Timeline of United States discoveries: Wikis

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1823 Discovery of Silicon Si

  • Silicon is an elemant found on the phosphorus (right side) of the periodic table. John J. Berzelius discoverd it in 1823. It's atomic number is 14 and it's atomic mass is 28. Silicon is usually fornd in the earth's crust, the sun, and the stars. Silicon is found in solids. ((http://webelements.com/silicon/))

1831 Discovery of chloroform

  • Chloroform is a chemical compound known as trihalomethanes that does not undergo combustion in air, although it will burn when mixed with more flammable substances. Chloroform was first discovered in July 1831 by American physician Samuel Guthrie, independently a few months later by French chemist Eugène Soubeiran and then by German chemist Justus von Liebig.[1]

1859 Discovery of petroleum jelly

  • Petroleum jelly, petrolatum or soft paraffin is a semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons originally promoted as a topical ointment for its healing properties. The raw material for petroleum jelly was discovered in 1859 by Robert Chesebrough, a chemist from New York. In 1870, this product was branded as Vaseline Petroleum Jelly.[2]

1873 Discovery of chemical potential

  • In thermodynamics, physics, and chemistry, chemical potential, symbolized by μ, is a term introduced by the American engineer, chemist, and mathematical physicist Josiah Gibbs in his 1873 paper A Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by Means of Surfaces. [3]

1877 Discovery of Deimos

  • Deimos is the smaller and outer of Mars’ two moons. It was discovered by Asaph Hall in 1877.[4]

1877 Discovery of Phobos

  • Phobos is the larger and closer of Mars' two small moons. It was discovered by Asaph Hall in 1877.[5]

1891 Discovery of Amalthea

  • Amalthea is the third moon of Jupiter in order of distance from the planet. It was discovered on September 9, 1892, by Edward Emerson Barnard.[6]

1899 Discovery of Phoebe

  • Phoebe is an irregular satellite of Saturn. It was discovered by William Henry Pickering on March 17, 1899 from photographic plates that had been taken starting on August 16, 1898 at Arequipa, Peru by DeLisle Stewart.[7]

1908 Discovery of Seyfert galaxies

  • Seyfert galaxies are a class of galaxies with nuclei that produce spectral line emission from highly ionized gas, named after Carl Keenan Seyfert, the astronomer who first identified the class in 1943 although they were first discovered by Edward A. Fath in 1908 while he was at the Lick Observatory.[8]

1910 Discovery of propane

  • Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a transportable liquid. It is derived from other petroleum products during oil or natural gas processing. It is commonly used as a fuel for engines, barbecues, portable stoves and residential central heating. Propane was first identified as a volatile component in gasoline by Dr. Walter O. Snelling of the U.S. Bureau of Mines in 1910.[9]

1912 Discovery of the smoking-cancer link

  • Dr. Isaac Adler was the first to strongly suggest that lung cancer is related to smoking in 1912.[10]

1914 Discovery of Sinope

1915 Discovery of the Zener diode

  • A Zener diode is a type of diode that permits current in the forward direction like a normal diode, but also in the reverse direction if the voltage is larger than the breakdown voltage known as "Zener knee voltage" or "Zener voltage". The device was named after Clarence Zener, who discovered this electrical property.

1916 Discovery of covalent bonding

  • The idea of covalent bonding can be traced several years to Gilbert N. Lewis, who in 1916 described the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. He introduced the so called Lewis notation or electron dot notation or The Lewis Dot Structure in which valence electrons are represented as dots around the atomic symbols.[12]

1916 Discovery of heparin

  • Heparin, a highly-sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is widely used as an injectable anticoagulant and has the highest negative charge density of any known biological molecule. It can also be used to form an inner anticoagulant surface on various experimental and medical devices such as test tubes and renal dialysis machines. It was discovered by Jay McLean and William Henry Howell in 1916.[13]

1917 Discovery of Vitamin A

  • Vitamin A, a bi-polar molecule formed with bi-polar covalent bonds between carbon and hydrogen, is linked to a family of similarly shaped molecules, the retinoids, which complete the remainder of the vitamin sequence. Its important part is the retinyl group, which can be found in several forms. In foods of animal origin, the major form of vitamin A is an ester, primarily retinyl palmitate, which is converted to an alcohol in the small intestine. Vitamin A can also exist as an aldehyde, or as an acid. The discovery of vitamin A stemmed from research dating back to 1906, indicating that factors other than carbohydrates, proteins, and fats were necessary to keep cattle healthy. By 1917 one of these substances was independently discovered by Elmer McCollum at the University of Wisconsin–Madison,[14] and Lafayette Mendel and Thomas Osborne at Yale University.
Percival Lowell, the originator of the Planet X hypothesis

1930 Discovery of Pluto

  • Following the discovery of the planet Neptune in 1846, there was considerable speculation that another planet might exist beyond its orbit. The search began in the mid-19th century but culminated at the start of the 20th century with a quest for Planet X. Percival Lowell proposed the Planet X hypothesis to explain apparent discrepancies in the orbits of the gas giants, particularly Uranus and Neptune, speculating that the gravity of a large unseen planet could have perturbed Uranus enough to account for the irregularities. The discovery of Pluto by Clyde Tombaugh in 1930 initially appeared to validate Lowell's hypothesis, and Pluto was considered the ninth planet until 2006.[15]

1931 Discovery of heavy hydrogen

  • Heavy hydrogen is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). It was first predicted in 1926 by Walter Russell and later discovered in 1931 by Harold Urey.[16]

1932 Discovery of the positron

1932 Discovery of homeostasis

  • Homeostasis is the property of a system, either open or closed, that regulates its internal environment so as to maintain a stable, constant condition. It was first proposed and coined by Walter Bradford Cannon, a former professor and chairman of the Department of Physiology at Harvard Medical School, and popularized it in his book The Wisdom of the Body.[18]

1933 Discovery of heavy water

  • Harold Urey discovered the isotope deuterium in 1931 and was later able to concentrate it in water. Urey's mentor Gilbert Newton Lewis isolated the first sample of pure heavy water by electrolysis in 1933.[19]

1933 Discovery of polyvinylidene chloride

  • Polyvinylidene chloride is a polymer derived from vinylidene chloride. Its use can be found in water-based coating, the production of household items and industrial products. Ralph Wiley, a Dow Chemical lab worker, accidentally discovered polyvinylidene chloride in 1933.[20]

1936 Discovery of elliptical galaxies

  • An elliptical galaxy is a galaxy having an approximately elliptical shape and a smooth, nearly featureless brightness profile. They range in shape from nearly spherical to highly flattened and in size from hundreds of millions to over one trillion stars. It was originally described by Edwin Hubble in his 1936 work “The Realm of the Nebulae” [21]

1936 Discovery of the muon

  • The muon is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with negative electric charge and a spin of 1⁄2. It was discovered by Carl D. Anderson and Seth Henry Neddermeyer in 1936 while they studied cosmic radiation.[22]

1936 Discovery of Vitamin E

  • Tocopherol, a class of chemical compounds of which many have vitamin E activity, describes a series of organic compounds consisting of various methylated phenols. During feeding experiments with rats Herbert McLean Evans concluded in 1922 that besides vitamins B and C, an unknown vitamin existed. Although every other nutrition was present, the rats were not fertile. This condition could be changed by additional feeding with wheat germ. It took several years until 1936 when the substance was isolated from wheat germ and the formula C29H50O2 was determined by Herbert McLean Evans and K.S. Bishop. The structure was determined shortly thereafter in 1938.[23]

1936 Discovery of sodium thiopental

  • Sodium thiopental, better known as Sodium Pentothal, thiopentone sodium, or trapanal, is a rapid-onset short-acting barbiturate. It was discovered in the early 1936 by Ernest H. Volwiler and Donalee L. Tabern while working for Abbott Laboratories.[24]

1937 Discovery of Niacin

  • Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin which prevents the deficiency disease pellagra. Niacin was extracted from livers by Conrad Elvehjem who later discovered the active ingredient, then referred to as the "pellagra-preventing factor" and the "anti-blacktongue factor." [25]

1937 Discovery of K-electron capture

  • Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom and insufficient energy to emit a positron. However, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron emission. K-electron capture was discovered by Luis Alvarez, who demonstrated it in 1937 and reported it in The Physical Review in April 1938.[26]

1938 Discovery of fluropolymers

  • A fluoropolymer is a fluorocarbon based polymer with multiple strong carbon–fluorine bonds. It is characterized by a high resistance to solvents, acids, and bases. Fluoropolymers were discovered in 1938 by Dr. Roy Plunkett when he accidentally polymerized tetrafluoroethylene to form polytetrafluoroethylene.[27]

1938 Discovery of animal echolocation

  • Echolocation, also called biosonar, is the biological sonar used by several animals such as dolphins, shrews, bats, and whales. The term was coined by Donald Griffin and Robert Galambos, who discovered its use by bats in 1938.[28]

1938 Discovery of Carme

1938 Discovery of Lysithea

1943 Discovery of streptomycin

  • Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, and was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. Streptomycin cannot be given orally as it must be administered by regular intramuscular injection. In 1943, Albert Schatz discovered Streptomycin.[31]

1945 Discovery of promethium

1948 Discovery of warfarin

  • Warfarin is an anticoagulant and pesticide. It was initially used as a pesticide but was later found to be effective and relatively safe for preventing thrombosis and embolism in many disorders and is currently the most widely used anticoagulant worldwide. It was discovered by Karl Paul Link and chemists at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.[33]

1948 Discovery of Miranda

1948 Discovery of seratonin

  • Seratonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. It was isolated and named in 1948 by Maurice M. Rapport, Arda Green, and Irvine Page of the Cleveland Clinic.[35]

1948 Discovery of tetracycline

  • Tetracycline is a broad-spectrum polyketide antibiotic indicated for use against many bacterial infections. It is commonly used to treat acne today, and played a historical role in stamping out cholera in the developed world. It was discovered by Benjamin Minge Duggar in 1948.[36]

1949 Discovery of Nereid

  • Nereid, also known as Neptune II, is a moon of Neptune. Nereid was discovered on May 1, 1949 by Gerard P. Kuiper, who proposed the name in the report of his discovery. It is named after the Nereids, sea-nymphs of Greek mythology.

1951 Discovery of barium stars

  • Barium stars are G to K class giants, whose spectra indicate an overabundance of s-process elements by the presence of singly ionized barium, Ba II, at λ 455.4 nm. Barium stars also show enhanced spectral features of carbon, the bands of the molecules CH, CN and C2. The class was originally recognized and defined by William Bidelman and Philip Keenan.[37]

1951 Discovery of Ananke

1952 Discovery of rapid eye movement

  • Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a normal stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eyes. REM sleep is classified into two categories: tonic and phasic. The phenomenon of REM sleep and its association with dreaming was discovered by Eugene Aserinsky and Nathaniel Kleitman with assistance from William C. Dement, a medical student at the time, in 1952 during their tenures at the University of Chicago. Kleitmann and Aserinsky's seminal article was published September 10, 1953.[39]

1953 Discovery of DNA structure

  • In 1953, based on X-ray diffraction images and the information that the bases were paired, James D. Watson along with Francis Crick discovered what is now widely accepted as the first accurate double-helix model of DNA structure.[40]

1955 Discovery of the antiproton

1956 Discovery of porous silicon

  • Porous silicon (pSi) is a form of the chemical element silicon which has an introduced nanoporous holes in its microstructure, rendering a large surface to volume ratio in the order of 500m2/cm3. It was first discovered by accident in 1956 at Bell Labs by Arthur Uhlir Jr. and Ingeborg Uhlir.[42]

1956 Discovery of the kaon

  • A kaon is any one of a group of four mesons distinguished by the fact that they carry a quantum number called strangeness. It was first discovered by Leon Lederman and a group of scientists from Columbia University at Brookhaven National Laboratory.[43]

1956 Discovery of the antineutron

  • The antineutron is the antiparticle of the neutron. An antineutron has the same mass as a neutron, and no net electric charge. However, it is different from a neutron by being composed of antiquarks, rather than quarks. It was discovered by Bruce Cork, William Wenzell, Glenn Lambertson and Oreste Piccioni in 1956.[44]

1956 Discovery of the neutrino

  • Neutrinos are elementary particles that travel close to the speed of light, lack an electric charge, are able to pass through ordinary matter almost undisturbed and are thus extremely difficult to detect. The neutrino was first postulated in 1930 by Wolfgang Pauli and later discovered in 1956 by Clyde Cowan, Frederick Reines, F. B. Harrison, H. W. Kruse, and A. D. McGuire.[45]

1956 Discovery of nucleic acid hybridization

  • Hybridization, discovered by Alexander Rich and David R. Davies in 1956, is the process of combining complementary, single-stranded nucleic acids into a single molecule.[46]

1958 Discovery of the Van Allen radiation belt

  • The Van Allen radiation belt is a torus of energy charged particles around Earth, held in place by Earth's magnetic field. On the sun side, it is compressed because of the solar wind and on the other side, it is elongated to around three earth radii. This creates a cavity called the Chapman Ferraro Cavity, in which the Van Allen radiation belts reside. The existence of the belt was confirmed by the Explorer 1 and Explorer 3 missions in early 1958, under Dr. James Van Allen at the University of Iowa.[47]

1959 Discovery of antiprotons

  • The antiproton is the antiparticle of the proton. It was discovered in 1955 by University of California, Berkeley physicists Owen Chamberlain and Emilio Segrè for which they earned the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physics.[48]

1960 Discovery of seafloor spreading

  • Seafloor spreading occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge. Seafloor spreading helps explain continental drift in the theory of plate tectonics. It was first proposed by Harry Hammond Hess and Robert Sinclair Dietz in 1960.[49]

1961 Discovery of the eta meson

  • The eta meson is a meson made of a mix of up quark, down quark, strange quark, quarks and antiquarks. It was discovered by a team at the University of California, Berkeley using the Bevatron.[50]

1964 Discovery of the xi baryon

  • In particle physics, subatomic particle (Xi) is a name given to a range of baryons with one up or down quark and two heavier quarks. They are sometimes called the cascade particles because of their unstable state, they decay rapidly into lighter particles through a chain of decays. The first discovery of the Xi particle was at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1964.[51]

1964 Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation

  • In cosmology, the cosmic microwave background radiation CMB is a form of electromagnetic radiation filling the universe. The CMB's discovery in 1964 by astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson was the culmination of work initiated in the 1940s, earning them a Nobel Prize in 1978.

1964 Discovery of the quark

  • A quark is a type of elementary particle found in nucleons and other subatomic particles. They are a major constituent of matter, along with leptons. The quark model was first postulated independently by physicist Murray Gell-Mann in 1964.[52]

1964 Discovery of the Hepatitis B virus

  • The Hepatitis B virus was discovered in 1965 by Baruch Blumberg, while working at the National Institutes of Health.[53]

1965 Discovery of aspartame

  • Aspartame is the name for an artificial, non-saccharide sweetener, aspartyl-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester; that is, a methyl ester of the dipeptide of the amino acidsaspartic acid and phenylalanine. Aspartame was discovered in 1965 by James M. Schlatter, a chemist working for G.D. Searle & Company. Schlatter had synthesized aspartame in the course of producing an anti-ulcer drug candidate.[54]

1965 Discovery of pulsating white dwarves

  • A pulsating white dwarf is a white dwarf star whose luminosity varies due to non-radial gravity wave pulsations within itself. The first pulsating white dwarf was discovered by Arlo U. Landolt when he observed in 1965 and 1966 that the luminosity of HL Tau 76 varied with a period of approximately 12.5 minutes.[55]

1968 Discovery of the up quark

  • The up quark is a first-generation quark with a charge of +(2/3)e. The existence of up quarks was first postulated when Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig developed the quark model in 1964, and the first evidence for them was found in deep inelastic scattering experiments in 1968.[56]

1968 Discovery of the down quark

  • The down quark is a first-generation quark with a charge of −13. It is the second-lightest of all the six of quarks, the lightest being the up quark. Down quarks are most commonly found in nucleons. Its protons contains one down quark and two up quarks, while neutrons contain two down quarks and one up quark. Down quarks were theorized by Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig when they discovered the quark model in 1968.[57]

1969 Discovery of Mosher's acid

  • Mosher's acid, or α-methoxytrifluorophenylacetic acid, discovered by Harry S. Mosher in 1969, is a carboxylic acid which was first used as a chiral derivitizing agent.[58]

1969 Discovery of interstellar formaldehyde

  • Interstellar formaldehyde was first discovered in 1969 by Lewis Snyder, David Buhl, B. Zuckerman and Patrick Palmer using the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Formaldehyde was detected by means of the 111 - 110 ground state rotational transition at 4830 MHz.[59]

1970 Discovery of reverse transcriptase

  • In biochemistry, a reverse transcriptase, also known as RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA. It was discovered by Howard Temin at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, and independently by David Baltimore in 1970 at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[60]

1974 Discovery of the J/ψ meson

The J/ψ is a subatomic particle, a flavor-neutral meson consisting of a charm quark and a charm anti-quark. Mesons formed by a bound state of a charm quark and a charm anti-quark are generally known as "charmonium". Its discovery was made independently by two research groups, one at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, headed by Burton Richter, and one at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, headed by Samuel Ting at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. They accidentally discovered they had found the same particle, and both announced their discoveries on November 11, 1974.[61]

1974 Discovery of the charm quark

The charm quark is a second-generation quark with an electric charge of +2⁄3 e. It is the third most massive of the quarks, at about 1.5 GeV/c2 and roughly one and a half times the mass of the proton. It was predicted in 1964 by Sheldon Lee Glashow and James Bjorken and first observed in November 1974, with the simultaneous discovery of the J/ψ|J/ψ meson charm particle at Stanford Linear Accererator Center by a group led by Burton Richter and at Brookhaven National Laboratory by a group led by Samuel C. C. Ting.[62]

1974 Discovery of the binary pulsar

  • A binary pulsar is a pulsar with a binary companion, often another pulsar, white dwarf or neutron star. The first binary pulsar, PSR 1913+16 or the "Hulse-Taylor binary pulsar" was discovered in 1974 at Arecibo by Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr. and Russell Hulse, for which they won the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physics.[63]

1974 Discovery of Leda

1975 Discovery of Themisto

1976 Discovery of D mesons

  • D mesons are the lightest particle containing charm quarks. They are often studied to gain knowledge on the weak interaction. Since the D meson is the lightest meson containing a charm quark, it must change the charm quark into another quark to decay. D mesons were discovered in 1976 during the Mark I experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

1977 Discovery of the tauon

1977 Discovery of the rings of Uranus

  • The planet Uranus has a system of rings intermediate in complexity between the more extensive set around Saturn and the simpler systems around Jupiter and Neptune. The rings of Uranus were discovered on March 10, 1977, by James L. Elliot, Edward W. Dunham, and Douglas J. Mink. More than 200 years ago, William Herschel also reported observing rings, but modern astronomers are skeptical that he could actually have noticed them, as they are very dark and faint.[67]

1977 Discovery of the upsilon meson

  • The upsilon meson is a flavorless meson formed from a bottom quark and its antiparticle. It was discovered by the E288 collaboration, headed by Leon Lederman [68], at Fermilab in 1977, and was the first particle containing a bottom quark to be discovered because it is the lightest that can be produced without additional massive particles. It has a mean lifetime of 1.21×10−20 second and a mass about 10 GeV.

1977 Discovery of the bottom quark

  • The bottom quark is a third-generation quark with a charge of −1⁄3e. The bottom quark was discovered by the E288 experiment at Fermilab in 1977 when collisions produced bottomonium.[69]

1978 Discovery of restriction endonucleases

  • A restriction enzyme is an enzyme that cuts double-stranded or single stranded DNA at specific recognition nucleotide sequences known as restriction sites. Such enzymes, found in bacteria and archaea, are thought to have evolved to provide a defense mechanism against invading viruses. Inside a bacterial host, the restriction enzymes selectively cut up foreign DNA in a process called restriction; host DNA is methylated by a modification enzyme to protect it from the restriction enzyme’s activity. The Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded, in 1978, to Daniel Nathans, Werner Arber and Hamilton Smith for the discovery of restriction endonucleases.[70]

1978 Discovery of Charon

1979 Discovery of Metis

1979 Discovery of Thebe

  • Thebe is the fourth of Jupiter's moons by distance from the planet. It was discovered by Stephen Synnott in images from the Voyager 1 space probe taken on March 5, 1979 while orbiting around Jupiter.[73]

1979 Discovery of the rings of Jupiter

  • The planet Jupiter has a system of rings, known as the rings of Jupiter or the Jovian ring system. It was the third ring system to be discovered in the Solar System, after those of Saturn and Uranus and was first observed in 1979 by the Voyager 1 space probe.[74]

1980 Discovery of Pandora

  • Pandora is an inner satellite of Saturn. It was discovered in 1980 from photos taken by Voyager 1, and was provisionally designated S/1980 S 26.[75]

1980 Discovery of Prometheus

  • Prometheus is an inner satellite of Saturn that was discovered in 1980 from photos taken by Voyager 1. It was provisionally designated S/1980 S 27.[76]

1980 Discovery of Atlas

  • Atlas is a moon of Saturn that was discovered by Richard Terrile in 1980 from Voyager photos and was designated S/1980 S 28.[77]

1981 Discovery of Larissa

  • Larissa, also known as Neptune VII, is the fifth closest inner satellite of Neptune. It was first discovered by Harold J. Reitsema, William B. Hubbard, Larry A. Lebofsky and David J. Tholen based on fortuitous ground-based stellar occultation observations on May 24, 1981, and given the temporary designation S/1981 N 1, being announced on May 29, 1981.[78]

1985 Discovery of Puck

  • Puck is an inner satellite of Uranus. It was discovered in December 1985 by the Voyager 2 spacecraft.[79]

1986 Discovery of Portia

  • Portia is an inner satellite of Uranus. It was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 on January 3, 1986 and was given the temporary designation S/1986 U 1.[79]

1986 Discovery of Juliet

  • Juliet is an inner satellite of Uranus. It was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 on January 3, 1986 and was given the temporary designation S/1986 U 2.[79]

1986 Discovery of Cressida

  • Cressida is an inner satellite of Uranus. It was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 on January 9, 1986 and was given the temporary designation S/1986 U 3.[79]

1986 Discovery of Rosalind

  • Rosalind is an inner satellite of Uranus. It was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 on January 13, 1986 and was given the temporary designation S/1986 U 4.[79]

1986 Discovery of Belinda

  • Belinda is an inner satellite of Uranus. It was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 on January 13, 1986 and was given the temporary designation S/1986 U 5.[79]

1986 Discovery of Desdemona

  • Desdemona is an inner satellite of Uranus. It was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 on January 13, 1986 and was given the temporary designation S/1986 U 6.[79]

1986 Discovery of Cordelia

  • Cordelia is the inner satellite of Uranus. It was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 on January 20, 1986 and was given the temporary designation S/1986 U 7.[79]

1986 Discovery of Ophelia

  • Ophelia is an inner satellite of Uranus. It was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 on January 20, 1986 and was given the temporary designation S/1986 U 8.[79]

1986 Discovery of Bianca

  • Bianca is an inner satellite of Uranus. It was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 on January 23, 1986 and was given the temporary designation S/1986 U 9.[79]

1989 Discovery of the rings of Neptune

1989 Discovery of Proteus

  • Proteus, also known as Neptune VIII, is Neptune's largest inner satellite. Proteus was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 during the Neptune flyby in 1989.[81]

1989 Discovery of Despina

  • Despina, also known as Neptune V, is the third closest inner satellite of Neptune. Despina was discovered in late July 1989 from the images taken by the Voyager 2. It was given the temporary designation S/1989 N 3.[82]

1989 Discovery of Galatea

  • Galatea, also known as Neptune VI, is the fourth closest inner satellite of Neptune. Galatea was discovered in late July 1989 from the images taken by the Voyager 2. It was given the temporary designation S/1989 N 4.[82]

1989 Discovery of Thalassa

  • Thalassa, also known as Neptune IV, is the second inner satellite of Neptune. It was discovered sometime before mid-September 1989 from the images taken by the Voyager 2. It was given the temporary designation S/1989 N 5.[82]

1989 Discovery of Naiad

  • Naiad, also known as Neptune III, is the inner satellite of Neptune. It was discovered sometime before mid-September 1989 from the images taken by the Voyager 2. The last moon to be discovered during the flyby, it was designated S/1989 N 6.[82]

1995 Discovery of the top quark

  • The top quark is the third-generation up-type quark with a charge of +(2/3)e. It was discovered in 1995 by the CDF and D0 experiments at Fermilab and is the most massive of known elementary particles.[83]

1995 Discovery of the Hale-Bopp comet

  • Comet Hale-Bopp was arguably the most widely observed comet of the twentieth century, and one of the brightest seen for many decades and it was visible to the naked eye for a record 18 months when it passed near planet Earth. Hale-Bopp was discovered by Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp on July 23, 1995 at a great distance from the Sun, raising expectations that the comet would brighten considerably by the time it passed close to Earth. Although predicting the brightness of comets with any degree of accuracy is very difficult, Hale-Bopp met or exceeded most predictions when it passed perihelion on April 1, 1997.[84]

1998 Discovery of the embryonic stem cell line

  • A breakthrough in human embryonic stem cell research came in November 1998 when a group led by Dr. James Thomson [85] at the University of Wisconsin–Madison first discovered a technique in order to isolate and grow cells which derived from human blastocysts, could one day lead to major medical advancements in organ transplantation as well as gene therapy and treatment of maladies such as paralysis, diabetes, cancer, and AIDS.

2001 Discovery of interstellar vinyl alcohol

  • Between May and June 2001, astronomers A. J. Apponi and Barry Turner discovered vinyl alcohol in the molecular cloud Sagittarius B using the National Science Foundation's 12-meter radio telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory.[86]

2003 Discovery of Psamathe

2003 Discovery of Mab

2003 Discovery of Perdita

  • Perdita is an inner satellite of Uranus. Perdita's discovery was complicated. The first photographs of Perdita were taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1986, but it was not recognized from the photographs for more than a decade. In 1999, the moon was noticed by Erich Karkoschka and reported. But because no further pictures could be taken to confirm its existence, it was officially demoted in 2001. However, in 2003, pictures taken by the Hubble Space Telescope managed to pick up an object where Perdita was supposed to be, finally confirming its existence.[89]

2003 Discovery of Cupid

2005 Discovery of Hydra

  • Hydra is the outer-most natural satellite of Pluto. It was discovered along with Nix in June 2005 by the Hubble Space Telescope's Pluto Companion Search Team, which is composed of Hal A. Weaver, Alan Stern, Max J. Mutchler, Andrew J. Steffl, Marc W. Buie, William J. Merline, John R. Spencer, Eliot F. Young, and Leslie A. Young.[91]

2005 Discovery of Nix

  • Nix is a natural satellite of Pluto. It was discovered along with Hydra in June 2005 by the Hubble Space Telescope's Pluto Companion Search Team, composed of Hal A. Weaver, S. Alan Stern, Max J. Mutchler, Andrew J. Steffl, Marc W. Buie, William J. Merline, John R. Spencer, Eliot F. Young, and Leslie A. Young.[91]

2007 Discovery of human genome and variation mapping

  • The human genome is the genome of Homo sapiens, which is stored on 23 chromosome pairs. Whereas a genome sequence lists the order of every DNA base in a genome, a genome map identifies the landmarks. A genome map is less detailed than a genome sequence and aids in navigating around the genome. While working at the National Institute of Health, Craig Venter discovered a technique for rapidly identifying all of the mRNAs present in a cell, and began to use it to identify human brain genes.[92] The short cDNA sequence fragments discovered by this method are called expressed sequence tags. Through his scientific research of bringing the world one step closer to personalized medicine, Craig Venter was listed on Time Magazine's 2007 and 2008 Time 100 list of the most influential people in the world.

2007 Discovery of the di-positronium

  • The di-positronium is a molecule consisting of two atoms of positronium. It was predicted to exist in 1946 by John Archibald Wheeler and subsequently studied theoretically, but was not observed until 2007 in an experiment done by David Cassidy and Allen Mills at the University of California, Riverside.[93]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Chloroform". BBC Radio 4. http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/science/thematerialworld_20050728.shtml.  
  2. ^ "Vaseline". Unilever. http://www.unileverusa.com/ourbrands/personalcare/vaseline.asp.  
  3. ^ "J. Willard Gibbs". American Physical Society. http://www.aps.org/programs/outreach/history/historicsites/gibbs.cfm.  
  4. ^ "Under the Moons of Mars". NASA. http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/whyweexplore/Why_We_27_prt.htm.  
  5. ^ "Nasa probe pictures Phobos moon". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7340670.stm.  
  6. ^ "Amalthea". Encyclopaedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/18395/Amalthea.  
  7. ^ "Phoebe". Encyclopaedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/457103/Phoebe.  
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