tiger populations monitoring, field methods, nature reserves, wildlife conservation, Dudhwa National Park, Buxa Tiger Reserve, India.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Descriptors: tigers, Mammalia, population levels, abundance, forests, woodlands, annotated records, Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, Mundanthurai Plateau, Tamil Nadu, India .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [24]
.
Indochinese tiger
  • The Indochinese Tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti), also called Corbett's tiger, is found in Cambodia, China, Laos, Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam.^ On the occurrence of the tiger Panthera tigris in Sikkim .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Indochinese tiger: Panthera tigris corbetti .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Sumatran tiger: Panthera tigris sumatrae .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .These tigers are smaller and darker than Bengal tigers: Males weigh from 150–190 kg (330–420 lb) while females are smaller at 110–140 kg (240–310 lb).^ The Indochinese subspecies is smaller and darker than the Bengal .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Behavioral differences of male and female Amur tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica ) in captivity.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A female will range from 39 to over 150 square miles and the males can range from 300-390 square miles.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Their preferred habitat is forests in mountainous or hilly regions.^ It is suspected that there are between 1,200 and 1,800 Indochinese tigers roaming the remote forests in hilly to mountainous terrain, much of which lies along the borders between countries.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Sumatran tiger is found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra in habitat that ranges from low-land forest to sub-mountain and mountain forest with some peat-moss forest.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Estimates of the Indochinese tiger population vary between 1,200 to 1,800, with only several hundred left in the wild.^ Sawarkar, V.B. Estimation of tiger population in the wild .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , phenotypic characteristics, size, body and skull measurements, color, markings, wild animals, individual variations, population distribution, phenotypic variation, conservation concerns, strategies based on variations, Palearctic regions.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The domestic cat is not only a valuable model for development of in vitro techniques but may serve as a recipient of embryos from several species of small wild cats.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .All existing populations are at extreme risk from poaching, prey depletion as a result of poaching of primary prey species such as deer and wild pigs, habitat fragmentation and inbreeding.^ It is known that they eat larger prey such as wild pigs, deer and cattle.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris tigris , endangered species, threatened populations, forest, fragmentation, habitat destruction, reduced gene flow, probability of in-breeding, nature reserves, population change, reviews, wildlife conservation and management, Nepal.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , wild animals, endangered species status, population levels, conservation measures, China .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    In Vietnam, almost three-quarters of the tigers killed provide stock for Chinese pharmacies.
.
Malayan tiger
  • The Malayan Tiger (Panthera tigris jacksoni), exclusively found in the southern part of the Malay Peninsula, was not considered a subspecies in its own right until 2004. The new classification came about after a study by Luo et al.^ Sumatran tiger: Panthera tigris sumatrae .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ On the occurrence of the tiger Panthera tigris in Sikkim .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Indochinese tiger: Panthera tigris corbetti .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    from the .Laboratory of Genomic Diversity Study,[25] part of the National Cancer Institute of the United States.^ United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service National Agricultural Library Animal Welfare Information Center .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Recent counts showed there are 600–800 tigers in the wild, making it the third largest tiger population, behind the Bengal tiger and the Indochinese tiger.^ Sawarkar, V.B. Estimation of tiger population in the wild .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , tigers, conservation programs, Project Tiger, 29 tiger reserves, 1,800 wild tigers, conservation measures and strategies, animal distribution, India.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , endangered species, conservation measures, current wild populations, proposed future conservation actions.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .The Malayan tiger is the smallest of the mainland tiger subspecies, and the second smallest living subspecies, with males averaging about 120 kg and females about 100 kg in weight.^ The Sumatran tiger is the smallest of the living tiger subspecies.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This tiger is viewed as the most critically endangered of all the living tiger subspecies.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ An average female only weighs165-243 pounds and is about 7 to 7 ½ feet long.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    The Malayan tiger is a national icon in Malaysia, appearing on its coat of arms and in logos of Malaysian institutions, such as Maybank.
.
Sumatran tiger
  • The Sumatran Tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) is found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, and is critically endangered.^ Sumatran tiger: Panthera tigris sumatrae .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ On the occurrence of the tiger Panthera tigris in Sikkim .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ International co-operative efforts to save the Sumatran tiger Panthera tigris sumatrae.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [26] .It is the smallest of all living tiger subspecies, with adult males weighing between 100–140 kg (220–310 lb) and females 75–110 kg (170–240 lb).^ The Sumatran tiger is the smallest of the living tiger subspecies.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This tiger is viewed as the most critically endangered of all the living tiger subspecies.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Behavioral differences of male and female Amur tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica ) in captivity.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [27] .Their small size is an adaptation to the thick, dense forests of the island of Sumatra where they reside, as well as the smaller-sized prey.^ The Sumatran tiger is found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra in habitat that ranges from low-land forest to sub-mountain and mountain forest with some peat-moss forest.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .The wild population is estimated at between 400 and 500, seen chiefly in the island's national parks.^ Sawarkar, V.B. Estimation of tiger population in the wild .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , tiger populations monitoring, field methods, nature reserves, wildlife conservation, Dudhwa National Park, Buxa Tiger Reserve, India.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Descriptors: wild tigers, Panthera tigris , conservation measures and accommodations, list of nature reserves and national parks, natural history, population levels, photo identification of individuals, Rajasthan, Ranthambhore , India .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Recent genetic testing has revealed the presence of unique genetic markers, indicating that it may develop into a separate species, if it does not go extinct.^ The domestic cat is not only a valuable model for development of in vitro techniques but may serve as a recipient of embryos from several species of small wild cats.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [28] .This has led to suggestions that Sumatran tigers should have greater priority for conservation than any other subspecies.^ In situ conservation of the Sumatran tiger in Indonesia .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Sumatran tiger is the smallest of the living tiger subspecies.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Sumatran tigers: from PHVA to conservation action .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    While habitat destruction is the main threat to existing tiger population (logging continues even in the supposedly protected national parks), 66 tigers were recorded as being shot and killed between 1998 and 2000, or nearly 20% of the total population.
.
Siberian tiger
  • The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), also known as the Amur, Manchurian, Altaic, Korean or North China tiger, is confined to the Amur-Ussuri region of Primorsky Krai and Khabarovsk Krai in far eastern Siberia, where it is now protected.^ Descriptors: Amur tigers, Panthera tigris altaica , wild animals, conservation measures, Primorski Krai , Russia .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ On the occurrence of the tiger Panthera tigris in Sikkim .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Actinomycotic mycetoma in the peritoneal cavity of a Siberian tiger ( Panthera tigris altica [ altaica ] ).
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Considered the largest subspecies, it had a head and body length of 160–180 cm for females and 190–230+ cm for males, plus a tail of about 60–110 cm long (about 270–330 cm in total length) and an average weight of around 227 kilograms (500 lb) for males,[21] the Amur tiger is also noted for its thick coat, distinguished by a paler golden hue and fewer stripes.^ The length of tigers is about 8-8 ½ feet for females, but males can grow to slightly over 10 feet.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Potential use of a vasectomized male for artificial insemination of the Amur tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica ) during natural estrus.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The average weight of females is 220-350 pounds.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .The heaviest wild Siberian tiger on record weighed in at 384 kg,[29] but according to Mazak these giants are not confirmed via reliable references.^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , tigers, conservation programs, Project Tiger, 29 tiger reserves, 1,800 wild tigers, conservation measures and strategies, animal distribution, India.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ These groups are working on population studies, better protection via laws and law enforcement projects for the Amur tigers.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Also included is information on the endangered status of these animals in the wild, discussions of efforts to save them, video footage, and recordings of their vocalizations.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [16] .Even so, a six-month old Siberian tiger can be as big as a fully grown leopard.^ There are still leopards on Java and the big cats signs of pug marks and tree scratches have been attributed to these animals by The Tiger Foundation.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .The last two censuses (1996 and 2005) found 450–500 Amur tigers within their single, and more or less continuous, range making it one of the largest undivided tiger populations in the world.^ Descriptors: Amur tigers, Panthera tigris altaica , endangered species, genetic bottlenecks, patterns and genetic variation, mitochrondrial DNA control region, fecal material sampling, 27 individuals, entire range sampling, far Eastern Russia, low levels of CR haplotype diversity, a single widespread haplotype, two rare variants, more diversity in the captive populations, discussion of potential genetic bias, potential role of captive programs in preserving remnant diversity.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Saberwal, Vasant K. Saving the tiger: more money or less power?
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ They are the largest of the tigers and considered to be the largest cat existing in the world today.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Genetic research in 2009 demonstrated that the Siberian tiger, and the western "Caspian tiger" (once thought to have been a separate subspecies that became extinct in the wild in the late 1950s[30][31]) are actually the same subspecies, since the separation of the two populations may have occurred as recently as the past century due to human intervention.^ Sawarkar, V.B. Estimation of tiger population in the wild .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Is the South China tiger extinct in the wild?
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Currently living populations: Bengal tiger: Panthera tigris tigris Indochinese tiger: Panthera tigris corbetti Siberian (Amur) tiger: Panthera tigris altaica South China tiger: Panthera tigris amoyensis Sumatran tiger: Panthera tigris sumatrae Recently extinct subspecies: .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [32]
.
South China tiger
  • The South China Tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis), also known as the Amoy or Xiamen tiger, is the most critically endangered subspecies of tiger and is listed as one of the 10 most endangered animals in the world.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , captive animals, longevity in captivity.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ On the occurrence of the tiger Panthera tigris in Sikkim .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris amoyensis , endangered species, conservation measures, China .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [33] .One of the smaller tiger subspecies, the length of the South China tiger ranges from 2.2–2.6 m (87–100 in) for both males and females.^ Is the South China tiger extinct in the wild?
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Status and conservation of the south China tiger.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The South China tiger is considered to be the ancestor of all the tiger subspecies.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Males weigh between 127 and 177 kg (280 and 390 lb) while females weigh between 100 and 118 kg (220 and 260 lb).^ The females weigh between 220-290 pounds and are about 7 ½ feet long.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The males only weigh 220-300 pounds.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A female will range from 39 to over 150 square miles and the males can range from 300-390 square miles.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .From 1983 to 2007, no South China tigers were sighted.^ Is the South China tiger extinct in the wild?
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Status and conservation of the south China tiger.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Demographic studies on captive South China tigers.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [34] In 2007 a farmer spotted a tiger and handed in photographs to the authorities as proof.[34][35] The photographs in question, however, were later exposed as fake, copied from a Chinese calendar and photoshopped, and the “sighting” turned into a massive scandal.[36][37][38]
.In 1977, the Chinese government passed a law banning the killing of wild tigers, but this may have been too late to save the subspecies, since it is possibly already extinct in the wild.^ Is the South China tiger extinct in the wild?
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , saving tigers in the wild, conservation measures, conservation strategies and theories, recommendations, conservation successes and failures.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris amoyensis , trade in animals and animal parts, possible extinction of a subspecies, conservation recommendations, number in wild and captivity, conservation significance.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.There are currently 59 known captive South China tigers, all within China, but these are known to be descended from only six animals.^ Demographic studies on captive South China tigers.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Is the South China tiger extinct in the wild?
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The current situation and the pedigree analysis of south China tiger.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Thus, the genetic diversity required to maintain the subspecies may no longer exist.^ Harnal, V.K.; Wildt, D.E.; Bird, D.M.; Monfort, S.L.; Ballou, J.D. Computer simulations to determine the efficacy of different genome resource banking strategies for maintaining genetic diversity.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Currently, there are breeding efforts to reintroduce these tigers to the wild.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , status of animals in the wild, habitat losses, disturbance by humans, conservation efforts, biology, behaviors, habitats.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ There is a current fear about the effects of highly pathogenic avian flu viruses on both wild and captive tiger populations since these viruses have been shown to infect cats.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris tigris , endangered species status, current population status, conservation measures, recommendations to rescue the wild populations, Madhya Pradesh , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Extinct subspecies

.
A hunted down Balinese tiger
  • The Bali Tiger (Panthera tigris balica) was limited to the island of Bali.^ On the occurrence of the tiger Panthera tigris in Sikkim .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Balinese tiger: Panthera balica .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Indochinese tiger: Panthera tigris corbetti .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .They were the smallest of all tiger subspecies, with a weight of 90–100 kg in males and 65–80 kg in females.^ The Sumatran tiger is the smallest of the living tiger subspecies.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ After about 103 days of gestation, female tigers of all the subspecies produce a litter of between 1 and 5 cubs (2-3 is average).
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ There are a number of subspecies of tigers that have been identified and they are as follows: .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [16] .These tigers were hunted to extinction—the last Balinese tiger is thought to have been killed at Sumbar Kima, West Bali on 27 September 1937; this was an adult female.^ The Balinese tiger once lived on the island of Bali , where the last tiger was believed to have been killed in 1937.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , human animal relationship and coexistence, historical perspective, hunting, tiger hunters, human/animal conflicts, historical relationships, killing and coexistence, Indonesia , Malaysia .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris corbetti , distributed on Malay Peninsula, historical hunting to extinction, man eating activities and behaviors, conservation, Malaysia .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .No Balinese tiger was ever held in captivity.^ Research shows that there are no known photos of a live Balinese tiger.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    The tiger still plays an important role in Balinese Hinduism.
.
A photograph of a Javan tiger.
  • The Javan tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica) was limited to the Indonesian island of Java.^ Sumatran tiger: Panthera tigris sumatrae .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ On the occurrence of the tiger Panthera tigris in Sikkim .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Javan tiger ranged on the Indonesian island of Java .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .It now seems likely that this subspecies became extinct in the 1980s, as a result of hunting and habitat destruction, but the extinction of this subspecies was extremely probable from the 1950s onwards (when it is thought that fewer than 25 tigers remained in the wild).^ Is the South China tiger extinct in the wild?
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A century ago there were estimated to be 100,000 tigers in the wild and now there are probably fewer that 5-6,000 remaining.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , status of animals in the wild, habitat losses, disturbance by humans, conservation efforts, biology, behaviors, habitats.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .The last confirmed specimen was sighted in 1979, but there were a few reported sightings during the 1990s.^ There have been recent reports of large cat sightings close to the Caspian Sea coast where the border of Iran and Turkmenistan meet.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [39][40] .With a weight of 100–141 kg for males and 75–115 kg for females, the Javan tiger was one of the smaller subspecies, approximately the same size as the Sumatran tiger.^ The Sumatran tiger is the smallest of the living tiger subspecies.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Descriptors: Sumatran tigers, Panthera tigris sumatrae , zoo housing, more natural open air space, influence on behavior of enclosure size and design, environmental enrichment, 4 week behavioral observation after introduction, female adapted, male shows stereotypical movements, Heidelberg Zoo, Germany.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The plan is for the management of three subspecies—the Amur, Sumatran, and Indochinese tigers.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [citation needed]
A captive Caspian Tiger, Berlin Zoo 1899
.Caspian Tiger (formerly Panthera tigris virgata), also known as the Persian tiger or Turanian tiger was the westernmost population of Siberian tiger, found in Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkey, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, the Caucasus, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan until it apparently became extinct in the late 1950s, though there have been several alleged more recent sightings of the tiger.^ Sumatran tiger: Panthera tigris sumatrae .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ On the occurrence of the tiger Panthera tigris in Sikkim .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Caspian tiger: Panthera virgila .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[31] .Though originally thought to have been a distinct subspecies, genetic research in 2009 suggest that the animal was largely identical to the Siberian tiger.^ In genetic terms, the Javan tiger could have supplied an opportunity for research as valuable as that of the Bali and Sumatran subspecies, had any of its progeny survived.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , subspecies identification, implication of allozyme variations, molecular genetics, mitochrondial DNA, subspecies differences, biochemical differences, voucher specimens of known geographical origin, gene flow, oriental regions.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris ssp., subspecies identification, implication of allozyme variations, molecular genetics, mitochondrial DNA, subspecies differences, biochemical differences, voucher specimens of known geographical origin, gene flow, oriental regions.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[32]

Hybrids

Hybridisation among the big cats, including the tiger, was first conceptualised in the 19th century, when zoos were particularly interested in the pursuit of finding oddities to display for financial gain.[41] .Lions have been known to breed with tigers (most often the Amur and Bengal subspecies) to create hybrids called ligers and tigons.^ Descriptors: Panthera species and subspecies, Siberian tigers, Bengal tigers, jaguars, leopards, black panthers, lions, anesthesic efficacy of Lumianning, effects, good sedation, analgesic, muscle relaxant, minor side effects, species and subspecies differences, neuroleptics.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Currently living populations: Bengal tiger: Panthera tigris tigris Indochinese tiger: Panthera tigris corbetti Siberian (Amur) tiger: Panthera tigris altaica South China tiger: Panthera tigris amoyensis Sumatran tiger: Panthera tigris sumatrae Recently extinct subspecies: .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This tiger is viewed as the most critically endangered of all the living tiger subspecies.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[42] .Such hybrids were once commonly bred in zoos, but this is now discouraged due to the emphasis on conserving species and subspecies.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , zoos and wildlife parks, discussion of role of zoos in species conservation, endangered species of animals, effective conservation of wild animals.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , endangered species status, global efforts, conservation measures, distribution of subspecies, Global forum overview.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Hybrids are still bred in private menageries and in zoos in China.
The liger is a cross between a male lion and a tigress.[43] .Because the lion sire passes on a growth-promoting gene, but the corresponding growth-inhibiting gene from the female tiger is absent, ligers grow far larger than either parent.^ The length of tigers is about 8-8 ½ feet for females, but males can grow to slightly over 10 feet.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

They share physical and behavioural qualities of both parent species (spots and stripes on a sandy background). Male ligers are sterile, but female ligers are often fertile. Males have about a 50% chance of having a mane, but, even if they do, their manes will be only around half the size of that of a pure lion. .Ligers are typically between 10 to 12 feet in length, and can be between 800 and 1,000 pounds or more.^ Their length can vary between 7 to 8 ½ feet.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A male’s length can be from 8 feet 8 inches to 10 feet 9 inches !
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The females weigh between 220-290 pounds and are about 7 ½ feet long.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[43]
.The less common tigon is a cross between the lioness and the male tiger.^ Male Amur tigers are much heavier and average between 420-675 pounds.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Time budget of behavior and activity rhythm between male and female amur tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica ) under enclosed habitat.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[44]

Colour variations

White tigers

A pair of white Bengal tigers at the Singapore Zoo.
.There is a well-known mutation that produces the white tiger, technically known as chinchilla albinistic,[45] an animal which is rare in the wild, but widely bred in zoos due to its popularity.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , status of animals in the wild, habitat losses, disturbance by humans, conservation efforts, biology, behaviors, habitats.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , tigers, conservation programs, Project Tiger, 29 tiger reserves, 1,800 wild tigers, conservation measures and strategies, animal distribution, India.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris tigris , Project Tiger, nature reserves, wild animals, analysis of conservation program, endangered species, degraded forests, fragmentation, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Breeding of white tigers will often lead to inbreeding (as the trait is recessive). Many initiatives have taken place in white and orange tiger mating in an attempt to remedy the issue, often mixing subspecies in the process. .Such inbreeding has led to white tigers having a greater likelihood of being born with physical defects, such as cleft palates and scoliosis (curvature of the spine).^ Tigers are such beautiful and magnificent animals that the real possibility of having any individuals and subspecies sink into extinction is indeed a tragedy!!
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[46][47] .Furthermore, white tigers are prone to having crossed eyes (a condition known as strabismus).^ Descriptors: white Bengal tiger, Panthera tigris , strabismus, vision disorders, color, etiology, case report.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Bernays , M.E. ; Smith, R.I.E. Convergent strabismus in a white Bengal tiger.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Even apparently healthy white tigers generally do not live as long as their orange counterparts. Recordings of white tigers were first made in the early 19th century.[48] .They can only occur when both parents carry the rare gene found in white tigers; this gene has been calculated to occur in only one in every 10,000 births.^ Only Bengal tigers have been found with the white color coat.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Sumatran tiger is found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra in habitat that ranges from low-land forest to sub-mountain and mountain forest with some peat-moss forest.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Prabhakar, B. Birth of white tigers ( Panthera tigris ) in Lucknow Zoo.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The white tiger is not a separate sub-species, but only a colour variation; since the only white tigers that have been observed in the wild have been Bengal tigers[49] (and all white tigers in captivity are at least part Bengal), it is commonly thought that the recessive gene that causes the white colouring is probably carried only by Bengal tigers, although the reasons for this are not known.^ Only Bengal tigers have been found with the white color coat.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris amoyensis , captive status, endangered species status, breeding, pedigree analysis, China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris tigris , endangered species, threatened populations, forest, fragmentation, habitat destruction, reduced gene flow, probability of in-breeding, nature reserves, population change, reviews, wildlife conservation and management, Nepal.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[46][50] Nor are they in any way more endangered than tigers are generally, this being a common misconception. Another misconception is that white tigers are albinos, despite the fact that pigment is evident in the white tiger's stripes. They are distinct not only because of their white hue; they also have blue eyes and pink noses.

Golden tabby tigers

A rare golden tabby/strawberry tiger at the Buffalo Zoo.
In addition, another recessive gene may create a very unusual "golden tabby" colour variation, sometimes known as "strawberry." .Golden tabby tigers have light gold fur, pale legs and faint orange stripes.^ The Amur tiger’s coat is a pale orange color with brown widely spaced stripes.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Their fur tends to be much thicker than normal.[51] There are extremely few golden tabby tigers in captivity, around 30 in all. Like white tigers, strawberry tigers are invariably at least part Bengal. .Some golden tabby tigers, called heterozygous tigers, carry the white tiger gene, and when two such tigers are mated, can produce some stripeless white offspring.^ It has been determined that some individuals carry a recessive gene for a white coat color.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Both white and golden tabby tigers tend to be larger than average Bengal tigers.^ Only Bengal tigers have been found with the white color coat.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: white Bengal tiger, Panthera tigris , strabismus, vision disorders, color, etiology, case report.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Ketz, C.J.; Radlinsky, M.; Armbrust, L.; Carpenter, J.W.; Isaza, R. Persistent right aortic arch and aberrant left subclavian artery in a white Bengal tiger ( Panthera tigris).
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Other colour variations

.There are also unconfirmed reports of a "blue" or slate-coloured tiger, the Maltese Tiger, and largely or totally black tigers, and these are assumed, if real, to be intermittent mutations rather than distinct species.^ There have been recent reports of large cat sightings close to the Caspian Sea coast where the border of Iran and Turkmenistan meet.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris tigris , wild animal, melanistic color variant, black tiger reported, Similipal Tiger Reserve, Orissa , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ There are still leopards on Java and the big cats signs of pug marks and tree scratches have been attributed to these animals by The Tiger Foundation.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[45]

Biology and behaviour

Territorial behaviour

Tigers are essentially solitary and territorial animals. .The size of a tiger's home range mainly depends on prey abundance, and, in the case of male tigers, on access to females.^ Descriptors: Amur tigers, Panthera tigris altaica , spatial hierarchy analysis implications, prey/predator relationships, prey distribution and density, prey availability, factors of habitat tiger preference and selection, home range sizes, movement within home range, conservation implications, Sikhote Alin Zapovednik, Russia.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Biswas, S.; Sankar, K. Prey abundance and food habit of tigers ( Panthera tigris tigris ) in Pench National Park , Madhya Pradesh , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris tigris , population numbers, distribution, home range, track surveys and analysis, population size, Jinzhu Tsangpo Valley , Xizang , Tibet .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

A tigress may have a territory of 20 square kilometres while the territories of males are much larger, covering 60–100 km2. .The ranges of males tend to overlap those of several females.^ A female will range from 39 to over 150 square miles and the males can range from 300-390 square miles.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ They range over 10-39 square kilometers (3.9–15 square miles) for females and 30-105 square kilometers (11.7–40.5 square miles) for males.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Tigers for the most part are solitary animals.
.The relationships between individuals can be quite complex, and it appears that there is no set "rule" that tigers follow with regards to territorial rights and infringing territories.^ The specific range size of this tiger is not known, but there appear to be 4-5 tigers per 39 square miles in the low lands were food is plentiful.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Research shows that there are no known photos of a live Balinese tiger.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ There are a number of subspecies of tigers that have been identified and they are as follows: .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.For instance, although for the most part tigers avoid each other, both male and female tigers have been documented sharing kills.^ The length of tigers is about 8-8 ½ feet for females, but males can grow to slightly over 10 feet.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Behavioral differences of male and female Amur tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica ) in captivity.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Time budget of behavior and activity rhythm between male and female amur tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica ) under enclosed habitat.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.For instance, George Schaller observed a male tiger share a kill with two females and four cubs.^ First time in Vietnam - tiger gives birth to four cubs in Hanoi Zoological Gardens .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Behavioral differences of male and female Amur tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica ) in captivity.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ After about 103 days of gestation, female tigers of all the subspecies produce a litter of between 1 and 5 cubs (2-3 is average).
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Females are often reluctant to let males near their cubs, but Schaller saw that these females made no effort to protect or keep their cubs from the male, suggesting that the male might have been the father of the cubs. .In contrast to male lions, male tigers will allow the females and cubs to feed on the kill first.^ First time in Vietnam - tiger gives birth to four cubs in Hanoi Zoological Gardens .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Behavioral differences of male and female Amur tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica ) in captivity.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ After about 103 days of gestation, female tigers of all the subspecies produce a litter of between 1 and 5 cubs (2-3 is average).
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Furthermore, tigers seem to behave relatively amicably when sharing kills, in contrast to lions, which tend to squabble and fight. .Unrelated tigers have also been observed feeding on prey together.^ Descriptors: Panthera pardus , leopards, Panthera tigris , tigers, wild dogs, feeding habits, predators/prey relationships, nature reserves, Kerala , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , leopards, Panthera pardus , feeding behavior, prey preferences, wild animals, Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

The following quotation is from Stephen Mills' book Tiger, as he describes an event witnessed by Valmik Thapar and Fateh Singh Rathore in Ranthambhore:[52]
A dominant tigress they called Padmini killed a 250 kg (550-lb) male nilgai - a very large antelope. They found her at the kill just after dawn with her three 14-month-old cubs and they watched uninterrupted for the next ten hours. .During this period the family was joined by two adult females and one adult male - all offspring from Padmini's previous litters and by two unrelated tigers, one female the other unidentified.^ Behavioral differences of male and female Amur tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica ) in captivity.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ After about 103 days of gestation, female tigers of all the subspecies produce a litter of between 1 and 5 cubs (2-3 is average).
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Time budget of behavior and activity rhythm between male and female amur tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica ) under enclosed habitat.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.By three o'clock there were no fewer than nine tigers round the kill.^ In the mountain forests, there are fewer tigers as the prey is less abundant.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Research shows that there are no known photos of a live Balinese tiger.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A century ago there were estimated to be 100,000 tigers in the wild and now there are probably fewer that 5-6,000 remaining.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

When young female tigers first establish a territory, they tend to do so fairly close to their mother's area. .The overlap between the female and her mother's territory tends to wane with increasing time.^ Time budget of behavior and activity rhythm between male and female amur tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica ) under enclosed habitat.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Males, however, wander further than their female counterparts, and set out at a younger age to mark out their own area. A young male will acquire territory either by seeking out a range devoid of other male tigers, or by living as a transient in another male's territory, until he is old and strong enough to challenge the resident male. .The highest mortality rate (30-35% per year) amongst adult tigers occurs for young male tigers who have just left their natal area, seeking out territories of their own.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , captive animals, mortality rates, seasonal effects, causes, prevention measures, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Amur tiger, Panthera tigris altaica , adult male captive animal, Klinefelter syndrome, chromosome aberrations, diseases and disorders, case report.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[53]
Two male Bengal tiger siblings play with each other in the Pilibhit Tiger Reserve, India.
.Male tigers are generally more intolerant of other males within their territory than females are of other females.^ Savant, P.V. Status of tigers within protected areas (other than tigers reserves) in Mizoram.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The length of tigers is about 8-8 ½ feet for females, but males can grow to slightly over 10 feet.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Behavioral differences of male and female Amur tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica ) in captivity.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

For the most part, however, territorial disputes are usually solved by displays of intimidation, rather than outright aggression. Several such incidents have been observed, in which the subordinate tiger yielded defeat by rolling onto its back, showing its belly in a submissive posture.[54] .Once dominance has been established, a male may actually tolerate a subordinate within his range, as long as they do not live in too close quarters.^ They range over 10-39 square kilometers (3.9–15 square miles) for females and 30-105 square kilometers (11.7–40.5 square miles) for males.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[53] .The most violent disputes tend to occur between two males when a female is in oestrus, and may result in the death of one of the males, although this is actually a relatively rare occurrence.^ A female of this subspecies on a verage weighs between 221 and 254 pounds while the male is somewhat heavier at 287 to 386 pounds.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Time budget of behavior and activity rhythm between male and female amur tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica ) under enclosed habitat.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[53][55]
To identify his territory, the male marks trees by spraying of urine and anal gland secretions, as well as marking trails with scat. Males show a grimacing face, called the Flehmen response, when identifying a female's reproductive condition by sniffing their urine markings. .Like the other Panthera cats, tigers can roar.^ Descriptors: lentivirus, Felis concolor , puma, tigers, Panthera tigris , lions, Panthera leo , leopard, Neofelis nebulosa , Lynx lynx , bob cat, Lynx rufus , Chinese leopard cat, Felis p.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Tigers (and all other carnivores) descended from civet-like animals called miacids.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Hyoid apparatus and pharynx in the lion ( Panthera leo ), jaguar ( Panthera onca ), tiger ( Panthera tigris ), cheetah ( Acinonyx jubatus ) and domestic cat ( Felis silvestris f.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Tigers will roar for both aggressive and non-aggressive reasons. Other tiger vocal communications include moans, hisses, growls and chuffs.
.Tigers have been studied in the wild using a variety of techniques.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , wild animals, population density measurements, comprehensive zoology, mathematical techniques, statistics, relative abundance indices.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: various domesticated and wild animals, gross and histological studies, anatomy, papers on a variety of topics, species comparisons, includes hyenas, chimpanzee, tigers, Panthera tigris , lions.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These techniques will be used for both captive and wild species.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The populations of tigers were estimated in the past using plaster casts of their pugmarks.^ Sawarkar, V.B. Estimation of tiger population in the wild .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Karanth, K. Ullas; Kumar, N. Samba; Nichols, James, D. Field surveys: estimating absolute densities of tigers using capture-recapture sampling.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Jennelle, Christopher S.; Runge, Michael C.; MacKenzie, Darryl I. The use of photographic rates to estimate densities of tigers and other cryptic mammals: a comment on misleading conclusions.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This method was found faulty[56] and attempts were made to use camera trapping instead.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , individual identification techniques, self-activated camera traps, unique facial and stripe patterns, problems with the method.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Newer techniques based on DNA from their scat are also being evaluated. Radio collaring has also been a popular approach to tracking them for study in the wild.

Hunting and diet

.
Tiger dentition(above), compared with that of an Asian black bear (below).
^ The coat color is similar to the other Asian tigers, but they have very short, broad stripes spaced far apart compared to those of Bengal and Siberian tigers.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

The large canines are used to make the killing bite, but they tear meat when feeding using the carnassial teeth.
.In the wild, tigers mostly feed on larger and medium sized animals.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , status of animals in the wild, habitat losses, disturbance by humans, conservation efforts, biology, behaviors, habitats.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , phenotypic characteristics, size, body and skull measurements, color, markings, wild animals, individual variations, population distribution, phenotypic variation, conservation concerns, strategies based on variations, Palearctic regions.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , tigers, conservation programs, Project Tiger, 29 tiger reserves, 1,800 wild tigers, conservation measures and strategies, animal distribution, India.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Sambar, gaur, chital, barasingha, wild boar, nilgai and both water buffalo and domestic buffalo are the tiger's favoured prey in India.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , food habits, prey abundance, semi-arid deciduous forest, line transects, analysis of scats, chital, Axis axis , langur, Presbytis entellus , sambar, Cervus unicolor , nilgai, Boselaphus tragocamelus , wild pig, Sus scrofa , chinkara, Gazella bennetti , domestic livestock, population densities, wildlife conservation, Ranthambhore National Park, western India.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Crop and livestock depredation caused by wild animals in protected areas: the case of Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Biswas, S.; Sankar, K. Prey abundance and food habit of tigers ( Panthera tigris tigris ) in Pench National Park , Madhya Pradesh , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Sometimes, they also prey on leopards, pythons, sloth bears and crocodiles. .In Siberia the main prey species are manchurian wapiti, wild boar, sika deer, moose, roe deer, and musk deer.^ Descriptors: Bengal tiger, Panthera tigris tigris , food habits, feces sampling, prey species, spotted deer, Cervus axis , wild boar, Sus scrofa , rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta , Sundarbans , Bangladesh .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is known that they eat larger prey such as wild pigs, deer and cattle.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Amur tigers live in the in the birch, evergreen and scrub oak forests and eat wild boar, deer and elk.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

In Sumatra Sambar, muntjac, wild boar, and malayan tapir are preyed on. In the former Caspian tiger's range, prey included saiga antelope, camels, caucasian wisent, yak, and wild horses. .Like many predators, they are opportunistic and will eat much smaller prey, such as monkeys, peafowls, hares, and fish.^ It is known that they eat larger prey such as wild pigs, deer and cattle.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Adult elephants are too large to serve as common prey, but conflicts between tigers and elephants do sometimes take place.^ As you imagine, tigers naturally travel over large areas in search of prey.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As the human population of the world and fragmentation of forests and wild lands continues, tigers are colliding with humans and losing the battle for wild places with enough large prey animals to sustain them.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.A case where a tiger killed an adult Indian Rhinoceros has been observed.^ Descriptors: Amur tiger, Panthera tigris altaica , adult male captive animal, Klinefelter syndrome, chromosome aberrations, diseases and disorders, case report.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[57] Young elephant and rhino calves are occasionally taken. .Tigers also sometimes prey on domestic animals such as dogs, cows, horses, and donkeys.^ Other factors that threaten tigers are introduced diseases from domestic animals.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: dholes, domestic dogs, impact on ecology, domestic dogs effects on wild herbivores and tigers, Panthera tigris , effects on biodiversity conservation, interspecific competition, stray animals, wildlife parks, Similipal Tiger Reserve, India.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Panthera leo , lions, Panthera tigris , tigers, horses, buffalo, dogs, elephants, steers, training, circus animals, anthrozoology.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

These individuals are termed cattle-lifters or cattle-killers in contrast to typical game-killers.[58]
Old tigers, or those wounded and rendered incapable of catching their natural prey, have turned into man-eaters; this pattern has recurred frequently across India. .An exceptional case is that of the Sundarbans, where healthy tigers prey upon fishermen and villagers in search of forest produce, humans thereby forming a minor part of the tiger's diet.^ As you imagine, tigers naturally travel over large areas in search of prey.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This paper illustrates that people living near the Sundarbans Tiger Reserve/National Park in India should not be considered mere gatherers of forest products.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: leopards, Panthera pardus , tigers, Panthera tigris , mammalian prey population availability, impacts on tiger and leopard populations, conservation implications, leopard diet study, India.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[59] Tigers will occasionally eat vegetation for dietary fiber, the fruit of the Slow Match Tree being favoured.[58]
Tigers' extremely strong jaws and sharp teeth make them superb predators.
Tigers usually hunt at night.[60] .They generally hunt alone and ambush their prey as most other cats do, overpowering them from any angle, using their body size and strength to knock large prey off balance.^ There is continued poaching for tiger skins for a variety of reasons as well as tiger parts such as teeth, bone and other body parts that are used in Oriental medicines.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Because these cats are so large, they require large species of prey animals.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Even with their great masses, tigers can reach speeds of about 49-65 kilometres per hour (35-40 miles per hour), although they can only do so in short bursts, since they have relatively little stamina; consequently, tigers must be relatively close to their prey before they break their cover.^ The specific range size of this tiger is not known, but there appear to be 4-5 tigers per 39 square miles in the low lands were food is plentiful.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Field surveys: assessing relative abundance of tigers and prey.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , mammalian predators, field survey methods for predator and mammalian prey relative abundances assessment.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Tigers have great leaping ability; horizontal leaps of up to 10 metres have been reported, although leaps of around half this amount are more typical.^ Although the other subspecies are found in zoos around the world, the South China tiger is found mostly in zoos in China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

However, only one in twenty hunts ends in a successful kill.[60]
.When hunting large prey, tigers prefer to bite the throat and use their forelimbs to hold onto the prey, bringing it to the ground.^ Descriptors: gaur, Bos gaurus , tigers, Panthera tigris , predators and prey relationships, predator hunting techniques, gaur as prey, predation records, Pench Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, India.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As the human population of the world and fragmentation of forests and wild lands continues, tigers are colliding with humans and losing the battle for wild places with enough large prey animals to sustain them.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Spatial distributions of tigers and prey: mapping and the use of GIS. In: K. Ullas Karanth; James D. Nichols (Editors).
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

The tiger remains latched onto the neck until its prey dies of strangulation.[61] By this method, gaurs and water buffalos weighing over a ton have been killed by tigers weighing about a sixth as much.[62] With small prey, the tiger bites the nape, often breaking the spinal cord, piercing the windpipe, or severing the jugular vein or common carotid artery.[63] .Though rarely observed, some tigers have been recorded to kill prey by swiping with their paws, which are powerful enough to smash the skulls of domestic cattle,[58] and break the backs of sloth bears.^ Descriptors: gaur, Bos gaurus , tigers, Panthera tigris , predators and prey relationships, predator hunting techniques, gaur as prey, predation records, Pench Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, India.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As the human population of the world and fragmentation of forests and wild lands continues, tigers are colliding with humans and losing the battle for wild places with enough large prey animals to sustain them.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[64]
.During the 1980s, a tiger named "Genghis" in Ranthambhore National Park was observed frequently hunting prey through deep lake water,[65] a pattern of behaviour that had not been previously witnessed in over 200 years of observations.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , endangered animals, wildlife conservation, national parks and reserves, descriptions of habitats, importance of various reserves, Sariska and Ranthambhore, Rajasthan.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Biswas, S.; Sankar, K. Prey abundance and food habit of tigers ( Panthera tigris tigris ) in Pench National Park , Madhya Pradesh , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , population density trends, wildlife conservation, national parks and reserves, Maharashtra , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Moreover, he appeared to be extraordinarily successful for a tiger, with as many as 20% of hunts ending in a kill.^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , tiger hunters, human/animal conflicts, hunting, historical relationships, killing and coexistence, Indonesia , Malaysia .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , tiger hunting, wildlife hunting, historical work, 20 th century, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , human animal relationship and coexistence, historical perspective, hunting, tiger hunters, human/animal conflicts, historical relationships, killing and coexistence, Indonesia , Malaysia .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Reproduction

A tigress with her cubs in the Kanha Tiger Reserve, India.
Mating can occur all year round, but is generally more common between November and April.[66] .A female is only receptive for a few days and mating is frequent during that time period.^ Descriptors: Amur tigers, Panthera tigris altaica , 1693 mating incidences, mating behavior, copulation, mating frequency, mating season duration of 4-8 days, daily periods, mounting duration times, Heilongjiang Amur Tiger Park, China.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

A pair will copulate frequently and noisily, like other cats. The gestation period is 16 weeks. .The litter size usually consists of around 3–4 cubs of about 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) each, which are born blind and helpless.^ After about 103 days of gestation, female tigers of all the subspecies produce a litter of between 1 and 5 cubs (2-3 is average).
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris corbetti , captive female, number of cubs, litter size, captive breeding and rearing records, Hanoi Zoo, Vietnam .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

The females rear them alone, sheltering them in dens such as thickets and rocky crevices. The father of the cubs generally takes no part in rearing them. .Unrelated wandering male tigers may even kill cubs to make the female receptive, since the tigress may give birth to another litter within 5 months if the cubs of the previous litter are lost.^ First time in Vietnam - tiger gives birth to four cubs in Hanoi Zoological Gardens .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Behavioral differences of male and female Amur tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica ) in captivity.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ After about 103 days of gestation, female tigers of all the subspecies produce a litter of between 1 and 5 cubs (2-3 is average).
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[66] .The mortality rate of tiger cubs is fairly high - approximately half do not survive to be more than two years old.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , captive animals, mortality rates, seasonal effects, causes, prevention measures, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[66]
There is generally a dominant cub in each litter, which tends to be male but may be of either sex.[65] This cub generally dominates its siblings during play and tends to be more active, leaving its mother earlier than usual. .At 8 weeks, the cubs are ready to follow their mother out of the den, although they don't travel with her as she roams her territory until they are older.^ At 8 weeks, cubs start learning to hunt with their mother.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

The cubs become independent around 18 months of age, but it is not until they are around 2–2½ years old that they leave their mother. Females reach sexual maturity at 3–4 years, whereas males reach sexual maturity at 4–5 years.[66]
.Over the course of her life, a female tiger will give birth to an approximately equal number of male and female cubs.^ First time in Vietnam - tiger gives birth to four cubs in Hanoi Zoological Gardens .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Behavioral differences of male and female Amur tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica ) in captivity.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ After about 103 days of gestation, female tigers of all the subspecies produce a litter of between 1 and 5 cubs (2-3 is average).
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Tigers breed well in captivity, and the captive population in the United States may rival the wild population of the world.^ Sawarkar, V.B. Estimation of tiger population in the wild .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , wild animals, endangered species status, population levels, conservation measures, China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , captive animals, attacks on humans, global assessment of attacks, implication for private ownership, dangers to owners and handlers, dangers for the public, United States.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[67]

Interspecific predatory relationships

Tiger hunted by wild dogs as illustrated in Samuel Howett & Edward Orme, Hand Coloured, Aquatint Engravings, Published London 1807.
.Tigers may kill such formidable predators as leopards, pythons and even crocodiles on occasion,[68][69][70] although predators typically avoid one another.^ Descriptors: Panthera pardus , leopards, Panthera tigris , tigers, wild dogs, feeding habits, predators/prey relationships, nature reserves, Kerala , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Karanth, K. Ullas; Sunquist, Melvin E. Behavioural correlates of predation by tiger ( Panthera tigris ), leopard ( Panthera pardus ) and dhole ( Cuon alpinus ) in Nagarahole , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: leopards, Panthera pardus , tigers, Panthera tigris , wild dogs, Cuon alpinus , cattle predation, human casualties, Kerala , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

When seized by a crocodile, a tiger will strike at the reptile's eyes with its paws.[58] .Leopards dodge competition from tigers by hunting in different times of the day and hunting different prey.^ Descriptors: Amur tigers, Panthera tigris altaica , captive animals, sex differences in behavior and activities, activity patterns, time budgets.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: leopards, Panthera pardus , tigers, Panthera tigris , mammalian prey population availability, impacts on tiger and leopard populations, conservation implications, leopard diet study, India.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Panthera pardus , leopards, Panthera tigris , tigers, wild dogs, feeding habits, predators/prey relationships, nature reserves, Kerala , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[57] .With relatively abundant prey, tigers and leopards were seen to successfully coexist without competitive exclusion or inter-species dominance hierarchies that may be more common to the savanna.^ Field surveys: assessing relative abundance of tigers and prey.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , mammalian predators, field survey methods for predator and mammalian prey relative abundances assessment.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Paulraj, S. Prey-predator relationships with special reference to the tiger, panther and dhole competition in Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (Tirunelveli District - Tamil Nadu).
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[71] .Tigers have been known to suppress wolf populations in areas where the two species coexist.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , wild animals, endangered species status, population levels, conservation measures, China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris tigris , endangered species status, current population status, conservation measures, recommendations to rescue the wild populations, Madhya Pradesh , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , endangered species, conservation measures, current wild populations, proposed future conservation actions.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[72][73] Dhole packs have been observed to attack and kill tigers in disputes over food, though not usually without heavy losses.[64] Lone golden jackals expelled from their pack have been known to form commensal relationships with tigers. .These solitary jackals, known as kol-bahl, will attach themselves to a particular tiger, trailing it at a safe distance in order to feed on the big cat's kills.^ Descriptors: cats, behavior, tigers, lions, big cats, little cats, wild cats, effects of domestication.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ There are still leopards on Java and the big cats signs of pug marks and tree scratches have been attributed to these animals by The Tiger Foundation.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Access to these areas is often restricted, so very little is known about wild Indochinese tigers.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

A kol-bahl will even alert a tiger to a kill with a loud pheal. .Tigers have been known to tolerate these jackals: one report describes how a jackal confidently walked in and out between three tigers walking together a few feet away from each other.^ The San Diego Zoo is one of the few zoos that have the Indochinese subspecies of tigers.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As with many species that adapt to islands, these tigers were reported to have been smaller, darker, and have a greater density of thinner stripes than their cousins.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Access to these areas is often restricted, so very little is known about wild Indochinese tigers.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[74] .Siberian tigers and brown bears can be competitors and usually avoid confrontation; however, tigers will kill bear cubs and even some adults on occasion.^ Klinefelter syndrome (39 XXY) in an adult Siberian tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica ).
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A case of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in a Siberian tiger cub.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Chagas e Silva, J.N.; Leitao, R.M.; Lapao, N.E.; Paisana, F.C.; da Cunha, M.B.; da Cunha, T.P.; da Silva, J.P. Birth of Siberian tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica ) cubs after transvaginal artificial inseminatio n.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Bears (Asiatic black bears and brown bears) make up 5-8% of the tiger's diet in the Russian Far East.^ Counting tigers in the Russian Far East : 'How many are there?'
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Galina P. In the Russian Far East , fewer ungulates ominous sign for Siberian tiger.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris tigris , endangered species, wildlife conservation, habitat loss, Russia Federation, Russian Far East.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[16] There are also records of brown bears killing tigers, either in self defense or in disputes over kills.[19] Some bears emerging from hibernation will try to steal tigers' kills, although the tiger will sometimes defend its kill. .Sloth bears are quite aggressive and will sometimes drive young tigers away from their kills, although it is more common for Bengal tigers to prey on sloth bears.^ The Bengal tiger is the more numerous of tigers.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , Rhinoceros unicornis , young animals, mammalian tiger prey, incidence levels, Kazianga National Park , Assam , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[16]

Conservation efforts

.Poaching for fur and destruction of habitat have greatly reduced tiger populations in the wild.^ Sawarkar, V.B. Estimation of tiger population in the wild .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , status of animals in the wild, habitat losses, disturbance by humans, conservation efforts, biology, behaviors, habitats.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris altaica , wild populations, disturbance by human activitives, population levels, population density, human/animal conflicts, Tumen River Basin , China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.At the start of the 20th century, it is estimated there were over 100,000 tigers in the world but the population has dwindled to about 2,000 in the wild.^ Sawarkar, V.B. Estimation of tiger population in the wild .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A century ago there were estimated to be 100,000 tigers in the wild and now there are probably fewer that 5-6,000 remaining.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , wild animals, endangered species status, population levels, conservation measures, China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[75] Some estimates suggest the population is even lower, with some at less than 2,500 mature breeding individuals, with no subpopulation containing more than 250 mature breeding individuals.[76]

India

.India is home to the world's largest population of tigers in the wild.^ Sawarkar, V.B. Estimation of tiger population in the wild .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ They are the largest of the tigers and considered to be the largest cat existing in the world today.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , wild animals, endangered species status, population levels, conservation measures, China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[77] .According to the World Wildlife Fund, of the 3,500 tigers around the world, 1,400 are found in India.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , population density trends, wildlife conservation, national parks and reserves, Maharashtra , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Sekhar, N.U. Local people's attitudes towards conservation and wildlife tourism around Sariska Tiger Reserve , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , protected species, wildlife conservation, diversity and environmental protection, forest management, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[78] .A major concerted conservation effort, known as Project Tiger, has been underway since 1973, which was initially spearheaded by Indira Gandhi.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , status of animals in the wild, habitat losses, disturbance by humans, conservation efforts, biology, behaviors, habitats.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , tigers, conservation programs, Project Tiger, 29 tiger reserves, 1,800 wild tigers, conservation measures and strategies, animal distribution, India.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris tigris , Project Tiger, nature reserves, wild animals, analysis of conservation program, endangered species, degraded forests, fragmentation, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The fundamental accomplishment has been the establishment of over 25 well-monitored tiger reserves in reclaimed land where human development is categorically forbidden.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , animal/human interactions, behavioral interactions and encounters, patterns of coexistence in reserve, Sariska Tiger Reserve, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Tiger human conflicts in Sundarban Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The superficial layer of the Musculus masseter and the well-developed process of the maxilla in the tiger Panthera tigris .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The program has been credited with tripling the number of wild Bengal tigers from roughly 1,200 in 1973 to over 3,500 in the 1990s.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris sumatrae , conservation measures, wild and captive animal programs, international integration of various programs, Indonesia .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , tigers, conservation programs, Project Tiger, 29 tiger reserves, 1,800 wild tigers, conservation measures and strategies, animal distribution, India.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris amoyensis , trade in animals and animal parts, possible extinction of a subspecies, conservation recommendations, number in wild and captivity, conservation significance.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.However, a tiger census carried out in 2007, whose report was published on February 12, 2008, stated that the wild tiger population in India declined by 60% to approximately 1,411.[79] It is noted in the report that the decrease of tiger population can be attributed directly to poaching.^ Notes on wild tigers for environmental education .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Sawarkar, V.B. Estimation of tiger population in the wild .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , tiger populations monitoring, field methods, nature reserves, wildlife conservation, Dudhwa National Park, Buxa Tiger Reserve, India.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[80]
.Following the release of the report, the Indian government pledged $153 million to further fund the Project Tiger initiative, set-up a Tiger Protection Force to combat poachers, and fund the relocation of up to 200,000 villagers to minimise human-tiger interaction.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , natural history, habitats, range, human/tiger interactions, conservation, endangered species, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , wild animals, ecodevelopment project, Global Environment Facility, conservation, habitat management, human/animal issues, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , human interactions, historical view, human/animal relationships, Asia .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[81] .Additionally, eight new tiger reserves in India are being set up.^ Men and tigers in Sariska Tiger Reserve, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Crop and livestock depredation caused by wild animals in protected areas: the case of Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , population density trends, wildlife conservation, national parks and reserves, Maharashtra , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[82] .Indian officials successfully started a project to reintroduce the tigers into the Sariska Tiger Reserve.^ Men and tigers in Sariska Tiger Reserve, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The tragedy of the Indian tiger: starting from scratch.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , endangered animals, wildlife conservation, national parks and reserves, descriptions of habitats, importance of various reserves, Sariska and Ranthambhore, Rajasthan.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[83] The Ranthambore National Park is often cited as a major success by Indian officials against poaching.[84]

Russia

Tiger headcount in 1990
.The Siberian tiger was on the brink of extinction with only about 40 animals in the wild in the 1940s.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , status of animals in the wild, habitat losses, disturbance by humans, conservation efforts, biology, behaviors, habitats.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Amur tigers, Panthera tigris altaica , wild animals, conservation measures, Primorski Krai , Russia .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , wild animals, endangered species status, population levels, conservation measures, China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Under the Soviet Union, anti-poaching controls were strict and a network of protected zones (zapovedniks) were instituted, leading to a rise in the population to several hundred. Poaching again became a problem in the 1990s, when the economy of Russia collapsed, local hunters had access to a formerly sealed off lucrative Chinese market, and logging in the region increased. .While an improvement in the local economy has led to greater resources being invested in conservation efforts, an increase of economic activity has led to an increased rate of development and deforestation.^ Although the papers selected are mostly related to the biology and husbandry/care of the tiger, there are also papers on the economics and sociological aspects related to tiger conservation efforts and natural reserves and the role of tigers in the lives of the local people.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: conservation, ecotourism, wildlife tourism, study on local village and attitudes, relationship between wildlife tourism and local support for conservation, tiger conservation areas, economic impacts, tourism impacts, issues of local involvement in development of tourism wildlife conservation, Sariska Tiger Reserve (STR), India.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

The major obstacle in preserving the species is the enormous territory individual tigers require (up to 450 km2 needed by a single female).[15] .Current conservation efforts are led by local governments and NGO's in consort with international organisations, such as the World Wide Fund and the Wildlife Conservation Society.^ Other groups taking a active role in trying to protect the wild tigers are the Hornocker Wildlife Institute-Wildlife Conservation Society (HWI-WCS) and the Tigris Society.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , bears, trade in animals, CITES recommendations, conservation measures, world wide actions.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , captive animals, zoos and wildlife parks conservation efforts, in-situ conservation projects, collaborations between Esso UK and London Zoo.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[15] .The competitive exclusion of wolves by tigers has been used by Russian conservationists to convince hunters in the Far East to tolerate the big cats, as they limit ungulate populations less than wolves, and are effective in controlling the latter's numbers.^ Galina P. In the Russian Far East , fewer ungulates ominous sign for Siberian tiger.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Counting tigers in the Russian Far East : 'How many are there?'
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ They are the largest of the tigers and considered to be the largest cat existing in the world today.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[85] .Currently, there are about 400-550 animals in the wild.^ There is a current fear about the effects of highly pathogenic avian flu viruses on both wild and captive tiger populations since these viruses have been shown to infect cats.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Researchers believe that there are only about 360–406 Siberian tigers--now referred to as the Amur tigers--in the wild..
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is projected that there are currently only about 20-30 individuals in the wild.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Tibet

In Tibet, tiger and leopard pelts have traditionally been used in various ceremonies and costumes. .In January 2006 the Dalai Lama preached a ruling against using, selling, or buying wild animals, their products, or derivatives.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , wild animal products, trade in wild and endangered animals, lack of enforcement of laws, Thailand .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It has yet to be seen whether this will result in a long-term slump in the demand for poached tiger and leopard skins.^ Spate of tiger and leopard skin seizures.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris altaica , mammalian predators, prey composition, prey management, long term changes, conservation implications, conservation concerns, Russia.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: leopards, Panthera pardus , tigers, Panthera tigris , Tibetan antelope, illegal trade of skins and wool, seizures by authorities, 2003 reports, Asia .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[86][87][88]

Rewilding

.
A Bengal tiger in a national park in southern India.
^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , tiger populations monitoring, field methods, nature reserves, wildlife conservation, Dudhwa National Park, Buxa Tiger Reserve, India.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Biswas, S.; Sankar, K. Prey abundance and food habits of tigers ( Panthera tigris tigris ) in Pench National Park , Madhya Pradesh , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This paper illustrates that people living near the Sundarbans Tiger Reserve/National Park in India should not be considered mere gatherers of forest products.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Indian officials successfully reintroduced two Bengal tigers in the Sariska Tiger Reserve in July 2008.[89]
.The first attempt at rewilding was by Indian conservationist Billy Arjan Singh, who reared a zoo-born tigress named Tara, and released her in the wilds of Dudhwa National Park in 1978. This was soon followed by a large number of people being eaten by a tigress who was later shot.^ Descriptors: wildlife conservationist, life of Billy Arjan Singh, establishment of Tiger Haven, Dudhwa National Park , decline of wildlife population such as tigers and leopards, co-existence with humans issues, life of Tara tigress, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Approximately 400 wild Sumatran tigers are living today, primarily in the five national parks on the Indonesian island of Sumatra .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , zoos and wildlife parks, discussion of role of zoos in species conservation, endangered species of animals, effective conservation of wild animals.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Government officials claim that this tigress was Tara, an assertion hotly contested by Singh and conservationists.^ Descriptors: wildlife conservationist, life of Billy Arjan Singh, establishment of Tiger Haven, Dudhwa National Park , decline of wildlife population such as tigers and leopards, co-existence with humans issues, life of Tara tigress, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Later on, this rewilding gained further disrepute when it was found that the local gene pool had been sullied by Tara's introduction as she was partly Siberian tiger, a fact not known at the time of release, ostensibly due to poor record-keeping at Twycross Zoo, where she had been raised.^ [Effect of an active search for food with feeding boxes on the stereotypic pacing in Siberian tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica ) in the Zoo Zurich .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , international studbook, breeding records, gene pool, lineages.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Siberian tiger (from a German zoo) was infected with a CPV-type 2a virus.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99]

Save China's Tigers

.The organisation Save China's Tigers, working with the Wildlife Research Centre of the State Forestry Administration of China and the Chinese Tigers South Africa Trust, secured an agreement on the reintroduction of Chinese tigers into the wild.^ Is the South China tiger extinct in the wild?
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ South China tiger, Amoy tiger, Chinese tiger : Panthera tigris amoyensis .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Status and conservation of the south China tiger.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The agreement, which was signed in Beijing on 26 November 2002, calls for the establishment of a Chinese tiger conservation model through the creation of a pilot reserve in China where indigenous wildlife, including the South China Tiger, will be reintroduced.^ Status and conservation of tigers in China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Is the South China tiger extinct in the wild?
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ China establishes new reserve for tigers and leopards.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Save China's Tigers aims to rewild the critically endangered South China Tiger by bringing a few captive-bred individuals to South Africa for rehabilitation training for them to regain their hunting instincts.^ Demographic studies on captive South China tigers.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Is the South China tiger extinct in the wild?
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Status and conservation of the south China tiger.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.At the same time, a pilot reserve in China is being set-up and the Tigers will be relocated and release back in China when the reserve in China is ready.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , nature reserves, conservation, status, Meihuashan National Nature Reserve, Fujian Province , China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ [Field survey of south China tigers and their habitat evaluation in Hupingshan National Reserve.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Chinese tigers, Panthera tigris , release and relocation programs, reintroduction program, evaluation, critical comments, Heilongjiang , China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[100] .The offspring of the trained tigers will be released into the pilot reserves in China, while the original animals will stay in South Africa to continue breeding.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , nature reserves, conservation, status, Meihuashan National Nature Reserve, Fujian Province , China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , tigers, conservation programs, Project Tiger, 29 tiger reserves, 1,800 wild tigers, conservation measures and strategies, animal distribution, India.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris tigris , Project Tiger, nature reserves, wild animals, analysis of conservation program, endangered species, degraded forests, fragmentation, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[101]
.The reason South Africa was chosen is because it is able to provide expertise and resources, land and game for the South China tigers.^ Is the South China tiger extinct in the wild?
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Status and conservation of the south China tiger.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Demographic studies on captive South China tigers.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The South China Tigers of the project has since been successfully rewilded and are fully capable of hunting and surviving on their own.^ Is the South China tiger extinct in the wild?
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Status and conservation of the south China tiger.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Demographic studies on captive South China tigers.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[100] .This project is also very successful in the breeding of these rewilded South China Tigers and 5 cubs have been born in the project, these cubs of the 2nd generation would be able to learn their survival skills from their successfully rewilded mothers directly.^ Is the South China tiger extinct in the wild?
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Status and conservation of the south China tiger.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris amoyensis , captive status, endangered species status, breeding, pedigree analysis, China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[102]
.It is hoped that in 2010, the Chinese year of the Tiger, the first batch of rewilded South China Tigers can be sent back to China from South Africa, and be released into the wild.^ Is the South China tiger extinct in the wild?
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ South China tiger, Amoy tiger, Chinese tiger : Panthera tigris amoyensis .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Status and conservation of the south China tiger.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[103]

Relation with humans

Tiger as prey

Tiger hunting on elephant-back, India, early 19th century.
.The tiger has been one of the Big Five game animals of Asia.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , human interactions, historical view, human/animal relationships, Asia .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , endangered animals, illegal trade in animal and animal parts, conservation, history, attempts to curb hunting and killing animals, Oriental region, Asia .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , wild animals, identification of possible future conservation areas, priority setting, habitat identification for tigers, Paleartic region, Orient, Asia .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Tiger hunting took place on a large scale in the early nineteenth and twentieth centuries, being a recognised and admired sport by the British in colonial India as well as the maharajas and aristocratic class of the erstwhile princely states of pre-independence India.^ Descriptors: tigers, man-eating tigers, natural history, tiger hunting, behavior, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: gaur, Bos gaurus , tigers, Panthera tigris , predators and prey relationships, predator hunting techniques, gaur as prey, predation records, Pench Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, India.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , tiger hunting, wildlife hunting, historical work, 20 th century, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Tiger hunting was done by some hunters on foot; others sat up on machans with a goat or buffalo tied out as bait; yet others on elephant-back.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , human animal relationship and coexistence, historical perspective, hunting, tiger hunters, human/animal conflicts, historical relationships, killing and coexistence, Indonesia , Malaysia .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , tiger hunters, human/animal conflicts, hunting, historical relationships, killing and coexistence, Indonesia , Malaysia .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[104] In some cases, villagers beating drums were organised to drive the animals into the killing zone. .Elaborate instructions were available for the skinning of tigers and there were taxidermists who specialised in the preparation of tiger skins.^ There is continued poaching for tiger skins for a variety of reasons as well as tiger parts such as teeth, bone and other body parts that are used in Oriental medicines.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Man-eating tigers

Stereographic photograph (1903) of a captured man-eating tiger in the Calcutta zoo; the tiger had claimed 200 human victims.
.Although humans are not regular prey for tigers, they have killed more people than any other cat, particularly in areas where population growth, logging, and farming have put pressure on tiger habitats.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , status of animals in the wild, habitat losses, disturbance by humans, conservation efforts, biology, behaviors, habitats.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As you imagine, tigers naturally travel over large areas in search of prey.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Savant, P.V. Status of tigers within protected areas (other than tigers reserves) in Mizoram.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Most man-eating tigers are old and missing teeth, acquiring a taste for humans because of their inability to capture preferred prey.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , leopards, Panthera pardus , feeding behavior, prey preferences, wild animals, Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris corbetti , distributed on Malay Peninsula, historical hunting to extinction, man eating activities and behaviors, conservation, Malaysia .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris tigris , mammalian prey, prey availability, food-prey preferences, effects of prey availability, Kanha Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, Mandla, India.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[105] Almost all tigers that are identified as man-eaters are quickly captured, shot, or poisoned. Unlike man-eating leopards, even established man-eating tigers will seldom enter human settlements, usually remaining at village outskirts.[106] Nevertheless, attacks in human villages do occur.[107] .Man-eaters have been a particular problem in India and Bangladesh, especially in Kumaon, Garhwal and the Sundarbans mangrove swamps of Bengal, where some healthy tigers have been known to hunt humans.^ Tiger human conflicts in Sundarban Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , human animal relationship and coexistence, historical perspective, hunting, tiger hunters, human/animal conflicts, historical relationships, killing and coexistence, Indonesia , Malaysia .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , natural history, habitats, range, human/tiger interactions, conservation, endangered species, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Because of rapid habitat loss due to climate change, tiger attacks have increased in the Sundarbans.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , status of animals in the wild, habitat losses, disturbance by humans, conservation efforts, biology, behaviors, habitats.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris tigris , endangered species, wildlife conservation, habitat loss, Russia Federation, Russian Far East.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera trigris , comprehensive zoology, human/animal conflicts, habitat loss due to human activities, conservation overview, Sumatra , Indonesia .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[108]
.A female tiger Tatiana escaped from her enclosure in the San Francisco Zoo, killing one person and seriously injuring two more before being shot and killed by the police.^ The San Diego Zoo is one of the few zoos that have the Indochinese subspecies of tigers.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Sumatran tigers, Panthera tigris sumatrae , zoo housing, more natural open air space, influence on behavior of enclosure size and design, environmental enrichment, 4 week behavioral observation after introduction, female adapted, male shows stereotypical movements, Heidelberg Zoo, Germany.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ [Ethologic studies on the keeping of Sumatran tigers ( Panthera tigris sumatrae ) in the new open-air tiger enclosure at the Heidelberg Zoo , Germany .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

The enclosure had walls that were lower than they were legally required to be, allowing the tiger to climb the wall and escape.

Traditional Asian medicine

.Many people in China have a belief that various tiger parts have medicinal properties, including as pain killers and aphrodisiacs.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , bears, use of animal parts and fluids in traditional Chinese medicines, medicine, significance for conservation, proposals regarding traditional uses.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ There is continued poaching for tiger skins for a variety of reasons as well as tiger parts such as teeth, bone and other body parts that are used in Oriental medicines.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , bears, use of animal parts and fluids in traditional medicine, medicine, significance for conservation, proposals regarding traditional uses.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[109] There is no scientific evidence to support these beliefs. .The use of tiger parts in pharmaceutical drugs in China is already banned, and the government has made some offenses in connection with tiger poaching punishable by death.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , bears, use of animal parts and fluids in traditional Chinese medicines, medicine, significance for conservation, proposals regarding traditional uses.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ They are found mostly in eastern Russia but have been seen in some parts of northeastern China and northern North Korea .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ There is continued poaching for tiger skins for a variety of reasons as well as tiger parts such as teeth, bone and other body parts that are used in Oriental medicines.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Furthermore, all trade in tiger parts is illegal under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora and a domestic trade ban has been in place in China since 1993. Still, there are a number of tiger farms in the country specialising in breeding the cats for profit. .It is estimated that between 5,000 and 10,000 captive-bred, semi-tame animals live in these farms today.^ It is estimated that between 3,000 and 5,000 still live in the wild.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Since there is a very concerted effort to house, breed and raise these animals in a variety of captive situations, you will find numerous papers on that topic.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Very little is known about the lives and habits of these rare animals.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[110][111][112]

As pets

.The Association of Zoos and Aquariums estimates that up to 12,000 tigers are being kept as private pets in the USA, significantly more than the world's entire wild population, 4,000 are believed to be in captivity in Texas alone.^ Sawarkar, V.B. Estimation of tiger population in the wild .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , wild animals, endangered species status, population levels, conservation measures, China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris altaica , Panthera tigris sumatrae , Panthera tigri tigris , endangered species status, genetic diversity, molecular genetics, major histocompatibility class I locus variability, phylogenetic patterns, geographical structure, captive and wild populations, biochemical variation.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.Part of the reason for America's enormous tiger population relates to legislation.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris tigris , illegal trade in animals and animal parts, wild populations, conservation measures, prevention of illegal trade prevention, overview, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ There is continued poaching for tiger skins for a variety of reasons as well as tiger parts such as teeth, bone and other body parts that are used in Oriental medicines.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Only nineteen states have banned private ownership of tigers, fifteen require only a license, and sixteen states have no regulations at all.^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , captive animals, attacks on humans, global assessment of attacks, implication for private ownership, dangers to owners and handlers, dangers for the public, United States.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Nyhus, P.J.; Tilson, R.L.; Tomlinson, J.L. Dangerous animals in captivity: ex situ tiger conflict and implications for private ownership of exotic animals.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.The success of breeding programmes at American zoos and circuses led to an overabundance of cubs in the 1980s and 1990s, which drove down prices for the animals.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris corbetti , endangered subspecies, captive animal, husbandry, breeding programs, care in captivity, Cincinnati Zoo, Ohio .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , captive animal, birth of albino cubs, breeding and rearing records, Lucknow Zoo, Uttar Pradesh , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: cats, tigers, Panthera tigris , lions, bears, Ursidae, animal welfare concerns, captive animals, circuses, zoos, Germany .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The SPCA estimate there are now 500 lions, tigers and other big cats in private ownership just in the Houston area.^ Savant, P.V. Status of tigers within protected areas (other than tigers reserves) in Mizoram.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: lentivirus, Felis concolor , puma, tigers, Panthera tigris , lions, Panthera leo , leopard, Neofelis nebulosa , Lynx lynx , bob cat, Lynx rufus , Chinese leopard cat, Felis p.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The American Zoo Association (AZA) issued an opinion to accredited member zoos stating that handling big cats in public areas is not appropriate.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
In the 1983 film Scarface, the protagonist, Tony Montana, aspires to obtaining all the exterior trappings of the American Dream, which in the character's opinion included keeping a pet tiger on his property.

Cultural depictions

19th century painting of a tiger by Kuniyoshi Utagawa.
The tiger replaces the lion as King of the Beasts in cultures of eastern Asia,[113] representing royalty, fearlessness and wrath.[114] .Its forehead has a marking which resembles the Chinese character 王, which means "king"; consequently, many cartoon depictions of tigers in China and Korea are drawn with 王 on their forehead.^ South China tiger, Amoy tiger, Chinese tiger : Panthera tigris amoyensis .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Chinese tigers, Panthera tigris amoyensis , endangered status, conservation measures, population size, China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Chinese tigers, Panthera tigris , release and relocation programs, reintroduction program, evaluation, critical comments, Heilongjiang , China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.Of great importance in Chinese myth and culture, the tiger is one of the 12 Chinese zodiac animals.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , bears, use of animal parts and fluids in traditional Chinese medicines, medicine, significance for conservation, proposals regarding traditional uses.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Also in various Chinese art and martial art, the tiger is depicted as an earth symbol and equal rival of the Chinese dragon- the two representing matter and spirit respectively. .In fact, the Southern Chinese martial art Hung Ga is based on the movements of the Tiger and the Crane.^ The availability of tiger-based traditional Chinese medicine products and public awareness about the threats to the tiger in New York City 's Chinese communities: a pilot study.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In Imperial China, a tiger was the personification of war and often represented the highest army general (or present day defense secretary),[114] while the emperor and empress were represented by a dragon and phoenix, respectively.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris amoyensis , indicators of tigers present, tracks, footprints, historical records, measurements, Taoyuan , Hunan Province, China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

The White Tiger (Chinese: 白虎pinyin: Bái Hǔ) is one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations. It is sometimes called the White Tiger of the West (西方白虎), and it represents the west and the autumn season.[114]
In Buddhism, it is also one of the Three Senseless Creatures, symbolising anger, with the monkey representing greed and the deer lovesickness.[114]
Sala fighting the tiger, the symbol of Hoysala Empire at Belur, Karnataka, India.
.The Tungusic people considered the Siberian tiger a near-deity and often referred to it as "Grandfather" or "Old man". The Udege and Nanai called it "Amba". The Manchu considered the Siberian tiger as Hu Lin, the king.^ Researchers believe that there are only about 360–406 Siberian tigers--now referred to as the Amur tigers--in the wild..
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This paper illustrates that people living near the Sundarbans Tiger Reserve/National Park in India should not be considered mere gatherers of forest products.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[18]
The widely worshiped Hindu goddess Durga, an aspect of Devi-Parvati, is a ten-armed warrior who rides the tigress (or lioness) Damon into battle. .In southern India the god Aiyappa was associated with a tiger.^ The South China and the Bengal tigers are not managed by the SSP. Tigers in Europe are managed by the European Survival Plan (EEP) and in India by the Indian Zoo Association.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[115]
The weretiger replaces the werewolf in shapeshifting folklore in Asia;[116] in India they were evil sorcerers while in Indonesia and Malaysia they were somewhat more benign.[117]
.The tiger continues to be a subject in literature; both Rudyard Kipling, in The Jungle Book, and William Blake, in Songs of Experience, depict the tiger as a menacing and fearful animal.^ As the human population of the world and fragmentation of forests and wild lands continues, tigers are colliding with humans and losing the battle for wild places with enough large prey animals to sustain them.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

In The Jungle Book, the tiger, Shere Khan, is the wicked mortal enemy of the protagonist, Mowgli. However, other depictions are more benign: Tigger, the tiger from A. A. Milne's Winnie-the-Pooh stories, is cuddly and likable. .In the Man Booker Prize winning novel "Life of Pi," the protagonist, Pi Patel, sole human survivor of a ship wreck in the Pacific Ocean, befriends another survivor: a large Bengal Tiger.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , human/animal conflicts, nature reserves, Sundarban Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Tiger human conflicts in Sundarban Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As the human population of the world and fragmentation of forests and wild lands continues, tigers are colliding with humans and losing the battle for wild places with enough large prey animals to sustain them.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

The famous comic strip Calvin and Hobbes features Calvin and his stuffed tiger, Hobbes. A tiger is also featured on the cover of the popular cereal Frosted Flakes (also marketed as "Frosties") bearing the name "Tony the Tiger".
.The Tiger is the national animal of Bangladesh, Nepal, India[118] (Bengal Tiger)[119] Malaysia (Malayan Tiger), North Korea and South Korea (Siberian Tiger).^ Tiger toll in India , Nepal and Vietnam .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , captive animals, umbilical hernia, surgical repair, ketamine hydrochloride immobilization, Mysore Zoo, Karnataka, India.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , tiger populations monitoring, field methods, nature reserves, wildlife conservation, Dudhwa National Park, Buxa Tiger Reserve, India.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

World's favourite animal

.In a poll conducted by Animal Planet, the tiger was voted the world's favourite animal, narrowly beating the dog.^ Descriptors: Panthera leo , lions, Panthera tigris , tigers, horses, buffalo, dogs, elephants, steers, training, circus animals, anthrozoology.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , tigers, Panthera pardus , leopards, Panthera leo , lions, dogs, captive zoo animals, parasites, helminthes, helminthoses, Vietnam.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , tigers, dogs, training dogs to identify fecal odor of tigers, tracking tigers with dogs, monitoring of population, tracking separate animals, field testing in Russian reserves.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

More than 50,000 viewers from 73 countries voted in the poll. .Tigers received 21% of the vote, dogs 20%, dolphins 13%, horses 10%, lions 9%, snakes 8%, followed by elephants, chimpanzees, orangutans and whales.^ By http://cgu.ghigdyshon.com on July 13, 2009 at 1:10 pm operating temperature 20 to 60 c… .
  • Stay Dougie » Mos Def In Your Neighborhood Boneyard With Stussy 11 January 2010 15:14 UTC blogs.okayplayer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By http://superiorfluxsites.com/ckrvjx/604.php?d=807 on November 21, 2009 at 7:10 pm advance dog food… .
  • Stay Dougie » Mos Def In Your Neighborhood Boneyard With Stussy 11 January 2010 15:14 UTC blogs.okayplayer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Descriptors: Panthera leo , lions, Panthera tigris , tigers, horses, buffalo, dogs, elephants, steers, training, circus animals, anthrozoology.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[120][121][122][123]
Animal behaviourist Candy d'Sa, who worked with Animal Planet on the list, said: "We can relate to the tiger, as it is fierce and commanding on the outside, but noble and discerning on the inside".[120]
.Callum Rankine, international species officer at the World Wildlife Federation conservation charity, said the result gave him hope.^ Special issue: Wildlife Conservation.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris tigris , endangered species, wildlife conservation, habitat loss, Russia Federation, Russian Far East.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Rhinoceros , Panthera tigris , tigers, endangered species, wildlife conservation, laws and regulations.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

."If people are voting tigers as their favourite animal, it means they recognise their importance, and hopefully the need to ensure their survival," he said.^ To survive, it needs habitat--and that means trees.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , endangered animals, wildlife conservation, national parks and reserves, descriptions of habitats, importance of various reserves, Sariska and Ranthambhore, Rajasthan.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[120]

Gallery

See also

Cited references

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  87. ^ Justin Huggler (February 18, 2006). "Fur flies over tiger plight". New Zealand Herald. Tibet.com. http://www.tibet.com/NewsRoom/animalright2.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-20. 
  88. ^ "Dalai Lama campaigns for wildlife". BBC News. April 6, 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4415929.stm. Retrieved 2007-07-20. 
  89. ^ Tigress joins lone tiger in Sariska, Times of India, 4 July 2008.
  90. ^ "Indian tiger isn't 100% “swadeshi (Made in India)”; by Pallava Bagla; Indian Express Newspaper; November 19, 1998". Indianexpress.com. 1998-11-19. http://www.indianexpress.com/res/web/pIe/ie/daily/19981119/32350524.html. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  91. ^ "Tainted Royalty, Wildlife: Royal Bengal Tiger, a controversy arises over the purity of the Indian tiger after DNA samples show Siberian tiger genes. By Subhadra Menon. India Today, November 17, 1997". India-today.com. 1997-11-17. http://www.india-today.com/itoday/17111997/wild.html. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  92. ^ "The Tale of Tara, 4: Tara's Heritage from Tiger Territory website". Lairweb.org.nz. 1999-11-22. http://www.lairweb.org.nz/tiger/tara4.html. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  93. ^ "Genetic pollution in wild Bengal tigers, Tiger Territory website". Lairweb.org.nz. http://www.lairweb.org.nz/tiger/bengal.html. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  94. ^ "Interview with Billy Arjan Singh: Dudhwa's Tiger man, October 2000, Sanctuary Asia Magazine". Sanctuaryasia.com. 1917-08-15. http://www.sanctuaryasia.com/interviews/bilarjsingh.php. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  95. ^ "Mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence among big cats and their hybrids by Pattabhiraman Shankaranarayanan* and Lalji Singh*, *Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500 007, India, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, CCMB Campus, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500 007, India". Iisc.ernet.in. http://www.iisc.ernet.in/~currsci/nov10/articles18.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  96. ^ "Central Zoo Authority of India (CZA), Government of India". CZA. http://www.cza.nic.in/research1.html. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  97. ^ ""Indians Look At Their Big Cats' Genes", Science, Random Samples, Volume 278, Number 5339, Issue of 31 October 1997, 278: 807 (DOI: 10.1126/science.278.5339.807b) (in Random Samples),The American Association for the Advancement of Science". Sciencemag.org. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/vol278/issue5339/r-samples.dtl#278/5339/807b. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  98. ^ "BOOKS By & About Billy Arjan Singh". Fatheroflions.org. http://www.fatheroflions.org/ArjanSingh.html. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  99. ^ "Book - Tara: The Cocktail Tigress/Ram Lakhan Singh. Edited by Rahul Karmakar. Allahabad, Print World, 2000, xxxviii, 108 p., ills., $22. ISBN 81-7738-000-1. A book criticizing Billy Arjan Singh's release of hand reared hybrid Tigress Tara in the wild at Dudhwa National Park in India". Vedamsbooks.com. https://www.vedamsbooks.com/no32235.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  100. ^ a b FAQs | Save China's Tigers
  101. ^ "FAQs | Save China's Tigers". English.savechinastigers.org. 2004-07-25. http://english.savechinastigers.org/node/255#14. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  102. ^ The Baby Tiger That's Beating Extinction | Youtube Channel-SkyNews
  103. ^ Clock ticks for South China tigers in symbolic year | Reuters News
  104. ^ vide Royal Tiger (nom-de-plume) in The Manpoora Tiger - about a Tiger Hunt in Rajpootanah. (1836) Bengal Sporting Magazine, Vol IV. reproduced in The Treasures of Indian Wildlife
  105. ^ "Man-eaters. The tiger and lion, attacks on humans". Lairweb.org.nz. http://www.lairweb.org.nz/tiger/maneating.html. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  106. ^ "Man-eaters. The tiger and lion, attacks on humans". Lairweb.org.nz. http://www.lairweb.org.nz/tiger/maneating3.html. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  107. ^ "Increasing tiger attacks trigger panic around Tadoba-Andhari reserve". Indianexpress.com. 2007-10-18. http://www.indianexpress.com/news/increasing-tiger-attacks-trigger-panic-around-tadobaandhari-reserve/229533/. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  108. ^ "Climate change linked to Indian tiger attacks". http://www.enn.com/wildlife/article/38442. Retrieved 27 October 2008. 
  109. ^ Harding, Andrew (2006-09-23). "Programmes | From Our Own Correspondent | Beijing's penis emporium". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/5371500.stm. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  110. ^ "Chinese tiger farms must be investigated". WWF. http://www.wwf.org.uk/news/n_0000003865.asp. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  111. ^ "WWF: Breeding tigers for trade soundly rejected at cites". Panda.org. http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/where_we_work/asia_pacific/where/bhutan/index.cfm?uNewsID=106740. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  112. ^ Jackson, Patrick (29 January 2010). "Tigers and other farmyard animals". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8487122.stm. Retrieved 29 January 2010. 
  113. ^ "Tiger Culture | Save China's Tigers". English.savechinastigers.org. http://english.savechinastigers.org/node/316. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  114. ^ a b c d Cooper, JC (1992). Symbolic and Mythological Animals. London: Aquarian Press. pp. 226–27. ISBN 1-85538-118-4. 
  115. ^ Balambal, V (1997). "19. Religion - Identity - Human Values - Indian Context". Bioethics in India: Proceedings of the International Bioethics Workshop in Madras: Biomanagement of Biogeoresources, 16–19 January 1997. Eubios Ethics Institute. http://www.eubios.info/india/BII19.HTM. Retrieved 2007-10-08. 
  116. ^ Summers, Montague (1966). The Werewolf. University Books. p. 21. 
  117. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. 1910–1911. 
  118. ^ National Animal Panthera tigris, Tiger is the national animal of India Govt. of India website,
  119. ^ "National Symbols of India". High Commission of India, London. http://www.hcilondon.net/india-overview/land-people/national-symbols.html. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  120. ^ a b c Independent Online. "Tiger tops dog as world's favourite animal". Int.iol.co.za. http://www.int.iol.co.za/index.php?newslett=1&em=28164a99a20041206ah&click_id=29&art_id=qw1102325040750B216&set_id=1. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  121. ^ "Pers - The Tiger is the World's Favorite Animal". http://www.pers.com/index.php?option=content&task=view&id=197&Itemid=50. 
  122. ^ "CBBC Newsround | Animals | Tiger 'is our favourite animal'". BBC News. 2004-12-06. http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/newsid_4070000/newsid_4073100/4073151.stm. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  123. ^ "Endangered tiger earns its stripes as the world's most popular beast | Independent, The (London) | Find Articles at BNET.com". Findarticles.com. 2004-12-06. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20041206/ai_n12814678. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 

References

  • Brakefield, T. (1993). Big cats kingdom of might, Voyageur press.
  • Dr. Tony Hare. (2001) Animal Habitats P. 172 ISBN 0-8160-4594-1
  • Kothari, Ashok S. & Chhapgar, Boman F. (eds). 2005. The Treasures of Indian Wildlife. Bombay Natural History Society and Oxford University Press, Mumbai.
  • Mazák, V. (1981). Panthera tigris. (PDF). Mammalian Species, 152: 1-8. American Society of Mammalogists.
  • Nowak, Ronald M. (1999) Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5789-9
  • Sankhala, K. (1997), Der indische Tiger und sein Reich, Bechtermuenz Verlag, ISBN 3-86047-734-X  Abridged German translation of Return of the Tiger, Lustre Press, 1993.
  • Seidensticker, John. (1999) Riding the Tiger. Tiger Conservation in Human-dominated Landscapes .Cambridge University Press.^ Cambridge University Press.
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge University Press; Cambridge , New York & Melbourne .
    • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0521648351

External links


Source material

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(Redirected to The Tiger article)

From Wikisource

The Tiger
disambiguation
This is a disambiguation page, which lists works which share the same title. If an article link referred you here, please consider editing it to point directly to the intended page.

The Tiger may refer to:

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.TIGER (Felis tigris), an animal only rivalled by the lion in size, strength and ferocity among the cat-like beasts of prey (see Carnivora).^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , status of animals in the wild, habitat losses, disturbance by humans, conservation efforts, biology, behaviors, habitats.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , captive animals, umbilical hernia, surgical repair, ketamine hydrochloride immobilization, Mysore Zoo, Karnataka, India.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , species identification, bones, illegal trade in animal parts, identification, DNA methodology, techniques, crime prevention.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Almost everything that is stated in the article Lion concerning the structure of the skeleton, teeth and claws of that animal will apply equally well to the tiger, the difference between the two lying mainly in the skin and its coverings.^ Descriptors: lions, Panthera leo , tigers, Panthera tigris sumatrae , captive animals, care, handling, ways of feeding, environmental enrichment, feeding behavior, visitor experiences, zoos and wildlife parks, Zoo Atlanta, Georgia, United States.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Amur tigers, Panthera tigris altaica , captive animals, sex differences in behavior and activities, activity patterns, time budgets.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is suspected that there are between 1,200 and 1,800 Indochinese tigers roaming the remote forests in hilly to mountainous terrain, much of which lies along the borders between countries.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.A tiger's skull may, however, always be distinguished from that The Tiger (Felis tigris). of a lion by the circumstance that the nasal bones extend higher on the forehead than the maxillae, instead of stopping on nearly the same line.^ Descriptors: captive animals, Felis , Panthera tigris , tigers, Panthera leo , lions, Felis concolor , Felis serval , leopards, zoo animals, Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , stomach mucosa, wolves, Crocuta crocuta , incidence of infections, bacterial colonization, histopathology, Germany.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: lentivirus, Felis concolor , puma, tigers, Panthera tigris , lions, Panthera leo , leopard, Neofelis nebulosa , Lynx lynx , bob cat, Lynx rufus , Chinese leopard cat, Felis p.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Panthera tigris , captive tiger, lameness, healing bone fractures, metatarsal fracture, calcium treatment, therapy, case report, clinical aspects, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Although examples of both species present considerable variations in size, it is ascertained that the length of the largest-sized Bengal tiger may exceed that of any lion.^ Changes to the Zoo Atlanta visitor experience: effects of feeding enrichment and environmental variables on lion and tiger behavior.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Asian lions, tigers, Panthera leo , Panthera tigris , endangered species, wildlife conservation, conservation strategies, ecosystems, genetics, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: various domesticated and wild animals, gross and histological studies, anatomy, papers on a variety of topics, species comparisons, includes hyenas, chimpanzee, tigers, Panthera tigris , lions.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Much larger specimens are recorded, but 10 feet from the tip of the nose to the end of the tail is no unusual length for a large male tiger.^ A male’s length can be from 8 feet 8 inches to 10 feet 9 inches !
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ He's 23"s from tip of nose to begining of tail!
  • cat pictures, videos and albums 11 September 2009 10:29 UTC www.webshots.com [Source type: General]

^ The length of tigers is about 8-8 ½ feet for females, but males can grow to slightly over 10 feet.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

The female is somewhat smaller and has a lighter and narrower head. The tiger has no mane, but in old males the hair on the cheeks is rather long and spreading. The groundcolour of the upper and outer parts of the head, body, limbs and tail is bright rufous fawn; and these parts are beautifully marked with transverse stripes of a dark, almost black colour. The markings vary much in different individuals, and even on the two sides of the same individual. The under-parts of the body, the inside of the limbs, the cheeks and a large spot over each eye are nearly white. .The tigers which inhabit hotter regions, as Bengal and the south Asiatic islands, have shorter and smoother hair, and are more richly coloured and distinctly striped than those of northern China and Siberia, in which the fur is longer, softer and lighter-coloured.^ As with many species that adapt to islands, these tigers were reported to have been smaller, darker, and have a greater density of thinner stripes than their cousins.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As you might expect from the name, the South China tiger is found in southern regions of central and eastern China .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These tigers were adapted to inhabit this very arid region.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The Siberian tiger is F. tigris mongolica, and the Persian F. tigris virgata. Black and white phases have been recorded, but they are rare.^ [Effect of an active search for food with feeding boxes on the stereotypic pacing in Siberian tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica ) in the Zoo Zurich .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , fossil records, Cenozoic era, Paleartic region, Asia , Orient.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Actinomycotic mycetoma in the peritoneal cavity of a Siberian tiger ( Panthera tigris altica [ altaica ] ).
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The tiger is exclusively Asiatic, but has a very wide range in that continent, having been found in almost all suitable localities south of a line drawn from the river Euphrates, passing along the southern shores of the Caspian and Sea of Aral by Lake Baikal to the Sea of Okhotsk.^ The kittens have grown, and we have found new homes for almost all of them.
  • cat pictures, videos and albums 11 September 2009 10:29 UTC www.webshots.com [Source type: General]

.Its most northern range is the territory of the Amur, its most southern the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali.^ (Java, with an area of 132,000 kilometers and a population in excess of 130 million people, is the most densely populated island on Earth).
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Javan tiger ranged on the Indonesian island of Java .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Sumatran tiger is found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra in habitat that ranges from low-land forest to sub-mountain and mountain forest with some peat-moss forest.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Westward it reaches to Turkish Georgia and eastward to the island of Saghalin. It is absent, however, from the great elevated plateau of Central Asia, nor does it inhabit Ceylon, Borneo or the other islands of the Indo-Malay Archipelago, except those named.
.The principal food of the tiger in India is cattle, deer, wild hog and pea-fowl, and occasionally human beings.^ Crop and livestock depredation caused by wild animals in protected areas: the case of Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , natural history, habitats, range, human/tiger interactions, conservation, endangered species, India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: deer, tigers, Cervus duvaucelii branderi , Panthera tigris tigris , Cervus duvaucelii , endangered species, biodiversity, cooperation, species diversity, wildlife conservation, wild animals, nature reserves, Madhya, Pradesh , India .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The regular "man-eater" is generally an old tiger whose vigour is past, and whose teeth are worn and defective; it takes up its abode in the neighbourhood of a village, the population of which it finds an easier prey than wild animals.^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris , status of animals in the wild, habitat losses, disturbance by humans, conservation efforts, biology, behaviors, habitats.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: Amur tigers, Panthera tigris altaica , wild animals, conservation measures, Primorski Krai , Russia .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: tigers, Panthera tigris corbetti , endangered status, populations of wild animals, distributions in habitats, conservation measures, conservation recommendations, endangered status, population size, Guangxi Zhuang, Yunnan.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Though chiefly affecting grassy plains or swamps, tigers are also found in forests, and seem to be fond of haunting the neighbourhood of old ruins.^ The Sumatran tiger is found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra in habitat that ranges from low-land forest to sub-mountain and mountain forest with some peat-moss forest.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

As a rule, they do not climb trees; but when pressed by fear, as during an inundation, they have been known to do so. They take to the water readily and are good swimmers. .The tigers of the Sundarbans (Ganges delta) continually swim from one island to the other to change their hunting-grounds for deer.^ As with other Asian tigers, the Sumatran is at the top of the island food chain and eats wild pig, big deer (called rusa) and muntjak, a small barking deer .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The following extract from Sir J. Fayrer's Royal Tiger of Bengal (1875) may complete this notice of the tiger's habits.^ Bengal tiger, Royal Bengal tiger, and Indian tiger: Panthera tigris tigris .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Gogoi, B.K. Immobilization of a free ranging royal Bengal tiger ( Panthera tigris tigris ) at Tezpur , Assam .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Sarma, K.K. Tiletamine-zolazepam as general anaesthetic in Royal Bengal tigers .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The tigress gives birth to from two to five, even six cubs; but three is a frequent number.^ First time in Vietnam - tiger gives birth to four cubs in Hanoi Zoological Gardens .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

She is a most affectionate and attached mother, and generally guards and trains her young with the most watchful solicitude. .They remain with her until nearly full-grown, or about the second year, when they are able to kill for themselves and begin life on their own account.^ It will be about 1 ½ years before they can really hunt and sustain themselves on their own.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ An Angora of about 2 years and a half old, abandoned with a brother when they were about 2 months old.
  • cat pictures, videos and albums 11 September 2009 10:29 UTC www.webshots.com [Source type: General]

Whilst they remain with her she is peculiarly vicious and aggressive, defending them with the greatest courage and energy, and when robbed of them is terrible in her rage; but she has been known to desert them when pressed, and even to eat them when starved. .As soon as they begin to require other food than her milk, she kills for them, teaching them to do so for themselves by practising on small animals, such as deer and young calves or pigs.^ It is known that they eat larger prey such as wild pigs, deer and cattle.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ They eat mostly the larger species of deer and cattle type animals.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As with other Asian tigers, the Sumatran is at the top of the island food chain and eats wild pig, big deer (called rusa) and muntjak, a small barking deer .
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

At these times she is wanton and extravagant in her cruelty, killing apparently for the gratification of her ferocious and bloodthirsty nature, and perhaps to excite and instruct the young ones, and it is not until they are thoroughly capable of killing their own food that she separates from them. The young tigers are far more destructive than the old. They will kill three or four cows at a time, while the older and more experienced rarely kill more than one, and this at intervals of from three or four days to a week. For this purpose the tiger will leave its retreat in the dense jungle, proceed to the neighbourhood of a village or gowrie, where cattle feed, and during the night steal on and strike down a bullock, drag it into a secluded place, and then remain near the "murrie" or "kill," for several days, until it has eaten it, when it will proceed in search of a further supply, and, having found good hunting ground in the vicinity of a village or gowrie, continue its ravages, destroying one or two cows or buffaloes a week. It is very fond of the ordinary domestic cattle, which in the plains of India are generally weak, half-starved, undersized creatures. One of these is easily struck down and carried or dragged off. .The smaller buffaloes are also easily disposed of; but the buffalo bulls, and especially the wild ones, are formidable antagonists, and have often been known to beat the tiger off, and even to wound him seriously.^ First known case of canine distemper in a wild tiger.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Access to these areas is often restricted, so very little is known about wild Indochinese tigers.
  • "Information resources on tigers, panthera tigris: natural history, ecology, conservation, biology, and captive care" 18 September 2009 9:14 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

(W. H. F.; R. L.*)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also tiger

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Pronunciation

Noun

Tiger m. (genitive Tigers, plural Tiger)
  1. tiger

Simple English

Tiger
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Felidae
Genus: Panthera
Species: P. tigris
Binomial name
Pantera tigris
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Synonyms
Felis tigris Linnaeus, 1758

Tigris striatus Severtzov, 1858
Tigris regalis Gray, 1867

File:Singapore Zoo
White Tigers in the Singapore Zoological Gardens.
File:Tiger
A map showing where tigers live.

The tiger (Pantera tigris) is a large mammal. It belongs to a family of animals called the Felidae. It originally lived in Asia.

Contents

What they look like

Tigers are very large and strong, and the biggest feline. They have orange fur with black stripes, and a white underside. The black stripes usually extend to the white underside. The stripes are used to keep them hidden while hunting.

Sometimes there are tigers with different colors. There are White Tigers that have white fur with black stripes, or that even have pure white fur. They have blue or green eyes. White Tigers are most commonly Bengal tigers. Most Bengal tigers have orange fur, though. The white coat only appears once in every 10,000 births. It is the national animal of India.

Tigers vary in size depending on their subspecies. Siberian tigers are the largest. They can grow to be 3.5 m (11 ft 5.8 in) long and weigh as much as 500kg (1100lbs).

Where they live

Tigers live in Asia, mainly from India to China and in Southeast Asia. Tigers live a solo life most of the time-besides mating season and taking care of their young. They usually live in forests and rainforests. They also like to live under bushes and where there is plenty of food for them to hunt and places for them to hide. Their hiding places mostly include tall grass areas, where they blend in well from enemies and prey.But they do hunt most of the time.They run up to 30 mph.

Subspecies

The tiger has 6 living subspecies, and 3 extinct (†) subspecies.

Tigers and humans

Tigers are becoming very rare, because people hunt them for their skin and destroy the forests they live in. The Bengal tiger has the biggest population with 3,500 left in the wild. The South-Chinese tiger has the smallest population with only 20 - 30 left in the wild and about 60 in captivity.[2]

Diet

Tigers eat many different types of prey. All tigers are carnivores, or meat eaters. They eat gazelle, monkeys, and other animals located in Asia. Some tigers may eat up to 50 pounds of meat a day. Tigers kill their prey by clamping down on the prey's throat and suffocating it.[3]

References

  1. Cat Specialist Group (2002). Pantera Tigris. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 10 May 2006. Database entry includes justification for why this species is endangered.
  2. "savechinastigers". http://english.savechinastigers.org/node/31. Retrieved 16 June 2010. 
  3. Schaller. G The Deer and the Tiger: A Study of Wildlife in India 1984, University Of Chicago Press
Look up Panthera tigris in Wikispecies, a directory of species
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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 11, 2010

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