Timeline of historic inventions: Wikis

  
  

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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The timeline of historic inventions is a chronological list of particularly important or significant technological inventions.

Note: Dates for inventions are often controversial. Inventions are often invented by several inventors around the same time, or may be invented in an impractical form many years before another inventor improves the invention into a more practical form. Where there is ambiguity, the date of the first known working version of the invention is used here.

Contents

Paleolithic era

Note that dates in the Paleolithic are especially uncertain and often change, usually to an earlier date.

Antiquity

10th millennium BCE

9th millennium BCE

8th millennium BCE

7th millennium BCE

6th millennium BCE

5th millennium BCE

4th millennium BCE

3rd millennium BCE

2nd millennium BCE

1st millennium BCE

1st millennium CE

1st-5th centuries

6th-8th centuries

9th-10th centuries

2nd millennium

11th century

12th century

13th century

14th century

15th century

16th century

17th century

18th century

19th century

1800s

1810s

1820s

1830s

1840s

1850s

1860s

1870s

1880s

1890s

20th century

1900s

1910s

1920s

1930s

1940s

1950s

1960s

1970s

Digital audio: Denon[citation needed]

1980s

1990s

3rd millennium

21st century

2000s

2010s

Notes

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  3. ^ Earliest evidence of art found
  4. ^ Kouwenhoven, Arlette P., World's Oldest Spears
  5. ^ Evolving in their graves: early burials hold clues to human origins
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  23. ^ Kryss Katsiavriades and Talaat Qureshi, Inventions - 3000 BCE to 2000 BCE.
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  35. ^ Thrusfield, page 2
  36. ^ Alter, page 88
  37. ^ a b History of Ondol
  38. ^ Koppel (2007), page 217
  39. ^ Dimitrakoudis, P. Papaspyrou, V. Petoussis, X. Moussas: “Archaic artifacts resembling celestial spheres”
  40. ^ Inventions 1000 BCE to 1 BCE
  41. ^ Ancient Greek Inventions
  42. ^ Finger (2001), page 66
  43. ^ Chamberlin (2007), page 80
  44. ^ Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (April 1960). "Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology", The American Historical Review 65 (3), p. 516.
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  47. ^ Stone-Hurling Catapult, Greece, 400 BCE
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  49. ^ Srinivasan & Ranganathan
  50. ^ Juleff 1996
  51. ^ Ancient Roman Inventions
  52. ^ MSN Encarta (2007), Diamond
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  54. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica (2008), "cashmere"
  55. ^ a b Encyclopedia Britannica (2008), "Pagoda"
  56. ^ Roman Inventions
  57. ^ Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 2, 263–267.
  58. ^ Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 2, 70–71.
  59. ^ a b c d Surgical Instruments from Ancient Rome
  60. ^ Roman period surgery set on show, BBC
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  62. ^ Kriger, Colleen E. & Connah, Graham (2006), Cloth in West African History, p. 120, Rowman Altamira, ISBN 0759104220
  63. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica (2008), "jute"
  64. ^ Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 3, 649–650.
  65. ^ Casson 1995, pp. 243-245
  66. ^ Casson 1954
  67. ^ White 1978, p. 255
  68. ^ Campbell 1995, pp. 8-11
  69. ^ Basch 2001, p. 63-64
  70. ^ Makris 2002, p. 96
  71. ^ Friedman & Zoroglu 2006, pp. 113-114
  72. ^ Pryor & Jeffreys 2006, pp. 153-161
  73. ^ Castro et al. 2008, pp. 1-2
  74. ^ Whitewright 2009
  75. ^ Zaheer Baber (1996), The Science of Empire: Scientific Knowledge, Civilization, and Colonial Rule in India, p. 57, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0791429199
  76. ^ Paper - one of the most important inventions of the last two millennia
  77. ^ Livingston, Morna & Beach, Milo (2002), Steps to Water: The Ancient Stepwells of India, p. 19, Princeton Architectural Press, ISBN 1568983247
  78. ^ Hoepfner, Wolfram (1970), "Ein Kombinationsschloss aus dem Kerameikos", Archäologischer Anzeiger 85 (2): 210–213 
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  81. ^ Ronald Watkins. Unknown Seas, p. 15.
  82. ^ Ancient Indian use of Kamal
  83. ^ Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (April 1960). "Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology", The American Historical Review 65 (3), p. 519.
  84. ^ John M. Hobson (2004), The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation, p. 141, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521547245.
  85. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica (2002), "Chess: Ancient precursors and related games"
  86. ^ MSN Encarta (2008). Pachisi.
  87. ^ Schafer (1963), pages 160–161
  88. ^ Bedini (1994), pages 69–80
  89. ^ Gaudiosi, Monica M. (April 1988), "The Influence of the Islamic Law of Waqf on the Development of the Trust in England: The Case of Merton College", University of Pennsylvania Law Review 136 (4): 1231–1261 
  90. ^ Hudson, A. (2003), Equity and Trusts (3rd ed.), London: Cavendish Publishing, ISBN 1-85941-729-9 
  91. ^ Dick, Michael S. (1998). The Ancient Ayurvedic Writings. Retrieved May 19, 2005.
  92. ^ Robert Briffault (1938), The Making of Humanity, p. 195
  93. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine in Arabic Sources.
  94. ^ a b c d Hassan, Ahmad Y. "Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries". Ahmad Y Hassan. http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%2072.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-26. 
  95. ^ Derewenda, Zygmunt S. (2007), "On wine, chirality and crystallography", Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations of Crystallography 64: 246–258 [247], doi:10.1107/S0108767307054293 
  96. ^ Khairallah, Amin A. Outline of Arabic Contributions to Medicine, chapter 10. Beirut, 1946.
  97. ^ Olga Pikovskaya, Repaying the West's Debt to Islam, BusinessWeek, March 29, 2005.
  98. ^ S. Hadzovic (1997). "Pharmacy and the great contribution of Arab-Islamic science to its development", Medicinski Arhiv 51 (1-2), p. 47-50.
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  101. ^ George Rafael, A is for Arabs, Salon.com, January 8, 2002.
  102. ^ Deborah Rowe, How Islam has kept us out of the 'Dark Ages', Science and Society, Channel 4, May 2004.
  103. ^ C. Wayne Smith, Joe Tom Cothren (1999), Cotton: Origin, History, Technology, and Production, p. viii, John Wiley and Sons. Technology & Industrial Arts, ISBN 0471180459
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  105. ^ Salma Khadra Jayyusi and Manuela Marin (1994), The Legacy of Muslim Spain, p. 117, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004095993
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  107. ^ a b Teun Koetsier (2001). "On the prehistory of programmable machines: musical automata, looms, calculators", Mechanism and Machine theory 36, p. 590-591.
  108. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Donald Routledge Hill, "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East", Scientific American, May 1991, p. 64-69. (cf. Donald Routledge Hill, Mechanical Engineering)
  109. ^ Fowler, Charles B. (October 1967), "The Museum of Music: A History of Mechanical Instruments", Music Educators Journal 54 (2): 45–49, doi:10.2307/3391092 
  110. ^ Muslin, Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh (2008)
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  112. ^ Mason, Robert B. (1995). "New Looks at Old Pots: Results of Recent Multidisciplinary Studies of Glazed Ceramics from the Islamic World". Muqarnas: Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture (Brill Academic Publishers) XII: 5. ISBN 9004103147. 
  113. ^ David A. King, "Islamic Astronomy", pp. 168–169
  114. ^ King, David A. (2005), In Synchrony with the Heavens, Studies in Astronomical Timekeeping and Instrumentation in Medieval Islamic Civilization: Instruments of Mass Calculation, Brill Publishers, ISBN 900414188X 
  115. ^ King, David A. (December 2003), "14th-Century England or 9th-Century Baghdad? New Insights on the Elusive Astronomical Instrument Called Navicula de Venetiis", Centaurus 45 (1-4): 204–226 
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  117. ^ Alatas, Syed Farid (2006), "From Jami`ah to University: Multiculturalism and Christian–Muslim Dialogue", Current Sociology 54 (1): 112–132 [123–4], doi:10.1177/0011392106058837 
  118. ^ a b c d Adam Lucas (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, p. 65. BRILL, ISBN 9004146490.
  119. ^ Richard W. Bulliet (1987), "Medieval Arabic Tarsh: A Forgotten Chapter in the History of Printing", Journal of the American Oriental Society 107 (3), p. 427-438.
  120. ^ F. L. Lewis (1992), Applied Optimal Control and Estimation, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.
  121. ^ L. Gari (2002), "Arabic Treatises on Environmental Pollution up to the End of the Thirteenth Century", Environment and History 8 (4), pp. 475–488.
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  124. ^ a b c d e Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (Spring, 1961). "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition", Technology and Culture 2 (2), p. 97-111 [100-101].
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  126. ^ A. Al Dayela and N. al-Zuhair (2006), "Single drug therapy in the treatment of male sexual/erectile dysfunction in Islamic medicine", Urology 68 (1): 253-4
  127. ^ Regis Morelon, "General Survey of Arabic Astronomy", pp. 9–10, in Rashed, Roshdi; Morelon, Régis (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, 1 & 3, Routledge, pp. 1–19, ISBN 0415124107 
  128. ^ Alatas, Syed Farid (2006), "From Jami`ah to University: Multiculturalism and Christian–Muslim Dialogue", Current Sociology 54 (1): 112–32, doi:10.1177/0011392106058837 
  129. ^ The Guinness Book Of Records, 1998, p. 242, ISBN 0-5535-7895-2
  130. ^ a b c First Flights, Saudi Aramco World, January-February 1964, p. 8-9.
  131. ^ Zayn Bilkadi (University of California, Berkeley), "The Oil Weapons", Saudi Aramco World, January-February 1995, p. 20-27.
  132. ^ The Valuable Contribution of al-Razi (Rhazes) to the History of Pharmacy, FSTC
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  134. ^ David J Roxburgh (2000), Muqarnas: An Annual on the Visual Culture of the Islamic World, p. 21, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004116699.
  135. ^ Josef W. Meri (2006), Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, p. 75, Taylor and Francis, ISBN 0415966914.
  136. ^ David A. King (1999), World-maps for Finding the Direction and Distance to Mecca: Innovation and Tradition in Islamic Science, p. 17, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004113673.
  137. ^ Paul Vallely, How Islamic Inventors Changed the World, The Independent, 11 Mar 2006.
  138. ^ Bosworth, C. E. (Autumn 1981), "A Mediaeval Islamic Prototype of the Fountain Pen?", Journal of Semitic Studies XXVl (i) 
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  140. ^ Lindsay, James E. (2005), Daily Life in the Medieval Islamic World, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 131, ISBN 0313322708 
  141. ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Abu Mahmud Hamid ibn al-Khidr Al-Khujandi", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews, http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Al-Khujandi.html .
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  146. ^ Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 766-9, in Rashed, Roshdi; Morelon, Régis (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Routledge, pp. 751–795, ISBN 0415124107 
  147. ^ Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 781, in Rashed, Roshdi; Morelon, Régis (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Routledge, pp. 751–95, ISBN 0415124107 
  148. ^ Fielding H. Garrison, History of Medicine:
    "The Saracens themselves were the originators not only of algebra, chemistry, and geology, but of many of the so-called improvements or refinements of civilization, such as street lamps, window-panes, firework, stringed instruments, cultivated fruits, perfumes, spices, etc..."
  149. ^ a b c The World's First Soft Drink. 1001 Inventions, 2006.
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  151. ^ a b Peter Barrett (2004), Science and Theology Since Copernicus: The Search for Understanding, p. 18, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 056708969X.
  152. ^ Micheau, Francoise, "The Scientific Institutions in the Medieval Near East", pp. 988–991  in Morelon, Régis; Rashed, Roshdi (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, 3, Routledge, ISBN 0415124107 
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  154. ^ a b c Finger, Stanley (1994), Origins of Neuroscience: A History of Explorations Into Brain Function, Oxford University Press, p. 70, ISBN 0195146948 
  155. ^ Ancient surgery
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  158. ^ Abdul Nasser Kaadan PhD, "Albucasis and Extraction of Bladder Stone", Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, 2004 (3): 28-33.
  159. ^ a b c Sigrid Hunke (1969), Allah Sonne Uber Abendland, Unser Arabische Erbe, Second Edition, p. 279-280:
    "The science of medicine has gained a great and extremely important discovery and that is the use of general anaesthetics for surgical operations, and how unique, efficient, and merciful for those who tried it the Muslim anaesthetic was. It was quite different from the drinks the Indians, Romans and Greeks were forcing their patients to have for relief of pain. There had been some allegations to credit this discovery to an Italian or to an Alexandrian, but the truth is and history proves that, the art of using the anaesthetic sponge is a pure Muslim technique, which was not known before. The sponge used to be dipped and left in a mixture prepared from cannabis, opium, hyoscyamus and a plant called Zoan."

    (cf. Prof. Dr. M. Taha Jasser, Anaesthesia in Islamic medicine and its influence on Western civilization, Conference on Islamic Medicine)
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  168. ^ Islam, Knowledge, and Science. University of Southern California.
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  172. ^ Tyler, Royall (2003), The Tale of Genji, Penguin Classics, p. xxvi, ISBN 014243714X 
  173. ^ Jorge Luis Borges, The Total Library:
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  189. ^ First Birds' Inn: About the Sport of Racing Pigeons
  190. ^ Scott Farrell, Weaponry: The Trebuchet
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  192. ^ Jim Bradbury, Medieval Siege
  193. ^ 101 gadgets that changed the world
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See also

Regional

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