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This is a Timeline of events concerning ancient Rome, from the city foundation until the last attempt of the Eastern Roman Empire to re-conquer Rome.

Contents

8th century BC

External Timeline A graphical timeline is available at
Timeline of the Roman Kingdom
* 754 BC–Latins move into Italy

7th century BC

6th century BC

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5th century BC

4th century BC

3rd century BC

2nd century BC

1st century BC

External Timeline A graphical timeline is available at
Timeline of the Roman Empire

1st century AD

2nd century AD

  • 101/102– First Dacian War
  • 105/106– Second Dacian War; king Decebalus commits suicide and Dacia becomes a province
  • 106– Building of Trajan's Forum and construction of Trajan's column
  • 113/117– Trajan's successful campaigns against the Parthian Empire
  • 115/117– Jewish rebellions in Egypt
  • 117– Hadrian becomes emperor
  • 121/125– Hadrian travels through the Northern Empire
  • 122– construction of Hadrian's Wall begins
  • 128/132– Hadrian travels through Africa and the Eastern Empire
  • 131/135 - Jewish rebellions led by Simon bar Kokhba
  • 138– Antoninus Pius becomes emperor
  • 140/143– After a rebellion Antoninus conquers Scotland; construction of Antonine Wall begins
  • 150/163– rebellions in Scotland, Antonine Wall is abandoned and reoccupied several times
  • 161– Marcus Aurelius becomes emperor
  • 162/166– Lucius Verus successful campaigns against the Parthian Empire
  • 167– The tribe of the Marcomanni crosses the Danube and invades Dacia
  • 168/175– Marcus Aurelius' campaigns against the Marcomanni
  • 180– Death of Marcus Aurelius, the last of the Five good emperors; Commodus becomes emperor
  • 184– Antonine Wall abandoned for the last time
  • 193– Commodus is murdered. After the short reigns of Pertinax and Didius Julianus, Septimius Severus becomes emperor. There is opposition from first Pescennius Niger and then Clodius Albinus
  • 197– Septimius Severus secures the empire after the battle of Lugdunum
  • 198– Septimius Severus invades Parthia

3rd century AD

  • 208/211– Severus campaigns against the Caledonians
  • 211– Severus dies. His sons Caracalla and Geta become joint emperors. Caracalla has Geta murdered shortly thereafter.
  • 217– Caracalla assassinated; Macrinus becomes emperor
  • 218– Macrinus deposed and executed, Elagabalus is installed on the throne
  • 222– Elagabalus is murdered. Alexander Severus becomes emperor
  • 231-3– War against Persia
  • 235– Alexander killed in a soldier mutiny. Maximinus Thrax becomes emperor.
  • 238– Year of the Six Emperors. The Senate supports a revolt of Gordian I and Gordian II in Africa. These two are defeated by an ally of Thrax, and the Senate appoints Balbinus and Pupienus as co-emperors. They are soon assassinated, and Thrax is killed in a mutiny. The young Gordian III becomes emperor.
  • 241– Victory over the Persians at Resaina.
  • 244– Romans defeated at Misiche. Philip the Arab becomes emperor.
  • 249– Decius usurps the throne with support from the Danubian legions. He names his son Herennius co-emperor.
  • 251– Decius and Herennius defeated and slain by Cniva, king of the Goths. Another son of Decius, Hostilian is briefly emperor, but dies in a plague outbreak. Gallus and his son Volusianus become emperors.
  • 252– King Shapur I of Persia defeats the Romans at Barbalissos.
  • 253– Aemilianus becomes emperor after leading a revolt and Gallus and Volusianus are slain by their own troops. Valerian and his son Gallienus become emperors after Aemilianus is killed by his own soldiers. Shapur captures Antioch.
  • 257– Valerian retakes Antioch. The Franks invade Gaul and Hispania. The Alemanni invades Italy but are defeated at Milan.
  • 258– Goths invade Asia Minor
  • 260– Valerian is taken captive by the Persians. Retreating Persian army attacked by Odaenathus of Palmyra. Postumus proclaimed emperor in Gaul. He is also supported in Hispania and Britain.
  • 267– Odaenathus assassinated. His widow Zenobia takes control of Palmyra
  • 268– Gallienus defeats Gothic invasion, but is later assassinated. Claudius II becomes emperor.
  • 269– Postumus is killed. Victorinus proclaimed emperor in Gaul and Britain. The Palmyrenes takes Egypt and Syria. Claudius defeats the Goths at Naissus in Moesia.
  • 270– Claudius dies of plague. After a brief rule by Claudius' brother Quintillus, Aurelian becomes emperor.
  • 271– Aurelian campaigns against the Vandals, Juthungi and the Sarmatians. Victorinus is murdered and his soldiers proclaim Tetricus I emperor
  • 272– Aurelian defeats Zenobia at Antioch and Emesa and takes Palmyra. Zenobia is captured. The province of Dacia is abandoned.
  • 273– Palmyra revolts. The city is destroyed by Aurelian.
  • 274– Aurelian defeats the army of Tericus at the Catalaunian fields.
  • 275– Aurelian is murdered. Tacitus becomes emperor.
  • 276– Tacitus dies. After the brief reign and assassination of Florianus, Probus becomes emperor.
  • 277– The Burgundians, Longiones, Alemanni and Franks defeated.
  • 279– Probus campaigns against the Vandals in Illyricum.
  • 282– Carus proclaimed emperor. Probus killed by his own troops.
  • 283– Carus dies during an invasion of Persia. His sons Carinus and Numerian become emperors.
  • 284– Numerian dies. Diocletian proclaimed emperor and marches against Carinus.
  • 285– Carinus dies in battle against Diocletian. Diocletian splits the empire into two halves and appoints Maximian emperor of the Western portion while Diocletian rules the East.
  • 286– Carausius revolts in Britain.
  • 293– Diocletian appoints Constantius I and Galerius as caesars. Carausius murdered by Allectus who proclaims himself emperor.
  • 296– Allectus defeated and slain.
  • 299– Galerius defeats the Sarmatians and the Carpi

4th century AD

  • 301– Diocletian issues the Edict on Maximum Prices.
  • 303– Diocletian orders the persecution of Christians.
  • 305– Diocletian and Maximian abdicate. Constantius and Galerius becomes Augusti. Maximinus is appointed Caesar in the east and Severus in the west.
  • 306– Constantius dies at York. His son Constantine I proclaimed emperor. Maxentius, son of Maximian, proclaims himself emperor in Rome.
  • 307– Maxentius reinvests his father Maximian as emperor. Severus is put to death. Galerius lays siege to Rome.
  • 308– Conference of Carnuntum. Diocletian convinces Maximian to step down. Licinius appointed Caesar in the East.
  • 310– Maximian again proclaims himself emperor, but is captured by Constantine. He commits suicide.
  • 311– Galerius dies at Sardica. Maximinus and Licinius split his realm between them.
  • 312– Constantine defeats and kills Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge. Licinius marries Constantine's sister Constantia. Constantine converts to Christianity.
  • 313– Licinus defeats Maximinus twice. Maximinus dies at Tarsus.
  • Constantine issues Edict of Milan, ending persecution of Christians and establishing religious toleration throughout the Empire.
  • 314– Constantine defeats Licinius at Cibalae
  • 317– Constantine defeats Licinius on the Campus Ardiensis. Licinius forced to cede all his European provinces except Thrace.
  • 318– Excommunication of Arius.
  • 324– Constantine defeats Licinius at the Hebrus River and at Chrysopolis. Licinius abdicates.
  • 325– The Ecumenical Council of Nicaea.
  • 326– Constantine orders the death of his oldest son, Crispus.
  • 330– Constantine makes Constantinople the capital.
  • 332– Constantine campaigns against the Goths.
  • 334– Constantine campaigns against the Sarmatians.
  • 337– Constantine dies at Nicomedia. His three sons, Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans become emperors.
  • 338– Constantine II defeats the Alemanni. War with Persia.
  • 340– Constantine II invades Italy. He is ambushed and slain by Constans at Aquileia.
  • 341– Constans and Constantius II issue a ban against pagan sacrifice.
  • 347– The Donatists revolt in Africa.
  • 348– Constantius defeats the Persians at the Battle of Singara.
  • 350– Magnentius usurps the throne in the west. Constans is captured and killed. Julius Nepotian attacks Rome with a band of gladiators
  • 351– Constantius appoints his cousin Constantius Gallus as Caesar. Magnentius is defeated at Mursa.
  • 353– Constantius defeats Magnentius at Mons Seleuci. Magnentius commits suicide.
  • 354– Gallus is put to death.
  • 355– Julian is appointed Caesar in Gaul.
  • 357– Julian defeats the Franks at Strasbourg.
  • 360– With a Persian war imminent, Constantius orders Julian to send several legions east. The troops mutiny and proclaim Julian Augustus.
  • 361– Constantius dies of illness, naming Julian his successor. Julian openly declares himself a pagan, but his attempt at rejuvenating paganism in the empire fails.
  • 363– Julian invades Persia, but forced to retreat, he is mortally wounded during a skirmish and dies. Jovian is proclaimed emperor.
  • 364– Jovien dies of accidental asphyxiation. Valentinian I becomes emperor and splits the empire with his brother Valens.
  • 375– Valentinian dies and is succeeded by Gratian as Western emperor.
  • 378– Valens is defeated and killed by the Goths at the Battle of Adrianople. Theodosius I succeeds him as Eastern emperor.
  • 384– Gratian is murdered, Valentinian II becomes emperor.
  • 392– Valentinian II dies of apparent suicide, though murder by Arbogast is more likely. Arbogast installs the puppet Eugenius on the Western throne, but Theodosius refuses to recognize the usurper.
  • 394– Eugenius and Arbogast are deposed and killed by Theodosius, who briefly reunites the empire for the last time.
  • 395– Theodosius I dies, leaving the Western empire to his son Honorius and the Eastern empire to his son Arcadius.

5th century AD

  • 410– Rome is sacked by Alaric I
  • 423– After a long and disastrous reign, Honorius dies; succeeded by the usurper Joannes
  • 425– Valentinian III becomes Western emperor
  • 447– Eastern Rome loses to Attila the Hun
  • 452– Attila the Hun is turned away from Rome by Pope Leo I.
  • 455– Valentinian III is assassinated and succeeded by Petronius Maximus as emperor. Rome is plundered by the Vandals, and Maximus is killed during mob violence. Avitus becomes emperor of the west.
  • 457– Avitus is deposed by the magister militum Ricimer and killed. Majorian is installed as Western emperor.
  • 461– Majorian is deposed by Ricimer. Libius Severus becomes Western emperor.
  • 465– Libius Severus dies, possibly poisoned by Ricimer.
  • 467– Anthemius becomes western emperor with the support of Leo I.
  • 468– War against the Vandals by the joint forces of both empires. Naval expedition ends in failure.
  • 472– Ricimer kills Anthemius and makes Olybrius new western emperor. Both Ricimer and Olybrius die of natural causes. Gundobad becomes magister militum in Italy.
  • 473– Gundobad makes Glycerius new western emperor.
  • 474– Gundobad leaves Italy to take part in a succession struggle among the Burgundians. Glycerius is deposed by Julius Nepos who proclaims himself western emperor.
  • 475– Julius Nepos forced to flee to Dalmatia by his magister militum Orestes. Orestes proclaims his own son Romulus Augustus as western emperor.
  • 476– Germanic general Odoacer kills Orestes, forces Romulus Augustus to abdicate and proclaims himself King of Italy. Traditional date for the fall of the western Roman Empire. The easten Roman Empire becomes the Byzantine Empire.
  • 480– Julius Nepos, still claiming to be emperor, is killed in Dalmatia.
  • 486– The last Roman Governor of Gaul falls to Clovis at the Battle of Soissons. Flees to the Visigoths but is turned over to the Franks and Killed De jure end of the western Roman Empire.

6th century AD and beyond

See also


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