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The Timarion is a Byzantine pseudo-Lucianic satirical dialogue probably composed in the twelfth century (there are references to the eleventh-century Michael Psellus), though possibly later. The eponymous hero, on his way to a Christian fair at Thessalonica, is unexpectedly taken to Hades, which is ruled by pagan figures and pagan justice, and where "Galilæans" (that is, Christians) make up only one sect (αἵρεσις) of many.


Edition & Translation


  • Kaldellis, A., Hellenism in Byzantium: The Transformations of Greek Identity and the Reception of the Classical Tradition. Cambridge: CUP, 2008; pp. 276-283.
  • Ejusdem, "The Timarion: Toward a Literary Interpretation", in P. Odorico (ed.), La face cachée de la littérature Byzantine: Le texte en tant que message immédiat. Paris: École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Centre d’études Byzantines, néo-helléniques et sud-est européennes (Dossiers byzantins, vol. 7, forthcoming).
  • Kazhdan, A. and A. Wharton-Epstein, Change in Byzantine Culture in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1990; pp. 139sq.

See also



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