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See also Encyclopedia Britannica's Guide to Black History for an international view.

This is a timeline of the African-American Civil Rights Movement.



(Information in this section primarily taken from Slavery in Colonial United States.)


  • unknown - The colony of Saint Augustine in Florida became the first permanent European settlement in America, and included an unknown number of African slaves.


  • unknown - The first record of African slavery in English Colonial America.


  • unknown - John Casor, a black man, became the first legally-recognized slave-for-life in the Virginia colony.


  • unknown - Virginia law defined that children of enslaved mothers followed the status of their mothers and were considered slaves, regardless of their father's status.


  • unknown - Both free and enslaved African Americans fought in Bacon's Rebellion along with English colonists.

1700 - 1799


  • unknown - The Virginia Slave codes defined as slaves all those servants brought into the colony who were not Christian in their original countries, as well as those Indians sold to colonists by other Indians.



  • September 9 - In the Stono Rebellion, South Carolina slaves gathered at the Stono River to plan an armed march for freedom.


  • unknown - Jupiter Hammon has a poem printed, becoming the first published African-American poet.



  • unknown - Phyllis Wheatley has her book Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral published.



1776-1783 American Revolution

  • Thousands of enslaved African Americans in the South escaped to British or Loyalist lines, as they were promised freedom if they fought with the British. In South Carolina, 25,000 enslaved African Americans, one-quarter of those held, escaped to the British.[1] After the war, many African Americans left with the British for England; others went with other Loyalists to Canada and settled in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Still others went to Jamaica and the West Indies.
  • Many free blacks in the North fought with the colonists for the rebellion.


  • July 8 - The Constitution of Vermont (a sovereign nation at the time) abolishes slavery, the first future state to do so (Pennsylvania was the first then-U.S.-state to do so, in 1780).



1790-1810 Manumission of slaves

  • - Following the Revolution, in the Upper South numerous slaveholders freed their slaves; the percentage of free blacks rose dramatically from less than one to 10 percent. By 1810, 75 percent of all blacks in Delaware were free, and 7.2 percent of blacks in Virginia were free.[2]





Early 1800s









  • September - David Walker begins publication of the abolitionist pamphlet Walker's Appeal.




  • July 2 - Slaves revolt on the La Amistad, resulting in a Supreme Court case (see Amistad).



  • unknown - The U.S. Supreme Court ruled, in Prigg v. Pennsylvania (1842), that states did not have to offer aid in the hunting or recapture of slaves, greatly weakening the fugitive slave law of 1793.


  • June 1 - Isabella Baumfree, a former slave, changes her name to Sojourner Truth and begins to preach for the abolition of slavery.
  • August - Henry Highland Garnet delivers his famous speech Call to Rebellion.







  • unknown - John Mercer Langston is one of the first African Americans elected to public office when elected as a town clerk in Ohio




First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation - President Lincoln meets with his cabinet.



  • April 12 - The American Civil War begins (secessions began in December, 1860), and lasts until April 9, 1865. Tens of thousands of enslaved African Americans of all ages escaped to Union lines for freedom. Contraband camps were set up in some areas, where blacks started learning to read and write. Others traveled with the Union Army. By the end of the war, more than 180,000 African Americans, mostly from the South, fought with the Union Army and Navy as members of the US Colored Troops and sailors.
  • May 2 - The first North American military unit with African-American officers was the 1st Louisiana Native Guard of the Confederate Army (disbanded in February 1862).
  • August 6 - The first of the Confiscation Acts authorized the confiscation of any Confederate property, including all slaves who fought or worked for the Confederate military. The second act in mid-1862 extended this.


1863-1877 Reconstruction



  • April 12 - The Battle of Fort Pillow, which resulted in controversy about whether a massacre of surrendered African-American troops was conducted or condoned.








  • December 11 - P.B.S. Pinchback is sworn in as the first black member of the U.S. House of Representatives.
  • Disputed gubernatorial election in Louisiana caused political violence for more than two years. Both Republican and Democratic governors held inaugurations and certified local officials.


  • April 14 - In the Slaughterhouse Cases the Supreme Court votes 5-4 for a narrow reading of the Fourteenth Amendment. The court also discusses dual citizenship: State Citizens and U.S. Citizens.
  • Easter, the Colfax Massacre - More than 100 blacks in Red River area of Louisiana were killed when attacked by white militia after defending Republicans in local office - continuing controversy from gubernatorial election.
  • Coushatta Massacre - Republican officeholders were run out of town and murdered by white militia before leaving the state - four of six were relatives of a Louisiana state Senator, a northerner who had settled in the South, married into a local family and established a plantation. Five to twenty black witnesses were also killed.


  • Founding of paramilitary groups that acted as the "military arm of the Democratic Party": the White League in Louisiana and the Red Shirts in Mississippi, and North and South Carolina. They terrorized blacks and Republicans, turning them out of office, killing some, disrupting rallies, and suppressing voting.
  • September - In New Orleans, continuing political violence erupted related to the still-contested gubernatorial election of 1872. Thousands of the White League armed militia marched into New Orleans, then the seat of government, where they outnumbered the integrated city police and black state militia forces. They defeated Republican forces and demanded that Gov. Kellogg leave office. The Democratic candidate McEnery was installed and White Leaguers occupied the capitol, state house and arsenal. This was called the "Battle of Liberty Place". The White League and McEnery withdrew after three days in advance of federal troops arriving to reinforce the Republican state government.




  • July 8 - The Hamburg Massacre occurs when local people riot against African Americans who were trying to celebrate the Fourth of July.
  • varied - White Democrats regained power in many southern state legislatures and passed the first Jim Crow laws.



  • spring - Thousands of African Americans refused to live under segregation in the South and migrated to Kansas. They became known as Exodusters.


  • unknown - In Strauder v. West Virginia, the Supreme Court rules that African Americans could not be excluded from juries.
  • During the 1880s, African Americans in the South reached a peak of numbers in being elected and holding local offices, even while white Democrats were working to assert control at state level.



  • A biracial populist coalition achieved power in Virginia (briefly). The legislature founded the first public college for African Americans, Virginia State University (as it is now known), as well as the first mental hospital for African Americans, both near Petersburg, Virginia. The hospital was established in December 1869, at Howard's Grove Hospital, a former Confederate unit, but was moved to a new campus in 1882.


  • unknown - In Civil Rights Cases, the United States Supreme Court struck down the Civil Rights Act of 1875 as unconstitutional.


  • unknown - Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was published, featuring the admirable African-American character Jim.
  • unknown - Judy W. Reed, of Washington, DC, and Sarah E. Goode, of Chicago, were the first African-American women inventors to receive patents. Signed with an "X", Reed's patent no. 305,474, granted September 23, 1884, is for a dough kneader and roller. Goode's patent for a cabinet bed, patent no. 322,177, was issued on July 14, 1885. Goode, the owner of a Chicago furniture store, invented a folding bed that could be formed into a desk when not in use.
  • unknown - Ida B. Wells sued the Chesapeake, Ohio & South Western Railroad Company for its use of segregated "Jim Crow" cars.




  • Mississippi, with a white Democrat-dominated legislature, passed a new constitution that effectively disfranchised most blacks through voter registration and electoral requirements, e.g., poll taxes, residency and literacy tests. This shut them out of the political process, including service on juries and in local offices.
  • By 1900 two-thirds of the farmers in the bottomlands of the Mississippi Delta were African Americans who cleared and bought land after the Civil War.[4]


  • unknown - Ida B. Wells published her pamphlet Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases.




  • unknown - Louisiana enacted the first state-wide grandfather clause that provided exemption forilliterate whites to voter registration literacy test requirements.
  • unknown - In Williams v. Mississippi the Supreme Court upheld the voter registration and election provisions of Mississippi's constitution because they applied to all citizens. Effectively, however, they disenfranchised blacks and poor whites. The result was that other southern states copied these provisions in their new constitutions and amendments through 1908, disfranchising most African Americans and tens of thousands of poor whites until the 1960s.




  • Since the Civil War, 30,000 African-American teachers had been trained and put to work in the South. The majority of blacks had become literate.[5]





  • July 11 - First meeting of the Niagara Movement, an interracial group to work for civil rights.






  • May 30 - The National Negro Committee chooses "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" as its organization name.
  • September 29 - Committee on Urban Conditions Among Negroes formed; the next year it will merge with other groups to form the National Urban League.
  • unknown - The NAACP begins publishing The Crisis.



  • Newly elected president Woodrow Wilson ordered physical re-segregation of Federal workplaces and employment after nearly 50 years of integrated facilities.[6][7][8]



  • January - Professor Carter Woodson and The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History begins publishing the Journal of Negro History, the first academic journal devoted to the study of African-American history.
  • March 23 - Marcus Garvey arrives in the U.S. (see Garveyism).
  • unknown - Los Angeles, California hires country's first black female police officer.[citation needed]
  • unknown - Great Migration begins and lasts until 1940. Approximately one and a half million African-Americans move from the Southern United States to the North and Midwest. More than five million migrated in the Second Great Migration from 1940–1970, which included more destinations in California and the West.



  • unknown - Orlando's first black doctor open practice










  • unknown - Claude McKay's Home to Harlem wins the Harmon Gold Award for Literature.










1940s to 1970

  • Second Great Migration - In multiple acts of resistance, more than 5 million African Americans left the violence and segregation of the South for jobs, education, and the chance to vote in northern, midwestern and California cities.






1945-1975 Second Reconstruction/American Civil Rights Movement






For more detail during this period, see Freedom Riders website chronology




  • January 28 - Briggs v. Elliott: after a District Court orders separate but equal school facilities in South Carolina, the Supreme Court agrees to hear the case as part of Brown v. Board of Education.
  • April 1 - Chancellor Collins J. Seitz finds for the black plaintiffs (Gebhart v. Belton, Belton v. Bulah) and orders the integration of Hockessin elementary and Claymont High School in Delaware based on assessment of "separate but equal" public school facilities required by the Delaware constitution.
  • September 4 - Eleven black students attend the first day of school at Claymont High School, Delaware, becoming the first black students in the 17 segregated states to integrate a white public school. The day occurred without incident or notice by the community.
  • September 5 - The Delaware State Attorney General informs Claymont Superintendent Stahl that the black students will have to go home because the case is being appealed. Stahl, the School Board and the faculty refuse and the students remain. The two Delaware cases are argued before the Warren US Supreme Court by Redding, Greenberg and Marshall and are used as an example of how integration can be achieved peacefully. It was a primary influence in the Brown v. Board case. The students become active in sports, music and theater. The first two black students graduated in June 1954 just one month after the Brown v. Board case.
  • unknown - Ralph Ellison authors the novel Invisible Man which wins the National Book Award. The 1991 TV-movie Separate But Equal re-enated the case.




  • January 7 - Marian Anderson (of 1939 fame) became the first African American to perform with the New York Metropolitan Opera.
  • January 15 - President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs Executive Order 10590, establishing the President's Committee on Government Policy to enforce a nondiscrimination policy in Federal employment.
Rosa Parks pictured in 1955
  • May 7 - NAACP activist Reverend George W. Lee is killed in Belzoni, Mississippi.
  • May 31 - The Supreme Court rules in "Brown II" that desegregation must occur with "all deliberate speed".
  • June 29 - The NAACP wins a Supreme Court decision, ordering the University of Alabama to admit Autherine Lucy.
  • August 13 - Registration activist Lamar Smith is murdered in Brookhaven, Mississippi.
  • August 28 - Teenager Emmett Till is killed for whistling at a white woman in Money, Mississippi.
  • November 7 - Interstate Commerce Commission bans bus segregation in interstate travel in Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company, extending the logic of Brown v. Board to the area of bus travel across state lines.
  • December 1 - Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a bus, starting the Montgomery Bus Boycott. This occurred nine months after 15-year old high school student Claudette Colvin became the first to refuse to give up her seat. Colvin's was the legal case which eventually ended the practice in Montgomery.
  • unknown - Roy Wilkins becomes the NAACP executive secretary.


  • February 3 - Autherine Lucy is admitted to the University of Alabama. Whites riot, and she is suspended. Later, she is expelled for her part in further legal action against the university.
  • February 24 - The policy of Massive Resistance is declared by U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr..
  • February/March- The Southern Manifesto opposing integration of schools, was created and signed by members of the Congressional delegations of Southern states, including 19 Senators and 81 members of the House of Representatives, notably the entire delegations of the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Virginia. On March 12, it was released to the press.
  • April 10 - singer Nat King Cole was assaulted during a segregated performance at Municipal Auditorium in Birmingham, Alabama.
  • May 26 - Circuit Judge Walter B. Jones issued an injunction prohibiting the NAACP from operating in Alabama.
  • May 28 - The Tallahassee, Florida bus boycott begins.
  • June 5 - the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights (ACMHR) was founded at a mass meeting in Birmingham, Alabama.
  • November 5 - Nat King Cole hosts the first show of The Nat King Cole Show. The show went off the air after only 13 months because no national sponsor could be found.
  • November 13 - In Browder v. Gayle, the Supreme Court strikes down Alabama laws requiring segregation of buses. This ruling, together with the ICC's 1955 ruling in Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach banning Jim Crow in bus travel among the states, is a landmark in outlawing Jim Crow in bus travel.
  • December 25 - The parsonage occupied by Birmingham, Alabama movement leader Fred Shuttlesworth was bombed. Shuttlesworth received only minor scrapes.
  • December 26 - The ACMHR tested the Browder v. Gayle ruling by riding in the white sections of Birmingham, Alabama city busses. 22 demonstrators were arrested.
  • unknown - Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission formed.
  • unknown - Director J. Edgar Hoover orders the FBI to begin the COINTELPRO program to investigate and disrupt "dissident" groups within the United States.





For more detail during this period, see Freedom Riders website chronology



  • January 11 - Rioting over court-ordered admission of first two African Americans (Hamilton E. Holmes and Charlayne Hunter-Gault) at the University of Georgia leads to their suspension, but they are ordered reinstated.
  • January 31 - Member of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and nine students arrested in Rock Hill, South Carolina.
  • March 6 - President John F. Kennedy issues Executive Order 10925, which establishes a Presidential committee that later becomes the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
  • May 4 - The first group of Freedom Riders, with the intent of integrating interstate buses, leaves Washington, D.C. by Greyhound bus. The group, organized by the Congress for Racial Equality (CORE), leaves shortly after the U.S. Supreme Court has outlawed segregation in interstate transportation terminals.[14]
  • May 14 - The Freedom Riders' bus is attacked and burned outside of Anniston, Alabama. A mob beats the Freedom Riders upon their arrival in Birmingham, Alabama. The Freedom Riders are arrested in Jackson, Mississippi, and spend forty to sixty days in Parchman Penitentiary.[14]
  • May 17 - Nashville students, coordinated by Diane Nash and James Bevel, take up the Freedom Ride, signaling the increased involvement of SNCC.
  • May 20 - Freedom Riders are assaulted in Montgomery, Alabama, at the Greyhound Bus Station.
  • May 21 - MLK, the Freedom Riders, and congregation of 1,500 at Rev. Ralph Abernathy’s First Baptist Church in Montgomery are besieged by mob of segregationists; Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy sends federal marshals to protect them.
  • May 29 - Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, citing the 1955 landmark ICC ruling in Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company and the Supreme Court's 1960 decision in Boynton v. Virginia, petitions the ICC to enforce desegregation in interstate travel.
  • June-August - U.S. Dept. of Justice initiates talks with civil rights groups and foundations on beginning Voter Education Project.
  • July - SCLC begins citizenship classes; Andrew J. Young hired to direct the program. Bob Moses begins voter registration in McComb, Mississippi.
  • September - James Forman becomes SNCC’s Executive Secretary.
  • September 23 - Interstate Commerce Commission, at Robert F. Kennedy’s insistence, issues new rules ending discrimination in interstate travel, effective November 1, 1961, six years after the ICC's own ruling in Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company.
  • September 25 - Voter registration activist Herbert Lee killed in McComb, Mississippi.
  • November 1 - All interstate buses required to display a certificate that reads: “Seating aboard this vehicle is without regard to race, color, creed, or national origin, by order of the Interstate Commerce Commission.”[15]
  • November 1 - SNCC workers Charles Sherrod and Cordell Reagon and nine Chatmon Youth Council members test new ICC rules at Trailways bus station in Albany, Georgia.[16]
  • November 17 - SNCC workers help encourage and coordinate black activism in Albany, Georgia, culminating in the founding of the Albany Movement as a formal coalition.[16]
  • November 22 - Three high school students from Chatmon’s Youth Council arrested after using “positive actions” by walking into white sections of the Albany bus station.[16]
  • November 22 - Albany State College students Bertha Gober and Blanton Hall arrested after entering the white waiting room of the Albany Trailways station.[16]
  • December 10 - Freedom Riders from Atlanta, SNCC leader Charles Jones, and Albany State student Bertha Gober are arrested at Albany Union Railway Terminal, sparking mass demonstrations, with hundreds of protesters arrested over the next five days.[17]
  • December 11–15 - Five hundred protesters arrested in Albany, Georgia.
  • December 15 - Dr. King arrives in Albany, Georgia in response to a call from Dr. W. G. Anderson, the leader of the Albany Movement to desegregate public facilities.[14]
  • December 16 - Dr. King is arrested at an Albany, Georgia demonstration. He is charged with obstructing the sidewalk and parading without a permit.[14]
  • December 18 - Albany truce, including a 60-day postponement of King's trial; MLK leaves town.[18]
  • unknown - Whitney Young is appointed executive director of the National Urban League and begins expanding its size and mission.
  • unknown - Black Like Me written by John Howard Griffin, a white southerner who deliberately tanned and dyed his skin to allow him to directly experience the life of the Negro in the Deep South, is published, displaying the brutality of Jim Crow segregation to a national audience.


  • January 18–20 - Student protests over sit-in leaders’ expulsions at Baton Rouge’s Southern University, the nation’s largest black school, close it down.
  • February - Representatives of SNCC, CORE, and the NAACP form the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO). A grant request to fund COFO voter registration activities is submitted to the Voter Education Project (VEP).
  • February 26 - Segregated transportation facilities, both interstate and intrastate, ruled unconstitutional by U.S. Supreme Court.
  • March - SNCC workers sit-in at US Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy's office to protest jailings in Baton Rouge.
  • March 20 - FBI installs wiretaps on NAACP activist Stanley Levison’s office.
  • April 3 - Defense Department orders full racial integration of military reserve units, except the National Guard.
  • April 9 - Corporal Roman Duckworth shot by a police officer in Taylorsville, Mississippi.
  • June - Leroy Willis becomes first black graduate of the University of Virginia College of Arts and Sciences.
  • June - SNCC workers establish voter registration projects in rural Southwest Georgia.
  • July 10-August 28 SCLC renews protests in Albany; MLK in jail July 10–12 and July 27-August 10.
  • August 31 - Fannie Lou Hamer attempts to register to vote in Indianola, Mississippi.
  • September 9 - Two black churches used by SNCC for voter registration meetings are burned in Sasser, Georgia.
  • September 20 - James Meredith is barred from becoming the first black student to enroll at the University of Mississippi.
  • September 30-October 1 - Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black orders James Meredith admitted to Ole Miss. Meredith enrolls; riot ensues. French photographer Paul Guihard and Oxford resident Ray Gunter are killed.
  • October - Leflore County, Mississippi, supervisors cut off surplus food distribution in retaliation against voter drive.
  • October 23 – Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) begins Communist Infiltration (COMINFIL) investigation of SCLC.
  • October 14–28 – Cuban Missile Crisis.
  • November 7–8 – Edward Brooke selected Massachusetts Attorney General, Leroy Johnson elected Georgia State Senator, Augustus Hawkins electedfirst black from California in Congress.
  • November 20 - Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy authorizes FBI wiretap on Stanley Levison’s home telephone.
  • November 20 - President John F. Kennedy upholds 1960 campaign promise to eliminate housing segregation by signing Executive Order 11063 banning segregation in Federally funded housing.



The Edmund Pettus Bridge on "Bloody Sunday" in 1965.










  • January 25 - Shirley Chisholm became the first major-party African-American candidate for President of the United States and the first woman to run for the Democratic presidential nomination.
  • November 16 - In Baton Rouge, two Southern University students are killed by white Sheriff deputies during a school protest over lack of funding from the state. Today, the university’s Smith-Brown Memorial Union is named in their honor.



  • July 25 - In Milliken v. Bradley, the Supreme Court in a 5-4 decision holds that outlying districts could only be forced into a desegregation busing plan if there was a pattern of violation on their part. This decision reinforces the trend of white flight.
  • Salsa Soul Sisters, Third World Wimmin Inc Collective, the first "out" organization for lesbians, womanists and women of color formed in New York City


  • April 30 - In the pilot episode of Starsky and Hutch, Richard Ward played an African-American boss of White Americans for the first time on TV.


  • February - Black History Month is founded by Professor Carter Woodson's Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History.
  • unknown - The novel Roots: The Saga of an American Family by Alex Haley is published.






  • May 24 - The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Bob Jones University did not qualify as either a tax-exempt or a charitable organization due to its racially discriminatory practices.[31]
  • August 30 - Guion Bluford becomes the first African-American to go into space.
  • November 2 -President Ronald Reagan signs a bill creating a federal holiday to honor Dr. Martin Luther King.


  • September 13 - The film A Soldier's Story is released, dealing with racism in the U.S. military.
  • unknown - The Cosby Show begins, and is regarded as one of the defining television shows of the decade.



  • unknown - The Public Broadcasting Service's six-part documentary Eyes on the Prize is first shown, covering the years 1954-1965. In 1990 it is added to by the eight-part Eyes on the Prize II covering the years 1965-1985.










  • June 7 - James Byrd, Jr. was brutally murdered by white supremacists in Jasper, Texas. The scene was reminiscent of earlier lynchings. In response, Byrd's family created the James Byrd Foundation for Racial Healing.
  • October 23 - The film American History X is released, powerfully highlighting the problems of urban racism


21st century






  • June 3 - Barack Obama receives enough delegates by the end of state primaries to be the presumptive Democratic Party of the United States nominee.[33]
  • August 28 - At the 2008 Democratic National Convention, in a stadium filled with supporters, Barack Obama accepted the Democratic nomination for President of the United States.
  • November 4 - Barack Obama elected 44th President of the United States of America, opening his victory speech with, "If there is anyone out there who still doubts that America is a place where all things are possible; who still wonders if the dream of our founders is alive in our time; who still questions the power of our democracy, tonight is your answer."[34]


See also

Other books


Other people

Other authors and artists

Other performers

Other athletes


  1. ^ "The American Revolution and Slavery", Digital History accessed 5 Mar 2008
  2. ^ Peter Kolchin, American Slavery: 1619-1877, New York: Hill and Wang, pp.78 and 81
  3. ^ PBS documentary
  4. ^ John C. Willis, Forgotten Time: The Yazoo-Mississippi Delta after the Civil War, Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2000
  5. ^ James D.Anderson, Black Education in the South, 1860-1935, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1988, pp.244-245
  6. ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 41. ISBN 0465041957. 
  7. ^ Wolgemuth, Kathleen L. (April 1959). "Woodrow Wilson and Federal Segregation". The Journal of Negro History (Association for the Study of African-American Life and History, Inc.) 44 (2): 158. doi:10.2307/2716036. 
  8. ^ Blumenthal, Henry (January 1963). "Woodrow Wilson and the Race Question". The Journal of Negro History (Association for the Study of African-American Life and History, Inc.) 48 (1): 1. doi:10.2307/2716642. 
  9. ^ Angela Y. Davis,Women, Race & Class. New York: Vintage Books, 1983, pp.194-195
  10. ^ "America's First Sit-Down Strike: The 1939 Alexandria Library Sit-In". City of Alexandria. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  11. ^ Smith v. Allwright, 321 U.S. 649 (1944)
  12. ^ Morgan v. Virginia, 1946
  13. ^ The Virginia Center for Digital History
  14. ^ a b c d The King Center, The Chronology of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.. "1961". Retrieved 2007-10-20. 
  15. ^ Arsenault, Raymond (2006). Freedom Riders: 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice. Oxford Univ. Press. p. 439. ISBN 0195136748. 
  16. ^ a b c d Branch, Taylor (1988). Parting the Waters: America in the King Years. Simon & Schuster Paperbacks. pp. 527–530. ISBN 978-0-671-68742-7. 
  17. ^ Branch, Taylor (1988). Parting the Waters: America in the King Years. Simon & Schuster Paperbacks. pp. 533–535. ISBN 978-0-671-68742-7. 
  18. ^ Branch, Taylor (1988). Parting the Waters: America in the King Years. Simon & Schuster Paperbacks. pp. 555–556. ISBN 978-0-671-68742-7. 
  19. ^ Branch, Taylor (1988). Parting the Waters: America in the King Years. Simon & Schuster Paperbacks. pp. 756–765. ISBN 978-0-671-68742-7. 
  20. ^ Branch, Taylor (1988). Parting the Waters: America in the King Years. Simon & Schuster Paperbacks. pp. 786–791. ISBN 978-0-671-68742-7. 
  21. ^ UNITED STATES of America and Interstate Commerce Commission v. The CITY OF JACKSON, MISSISSIPPI, Allen Thompson, Douglas L. Lucky and Thomas B. Marshall, Commissioners of the City of Jackson, and W.D. Rayfield, Chief of Police of the City of Jackson, United States Court of Appeals Fifth Circuit, May 13, 1963.
  22. ^ Medgar Evers.
  23. ^ Proposed Civil Rights Act.
  24. ^ March on Washington.
  25. ^ a b Loevy, Robert. "A Brief History of the Civil Rights Act of 1964". Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  26. ^ a b Civil Rights Act of 1964
  27. ^ Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech.
  28. ^ a b c Gavin, Philip. "The History PlaceTM, Great Speeches Collection, Lyndon B. Johnson, “We Shall Overcome”". Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  29. ^ When Harry Met Petula
  30. ^
  31. ^ Bob Jones University v. United States, 461 U.S. 574 (1983)
  32. ^ CNN: Bob Jones University ends ban on interracial dating
  33. ^ CNN: Obama: I will be the Democratic nominee
  34. ^ Newsweek

To the reader : If you arrived at a footnote by clicking on a superscript [b] (or [c]) then click on the superscript b (or c), to return.

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