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.In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek: Τιτάν - Ti-tan; plural: Τιτᾶνες - Ti-tânes), were a race of 12 powerful deities, sons and daughters of Gaia and Uranus, that ruled during the legendary Golden Age.^ It was during his reign that he created mankind, and ruled during the Golden Age .

^ Cronus, the most important of the Titans, ruled the universe until he was dethroned by his son Zeus, who seized power for himself.
  • Titans - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]

^ Titan is the fifteenth of Saturn 's known satellites and the largest: orbit : 1,221,830 km from Saturn diameter : 5150 km mass : 1.35e23 kg In Greek mythology the Titans were a family of giants, the children of Uranus and Gaia , who sought to rule the heavens but were overthrown and supplanted by the family of Zeus.

.The males were Atlas, Oceanus, Hyperion, Coeus, Cronus, Crius and Iapetus and the females were Mnemosyne, Tethys, Theia, Phoebe, Rhea and Themis .^ After the death of Hyperion and Basileia, the kingdom was divided between her brothers, Atlas and Cronus .

^ The other important Titans were Oceanus, the river that flowed around the earth; Tethys, his wife; Mnemosyne, the goddess of memory; Themis, the goddess of divine justice; Hyperion, the father of the sun, the moon, and the dawn; Iapetus, the father of Prometheus, who created mortals; and Atlas, who carried the world on his shoulders.
  • Titans - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]
  • Titans - Search Results - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]

^ To Homer, Oceanus and Tethys were more ancient than Titans; they were referred to as the World Parents (Creators), displacing Uranus and Gaea , or that of Cronus and Rhea .

.Their role as Elder Gods was overthrown by a race of younger gods, the Olympians, in the Titanomachy ("Battle with the Titans") which effected a mythological paradigm shift that the Greeks may have borrowed from the Ancient Near East.^ The Titans were elder gods.

^ Even though the Olympians had recently won the war against the Titans, the younger gods feared to face the monsters.
  • Mythical Creatures and Monsters 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC www.timelessmyths.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A number of the male Titans were imprisoned in Tartarus, when they chose to fight a war against the younger gods, known as the Olympians .

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Contents

Titanomachy

.Greeks of the classical age knew of several poems about the war between the gods and many of the Titans, the Titanomachy ("War of the Titans").^ See the Creation about the war between the Titans and the Olympians.

^ Often called the Elder Gods, they were for many ages the supreme rulers of the universe and were of enormous size and incredibly strong.
  • Titans - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]

^ This resulted in a war between the Greeks and Trojans that would last for ten years.

.The dominant one, and the only one that has survived, was in the Theogony attributed to Hesiod.^ Such as Amphitrite, who had being identified as Nereid in Hesiod's Theogony ; whereas Apollodorus says that she was Oceanid in one passage, but in the other she was a Nereid.

^ In Hesiod's Theogony, Poseidon was called the Dark-haired One.

.A lost epic Titanomachy attributed to the blind Thracian bard Thamyris, himself, was mentioned in passing in an essay On Music that was once attributed to Plutarch.^ Other possible candidates of the Kneeler, was the gifted bard Thamyris blinded by the Muses for challenging the goddesses in a contest.

^ Apollo had probably started out as the god of healing, but as time passed, he inherited many of the attributes of the Greek god, such as the god of oracles and prophecy, of light and music.

.The Titans also played a prominent role in the poems attributed to Orpheus.^ By far, Thetis was probably the most important sea-goddess, because she played a prominent role in several important events in Greek myths.

Although only scraps of the Orphic narratives survive, they show interesting differences with the Hesiodic tradition.
.These Greek myths of the Titanomachy fall into a class of similar myths of a War in Heaven throughout Europe and the Near East, where one generation or group of gods largely opposes the dominant one.^ These ancient hags lived in a cave in one of the mountains in Libya, near Lake Tritonis.
  • Mythical Creatures and Monsters 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC www.timelessmyths.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the war ended, Styx's children lived in Olympus with Zeus, and he rewarded Styx, one of the highest honours: any god who swore an oath by her name, that oath would be inviolable.

^ In the Roman myths, he was only just one of the gods of dreams, known as the Oneiroi (Dreams).

Sometimes the Elder Gods are supplanted. Sometimes the rebels lose, and are either cast out of power entirely or incorporated into the pantheon. Other examples might include the wars of the Æsir with the Vanir and Jotuns in Scandinavian mythology, the Babylonian epic Enuma Elish, the Hittite "Kingship in Heaven" narrative, the obscure generational conflict in Ugaritic fragments, and the rebellion of Lucifer in Christian mythology.

In Orphic sources

.Hesiod is not, however, the last word on the Titans.^ However, Apollonius doesn't complete his song told by Orpheus, where like in Hesiod's myth, Zeus displaced the Titans.

.Surviving fragments of Orphic poetry in particular preserve some variations on the myth.^ Though, the societies in post-Dorian Invasion Greece were predominantly filled with myths about male heroes, some myths still survived about the heroines from the mythical past.

.In one Orphic text, Zeus does not simply set upon his father violently.^ Zeus had swallowed the pregnant Oceanid, when he heard from the prophecy that Metis could one day bear a son who would be mightier than the father.

^ Zeus was told that this son would one day overthrow him, as he had done to his own father (Cronus).

^ Zeus' brothers and sisters were devoured by their father, because of the prophecy that Cronus would lose his power from one of his sons.

.Instead, Rhea spreads out a banquet for Cronus, so that he becomes drunk upon fermented honey.^ This worked until Rhea , unhappy at the loss of her children, tricked Cronus into swallowing a rock, instead of Zeus .
  • Greek Mythology Gods Titans 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC edweb.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • MythNET - Titans 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC www.classicsunveiled.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Zeus used honey to make Cronus drunk, disgorging Zeus' siblings, before Zeus dismembered his father, just as had Cronus done with his own father (Uranus).

^ The Titans rebelled against their rule, where Cronus and Rhea threw Ophion and Eurynome out of heaven, into the river Oceanus.

.Rather than being consigned to Tartarus, Cronus is dragged — still drunk — to the cave of Nyx (Night), where he continues to dream throughout eternity.^ The Oneiroi or Dreams were the children of either Nox (Nyx), the goddess of night, or Somnus ( Hypnos ), the god of sleep.

^ Most of the Titans fought with Cronus against Zeus and were punished by being banished to Tartarus .
  • Greek Mythology Gods Titans 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC edweb.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Gaea was born together with Nyx ("Night"), Erebus , Tartarus, and Eros ("Love"), out of Chaos.

Rhea, Cronus' wife, one of the Titans
.Another myth concerning the Titans that is not in Hesiod revolves around Dionysus.^ According to Hesiod, the Titans were twelve in numbers, six sons and six daughters, though the numbers can vary from one author to another.

^ In Hesiod's account, it was Gaea who conspired with his son, to rid of her husband, but in the Orphic myth, it was both Nyx and Gaea who brought about Uranus' downfall, using the Titans.

^ However, Apollonius doesn't complete his song told by Orpheus, where like in Hesiod's myth, Zeus displaced the Titans.

.At some point in his reign, Zeus decides to give up the throne in favor of the infant Dionysus, who like the infant Zeus is guarded by the Kouretes.^ Apollonius had only mentioned Zeus as an infant in a cave in Crete, as well as a mention that one day he would wield the thunderbolt, forged by the Cyclopes, like in Hesiod's account .

^ Silenus was one of the loyal followers of Dionysus, who brought up the wine god.
  • Mythical Creatures and Monsters 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC www.timelessmyths.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the Orphic myths, six rulers had reign in heaven: Protogonus/Phanes, Nyx, Uranus, Cronus, Zeus and Dionysus.

.The Titans decide to slay the child and claim the throne for themselves; they paint their faces white with gypsum, distract Dionysus with toys, then dismember him and boil and roast his limbs.^ Although, Zeus and the Olympians defeated the Titans, they were faced with an even mightier foe, the Typhon (Τυφών).

^ The Titans painted their face white, and they lured the infant Zagreus from the safety of the cave, with toys, such as mirror, doll, knuckle bones, and spin-top called bull-roarer.

.Zeus, enraged, slays the Titans with his thunderbolt; Athena preserves the heart in a gypsum doll, out of which a new Dionysus is made.^ Zeus destroyed the Titans with his thunderbolts.

^ Cronus swallowed his children; Zeus swallowed Phanes/Protogonus and the entire universe; Zeus swallowed Metis; the Titans devoured Dionysus/Zagreus and Zeus swallowing the heart of Dionysus/Zagreus.

^ According to the Orphic myth, Zeus destroyed the Titans with his thunderbolts, because the Titans had murdered and devoured his son Zagreus (Dionysus).

.This story is told by the poets Callimachus and Nonnus, who call this Dionysus "Zagreus", and in a number of Orphic texts, which do not.^ Earlier Orphic writers called him Dionysus, but the Neoplatonist writers, sometimes called him Zagreus.

^ For the sake of convenience I will call Dionysus, son of Persephone, as Zagreus, so we can distinguish one Dionysus from the other.

^ Since Dionysus' life in the Orphic myth is the same told elsewhere, the Orphic Creation ends here.

.One iteration of this story, that of the Late Antique NeoPlationist philosopher Olympiodorus, recounted in his commentary of Plato's Phaedrus,[2] affirms that humanity sprang up out of the fatty smoke of the burning Titan corpses; some scholars consider that Olympiodorus's report, the only surviving expression of this mythic connection, embodied a tradition that dated to the Bronze Age, while Radcliffe Edmonds has suggested an element of innovative allegorized improvisation to suit Olympiodorus's purpose.^ Titan follow-ons were used as space launch vehicles until late 2005.
  • Titan II Missile Site Coordinates 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC asuwlink.uwyo.edu [Source type: General]

^ With the help of his nephew and companion, Iolaüs (Iolaus, ´Ιολαος), whenever Heracles cut off one of its head, Iolaüs would use the burning brand to cauterize the neck, to prevent some more heads to sprout out.

^ Though, the societies in post-Dorian Invasion Greece were predominantly filled with myths about male heroes, some myths still survived about the heroines from the mythical past.

[3] .Other early writers imply that humanity was born out of the blood shed by the Titans in their war against Zeus.^ She fought with Zeus against the other Titans.

^ At the end of the Titan-War, he was confined by Zeus in the Tartarean pit.
  • Theoi.com | The Titans of Greek Mythology 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Originally Uranus (Ouranos) had confined the Hundred-Handed and the Cyclopes in Tartarus, but Zeus had freed them, during the war against the Titans .

Pindar, Plato and Oppian refer offhandedly to man's "Titanic nature". Whether this refers to a sort of "original sin" rooted in the murder of Dionysus is hotly debated by scholars.[citation needed]
The Mutilation of Uranus by Saturn by Giorgio Vasari, many Titans.

In the 20th century

.Some scholars of the past century or so, most eloquently Jane Ellen Harrison, have argued that an initiatory or shamanic ritual underlies the myth of Dionysus's dismemberment and cannibalism by the Titans.^ Though, the societies in post-Dorian Invasion Greece were predominantly filled with myths about male heroes, some myths still survived about the heroines from the mythical past.

.She also points out that the word "Titan" comes from the Greek τιτανος, signifying white earth, clay or gypsum, and that the Titans were "white clay men", or men covered by white clay or gypsum dust in their rituals.^ The dual natures of the Orphic belief come from that all men have two different natures: good and evil, earthly and spiritual (immortal), Dionysiac and Titanic.

^ Dragon-teeth men were armed warriors, who sprang out of the earth, after they were sowed the teeth of a dragon in the soil.
  • Mythical Creatures and Monsters 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC www.timelessmyths.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other scholars believe the word to be related to the Greek verb τέμνω (to stretch), a view which Hesiod himself appears to share: "But their father Ouranos, who himself begot them, bitterly gave to them to those others, his sons, the name of Titans, the Stretchers, for they stretched out their power outrageously."^ They had a son named Astyanax, who was also sometimes called Scamandrius.

^ They probably had a son, named Silvius.
  • Heroes in the Trojan War 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC www.timelessmyths.com [Source type: Original source]

^ ADANUS (Adanos) An alternate name for one of the elder Titan sons of Uranus.
  • Theoi.com | The Titans of Greek Mythology 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

(Hesiod, Theogony, 207-210).[4]
The scholar M.L. West also points this out in relation to shamanistic initiatory rites of early Greek religious practices.[5]
The element titanium is named for the titans.
.Out of confusion with the Gigantes, various large things have been named after the Titans, for their "titanic" size, for example the RMS Titanic or the giant predatory bird Titanis walleri.^ Titan I Missile Site Coordinates Titan I Missile Site Coordinates Titan: A person or thing of enormous size or power (Random House dictionary).
  • Titan I Missile Site Coordinates 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC w3.uwyo.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because there were three Hundred-Handed and each giant had a hundred hands, they could hurl 300 large boulders at the Titans.

^ GIGANTES The War of the Giants and its combatants the Gigantes were frequently confounded by the ancients with the Titans and the Titan War.
  • Theoi.com | The Titans of Greek Mythology 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the Disney animated film Hercules there are but four Titans, each embodying one of the four classical elements.^ Coeus was one of the four Titan-brothers who conspired with Cronus in the ambush and castration of Uranus.
  • Theoi.com | The Titans of Greek Mythology 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Iapetus was one of the four brother-Titans who held Uranus fast while Cronus castrated him with the sickle.
  • Theoi.com | The Titans of Greek Mythology 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The question of how much liquid is on the surface is an important one because methane is a strong greenhouse gas on Titan as well as on Earth, but there is much more of it on Titan.
  • SPACE.com -- Titan Has More Oil Than Earth 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC www.space.com [Source type: General]

.They terrorize the earth until Zeus imprisons them.^ Zeus ruled the sky, but they all shared the earth.

^ They ruled while Zeus was still a child living in the cave of Mount Dictye, and only until the Cyclopes wield and gave the thunderbolts to Zeus.

^ At first they were outraged by such suggestion, until Deucalion correctly interpreted that the stones on the ground were the bone of mother earth (Gaea).

These Titans bore no silimiarites to their mythological counterparts.
In the 1981 film Clash of the Titans, the Kraken, actually an entity from Norse mythology, is presented as "the last Titan".
.In the video game series, God of War, a series of games based on Greek Mythology, many of the Titans are represented, mainly Gaia, Cronos, and Atlas.^ During the war between the Titans and Olympians, Prometheus sided with Zeus, knowing that the war would end with the younger gods winning the war.

^ Sometimes the Gigantes were represented as soldiers in the army of the Titan-gods, or as rebellious supporters of the deposed Titan Cronus.
  • Theoi.com | The Titans of Greek Mythology 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even though the Olympians had recently won the war against the Titans, the younger gods feared to face the monsters.
  • Mythical Creatures and Monsters 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC www.timelessmyths.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They attempt to reignite the Great War between the Titans and the Olympians with the help of a Spartan named Kratos, who became the God of War after killing Ares and then was stripped of his powers by Zeus who also kills him (although he escapes the Underworld) in fear that Kratos would overthrow Zeus like Zeus had done to Cronos because it was then revealed that Zeus was Kratos' father.^ During the war between the Titans and Olympians, Prometheus sided with Zeus, knowing that the war would end with the younger gods winning the war.

^ Zeus won the kingdom in a war against his father and the Titans.

^ The Titans, who were dispossessed, became Zeus' worse enemies, so they readily agreed.

.In the end, Kratos kills most of the Olympians and Titans ending with the death of Zeus as well as him killing himself, although it is uncertain if Kratos is truly dead.^ She bore him Zeus , one of the Olympian.

^ At the end of the Titan-War, he was confined by Zeus in the Tartarean pit.
  • Theoi.com | The Titans of Greek Mythology 19 September 2009 20:58 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the war between the Titans and Olympians, Prometheus sided with Zeus, knowing that the war would end with the younger gods winning the war.

Notes

  1. ^ See Walter Burkert, The Orientalizing Revolution: Near Eastern Influence on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age (Harvard University Press) 1992:94f, 125-27.
  2. ^ Olympiodorus, In Plat. Phaededr. I.3-6.
  3. ^ M.L. West, The Orphic Poems (Oxford, 1983); Albert Bernabé, "La toile de Pénélope: a-t-il existé un mythe orphique sur Dionysos et les Titans?", Revue de l'histoire des religions (2002:401-33), noted by Radcliffe G. Edmonds III, "A Curious concoction: tradition and innovation in Olympiodorus' creation of mankind".
  4. ^ Jane Ellen Harrison, Themis, p. 16ff. "The Titans then, the white-clay-men, are real men dressed up as bogies to perform initiation rites. It is only later when their meaning is forgotten that they are explained as Titanes, mythological giants."[1]
  5. ^ West, The Orphic Poems 1983.

References

External links

See also


Simple English

[[File:|thumbnail|right|200px|Head of a Titan, National Archaeological Museum of Athens]] The Titans are the older kind of "gods" in Greek mythology. The original Twelve Titans were children of Gaia and Uranos.

Later they fought against the newer Olympians, but lost the war. Because of this the Olympians have the power and are more important, and many Titans were put into the Tartaros in the Greek underworld.

The Titans

Children of Gaia and Uranos:

The offspring from (both Titans)

Children of Okeanos and Tethys:

Children of Koios and Phoebe:

Children of Hyperion and Theia:

Children of Rhea and Kronos:

The offspring from (one of the parents is Titans)

Children of Iapetos and the Okeanid Asia/Klymene:

Children of Crius and the Eurybia:

  • Astraeus
  • Perses

Children of Cronus and the Phylira:

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