Tiraspol: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tiraspol
View of the Dniester river in Tiraspol

Flag

Coat of arms
Municipality Tiraspol
Government
 - Mayor Viktor Kostyrko
Population (2005)
 - Total 159,163
Area code(s) + 373 533

Tiraspol (pronounced /tɪˈræspəl/; Russian: Тирасполь and Ukrainian: Тирасполь) is the second largest city in Moldova and is the capital and administrative centre of the de facto independent Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (Transnistria). The city is located on the eastern bank of the Dniester River. Tiraspol is a regional hub of light industry, such as furniture and electrical goods production.

Tiraspol was founded by the Russian general Alexander Suvorov in 1792.[1] The city celebrates its anniversary every year on October 14.[2]

Contents

Name

The toponym consists of two words: Tiras — the ancient Greek name for the Dniester River, and polis, i.e., a city.

Climate

Weather data for Tiraspol
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 0.7
(33)
2.3
(36)
7.8
(46)
16.5
(62)
22.5
(73)
25.8
(78)
27.4
(81)
27.3
(81)
23.0
(73)
16.1
(61)
8.6
(47)
3.3
(38)
15.1
(59)
Average low °C (°F) -6.1
(21)
-4.3
(24)
-0.7
(31)
5.1
(41)
10.3
(51)
13.8
(57)
15.5
(60)
14.7
(58)
10.3
(51)
5.3
(42)
1.3
(34)
-2.8
(27)
5.2
(41)
Precipitation mm (inches) 33
(1.3)
35
(1.38)
28
(1.1)
35
(1.38)
52
(2.05)
72
(2.83)
63
(2.48)
49
(1.93)
38
(1.5)
26
(1.02)
36
(1.42)
38
(1.5)
495
(19.49)
Avg. precipitation days 11 11 9 10 11 11 10 7 7 7 11 11 116
Source: World Weather Information Service[3] 2008-01-06

History

Statue of Alexander Suvorov in Tiraspol
Transnistria parliament building in Tiraspol. In front is a statue of Lenin.
Soviet tank monument in Tiraspol
Soviet jet monument in Tiraspol
2006: Even the trolley buses of Tiraspol are patriotic
Advertisements

Pre-history

Tyras, or Tiras was a colony of Miletus, probably founded about 600 BC, situated some 10 km. from the mouth of the Tiras River (Dniester). Of no great importance in early times, in the 2nd century BC it fell under the dominion of native kings whose names appear on its coins, and was destroyed by the Getae about 50 BC. In AD 56 it seems to have been restored by the Romans and since then formed part of the province of Lower Moesia. A series of its coins exists, featuring heads of Roman emperors from Domitian to Alexander Severus. Soon after the time of the latter it was destroyed again by the Goths. Its government was in the hands of five archons, a senate, a popular assembly and a registrar. The types of its coins suggest a trade in wheat, wine and fish. The few inscriptions are also mostly concerned with trade. Its remains are scanty, as its site has been covered by the great medieval fortress of Monocastro or Akkerman.[4]

During the Middle Ages, the area around Tiraspol was a buffer zone between the Tatars and the Moldavians, inhabited by both ethnicities.

Foundation

The Russian Empire conquered its way to the Dniester river from Turks and in 1792, the Russian army built some fortifications to guard the western border near a Moldavian village named Sucleia. Field Marshall Alexander Suvorov, who commanded Russian armies, is considered the founder of Tiraspol, and his statue is city's most distinctive landmark. The name was given after the Latin name of the Dniester river ("Tyras") on which it was built.

June 15, 1828: A customs house was established in Tiraspol. The purpose of its creation became suppression of smuggling. This customs house was subordinated to the chief of Odessa customs region. It began operations with 14 employees. They inspected shipments of bread, paper, oil, wine, sugar, fruits and other goods.

XX century - Soviet Tiraspol

The Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was created in Ukraine in 1924, with Balta as its capital. The republic had Romanian, Ukrainian and Russian as its official languages. Its capital was moved in 1929 to Tiraspol, which remained the capital of the Moldavian ASSR until 1940.

In 1940, following the secret provisions of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, the USSR forces Romania to cede Bessarabia and integrates Tiraspol, until then part of the Ukrainian SSR, into the newly-formed Moldavian SSR.

On August 7, 1941, following the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, the city was taken by Romanian troops. During the occupation, Tiraspol was under Romanian administration. During that period almost all its Jewish population perished. This same year (before the occupation), the newspaper “Dnestrovskaya pravda” was founded by the Tiraspol City Council of popular deputies. This is the oldest periodical publication in the region.

On April 12, 1944, the city was retaken by the Red Army and became again part of Moldavian SSR.

After independence

On January 27, 1990 A referendum declared that Tiraspol was an independent territory. The nearby city of Bendery also declared its independence. As the Russian-speaking independence movement gained momentum, the local governments banded together to resist pressure from the Moldovan government.

A street in Tiraspol.

On September 2, 1990, Tiraspol was proclaimed the capital of the new Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic. The new republic was not officially recognized by Soviet authorities, however it received support from some important Soviet leaders, like Anatoly Lukyanov. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the territory east of the Dniester river declared independence as Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, with Tiraspol as its capital. However, it was not recognized by the international community.

On July 1, 2005, the Lucian Blaga Lyceum, a high school with Romanian as its language of instruction, was registered as a Transnistrian non-governmental establishment. The registration of six Romanian language schools was subject of negotiations since 2000. The tension increased in the summer of 2004, when the Transnistrian authorities forcibly closed the schools that used the Moldovan language in the Latin script, which, according to the official PMR view, is considered as Romanian. Moldovan, written in the Cyrillic script, is one of the three official languages in the PMR. Romanian, however, is not. Some economic measures and counter-measures were taken on both banks of the Dniester.

On July 6, 2006, an explosion, believed to be caused by a bomb, killed at least eight people in a minibus.[5]

On August 13, 2006, a grenade explosion in a trolleybus kills two, injures ten.[6][7][8]

Jewish history

Orthodox church
  • 1847: Jewish population in Tiraspol amounted to 1,406.
  • 1897: Jewish population rose to 8,668 (27% of the total population).
  • 1910: Tiraspol had two Jewish private schools, one for boys and one for girls.
  • 1926: There were 6,398 Jews (29.1%) in the town.
  • 1959: The only synagogue was closed by the authorities. The Jewish population was estimated at about 1,500.
  • 1960s and 70s: The Jewish population was believed to be in tens of thousands, out of above 100,000 general population. Yiddish could occasionally be heard on the streets of the city.
  • 2007 Jewish population of Tiraspol is 2,200.

Anti-Semitism in Tiraspol

Theater
  • 14-15 April 2001 the Synagogue of Tiraspol suffered a pipe bomb attack. The building was damaged, but the guard was not hurt.[9]
  • 13-30 March 2004 over 70 tombstones in the Jewish cemetery of Tiraspol were vandalized[10] Local community leaders said the authorities refused to help clean up the anti-Semitic graffiti painted over the tombstones[11]
  • 4 May 2004, vandals threw a Molotov cocktail in an attempt to set fire to a Synagogue in Tiraspol[11] The attack failed when passers-by extinguished the fire.[12]

Monuments

The statue of Alexander Suvorov was erected in the central square in 1979 in commemoration of his 250th anniversary. In front of the Transnistrian Government building there is a statue of Lenin. On the opposite side of the central square, a monument plaza features a Soviet T-34 tank, commemorating the Soviet victory in World War II, an eternal flame to those who fell defending the city in 1941 and liberating it in 1944, as well as several monuments dedicated to more recent conflicts, including the Soviet war in Afghanistan and the War of Transnistria.

People and culture

Demographics

In 1989 the city had a population of about 190,000 and in 1992 203,000. 41% were Russians, 32% Ukrainians and 18% were Moldovans. As result of the political and economic situation that followed the proclamation of the independent (unrecognized) Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, as well as large Jewish emigration in the early 1990s, the population of the city fell below its 1989 number and the 2004 Census in Transnistria puts its current population at 158,069.[13]

Ethnic composition
Ethnic group 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2004 census[14]
Russians N/A N/A N/A N/A  65,928

41.71%

Ukrainians N/A N/A N/A N/A  52,278

33.07%

Moldovans (Romanians) N/A N/A N/A N/A  23,790

15.05%

Bulgarians N/A N/A N/A N/A  2,450

1.55%

Gagauzians N/A N/A N/A N/A  1,988

1.26%

Belorussians N/A N/A N/A N/A  1,712

1.08%

Germans N/A N/A N/A N/A  701

0.44%

Jews N/A N/A N/A N/A  573

0.36%

Armenians N/A N/A N/A N/A  360

0.23%

Poles N/A N/A N/A N/A  324

0.20%

Gypsies N/A N/A N/A N/A  116

0.07%

others, non-declared N/A N/A N/A N/A  7,849
4.97%
Total 62,000 105,700 138,698 181,862 158,069

Sport

There are two professional football clubs in Tiraspol, playing in the Divizia Naţională, the top Moldovan football league: FC Sheriff Tiraspol & FC Tiraspol. Sheriff are the most successful Moldovan football club of recent history, winning every league title since the 2000-2001 season, and 6 Moldovan Cups. A third club, CS Tiligul-Tiras Tiraspol, withdrew from competition prior to the 2009-2010 season. Tiraspol is home to the Sheriff Stadium, the biggest seated stadium in the region with a capacity of 14,300.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Tiraspol is twinned with:

References

External links

Non-Transnistrian links

Transnistrian links

Coordinates: 46°51′N 29°38′E / 46.85°N 29.633°E / 46.85; 29.633


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Tiraspol, though the largest city in Transnistria, is not exactly the place-to-be. There are few things to see, though you might enjoy a visit to the main street with its parliamentary building boasting a relatively new Lenin statue and a tank from the "independence war" decorated with flowers. Also, be sure to notice the Soviet-style banners. However, a curfew is in effect, and nightlife is non-existent.

Infrastructure

The city has a relatively modern infrastructure. The state-run bus service is a simplistic method of transportation which is fairly accessible. It runs at peak hours during the day, but does not operate at night. The reasons for this is that criminal activity became rampant on the bus system as is became a vehicle for the drug trafficking in the Eastern Block during the mid 1990's. However, reforms by president Smirnov and his dedicated assortment of public officials created the ability for the bus-system to remain open for at least the better part of the day creating a much needed public service for the Transnistrian population.

There is neither an airport nor a seaport in Transnistria. Tiraspool, the major city is landlocked and is largely shut in from the outside world due to a lack of transcontinental infrastructure. The closest airport is located in neighboring Moldova. It is an international airport, however, there have been many nations that have implied 'travel bans' on both Moldova and Transnistria.

Transnistrians do not have ready access to the Internet. About 5 of 100 homes have access to the world wide web. Most of these homes belong to the cultural and political elite. The government has limited the rights of free speech and thus is not apt to embrace technological change and development. The local sewer system and electrical grid is state of the art. Recently adapted from models based in western Europe, the Transnistrian basic infrastructure was built in the mid 1990s after the profits gained after the war of independence in 1992.

Get In

There is regular bus and maxi-taxi service to Chisinau, Bender, Causeni, Odessa, and other Ukrainian and Moldovan cities. The main bus station is about a kilometer from the city center and has clearly posted schedules. No visa or payment is required for EU, Moldovan or US citizens when staying for less than three days, but you must remember to register with the police unless you are just on a day trip. Some people have reported getting shaken down for payments at the border - if this happens, hold your ground and act stubborn and clueless. Many more people have crossed into Transnistria without any hassle.

See

You can see most of what there is to see in Tiraspol by walking up and down October 25th St., the main drag. There are several nice parks in the city, including the Culture Park near the university. This has abundant trees and a mixture of abandoned and enthusiastically used amusement park rides, and is a good place for people-watching. Most of the big monuments are at the south end of the city, about 2 km from the Palace of Soviets.

Do

Visit many soviet monuments that remain in tiraspol since the days of USSR. You may also want to visit local drama theater and local museums near the center of the city.

Buy

In order to purchase goods, services or souvenirs in Tiraspol, or in any Transnistrian locale you must exchange your outside currency into Transnistrian rubles. The Transnistrian central bank sets their own exchange rate and prints their own money, so the amount of rubles you will get on any given day for your euros varies significantly from week to week. Currency exchanges are everywhere, including inside many popular stores, and will change most local and major currencies. You can't pay with credit or debit cards in Transnistria.

Eat

Andy's Pizza

Provides a mix of western style foods such as the "English Breakfast" and other Eastern European favourites at reasonable prices. The Menu is in English/Russian which is execllent if you dont know too much Russian. One waiter when we were there spoke good english also. The atmosphere is clean and modern but the toilets are the eastern european squat variety which starkly contrasts the rest of the resurant decor is on par with western standards.

Drink

There are many shops and markets to purchase local food, drink and their famous Transnistrian Vodka drink commonly referred to as a "smirnovka" - appropriately named after president Igor Smirnov.

This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Tiraspol

Plural
-

Tiraspol

  1. The capital city of Transnistria

Translations


Simple English


Tiraspol (Russian: Тирасполь and Ukrainian: Тирасполь) is the second biggest city of Moldova and the capital city of Transnistria.


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message