Timeline of Indonesian history: Wikis


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This article is part of the
History of Indonesia series
History of Indonesia.png
See also:
Timeline of Indonesian History
Early kingdoms
Tarumanagara (358-669)
Srivijaya (7th to 13th centuries)
Sailendra (8th to 9th centuries)
Sunda Kingdom (669-1579)
Mataram Kingdom (752–1045)
Kediri (1045–1221)
Singhasari (1222–1292)
Majapahit (1293–1500)
The rise of Muslim states
The spread of Islam (1200–1600)
Malacca Sultanate (1400–1511)
Sultanate of Demak (1475–1548)
Aceh Sultanate (1496–1903)
Sultanate of Banten (1526–1813)
Mataram Sultanate (1500s to 1700s)
European colonialism
The Portuguese (1512–1850)
Dutch East India Co. (1602–1800)
Dutch East Indies (1800–1942)
The emergence of Indonesia
National awakening (1899–1942)
Japanese occupation (1942–1945)
Declaration of independence (1945)
National revolution (1945–1950)
Independent Indonesia
Liberal democracy (1950–1957)
"Guided Democracy" (1957–1965)
Start of the "New Order" (1965–1966)
The "New Order" (1966–1998)
"Reformasi" era (1998–present)
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This is a timeline of Indonesian history.



  • Pleistocene: The modern geological form of Indonesia appears, linked to Asian mainland.
  • 2 million to 500,000 years ago: Indonesia is inhabited by Homo erectus, now popularly known as the 'Java Man'.[1]
  • 40,000 BCE: Earliest human societies first thought to have existed in parts of the Indonesian archipelago, highlands of the Malay Peninsula, and the Philippines.[2]
  • 3,000 BCE: The modern peoples of Indonesia of Austronesian origins are thought to have first reached the northern Philippines. They reach eastern Indonesian and Borneo by 2,000 BCE, and New Guinea, Java and Sumatra between 1,500BCE and 1,000BCE.[3]
  • 200 BCE: Dvipantara or Jawa Dwipa Hindu kingdom is thought to have existed in Java and Sumatra.

Early history

  • 5th century: Stone inscriptions in west Java announce decrees of Purnavarman, king of Tarumanagara.[4]
  • 700 CE: Wet-field rice cultivation, small towns and kingdoms flourish. Trade links are established with both China and India.[5]
  • 732 CE:Sanjaya dynasty founded around this time according to Canggal inscription.[6]
  • 3rd to 15th century: The Sumatra-based Srivijaya naval kingdom flourishes and declines.[7]
  • 8th century to 832 CE: The agriculturally-based Buddhist Sailendra kingdom flourishes and declines.[6]
  • 760 CE to 830CE: Borobudur Buddhist monument constructed.[8]
  • 856 CE: Prambanan Hindu temple thought to have been completed.[6]
  • 752 to 1045: The Hindu Mataram dynasty flourishes and declines.[9]
  • 1006 CE: King Dharmawangsa's Medang kingdom falls under invasion of Wurawari (Srivijayan ally).[citation needed]
  • 1019 CE: Airlangga establishes the Kingdom of Kahuripan.[citation needed]

13th century

14th century

  • 1309: King Jayanagara succeeds Kertajasa Jayawardhana as ruler of Majapahit.[10]
  • 1328: Kalagamet, styled Jayanagara succeeds Jayanagara as ruler of Majapahit.
  • 1350: Hayam Wuruk, styled Sri Rajasanagara succeeds Jayanagara as ruler of Majapahit; his reign is considered the empire's 'Golden Age'.[10]
  • 1350: Under its military commander Gajah Mada, Majapahit stretches over much of modern day Indonesia.
  • 1365: The Old Javanese text Nagarakertagama is written.[10]
  • 1377: Majapahit sends a punitive expedition against Palembang in Sumatra. Palembang's prince, Parameswara (later Iskandar Syah) flees, eventually finding his way to Malacca and establishing it as a major international port.[10]
  • 1389: Wikramawardhana succeeds Sri Rajasanagara as ruler of Majapahit.[10]

15th century

  • 1400s: Islam becomes Indonesia's dominant religion.[citation needed]
  • 1429: Queen Suhita succeeds Wikramawardhana as ruler of Majapahit.[10]
  • 1447: Wijayaparakramawardhana, succeeds Suhita as ruler of Majapahit.[10]
  • 1451: Rajasawardhana, born Bhre Pamotan, styled Brawijaya II succeeds Wijayaparakramawardhana as ruler of Majapahit.[10]
  • 1453: Reign of Rajasawardhana ends.[10]
  • 1456: Girindrawardhana, styled Brawijaya VI becomes ruler of Majapahit.[10]
  • 1466: Singhawikramawardhana, succeeds Girindrawardhana as ruler of Majapahit.[10]
  • 1478: Reign of Singhawikramawardhana ends.[10]

16th century

  • 1509: The Portuguese king sends Diogo Lopes de Sequeira to find Malacca, the eastern terminus of Asian trade. After initially receiving Sequeira, Sultan Mahmud Syah captures and/or kills several of his men and attempts an assault on the four Portuguese ships, which escape.[11] The Javanese fleet is also destroyed in Malacca.
  • 1511, August: Afonso de Albuquerque after sailing from Portuguese Goa conquers the Sultanate of Malacca with a force of 1,200 and seventeen or eighteen ships.[11]
  • 1512: The first Portuguese exploratory expedition was sent eastward from Malacca to search for the 'Spice Islands' (Maluku) led by Francisco Serrão. Serrao is shipwrecked but struggles on to Hitu (northern Ambon) and wins the favour of the local rulers.[12]
  • 1520: The Portuguese established a trading post in the village of Lamakera on the eastern side of Solor as a transit harbour between Maluku and Malacca.
  • 1520: Sultan Ali Mughayat Shah of Aceh begins an expansionist campaign capturing Daya on the west Sumatran coast, and the pepper and gold producing lands on the east coast.
  • 1521, November: Ferdinand Magellan's expedition reaches Maluku and after trade with Ternate returns to Europe with a load of cloves.
  • 1522: The Portuguese ally themselves with the rulers of Ternate and begin construction of a fort.[12]
  • 1535: The Portuguese in Ternate depose Sultan Tabariji (or Tabarija) and send him to Portuguese Goa where he converts to Christianity and bequeaths his Portuguese godfather Jordao de Freitas the island of Ambon.[13]
  • 1546 - 1547: Francis Xavier works among the peoples of Ambon, Ternate and Morotai (Moro) laying the foundations for a permanent mission.
  • 1559: Sultan Khairun of Ternate protesting the Portuguese's Christianisation activities in his lands. Hostilities between Ternate and the Portuguese.
  • 1562: Portuguese Dominican priests build a palm-trunk fortress which Javanese Muslims burned down the following year. The fort was rebuilt from more durable materials and the Dominicans commenced the Christianisation of the local population.[13]
  • 1569: Peace treaty was signed by Sultan Khairun of Ternate and Governor Lopez De Mesquita of Portuguese.
  • 1570: Sultan Hairun of Ternate is killed by the Portuguese.[13] The reign of Sultan Baabullah.
  • 1575: Following a five-year war, the Ternateans under Sultan Baabullah defeated the Portuguese.
  • 1578: The Portuguese establish a fort on Tidore but the main centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku becomes Ambon.[13]
  • 1579: The British navigator Sir Francis Drake passes through Maluku and transit in Ternate on his circumnavigation of the world.

The Portuguese establish a fort on Tidore but the main centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku becomes Ambon.[14]

  • 1583: Death of Sultan Baabullah of Ternate.
  • 1595: First Dutch expedition to Indonesia sets sail for the East Indies with two hundred and forty-nine men and sixty-four cannons led by Cornelis de Houtman.[15]
  • 1596, June: de Houtman’s expedition reaches Banten the main pepper port of West Java where they clash with both the Portuguese and Indonesians. It then sails east along the north coast of Java losing twelve crew to a Javanese attack at Sidayu and killing a local ruler in Madura.[15]
  • 1597: de Houtman’s expedition returns to the Netherlands with enough spices to make a considerable profit.[15]
  • 1598-1599: The Portuguese require an armada of 90 ships to put down a Solorese uprising.[13]
  • 1598: More Dutch fleets leave for Indonesia and most are profitable.[15]
  • 1599, March: Leaving Europe the previous year, a fleet of eight ships under Jacob van Neck was the first Dutch fleet to reach the ‘Spice Islands’ of Maluku.[15]
  • 1599 - 1600: The van Neck expedition returns to Europe. The expedition makes a 400 per cent profit.[15]

17th century

  • 1600: The Portuguese win a major naval battle in the bay of Ambon.[16] Later in the year, the Dutch join forces with the local Hituese in an anti-Portuguese alliance, in return for which the Dutch would have the sole right to purchase spices from Hitu.[16]
  • 1600: Elizabeth I grants a charter to the British East India Company beginning the English advance in Asia.
  • 1602: The Portuguese send a major (and last) expeditionary force from Malacca which succeeded in reimposing a degree of Portuguese control.
  • 1602: The Dutch East India Company (VOC) is established by merging competing Dutch trading companies.[16]
The Dutch and English enclaves at Amboyna (top) and Banda (bottom). 1655 engraving.
  • 1602, June: British East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrives in Aceh and sails on to Bantam where he is allowed to build trading post which becomes the centre of British trade in Indonesia until 1682.[17]
  • 1603: First permanent Dutch trading post is established in Banten, West Java.[17]
  • 1604: A second English East India Company voyage commanded by Sir Henry Middleton reaches Ternate, Tidore, Ambon and Banda. Fierce VOC hostility is encountered in Banda thus beginning Anglo-Dutch competition for access to spices[17]
  • 1605, February: The VOC in alliance with Hitu prepare to attack a Portuguese fort in Ambon but the Portuguese surrender.[16]
  • 1606: A Spanish fleet occupies Ternate and Tidore.[16]
  • 1610: The VOC establishes the post of Governor General to enable firmer control of their affairs in Asia.[16]
  • 1611-1617: The English establish trading posts at Sukadana (southwest Kalimantan), Makassar, Jayakarta and Jepara in Java, and Aceh, Pariaman and Jambi in (Sumatra) threatening Dutch ambitions for a monopoly on East Indies trade.[17]
  • 1611: The Dutch establish a post at Jayakarta (later 'Batavia' and then 'Jakarta').
  • 1613: The Dutch expel the Portuguese from their Solor fort.
  • 1619: Jan Pieterszoon Coen appointed Governor-General of the VOC who would show he had no scruples about using brute force to establish the VOC on a firm footing.
Dutch Batavia in the 17th Century, built in what is now North Jakarta
  • 1619, 30 May: Coen, backed by a force of nineteen ships, storms the Jayakarta driving out the Banten forces, and from the ashes of Jayakarta, establishes Batavia as the VOC headquarters.
  • 1620s: Almost the entire native population of Banda Islands was deported, driven away, starved to death or killed in an attempt to replace them with Dutch colonial slave labour.
  • 1620: Diplomatic agreements in Europe commence a three-year period of cooperation between the Dutch and the English over the spice trade.[17]
  • 1623: In a notorious but disputed incident, known as the 'Amboyna massacre', ten English and ten Japanese traders are arrested, tried and beheaded for conspiracy against the Dutch Government.[18] The English quietly withdraw from most of their Indonesian activities (except trading in Bantam) and focus on other Asian interests.
  • 1636: The Portuguese are expelled again from their Solor fort by the Dutch following a reoccupation.
  • 1646: Sultan Agung of Mataram dies - and is buried at his graveyard at Imogiri
  • 1667: As a result of the Treaty of Breda, the Dutch secured a worldwide monopoly on nutmeg by forcing England to give up their claim on Run, the most remote of the Banda Islands.

18th century

  • 1700: With the decline of the spice trade, textiles are now the most important trade item in the Dutch East Indies.[19]
  • 1704-1708: First Javanese War of Succession.[20]
  • 1717: Surabaya rebels against the VOC.[21]
  • 1712: The first shipment of coffee from Java reaches Amsterdam.[22]
  • 1719-1723: Second Javanese War of Succession.[21]
  • 1735: Governor-General Dirk van Cloon dies, one of many victims of disease in Batavia.[23]
  • 1740, 9 October: A massacre of Batavia's ethnic Chinese begins after they are suspected by the VOC of planning a rebellion. Approximately 10,000 are killed and the Chinese quarter is burned.[24]
  • 1755, 13 February: The Treaty of Giyanti is signed, effectively partitioning the Mataram Sultanate. The VOC recognizes Mangkubumi as Sultan Hamengkubuwana I, who rules half of Central Java. Hamengkubuwana I then moves to Yogya and renames the city Yogyakarta[25]
  • 1769-72: French expeditions capture clove plants in Ambon, ending the VOC monopoly of the plant.[26]
  • 1770: Captain James Cook stops at Onrust Island in the Bay of Batavia for repairs to his ship Endeavour on his round the world voyage.[27]
  • 1792, March: Hamengkubuwana I dies.[28]

19th century


Japanese occupation (1942–1945)

Japanese advance through Indonesia, 1942

Indonesian National Revolution (1945–1950)

Sukarno declares the independence of Indonesia.


The Indonesian parliament in session in the 1950s
  • 1948 - 1962: Darul Islam rebellions begin in West Java, spread to other provinces but conclude with the execution of its leader Kartosoewiryo.[35]
  • 1950, 6 September: The first cabinet of the unitary state is established. It is led by Prime Minister Mohammad Natsir.[36]
  • 1950, 27 September:Indonesia becomes the 60th member of the United Nations.[36]
  • 1951, 21 March: The Natsir cabinet falls[37]
  • 1951, 26 April: The composition of the new cabinet is announced. The new Prime Minister is Dr. Sukiman Wirjosanjojo.[36]
  • 1952, 25 February: Amid bitter disputes over the signing of a Mutual Security Agreement with the US, the Sukiman cabinet resigns.[37]
  • 1952, 3 April: The new cabinet, led by Prime Minister Wilopo is inaugurated.[36]
  • 1952, 17 October: Army-organized demonstrations take place in Jakarta to demand the dissolution of the legislature. Tank guns and machine guns are trained on the presidential palace.[37].This leads to the suspension ofGeneral Nasution as army chief of staff following army indiscipline over command and support that threatens the government.[35]
  • 1953, 2 June: The Wilopo cabinet resigns.[37]
  • 1953, 31 July: After lengthy negotiations, the composition of the new cabinet is announced. Serving his first term as prime minister is Ali Sastroamidjojo.[37]
  • 1955, March - 1961, August: Regional rebellions in Sumatra and Sulawesi.
  • 1955, 18–25 April: The city of Bandung hosts the Asia-Africa Conference. It is the first meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement and is attended by world leaders including China's Zhou Enlai, India's Nehru, Egypt's Nasser and Yugoslavia's Tito.[38]
  • 1955, 24 July: After a dispute with the Army over appointments, the cabinet resigns.[37]
  • 1955, 12 August: Led by Prime Minister Burhanuddin Harahap, the new cabinet is sworn in.[36]
  • 1955, 29 September: Indonesia holds general parliamentary elections;[32] the last free national elections until 1999; support for the parties is widely distributed with four parties each gaining 16-22 per cent and the remaining votes split between 24 parties.[38]
  • 1955, 15 December: Elections are held for the Constitutional Assembly[37]
  • 1956, 3 March: The cabinet falls as a result of its policy toward the Dutch.[37]
  • 1955, 24 March: The second cabinet to be led by Ali Sastroamidjojo takes office.[36]
  • 1956, 3 May: Indonesia unilaterally abrogates the Round Table Agreement signed with the Dutch in 1949.[36]
  • 1956, 1 December: Hatta resigns as vice-president.[36]
  • 1957, 21 February: President Sukarno announces his "Conception" (Konsepsi) of the nature of Indonesia. This will eventually lead to Guided Democracy[36][37]
  • 1957, March - 1961, August: Regional rebellions in Sumatra and Sulawesi.[38]
  • 1957, 14 March: Martial Law is proclaimed. On the same day, the cabinet resigns.[37]
  • 1957, 9 April: Sukarno appoints a "Working Cabinet" with Djuanda as prime minister.[36]
  • 1957, 30 November: An attempt is made to assassinate President Sukarno. Grenades are thrown at him as he visits a school in Cikini, Jakarta.[36]
  • 1958, May 18: US Air Force pilot Allen Pope is shot down over Ambon, revealing covert American support of regional rebellions, and ends the Dulles brothers' failure to subvert the Sukarno government.[38]
  • 1959, 5 July: With armed forces support, Sukarno issues a decree dissolving the Constituent Assembly and reintroducing the Constitution of 1945 with strong presidential powers, and assumes the additional role of Prime Minister, which completes the structure of 'Guided Democracy'.[38]
  • 1959, 10 July: President Sukarno appoints a "Working Cabinet" with himself as prime minister.[39]
  • 1950/60s: Military articulation of doctrines dwifungsi and hankamrata: a military role in sociopolitical development as well as security; a requirement that the resources of the people be at the call of the armed forces.[38]


  • 1960, 9 March Second Lieutenant Daniel Alexander Maukar of the Indonesian Air Force uses a MiG-17 fighter to strafe the Presidential Palace in Jakarta, oil tanks at Tanjung Priok in North Jakarta and then the Bogor Palace.[36][40]
  • 1960, 18 February: President Sukarno reshuffles the cabinet and appoints the second "Working Cabinet".[39]
  • 1950, 24 June:The House of Representatives-Mutual cooperation (DPR-GR), composed of members chosen by President Sukarno is established.[36]
  • 1960, 17 August:Indonesia severs diplomatic links with the Netherlands in protest over its refusal to hand over West Papua.[36]
  • 1960, 30 September: President Sukarno addresses the United Nations General Assembly.[36]
  • 1961, March 4: An agreement is signed in Jakarta with the Soviet Union to buy arms with long term loans.[36]
  • 1961, 17 August:Building officially starts on the Monas National Monument in the center of Jakarta.[36]
  • 1962, January 2:The Manadala Command to "free" West Papua from the Dutch is established. Its commander is Brigadier general Suharto.[36]
  • 1962, 15 January: Deputy chief of staff of the Indonesian Navy Commodore Yos Sudarso is killed in a Dutch air attack on the motor torpedo boat (MTB) force he is commanding.[36]
  • 1962, 8 March:President Sukarno again reshuffles his cabinet.[39]
  • 1962, 15 August:The New York Agreement transferring sovereignty of West Papua to Indonesia is signed at the United Nations.[36]
  • 1962, 24 August - 4 September: Indonesia hosts the Fourth Asian Games.[36]
  • 1963, 18 May: Parliament elects Sukarno 'President-for-life'.[38]
  • 1963, 1 May: Following pressure from the United Nations and the American government of President John F. Kennedy, the Netherlands yields West Irian (Papua) to temporary UN supervision.[36][38]
  • 1963 - 1965: Sole years of American Peace Corps program in Indonesia.[38]
  • 1963, 18 September: Following demonstrations in Jakarta to protest at the creation of Malaysia, the British Embassy is burned by a mob.[36]
  • 1963, 13 November: President Sukarno conducts the final reshuffle of the "Working Cabinet".[36]
  • 1963 - 1965: Sukarno leads the Konfrontasi campaign against the newly created Malaysia.[32][38]
  • 1964, 27 August: President Sukarno appoints the Dwikora Cabinet
  • 1965, 7 January: Indonesia withdraws from membership of the UN.[38][41]
  • 1965, 14 January: The Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) calls for workers and peasants to be armed.[41]
  • 1965, 11–16 April: The Third Session of the Provisional People's Consultative Assembly is held in Bandung.[41]
  • 1965, 26 May: Foreign Minister Subandrio reports to President Sukarno the existence of the Gilchrist Document, a letter purporting to be from the British ambassador which discusses western military involvement in Indonesia.[41]
  • 1965, 30 September: An abortive coup in Jakarta results in the murder of six army generals, and disposal of bodies at Lubang Buaya.[38]
  • 1965, 1 October: A counter coup led by General Suharto that leads to the Overthrow of Sukarno
  • 1965, October to 1966, March: A violent anti-communist purge leads to the killing of approximately 1/2 million Indonesians.[38]
  • 1965, 14 October: President Sukarno appoints Major General Suharto Minister/Commander of the Army.[41]
  • 1965, 16 October: The Jakarta Military Command temporarily suspends the activities of the PKI and its organizations in the Jakarta region.[41]
  • 1965, 13 December: The rupiah is devalued by a factor of 1,000 in an effort to control inflation.[41]
  • 1966, 10 January: Anti-communist organizations grouped under the Pancasila Front issue the "Three Demands of the People" (Tritura), namely the dissolution of the PKI, the cleansing of the cabinet of elements involved in the 30 September Movement, and lower prices and economic improvements.[41]
  • 1966, 14 February: The Extraordinary Military Court trials of people allegedly involved in the 30 September Movement begin.[41]
  • 1966, 24 February: President Sukarno reshuffles his cabinet, creating what becomes known as the "cabinet of 100 ministers".[41]
  • 1966, 11 March: General Suharto forces Sukarno to delegate presidential powers to himself by signing the Supersemar. The following day, Suharto dissolves the Indonesian Communist Party.[38][42]
  • 1966, 18 March: A total of 14 cabinet ministers are taken into "protective custody".[41]
  • 1966, 2 May: Following large-scale demonstrations, the leadership of the Mutual-Assistance House of Representatives (DPR-GR) is replaced.[41]
  • 1966, 20 June-5 July: The Fourth Session of the Provisional People's Consultative Assembly is held in Jakarta. It raises the status of the Supersemar into a decree, meaning Sukarno cannot revoke it, bans the PKI and its teachings and rejects Presidents Sukarno's accountability speech.[41]
  • 1966, 11 August: Indonesia and Malaysia agree to normalize diplomatic relations.[41]
  • 1966, 28 September: Indonesia rejoins the United Nations.[41]
  • 1967, 10 January: New investment laws designed to bring in foreign capital are passed; restrictions are introduced regarding status of Indonesian Chinese, their names and their religions.[38][41]
  • 1967, 22 February: In a ceremony at the presidential palace, Sukarno hands over authority to Suharto.[41]
  • 1967, 7–12 March: A Special Session of the Provisional People's Consultative Assembly strips Sukarno of his powers and appoints Suharto acting president.[41]
  • 1967, 1 October: Diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China are suspended.[41]
  • 1968, March: Parliament confers full presidential title on Suharto; Sukarno is under effective house arrest.[38]
  • 1968 - 1971: Soedjatmoko is Indonesian ambassador to the United States; bilateral relations warm.[38]
  • 1969: Papuan representatives agree to join Indonesia following the controversial 'Act of Free Choice'.[38]



  • 1980, May: The Petition of Fifty—a statement of concern to parliament about the use of government power, propaganda, and presidential personality cult—is begun.[43]
  • 1982 - 1983: The height of Petrus ('mysterious shootings') of thousands of suspected criminals by government security forces.[42][43]
  • 1983: Prabowo Subianto, then a major in ABRI marries Suharto's daughter Titiek at Taman Mini.[43]
  • 1984, 12 September: Muslim concerned protesting over alleged insensitivities to Islam at Tanjung Priok; a riot ensues resulting in many deaths. Clamp down on Islamic political leaders.[42]
  • 1984, December: Abdurrahman Wahid (Gus Dur) is elected chairman of Nahdlatul Ulama a position previously held by both his father and grandfather.[43]
  • 1985: The Indonesian government require all organisations of any kind to adopt Pancasila as their sole basis.[43]
  • 1987: Sukarno's daughter Megawati Sukarnoputri becomes a member of parliament; Suharto prohibits display of images of Sukarno although they appear frequently nonetheless.[44]
  • 1988: Suharto is elected to a fifth term as president.[44]
  • 1989: The Free Aceh Movement (GAM) reemerges following its 1976 founding; suppression of its guerilla activities leads to 2,000 deaths by 1991 in Aceh.[44]


  • 1991: Indonesia wins presidency of the Non-Aligned Movement.[44]
  • 1991, 12 November: ABRI troops fire on demonstrative funeral procession in Dili, East Timor. TV images of the killings put East Timor high on the international human rights agenda.[44]
  • 1992: Suharto successfully defies Dutch efforts to link human rights to aid administerd since 1967 by the International Governmental Group on Indonesia (IGGI).[44]
  • 1992-1993: East Timorese resistance leader Xanana Gusmão is captured by Prabowo and is tried and sentenced.[44]
  • 1993: Suharto seeks a sixth term and is easily re-elected.[44]
  • 1994, June: Suharto shuts down Tempo and two other publications for critical reporting of Habibie’s purchase of the former East German navy.[44]
  • 1996: The Free Papua Movement (OPM) kidnaps fourteen scientists and foresters in Iran Jaya garnering international attention. After four months, the abductees are rescued in a bloody operation lead by Prabowo.[44]
  • 1996, April: Ibu Tien Suharto, the president’s wife of 48 years, dies of a heart attack.[44]
  • 1996, July: Military-backed thugs burst into headquarters of PDI, Megawati's party, and evict her supporters in a violent climax to government efforts to vitiate her party’s popularity.[44]
  • 1997, February: Alarmed at a dukun's prediction that 'the nail of Java has come loose', Suharto commands a massive Ruat Dunia ceremony ('Cleansing of the world') near Borobudur.[44]
  • 1997, June: Pacific Ocean trade winds shift heralding the onset of the El Niño; severe drought across much of Indonesia follows in the ensuing months accompanied by highly destructive forest fires.[44]
  • 1997, July: The collapse of the Thai baht starts the East Asian financial crisis and over the ensuing months Indonesia is the country hardest hit.[44]
  • 1997 - 1998: Severe social unrest breaks out across Indonesian cities against Chinese Indonesians, Christians, symbols of wealth, the police and bureaucracy.[44]
  • 1998, 11 March: Suharto unanimously elected by the MPR to his seventh presidential term.[45]
  • 1998, late March: Largely peaceful student demonstrations against the regime rise to national prominence.[45]
  • 1998, 12 May: Four student demonstrators at Trisakti University are shot dead by bullets unproven but thought likely to have been from army sources.[45]
  • 1998, 13 May: Memorial services for killed students leads to vandalism, arson, looting and rape by roving mobs which continue unchecked by security forces for two days leaving 1,200 dead.[45]
  • 1998, 20 May: For National Awakening Day, Amien Rais pledges to bring a million protestors into the streets to demonstrate against at the National Monument in Jakarta. Faced with barbed wire and massed troops he calls off the rally fearing bloodshed.[45]
  • 1998, 21 May, 9 a.m.: After being deserted by his cabinet, Suharto resigns the presidency. Habibie assumes presidency.[45]
  • 1998, August: General Wiranto announces the discharge of Lieutenant General Prabowo from active duty, with full pension benefits—and without court-martial for allegations of abduction and torture of student activist (some of whom remain missing as of 2003).[45]
  • 1998, 10 November: Megawati, Rais, and the sultan of Yogya, meet at Wahid's home in Ciganjur, and issue a series of statements including a demand for the military to end their role in politics within six years.[45]
  • 1998, 13 November: On the last day of the MPR sessions, soldiers open fire on demonstrating students killing at least fifteen and injuring hundreds.[45]
  • 1999, 19 January: An petty argument between in the city of Ambon triggers Christian-Muslim clashes that last for three years across Maluku. As many as 10,000 are killed and 700,000 or one third of the region are displaced.[45]
  • 1999, 7 June: Indonesia's first free and fair national elections since 1955 take place with almost no disruption and wide participation. Votes however are distributed across forty-eight parties with no party achieving a majority.[45]
  • 1999, September: East Timor votes to secede from Indonesia in a referendum conducted under UN auspices. Four-fifths of voters choose independence for East Timor over integration with Indonesia. Pro-integration militias trained and paid by ABRI immediately resort to a scorched earth policy that leaves 1,000 dead and most of the territory's infrastructure ruined.[45]
  • 1999, 13 September: President Habibie relents to international pressure and allows a UN peacekeeping force known as 'INTERFET' to enter East Timor and restore order.[45]
  • 1999, October: The Indonesian parliament rejects President Habibie's accountability speech. Wahid whose party received one eighth of the popular vote is elected president by the MPR. Megawati whose party received one third of the vote (the highest) is elected vice president.[46]


  • 2000, Christmas Eve: In a coordinated attack involving more than three dozen sites across the country, churches are bombed and eighteen people killed. It is later proven to have been planned by Jemaah Islamiyah in retaliation for Christian killings of Muslims in the Maluku conflict.[46]
  • 2001 - Ethnic violence in Kalimantan as indigenous Dayaks force out Madurese transmigrants. Mass political demonstrations by Wahid's supporters and opponents. IMF stops further loans citing lack of progress in tackling corruption.[47]
  • 2000 - 2001: President Wahid's administration is marred by failures to stabilise the economy, patterns of political favouritism, economic corruption (although Wahid himself is not accused of corruption), inability to reform the military, personal eccentricity and pettiness, ineffectiveness in dealing with major religious violence in Maluku and Sulawesi, major ethnic violence (Dayaks vs. Madurese) in Kalimantan, and separatisms in Aceh and Irian Jaya.[46]
  • 2001, July: President Wahid is impeached chiefly on grounds of incompetence. The parliament elects Megawati president by 592 votes to 0. Hamzah Haz defeats Akbar Tandjung and Lieutenant General (ret.) Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.[46]
  • 2001, September: President Megawati visits President George Bush a week after the 9/11 terrorist attacks and welcomes American investment. On her return to Indonesia, the Islamic right criticises her cooperation with America's war in Afghanistan, and the nationalist left criticises here for being too suppliant to foreign investors.[46]
  • 2002: Nahdlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah, the largest Muslim organisations in Indonesia, issue joint statements critical of militant Islamists.[46]
  • 2002, February: Peace talks in Maliano, South Sulawesi appear to end three years of Christian-Muslim violence in Maluku and Poso.[46]
  • 2002, July: Tommy Suharto is sentenced to fifteen years jail for illegal possession of arms, contempt of law, and masterminding the assassination of a Supreme Court judge who had convicted him for graft.[46]
  • 2002, September: House Speaker Akbar Tandjung is sentenced to three years jail for corruption.[46]
  • 2002, October 12: Bombs in the Kuta nightclub district in Bali kill 202 people the world's deadliest terrorist attack since 11 September 2001. Indonesian police, aided by ten nations, track down Jemaah Islamiyah operatives.[46]
  • 2002, November: Eurico Guterres is sentenced to ten years prison for crimes committed following the 1999 ballot in East Timor.[46]
  • 2002, December: The Indonesian government and GAM sign a peace accord aimed at ending decades of violence in Aceh. The deal breaks down the following year.[46]
  • 2003, August: Jemaah Islamiyah bomb Jakarta's Marriott hotel killing twelve. All but one of those killed are Indonesians.
  • 2004, April: Parliamentary and local elections: Golkar party of former President Suharto wins greatest share of vote, with Megawati Sukarnoputri's PDI-P coming second.[47]
  • 2004, October: Indonesia's first direct presidential election elects Bambang Yudhoyono following popular disillusionment with incumbent Megawati.
  • 2004, 9 September: A bomb blast outside the Australian embassy in Jakarta kills 11 and injures up to 100 people.
  • 2004, 26 December: An earthquake-triggered tsunami kills an estimated 160,000 and causes widespread devastation.
  • 2005: Bombings in Bali kill 20 people.
  • 2005: Government and Free Aceh Movement separatists sign a peace deal providing for rebel disarmament and the withdrawal of government soldiers from the province. Rebels begin handing in weapons in September; government completes troop pull-out in December.[47]
  • 2006, May: A powerful earthquake kills thousands of people in the Yogyakarta region in central Java.[47]
  • 2007:Adam Air Flight 574 crashes into the sea off Sulawesi, killing all 102 onboard.
  • 2008: Suharto dies from multiple organ failure.[48] He is buried in the family Mausoleum near Solo.[49]
  • 2008: Jemaah Islamiyah Operatives are executed when found guilty for the 2002 bombings after numerous appeals from their families.
  • 2009: Jemaah Islamiyah bomb two hotels in Jakarta, including the Marriott that was attacked in 2003.
  • 2009, 17 September: Noordin Muhammad Top, the head of Jemaah Islamiyah, is shot in Solo

See also


  1. ^ Pope (1988). "Recent advances in far eastern paleoanthropology". Annual Review of Anthropology (Annual Review) 17: 43–77. doi:10.1146/annurev.an.17.100188.000355.  cited in Whitten, T; Soeriaatmadja, R. E., Suraya A. A. (1996). The Ecology of Java and Bali. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. pp. 309–312. ; Pope, G (August 15, 1983). "Evidence on the Age of the Asian Hominidae". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (National Academy of Sciences) 80 (16): 4,988–4992. doi:10.1073/pnas.80.16.4988. PMID 6410399. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/80/16/4988.  cited in Whitten, T; Soeriaatmadja, R. E., Suraya A. A. (1996). The Ecology of Java and Bali. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. pp. 309. ; de Vos, J.P.; P.Y. Sondaar, (9 December 1994). "Dating hominid sites in Indonesia" (PDF). Science Magazine (The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)) 266 (16): 4,988–4992. doi:10.1126/science.7992059. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/266/5191/1726.pdf.  cited in Whitten, T; Soeriaatmadja, R. E., Suraya A. A. (1996). The Ecology of Java and Bali. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. pp. 309. 
  2. ^ Taylor (2003), p. 5.
  3. ^ Taylor (2003), p. 7.
  4. ^ Taylor (2003), p. 19.
  5. ^ Taylor (2003), pp. 8-9, 15-18
  6. ^ a b c Miksic (1997)
  7. ^ Taylor (2003), pp. 22–26; Ricklefs (1991), p. 3.
  8. ^ Taylor (2003), p. 37.
  9. ^ Miksic (2003)
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Ricklefs (1991), page 18
  11. ^ a b Ricklefs (1991), p.23
  12. ^ a b Ricklefs (1991), page 24
  13. ^ a b c d e Ricklefs (1991), page 25
  14. ^ Miller, George (ed.) (1996). To The Spice Islands and Beyond: Travels in Eastern Indonesia. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. page xv. ISBN 967-65-3099-9. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f Ricklefs (1991), page 27
  16. ^ a b c d e f Ricklefs (1991), page 28
  17. ^ a b c d e Ricklefs (1991), page 29
  18. ^ Miller, George (ed.) (1996). To The Spice Islands and Beyond: Travels in Eastern Indonesia. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. xvi. ISBN 967-65-3099-9. 
  19. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 63
  20. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 82
  21. ^ a b Ricklefs (1991), page 84
  22. ^ Moore (Ed) (1999), p90
  23. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 86
  24. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 87
  25. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 93
  26. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 102
  27. ^ Heuken (2000), page 307
  28. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 101
  29. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 106
  30. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Herman Willem Daendels [1] Access date 29 March 2009
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Vickers (2005), page xii
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Vickers (2005), page xiii
  33. ^ "THE KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS DECLARES WAR WITH JAPAN". ibiblio. http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1941/411208c.html. Retrieved 2009-10-05. 
  34. ^ a b c Saafroedin et al. (1992)
  35. ^ a b Friend (2003), page 528
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia (1975a)
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Feith (2002)
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Friend (2003), page 529
  39. ^ a b c Simanjuntak(2003)
  40. ^ "Last Tiger Out" Jan Doward, Pacific Press Pub.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia (1975b)
  42. ^ a b c d e Vickers (2005), page xiv
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Friend (2003), page 530
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Friend (2003), page 531
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Friend (2003), page 532
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Friend (2003), page 533
  47. ^ a b c d "Timeline: Indonesia". BBC News. BBC. 23 August 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/1260546.stm. Retrieved 2007-09-03. 
  48. ^ "Indonesia ex-leader Suharto dies". BBC News. 27 January 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7211565.stm. Retrieved 6 January 2010. 
  49. ^ tempointeraktif.com (Indonesian)


  • Feith, Herbert (2007) The Decline of Constitutional Democracy in Indonesia Equinox Publishing (Asia) Pte Ltd, ISBN 979-3870-45-2
  • Friend, Theodore (2003). Indonesian Destinies. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01834-6. 
  • Heuken SJ, A (2000). Historical Sites of Jakarta. Cipta Loka Caraka, Jakarta
  • Miksic, John (1997). Java's Ancient "Indianized" Kingdoms. Found in Oey, Eric (ed) (1997), Java (Third ed.), Singapore: Periplus Editions, ISBN 962-593-244-5 .
  • Moore, R.I (General Editor)(1999). Philip's Atlas of World History. Chancellor Press. ISBN 0-75370-085-9
  • Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A history of modern Indonesia since c.1200. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4480-7
  • Saafroedin Bahar,Ananda B.Kusuma,Nannie Hudawati, eds, (1992) Risalah Sidang Badan Penyelidik Usahah Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesian (BPUPKI) Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (PPKI) (Minutes of the Meetings of the Agency for Investigating Efforts for the Preparation of Indonesian Independence and the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence), Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia, Jakarta
  • Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia (1975a) 30 Tahun Indonesia Merdeka: Jilid 2 (1950–1964) (30 Years of Indonesian Independence: Volume 2 (1950–1964)
  • Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia (1975b) 30 Tahun Indonesia Merdeka: Jilid 3 (1965–1973) (30 Years of Indonesian Independence: Volume 3 (1965–1973)
  • Simanjuntak, P. N. H. (2003) (in Indonesian), Kabinet-Kabinet Republik Indonesia: Dari Awal Kemerdekaan Sampai Reformasi, Jakarta: Djambatan, ISBN 9794284998. 
  • Taylor, Jean Gelman. Indonesia. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10518-5. 
  • Vickers, Adrian (2005). A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-54262-6. 

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