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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The timeline of religion is a comparative chronology of important events in human religious history and prehistory.

The history of religion refers to the written record of human religious events, experiences, and ideas. However, writing is only about 5000 years old therefore all history reaches about 5000 years into the past.

As the bulk of the human religious experience is relegated to prehistory, the timeline of religion does include prehistoric religious events in addition to historical ones. Note: as a consequence of the lack of written records, much of the knowledge prehistory based on theories and suppositions from indirect sources such as archaeological records. Accordingly, much of religious prehistory is subject to continued debate.

Contents

The Prehistoric Era (300th millennium to 34th century BCE)

300th to 51st millennium BCE

223,000 - 100,000 BCE 
The earliest evidence of Hominids, such as Neanderthals[1][2 ] and even Homo heidelbergensis,[2 ][3] deliberately disposing of deceased individuals usually in funerary cashes. The graves, located throughout Eurasia (e.g. the Pontnewydd Cave, Atapuerca Mountains, Qafzeh, Es Skhul, Krapina)[2 ], are believed to represent the beginnings ceremonial rites, although there is some debate about this. Neanderthals placed their deceased in simple graves with little or no concern for grave goods or markers; however, their graves occasionally appeared with limestone blocks in or on them, possibly an archaic form of grave marking.[2 ] These practices were possibly the result of empathetic feelings towards fellow tribspeople, for example: an infant buried in the Dederiyeh Cave after its joints had disarticulated was placed with concern for the correct anatomical arrangement of its body parts.[2 ]
98,000 BCE 
In the area of present-day France and Belgium, Neanderthals begin defleshing their dead, possibly after a period of excarnation prior to burial.[2 ]
70,000 BCE 
A giant stone in the African Kalahari desert resembling a python, accompanied by a hidden chamber and surrounded by broken spear heads, is possibly the site of ritual offerings and snake worship.

50th to 11th millennium BCE

40,000 BCE 
One of the earliest Anatomically modern humans to be cremated is buried near Lake Mungo.[4 ][5 ][6][7][8 ]
33,000 BCE 
All convincing evidence for Neanderthal burials ceases. Roughly coinciding with the time period of the Homo sapien introduction to Europe and decline of the Neanderthals.[2 ]
25,000 BCE 
Individual skulls and/or long bones begin appearing heavily stained with red ochre and are separately buried. This practice may be the origins of sacred relics.[2 ]
The oldest discovered "Venus figurines" appear in graves. Some are deliberately broken or repeatedly stabbed. Possibly representing murders of the men they are buried with[2 ] or some other unknown social dynamic.
25,000 - 21,000 BCE 
Clear examples of burials are present in Iberia, Wales, and Eastern Europe. All of these, also, incorporate the heavy use of red ochre. Additionally, various objects are being included in the graves (i.e. periwinkle shells, weighted clothing, dolls, possible drumsticks, mammoth ivory beads, fox teeth pendants, panoply of ivory artifacts, "baton" antlers, flint blades, etc).[2 ]
21,000 - 11,000 BCE 
Convincing evidence of mortuary activity ceases.[2 ]
13,000 - 8,000 BCE 
Noticeable burial activity resumes. Prior mortuary activity had either taken a less obvious form or contemporaries retained some of their burial knowledge in the absence of such activity; dozens of men, women and children were being buried in the same caves in which were used for burials 10,000 years beforehand. All these graves are delineated by the cave walls and large limestone blocks. The burials are very similar to each other and share a number of characteristics—ochre, shell and mammoth ivory jewelery—that go back thousands of years. Some burials are double, comprising an adult male with a juvenile male buried by his side. They are now appearing to take on the form of modern cemeteries. Old burials are commonly being redug and moved to make way for the new ones, with the older bones often being gathered together and cached together. Large stones may have acted as grave markers. Pairs of ochred antlers are sometimes poles within the cave; this is compared to the modern practice of leaving flowers at ones grave.[2 ]

100th to 34th century BCE

9831
The Neolithic Revolution begins and results in a world-wide population explosion. The first cities, states, kingdoms, and organized religions begin to emerge. The early states were usually theocracies, in which the political power is justified by religious prestige.
9130 - 7370 BCE 
The apparent lifespan of Göbekli Tepe, the oldest human-made place of worship yet discovered.[9]
8000 BCE 
Four to five pine posts are erected near the eventual site of Stonehenge.
7500 - 5700 BCE 
The settlements of Catalhoyuk develop as a likely spiritual center of Anatolia. Possibly practicing worship in communal shrines, its inhabitants leave behind numerous clay figurines and impressions of phallic, feminine, and hunting scenes.
3100 - 2900 BCE 
Newgrange, the 250,000 ton (226,796.2 tonne) passage tomb aligned to the winter solstice in Ireland, is built.[10]

Ancient History (33rd century BCE to 3rd century CE)

33rd to 12th century BCE

3228 - 3102 BCE 
Traditionally accepted time of Krishna's life on Earth.[11][12][13][14][15][16]
3100 BCE 
The initial form of Stonehenge is completed. The circular bank and ditch enclosure, about 110 metres (360 ft) across, may be complete with a timber circle.
3000 BCE 
Sumerian Cuneiform emerges from the proto-literate Uruk period, allowing the codification of beliefs and creation of detailed historical religious records.
The second phase of Stonehenge is completed and appears to function as the first enclosed cremation cemetery in the British Isles.
2635 - 2610 BCE 
The oldest surviving Egyptian Pyramid is commissioned by pharaoh Djoser.
2600 BCE 
Stonehenge begins to take on the form of its final phase. The wooden posts are replaced with that of bluestone. It begins taking on an increasingly complex setup—including altar, portal, station stones, etc—and shows consideration of solar alignments.
2560 BCE 
The approximate time accepted as the completion of the Great Pyramid of Giza, the oldest pyramid of the Giza Plateau.
2494 - 2345 BCE 
The first of the oldest surviving religious texts, the Pyramid Texts, are composed in Ancient Egypt.
2200 BCE 
Minoan Civilization in Crete develops. Citizens worship a variety of Goddesses.
2150 - 2000 BCE 
The earliest surviving versions of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh (originally titled "He saw the deep") were written.
2100 - 2000 BCE 
Earliest Vedas are composed.
2000 - 1850 BCE 
The traditionally accepted lifetime of the Judeochristian/Islamic patriarchal figure Abraham. Likely born in Ur Kaśdim or Haran and died in Machpelah, Canaan.
1700 BCE 
Zoroaster (a.k.a. Zarathushtra), founder of Zoroastrianism is thought to have been born.
1600 BCE 
The ancient development of Stonehenge comes to an end.

13th to 9th century BCE

1367 BCE 
Reign of Akhenaton in Ancient Egypt.
1300 - 1000 BCE 
The "standard" Akkadian version of the Epic of Gilgamesh was edited by Sin-liqe-unninni.
1250 BCE 
The believed time of the Hebrew exodus from Egypt. The first books of the Torah are composed.
1200 BCE 
The Greek Dark Age begins.
1200 BCE 
Olmecs build earliest pyramids and temples in Central America.[17]
950 BCE 
The Torah is written, the core texts of Judaism and foundation of later Abrahamic religions.
877 BCE 
Parsva, the penultimate (23rd) Tirthankara of Jainism is born.

8th to 3rd century BCE

800 BCE 
Early Brahmanas are composed.
800 BCE
The Greek Dark Age ends.
600 - 500 BCE 
Earliest Confucian writing, Shu Ching incorporates ideas of harmony and heaven.
599 BCE 
Mahavira, the final (24th) Tirthankara of Jainism is born.
563 BCE 
Gautama Buddha, founder of Buddhism is born.
551 BCE 
Confucius, founder of Confucianism, is born.[17]
440 BCE 
Zoroastrianism enters recorded history.
300 BCE 
Theravada Buddhism is introduced to Sri Lanka by the Venerable Mahinda.
250 BCE 
The Third Buddhist council was convened.

2nd century BCE to 4th century CE

63 BCE 
Pompey captures Jerusalem and establishes Roman annexes Judea as a Roman client kingdom.
7 BCE - 36 CE 
The approximate time-frame for the life of Jesus of Nazareth, the central figure of Christianity.
50-62 
Council of Jerusalem is held.
70 
Siege of Jerusalem and the Destruction of the Temple.
220 
Manichaean Gnosticism is formed by prophet Mani
250 
Some of the oldest parts of the Ginza Rba, a core text of Mandaean Gnosticism, are written.
250 - 900 
Classic Mayan civilization, Stepped pyramids are constructed.
300 
The oldest known version of the Tao Te Ching is written on bamboo tablets.
325 
The first Ecumenical Council, the Council of Nicaea, is convened to attain a consensus on doctrine through an assembly representing all of Christendom. It establishes the original Nicene Creed, fixes Easter date, recognizes primacy of the sees of Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch and grants the See of Jerusalem a position of honor.
380 
Theodosius the 1st declares Nicene Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire.
381 
The second Ecumenical Council, the Council of Constantinople, reaffirms/revises the Nicene Creed repudiating Arianism and Macedonianism.
381 - 391 
Theodosius proscripted Paganism within the Roman Empire.
393 
The Synod of Hippo, the first time a council of bishops of early Christianity listed and approved a Biblical canon.

Middle Ages (5th to 15th century CE)

5th to 9th century CE

405 
St. Jerome completes the Vulgate, the first latin translation of the bible.
410 
The Western Roman Empire begins to decline, signaling the onset of the Dark Ages.
424 
The Assyrian Church of the East formally separates from the See of Antioch and the western Syrian Church
431 
The third Ecumenical Council, the Council of Ephesus, is held as a result of the controversial teachings of Nestorius, of Constantinople. It repudiates Nestorianism, proclaims the Virgin Mary as the Theotokos ("Birth-giver to God", "God-bearer", "Mother of God"), repudiates Pelagianism, and again reaffirmes the Nicene Creed.
449 
The Second Council of Ephesus declares support of Eutyches and attacked his opponents. Originally convened as an Ecumenical council, it's ecumenicality is rejected and is denounced as a latrocinium by the Chalcedonian.
451 
The fourth Ecumenical Council, the Council of Chalcedon rejects the Eutychian doctrine of monophysitism, adopts the Chalcedonian Creed, reinstated those deposed in 449 and deposed Dioscorus of Alexandria, and elevates of the bishoprics of Constantinople and Jerusalem to the status of patriarchates.
451 
The Oriental Orthodox Church rejects the christological view put forth by the Council of Chalcedon and is excommunicated.
480 - 547 
The Codex Gigas, Devil's Bible, is written by Benedict of Nursia, the founder of Western Christian monasticism.
553 
The fifth Ecumenical Council, Second Council of Constantinople, repudiates the Three Chapters as Nestorian and condemns Origen of Alexandria.
570 - 632 
Life-time of Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullāh, the founder of Islam.
650 
The Qur'an is completed.
680 - 681 
The sixth Ecumenical Council, the Third Council of Constantinople, rejects Monothelitism and Monoenergism.
692 
The Quinisext Council (aka "Council in Trullo"), an amendment to the 5th and 6th Ecumenical Councils, establishes the Pentarchy.
712 
Kojiki, the oldest Shinto text is written[17]
754 
The latrocinium Council of Hieria supports iconoclasm.
787 
The seventh Ecumenical Council, Second Council of Nicaea, restores the veneration of icons and denounces iconoclasm.

10th to 15th century CE

1054 
The Great Schism between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches formally takes place.
1095 - 1099 
The first Crusade takes place.
1107 - 1110 
Sigurd I of Norway wages the Norwegian Crusade on Muslims in Spain, the Baleares, and in Palestine.
1147 - 1149 
The Second Crusade is waged in response to the fall of the County of Edessa.
1189 - 1192 
The Third Crusade, European leaders attempt to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin.
1199 - 1204 
The Fourth Crusade takes place.
1204 
Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade sack the Christian Eastern Orthodox city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire.
1209 - 1229 
The Albigensian Crusade takes place in Occitania, Europe.
1217 - 1221 
The Church attempts the Fifth Crusade.
1228 - 1229 
The Sixth Crusade occurs.
1244 
Jerusalem is sacked again, instigating the Seventh Crusade.
1270 
The Eighth Crusade is organized.
1271 - 1272 
The Ninth Crusade fails.
1378 - 1417 
The Roman Catholic Church is split during the Western Schism.
1469 - 1539 
The life of Guru Nanak, founder of Sikhism.
1500 
African religious systems are introduced to the Americas, with the commencement of the trans-Atlantic forced migration.
1517 
Martin Luther, of the Protestant Reformation, posts the 95 theses.
In the Spanish Empire, Catholicism is spread and encouraged through such institutions as missions and the Inquisition.

Early modern and Modern era (16th to 20th century CE)

16th to 18th century CE

1699
The creation of the Khalsa by Guru Gobind Singh Ji in Sikhism
1708
Death of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, the last human Guru, who before his death, instituted the Sikh holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib Ji, as the eternal Guru.
1789 - 1799 
The Dechristianisation of France during the Revolution.[18][19] The state confiscates Church properties, bans monastic vows, with the passage of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy removes the Church from the Roman Pope and subordinates it as a department of the Government, replaces the traditional Gregorian Calendar, and abolishes Christian holidays.
1791 
Freedom of religion, enshrined in the Bill of Rights, is amended into the constitution of the United States forming an early and influential secular governments.

19th to 20st century CE

1801 
The situation following the French Revolution, France and Pope Pius VII entered into the Concordat of 1801. While "Catholicism" regains some powers and becomes recognized as "...the religion of the great majority of the French", it's not reafforded the latitude it an enjoyed prior to the Revolution. It's not the official state religion, the Church relinquishes all claims to estate seized after 1790, the clergy is state salaried and must swear allegiance to the State, and religious freedom is maintained.
1817 - 1892
The life of Bahá'u'lláh, founder of the Bahá'í Faith.
1830
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons) is founded by Joseph Smith, Jr.
1899 
Aradia (aka the Gospel of the Witches), one of the earliest books describing post witchhunt European religious Witchcraft, is published by Charles Godfrey Leland.[20 ]
1905 
In France the law on the Separation of the Churches and the State is passed, officially establishing it a state secularism and putting and end to the funding of religious groups by the state.[21 ]
Becoming a place of pilgrimage for neo-druids and other pagans, the Ancient Order of Druids organized the first recorded reconstructionist ceremony in Stonehenge.
1917 
The October Revolution, in Russia, leads to the annexation of all church properties and subsequent religious suppression.
1926 
Cao Dai founded.
1930s 
Rastafari movement, the Nation of Islam is founded.
1938 
The first event of the Holocaust, the Kristallnacht, takes place.
1939 - 1945 
Millions of Jews are relocated and killed by the Nazi government during Holocaust.
1952 
Scientology is created.
1954 
Wicca is publicized by Gerald Gardner.[22]
1960s 
Various Neopagan and New Age movements gain momentum.
1961 
Unitarian Universalism formed from merger of Unitarianism and Universalism.[23]
1962 
The Church of All Worlds, the first American neo-pagan church, is formed by a group including Oberon Zell-Ravenheart, Morning Glory Zell-Ravenheart, and Richard Lance Christie.
1962 - 1965 
The Second Vatican Council takes place.[24][25][26][27]
1966 
Religious Satanism begins, with Anton Szandor LaVey's founding of the Church of Satan.[28]
1972 - 1984 
The Stonehenge free festivals are held.[29]
1984 
Operation Blue Star occurs at holiest site of the Sikhs, the Golden Temple in Amritsar. 1984 Anti-Sikh riots follow.
1972 - 2004 
Germanic Neopaganism (aka Heathenism, Heathenry, Ásatrú, Odinism, Forn Siðr, Vor Siðr, and Theodism) begins to experience a second wave of revival.[30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37 ][38][39] [40][41][42][43 ][44 ][45][46] [47][48][49][50][51]
1979 
The Iranian Revolution results in the establishment of an Islamic Republic in Iran.
1981 
The Stregherian revival continues. "The Book of the Holy Strega" and "The Book of Ways" Volume I & II are published.
1985 
The Battle of the Beanfield forces an end to the Stonehenge free festivals.[29][52 ][53]
1989 
The revolutions of 1989, the overthrow of many Soviet-style states,[54] alows a resurgence in open relious practice in many Eastern European contries.
1990s 
European pagan reconstructive movements (Celtic, Hellenic, Roman, Slavic, Baltic, Finnish, etc) organize.
1993 
The European Council convened in Copenhagen, Denmark, agrees to criteria requiring religious freedom within any and all prospective members of the European Union.
1998 
The Strega Arician Tradition is founded.[55 ]

Post modern period (21st century CE)

21st century CE

2001 
Osama bin Laden's declared holy war reaches a climax with 2,993 dead, through al-Qaeda's actions on 11 September.[56][57][58][59][60 ][61]
2009 
The Church of Scientology in France is fined 600,000 and several its leaders are fined and sentenced to jail for defrauding new recruits out of their savings.[62][63][64] The state fails to disband the church due to legal changes occurring over the same time period.[64][65]

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Gathering the Jewels". Early Neanderthal jaw fragment, c. 230,000 years old. Culturenet Cymru. 2008. http://www.gtj.org.uk/en/small/item/GTJ27306/. Retrieved 2008-09-25.  
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l When Burial Begins
  3. ^ Greenspan, Stanley. How Symbols, Language, and Intelligence Evolved from Early Primates to Modern Human. ISBN 0306814498. http://books.google.com/books?id=7Q3nOqkJQwoC&pg=PA158&dq=archaic+H.+sapiens+burial+symbols&ei=2UeOR-v5FoLusgO8ycDQBQ&sig=lvsc_I14naY4alZ9csYIVkU_pBc#PPA159,M1.  
  4. ^ Bowler JM, Jones R, Allen H, Thorne AG. (1970). "Pleistocene human remains from Australia: a living site and human cremation from Lake Mungo, Western New South Wales.". World Archaeol. 2 (1): 39-60. PMID 16468208.  
  5. ^ Barbetti M, Allen H. (1972). "Prehistoric man at Lake Mungo, Australia, by 32,000 years BP.". Nature 240 (5375): 46-8. PMID 4570638.  
  6. ^ Bowler, J.M. 1971. Pleistocene salinities and climatic change: Evidence from lakes and lunettes in southeastern Australia. In: Mulvaney, D.J. and Golson, J. (eds), Aboriginal Man and Environment in Australia. Canberra: Australian National University Press, pp. 47-65.
  7. ^ Bowler JM, Johnston H, Olley JM, Prescott JR, Roberts RG, Shawcross W, Spooner NA. (2003). "New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia.". Nature 421 (6925): 837-40. doi:10.1038/nature01383. PMID 1259451.  
  8. ^ Olleya JM, Roberts RG, Yoshida H and Bowler JM (2006). "Single-grain optical dating of grave-infill associated with human burials at Lake Mungo, Australia". Quaternary Science Reviews 25 (19-20): 2469-2474. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.07.022.  
  9. ^ "The World's First Temple", Archaeology magazine, Nov/Dec 2008 p 23.
  10. ^ "PlanetQuest: The History of Astronomy - Newgrange". http://www.planetquest.org/learn/newgrange.html.  
  11. ^ Knott 2000, p. 61
  12. ^ See horoscope number 1 in Dr. B.V. Raman (1991). Notable Horoscopes. Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 8120809017.  
  13. ^ Arun K. Bansal's research published in Outlook India, September 13, 2004. "Krishna (b. July 21, 3228 BC)". http://www.hvk.org/articles/0904/29.html.  
  14. ^ N.S. Rajaram takes these dates at face value when he opines that "We have therefore overwhelming evidence showing that Krishna was a historical figure who must have lived within a century on either side of that date, i.e., in the 3200-3000 BC period". (Prof. N. S. Rajaram (September 4th, 1999). "Search for the Historical Krishna". www.swordoftruth.com. http://veda.harekrsna.cz/encyclopedia/historical-krsna.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-15.  
  15. ^ The Bhagavata Purana (1.18.6), Vishnu Purana (5.38.8), and Brahma Purana (212.8) state that the day Krishna left the earth was the day that the Dvapara Yuga ended and the Kali Yuga began.
  16. ^ See: Matchett, Freda, "The Puranas", p 139 and Yano, Michio, "Calendar, astrology and astronomy" in Flood, Gavin (Ed) (2003), Blackwell companion to Hinduism, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 0-631-21535-2  
  17. ^ a b c Smith, Laura (2007). Illustrated Timeline of Religion. ISBN 1402736061. http://books.google.com/books?id=rpXlOUWttAwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=timeline+of+religion&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0.  
  18. ^ Tallet, Frank Religion, Society and Politics in France Since 1789 p. 1, 1991 Continuum International Publishing
  19. ^ Tallet, Frank Religion, Society and Politics in France Since 1789 p. 2, 1991 Continuum International Publishing
  20. ^ Clifton, Chas (1998). "The Significance of Aradia". in Mario Pazzaglini. Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches, A New Translation. Blaine, Washington: Phoenix Publishing, Inc.. p. 73. ISBN 0-919345-34-4.
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ Gardner, Gerald B (1999) [1954]. Witchcraft Today. Lake Toxaway, NC: Mercury Publishing. OCLC 44936549
  23. ^ [2]
  24. ^ Faculty of Catholic University of America, ed (1967). "Vatican Council II". New Catholic Encyclopedia. XIV (1 ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 563. OCLC 34184550.
  25. ^ Alberigo, Giuseppe; Sherry, Matthew (2006). A Brief History of Vatican II. Maryknoll: Orbis Books. pp. 69. ISBN 1570756384.
  26. ^ Hahnenberg, Edward (2007). A Concise Guide to the Documents of Vatican II. City: Saint Anthony Messenger Press. pp. 44. ISBN 0867165529.
  27. ^ Alberigo, Giuseppe; Sherry, Matthew (2006). A Brief History of Vatican II. Maryknoll: Orbis Books. pp. 1. ISBN 1570756384.
  28. ^ The Church of Satan: A History of the World's Most Notorious Religion by Blanche Barton (Hell's Kitchen Productions, 1990, ISBN 0-9623286-2-6)
  29. ^ a b McKay, George (1996) Senseless Acts of Beauty: Cultures of Resistance since the Sixties, ch.1 'The free festivals and fairs of Albion', ch. 2 two 'O life unlike to ours! Go for it! New Age travellers'. London: Verso. ISBN 1-85984-028-0
  30. ^ Sveinbjörn Beinteinsson (1992:132).
  31. ^ Pétur Pétursson (1985:21-22).
  32. ^ Sigurður A. Magnússon (1990:198)
  33. ^ Icelandic, "Hugmyndin að Ásatrúarfélaginu byggðist á trú á dulin öfl í landinu, í tengslum við mannfólkið sem skynjaði ekki þessa hluti til fulls nema einstöku menn. Það tengdist síðan þjóðlegum metnaði og löngun til að Íslendingar ættu sína trú, og ræktu hana ekki síður en innflutt trúarbrögð." Sveinbjörn Beinteinsson (1992:140).
  34. ^ Sigurður A. Magnússon (1990:198-9).
  35. ^ Pétur Pétursson (1985:3-4).
  36. ^ Sveinbjörn Beinteinsson (1992:133-34, 141).
  37. ^ "Fyrirspurnartími". Morgunblaðið, November 27, 1973.
  38. ^ Ólafur Jóhannesson. Stjórnskipun Íslands. Hlaðbúð, 1960. Page 429.
  39. ^ Icelandic, "fór fram með tilþrifum og atorku", "Reiddust goðin?" Vísir, August 7, 1973.
  40. ^ ÞS. "Blótuðu Þór í úrhellisrigningu." Vísir, August 7, 1973.
  41. ^ Pétur Pétursson (1985:passim).
  42. ^ Sigurður A. Magnússon (1990:193).
  43. ^ Þorri Jóhannsson. "Leiðirnar að guðdómnum eru margar". Lesbók Morgunblaðsins, November 14, 1992, pages 4-5. Available online at http://timarit.is/view_page_init.jsp?pageId=3309806&issId=242568&lang=en
  44. ^ Sveinbjörn Beinteinsson 1992.
  45. ^ Strmiska (2005:168).
  46. ^ "Increase in pagan priests in Iceland". Iceland Review. 2006-10-10. https://secure.icelandreview.com/icelandreview/daily_news/?cat_id=28304&ew_0_a_id=236262. Retrieved 5 July 2009.  
  47. ^ "Ásatrúarfélagið: Fjölgun goða með vígsluréttindi". Ásatrúarfélagið. October 8, 2006. http://www.asatru.is/Fundagerdir/Vigslurettindi.htm. Retrieved 5 July 2009.  
  48. ^ McNallen, Stephen A. (2004). "Three Decades of the Ásatrú Revival in America". Tyr: Myth-Culture-Tradition Volume II. Ultra Publishing. pp. 203–219. ISBN 0-9720292-1-4.
  49. ^ Kaplan, Jeffrey. 1996. "The Reconstruction of the Asatru and Odinist Traditions." In Magical Religion and Modern Witchcraft, edited by James R. Lewis, State University of New York Press.
  50. ^ [3]
  51. ^ Forklaring til Forn Siðr´s ansøgning om godkendelse som trossamfund.
  52. ^ Ed. Andy Worthington, 2005, The Battle of the Beanfield, Enabler Publications, ISBN 0952331667
  53. ^ Hippies clash with police at Stonehenge (1985), BBC News archive Accessed 22 January 2008.
  54. ^ E. Szafarz, "The Legal Framework for Political Cooperation in Europe" in The Changing Political Structure of Europe: Aspects of International Law, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 0-7923-1379-8. p.221.
  55. ^ "Arician tradition". Witchvox. http://www.witchvox.com/va/dt_va.html?a=usca&c=trads&id=3644. Retrieved February 7, 2006.  
  56. ^ "Bin Laden claims responsibility for 9/11". CBC News. October 29, 2004. http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2004/10/29/binladen_message041029.html. Retrieved January 11, 2009. "Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden appeared in a new message aired on an Arabic TV station Friday night, for the first time claiming direct responsibility for the 2001 attacks against the United States."  
  57. ^ "War Casualties Pass 9/11 Death Toll". CBS News. September 22, 2006. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/09/22/terror/main2035427.shtml. Retrieved September 24, 2008.  
  58. ^ "Toxic dust adds to WTC death toll". msnbc.com. May 24, 2007. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/18831750/. Retrieved September 6, 2009.  
  59. ^ "911 Report chapter 7". U.S. Government Printing Office. http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report_Ch7.htm. "...While training at al Qaeda camps, a dozen of them heard Bin Ladin's speeches, volunteered to become suicide operatives, and eventually were selected as muscle hijackers for the planes operation. Khallad says he met a number of them at the Kandahar airport, where they were helping to provide extra security. He encouraged Bin Ladin to use them. Khallad claims to have been closest with Saeed al Ghamdi, whom he convinced to become a martyr and whom he asked to recruit a friend, Ahmed al Ghamdi, to the same cause. Although Khallad claims not to recall everyone from this group who was later chosen for the 9/11 operation..."  
  60. ^ "Bin Laden on tape: Attacks 'benefited Islam greatly'". CNN. http://archives.cnn.com/2001/US/12/13/ret.bin.laden.videotape/. "Reveling in the details of the fatal attacks, bin Laden brags in Arabic that he knew about them beforehand and says the destruction went beyond his hopes. He says the attacks "benefited Islam greatly."  
  61. ^ Burke, Jason (2004). Al-Qaeda - The True Story of Radical Islam. London, New York: I.B. Tauris. 162–163. ISBN 1-85043-666-5.
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References

External links








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