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Titus
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Tito, testa in marmo da Pantelleria.jpg
Bust of Emperor Titus, at Glyptothek, Munich
Reign 24 June 79 –
13 September 81
Full name Titus Flavius Vespasianus
(from birth to AD 69);
Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus (from 69 to accession);
Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (as emperor)
Born 30 December 39(39-12-30)
Birthplace Rome
Died 13 September 81 (aged 41)
Place of death Rome
Buried Rome
Predecessor Vespasian
Successor Domitian
Consort to Arrecina Tertulla (about 62)
Wives
Marcia Furnilla (64)
Offspring Julia Flavia
Dynasty Flavian dynasty
Father Vespasian
Mother Domitilla
Roman imperial dynasties
Flavian dynasty
Chronology
Vespasian 69 AD79 AD
Titus 79 AD81 AD
Domitian 81 AD96 AD
Family
Gens Flavia
Flavian tree
Category:Flavian Dynasty
Succession
Preceded by
Year of the Four Emperors
Followed by
Nervan-Antonian dynasty

Titus Flavius Vespasianus, commonly known as Titus (December 30, 39 – September 13, 81), was the tenth Roman Emperor, who reigned from 79 until his death in 81. Titus was the second emperor of the Flavian dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 and 96, encompassing the reigns of Titus's father Vespasian (69–79), Titus himself (79–81) and his younger brother Domitian (81–96).

Prior to becoming emperor, Titus gained renown as a military commander, serving under his father in Judaea during the First Jewish-Roman War, which was fought between 67 and 70. The campaign came to a brief halt with the death of emperor Nero on June 9, 68, launching Vespasian's bid for the imperial power during the Year of the Four Emperors. When Vespasian was declared emperor on July 1, 69, Titus was left in charge of ending the Jewish rebellion, which he did in 70, successfully besieging and destroying the city and the Temple of Jerusalem. For this achievement Titus was awarded a triumph; the Arch of Titus commemorates his victory to this day.

Under the rule of his father, Titus gained infamy in Rome serving as prefect of the Roman imperial bodyguard, known as the Praetorian Guard, and for carrying on a controversial relationship with the Jewish queen Berenice. Despite concerns over his character, however, Titus ruled to great acclaim following the death of Vespasian on June 23, 79, and was considered a good emperor by Suetonius and other contemporary historians. In this role he is best known for his public building program in Rome—completing the Flavian Amphitheatre, otherwise known as the Colosseum— and for his generosity in relieving the suffering caused by two disasters, the Mount Vesuvius eruption of 79 and the fire of Rome of 80. After barely two years in office, Titus died of a fever on September 13, 81. He was deified by the Roman Senate and succeeded by his younger brother Domitian.

Contents

Early life

Titus was born in Rome, probably on 30 December 39, as the eldest son of Titus Flavius Vespasianus—commonly known as Vespasian—and Domitilla the Elder.[1] He had one younger sister, Domitilla the Younger (b. 45), and one younger brother, also named Titus Flavius Domitianus (b. 51), but commonly referred to as Domitian.

Decades of civil war during the 1st century BC had contributed greatly to the demise of the old aristocracy of Rome, which was gradually replaced in prominence by a new provincial nobility during the early part of the 1st century.[2] One such family was the gens Flavia, which rose from relative obscurity to prominence in just four generations, acquiring wealth and status under the emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Titus's great-grandfather, Titus Flavius Petro, had served as a centurion under Pompey during Caesar's civil war. His military career ended in disgrace when he fled the battlefield at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC.[3] Nevertheless, Petro managed to improve his status by marrying the extremely wealthy Tertulla, whose fortune guaranteed the upwards mobility of Petro's son Titus Flavius Sabinus I, Titus's grandfather.[4] Sabinus himself amassed further wealth and possible equestrian status through his services as tax collector in Asia and banker in Helvetia. By marrying Vespasia Polla he allied himself to the more prestigious patrician gens Vespasia, ensuring the elevation of his sons Titus Flavius Sabinus II and Vespasian to the senatorial rank.[4]

The political career of Vespasian included the offices of quaestor, aedile and praetor, and culminated with a consulship in 51, the year Domitian was born. As a military commander, he gained early renown by participating in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43.[5] What little is known of Titus's early life has been handed down to us by Suetonius, who records that he was brought up at the imperial court in the company of Britannicus,[6] the son of emperor Claudius, who would be murdered by Nero in 55. The story was even told that Titus was reclining next to Britannicus, the night he was murdered, and sipped of the poison that was handed to him.[6] Further details on his education are scarce, but it seems he showed early promise in the military arts and was a skilled poet and orator both in Greek and Latin.[7]

Military career

From c. 57 to 59 he was a military tribune in Germania. He also served in Britannia, perhaps arriving c. 60 with reinforcements needed after the revolt of Boudica. In c. 63 he returned to Rome and married Arrecina Tertulla, daughter of a former Prefect of the Praetorian Guard. She died c. 65.[8] Titus then took a new wife of a much more distinguished family, Marcia Furnilla. However, Marcia's family was closely linked to the opposition to Nero. Her uncle Barea Soranus and his daughter Servilia were among those who perished after the failed Pisonian conspiracy of 65.[9] Some modern historians theorize that Titus divorced his wife because of her family's connection to the conspiracy.[10][11] He never re-married. Titus appears to have had multiple daughters,[12] at least one of them by Marcia Furnilla.[13] The only one known to have survived to adulthood was Julia Flavia, perhaps Titus's child by Arrecina, whose mother was also named Julia.[14] During this period Titus also practiced law and attained the rank of quaestor.[13]

Judaean campaigns

The province of Judaea during the 1st century.

In 66 the Jews of the Judaea Province revolted against the Roman Empire. Cestius Gallus, the legate of Syria, was defeated at the battle of Beth-Horon and forced to retreat from Jerusalem.[15] The pro-Roman king Agrippa II and his sister Berenice fled the city to Galilee where they later gave themselves up to the Romans. Nero appointed Vespasian to put down the rebellion, who was dispatched to the region at once with the fifth and tenth legions.[16] He was later joined by Titus at Ptolemais, bringing with him the fifteenth legion.[17] With a strength of 60,000 professional soldiers, the Romans prepared to sweep across Galilee and march on Jerusalem.[17]

The history of the war was covered in dramatic detail by the Roman-Jewish historian Josephus in his work The Wars of the Jews. Josephus served as a commander in the city of Jotapata when the Roman army invaded Galilee in 67. After an exhausting siege which lasted 47 days, the city fell, with an estimated 40,000 killed and the remaining Jewish resistance committing suicide.[18] Josephus himself surrendered to Vespasian, became a prisoner and provided the Romans with intelligence on the ongoing revolt.[19] By 68, the entire coast and the north of Judaea were subjugated by the Roman army, with decisive victories won at Taricheae and Gamala, where Titus distinguished himself as a skilled general.[13][20]

Year of the Four Emperors

Map of the Roman Empire during the Year of the Four Emperors (69 AD). Blue areas indicate provinces loyal to Vespasian and Gaius Licinius Mucianus.

The last and most significant fortress of Jewish resistance was Jerusalem. However the campaign came to a sudden halt when news arrived of Nero's death.[21] Almost simultaneously, the Roman Senate had declared Galba, then governor of Hispania, as Emperor of Rome. Vespasian decided to await further orders, and sent Titus to greet the new princeps.[22] Before reaching Italy, Titus learnt that Galba had been murdered and replaced by Otho, governor of Lusitania, and that Vitellius and his armies in Germania were preparing to march on the capital, intent on overthrowing Otho. Not wanting to risk being taken hostage by one side or the other, he abandoned the journey to Rome and rejoined his father in Judaea.[23] Meanwhile, Otho was defeated in the First Battle of Bedriacum and committed suicide.[24] When the news spread across the armies in Judaea and Ægyptus, they took matters into their own hands and declared Vespasian emperor on July 1, 69.[25] Vespasian accepted, and through negotiations by Titus joined forces with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria.[26] A strong force drawn from the Judaean and Syrian legions marched on Rome under the command of Mucianus, while Vespasian himself travelled to Alexandria, leaving Titus in charge to end the Jewish rebellion.[27][28] By the end of 69 the forces of Vitellius had been beaten, and Vespasian was officially declared emperor by the Senate on December 21, thus ending the Year of the Four Emperors.[29]

Siege of Jerusalem

Destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem, Francesco Hayez, oil on canvas, 1867. Depicting the destruction and looting of the Second Temple by the Roman army.

Meanwhile the Jews had become embroiled in a civil conflict of their own, splitting the resistance in the city among two factions; the Sicarii led by Simon Bar Giora, and the Zealots led by John of Gischala.[30] Titus seized the opportunity to begin the assault on Jerusalem. The Roman army was joined by the twelfth legion, which was previously defeated under Cestius Gallus, and from Alexandria Vespasian sent Tiberius Julius Alexander, governor of Ægyptus, to act as Titus's second in command.[31] Titus surrounded the city, with three legions (Vth, XIIth and XVth) on the western side and one (Xth) on the Mount of Olives to the east. He put pressure on the food and water supplies of the inhabitants by allowing pilgrims to enter the city to celebrate Passover, and then refusing them egress. Jewish raids continuously harassed the Roman army, one of which nearly resulted in Titus being captured.[32]

After attempts by Josephus to negotiate a surrender had failed, the Romans resumed hostilities and quickly breached the first and second walls of the city.[33] To intimidate the resistance, Titus ordered deserters from the Jewish side to be crucified around the city wall.[34] By this time the Jews had been thoroughly exhausted by famine, and when the weak third wall was breached bitter street fighting ensued.[35] The Romans finally captured the Antonia Fortress and began a frontal assault on the gates of the Temple.[36] According to Josephus, Titus had ordered that the Temple itself should not be destroyed,[37] but while the fighting around the gates continued a soldier hurled a torch inside one of the windows, which quickly set the entire building ablaze.[38] The later Christian chronicler Sulpicius Severus, possibly drawing on a lost portion of Tacitus' Histories, claims that Titus favoured destruction of the Temple.[39] Whatever the case, the Temple was completely demolished, after which Titus's soldiers proclaimed him imperator in honor of the victory.[40] Jerusalem was sacked and much of the population killed or dispersed. Josephus claims that 1,100,000 people were killed during the siege, of which a majority were Jewish.[41] 97,000 were captured and enslaved, including Simon Bar Giora and John of Gischala.[41] Many fled to areas around the Mediterranean. Titus reportedly refused to accept a wreath of victory, as he claimed there is "no merit in vanquishing people forsaken by their own God".[42]

Heir to Vespasian

Titus' triumph after the First Jewish-Roman War was celebrated with the Arch of Titus in Rome, which shows the treasures taken from the Temple in Jerusalem, including the Menorah and the Trumpets of jericho

Unable to sail to Italy during the winter, Titus celebrated elaborate games at Caesarea Maritima and Berytus, then travelled to Zeugma on the Euphrates, where he was presented with a crown by Vologases I of Parthia. While visiting Antioch he confirmed the traditional rights of the Jews in that city.[43] On his way to Alexandria, he stopped in Memphis to consecrate the sacred bull Apis. According to Suetonius, this caused consternation; the ceremony required Titus to wear a diadem, which the Romans associated with kingship, and the partisanship of Titus's legions had already led to fears that he might rebel against his father. Titus returned quickly to Rome – hoping, says Suetonius, to allay any suspicions about his conduct.[44]

Upon his arrival in the city in 71, Titus was awarded a triumph.[45] Accompanied by Vespasian and Domitian he rode into the city, enthusiastically saluted by the Roman populace and preceded by a lavish parade containing treasures and captives from the war. Josephus describes a procession with large amounts of gold and silver carried along the route, followed by elaborate re-enactments of the war, Jewish prisoners, and finally the treasures taken from the Temple of Jerusalem, including the Menorah and the Pentateuch.[46] Simon Bar Giora was executed in the Forum, after which the procession closed with religious sacrifices at the Temple of Jupiter.[47] The triumphal Arch of Titus, which stands at one entrance to the Forum, memorializes the victory of Titus.

The Arch of Titus, located on the Via Sacra, just to the south-east of the Forum Romanum in Rome.

With Vespasian declared emperor, Titus and his brother Domitian likewise received the title of Caesar from the Senate.[48] In addition to sharing tribunician power with his father, Titus held seven consulships during Vespasian's reign[49] and acted as his secretary, appearing in the Senate on his behalf.[49] More crucially, he was appointed commander of the Praetorian Guard, ensuring their loyalty to the emperor and further solidifying Vespasian's position as a legitimate ruler.[49] In this capacity he achieved considerable notoriety in Rome for his violent actions, frequently ordering the execution of suspected traitors on the spot.[49] When in 79, a plot by Aulus Caecina Alienus and Eprius Marcellus to overthrow Vespasian was uncovered, Titus invited Alienus to dinner and ordered him to be stabbed before he had even left the room.[49][50]

During the Jewish wars, Titus had begun a love affair with Berenice, sister of Agrippa II.[23] The Herodians had collaborated with the Romans during the rebellion, and Berenice herself had supported Vespasian upon his campaign to become emperor.[51] In 75, she returned to Titus and openly lived with him in the palace as his promised wife. The Romans were wary of the Eastern Queen and disapproved of their relationship. When the pair was publicly denounced by Cynics in the theatre, Titus caved in to the pressure and sent her away,[52] but his reputation further suffered.

Emperor

Succession

Roman denarius depicting Titus, c. 79. The reverse commemorates his triumph in the Judaean wars, representing a Jewish captive kneeling in front of a trophy of arms.

Vespasian died of an infection on June 23 79 AD,[53] and was immediately succeeded by his son Titus.[54] Because of his many alleged vices, many Romans feared at this point that he would be another Nero.[55] Against these expectations, however, Titus proved to be an effective emperor and was well-loved by the population, who praised him highly when they found that he possessed the greatest virtues instead of vices.[55] One of his first acts as an emperor was to publicly order a halt to trials based on treason charges,[56] which had long plagued the principate. The law of treason, or maiestas law, was originally intended to prosecute those who had corruptly 'impaired the people and majesty of Rome' by any revolutionary action.[57] Under Augustus, however, this custom had been revived and applied to cover slander or libellous writings as well,[57] eventually leading to a long cycle of trials and executions under such emperors as Tiberius, Caligula and Nero, spawning entire networks of informers that terrorized Rome's political system for decades.[56] Titus put an end to this practice, against himself or anyone else, declaring:

"It is impossible for me to be insulted or abused in any way. For I do naught that deserves censure, and I care not for what is reported falsely. As for the emperors who are dead and gone, they will avenge themselves in case anyone does them a wrong, if in very truth they are demigods and possess any power."[58]

Consequently, no senators were put to death during his reign;[58] he thus kept to his promise that he would assume the office of Pontifex Maximus "for the purpose of keeping his hands unstained".[59] The informants were publicly punished and banished from the city, and Titus further prevented abuses by introducing legislation that made it unlawful for persons to be tried under different laws for the same offense.[56] Finally, when Berenice returned to Rome, he sent her away.[55]

As emperor he became known for his generosity, and Suetonius states that upon realising he had brought no benefit to anyone during a whole day he remarked, "Friends, I have lost a day."[56]

Challenges

The 79 eruption of Mount Vesuvius completely destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum. Today plaster casts of actual victims found during excavations are on display in some of the ruins.

Although his administration was marked by a relative absence of major military or political conflicts, Titus faced a number of major disasters during his brief reign. On August 24, 79, barely two months after his accession, Mount Vesuvius erupted,[60] resulting in the almost complete destruction of life and property in the cities and resort communities around the Bay of Naples. The cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum were buried under metres of stone and lava,[61] killing thousands of citizens.[62] Titus appointed two ex-consuls to organise and coordinate the relief effort, while personally donating large amounts of money from the imperial treasury to aid the victims of the volcano.[56] Additionally, he visited Pompeii once after the eruption and again the following year.[63]

During the second visit, in spring of AD 80, a fire broke out in Rome, burning large parts of the city for three days and three nights.[56][63] Although the extent of the damage was not as disastrous as during the Great Fire of 64—crucially sparing the many districts of insulaeCassius Dio records a long list of important public buildings that were destroyed, including Agrippa's Pantheon, the Temple of Jupiter, the Diribitorium, parts of Pompey's Theatre and the Saepta Julia among others.[63] Once again, Titus personally compensated for the damaged regions.[63] According to Suetonius, a plague similarly struck during the fire.[56] The nature of the disease, however, or the death toll are unknown.

Meanwhile war had resumed in Britannia, where Gnaeus Julius Agricola pushed further into Caledonia and managed to establish several forts there.[64] As a result of his actions, Titus received the title of Imperator for the fifteenth time.[65]

His reign also saw the rebellion led by Terentius Maximus, one of several false Neros who continued to appear throughout the 70s.[66] Although Nero was primarily known as a universally hated tyrant—there is evidence that for much of his reign, he remained highly popular in the eastern provinces. Reports that Nero had in fact survived the assassination attempts were fueled by the vague circumstances surrounding his death and several prophecies foretelling his return.[67] According to Cassius Dio, Terentius Maximus resembled Nero in voice and appearance and, like him, sang to the lyre.[58] Terentius established a following in Asia minor but was soon forced to flee beyond the Euphrates, taking refuge with the Parthians.[58][68] In addition, sources state that Titus discovered that his brother Domitian was plotting against him but refused to have him killed or banished.[59][69]

Public works

The Flavian Amphitheatre, better known as the Colosseum, was completed during the reign of Titus and inaugurated with spectacular games that lasted for 100 days. See Inaugural games of the Flavian Amphitheatre.

Construction of the Flavian Amphitheatre, presently better known as the Colosseum, was begun in 70 under Vespasian and finally completed in 80 under Titus.[70] In addition to providing spectacular entertainments to the Roman populace, the building was also conceived as a gigantic triumphal monument to commemorate the military achievements of the Flavians during the Jewish wars.[71] The inaugural games lasted for a hundred days and were said to be extremely elaborate, including gladiatorial combat, fights between wild animals (elephants and cranes), mock naval battles for which the theatre was flooded, horse races and chariot races.[72] During the games, wooden balls were dropped into the audience, inscribed with various prizes (clothing, gold, or even slaves), which could then be traded for the designated item.[72]

Adjacent to the amphitheatre, within the precinct of Nero's Golden House, Titus had also ordered the construction of a new public bath-house, which was to bear his name.[72] Construction of this building was hastily finished to coincide with the completion of the Flavian Amphitheatre.[55]

Practice of the imperial cult was revived by Titus, though apparently it met with some difficulty as Vespasian was not deified until six months after his death.[73] To further honor and glorify the Flavian dynasty, foundations were laid for what would later become the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, which was finished by Domitian.[74][75]

Death

At the closing of the games, Titus officially dedicated the amphitheatre and the baths, which was to be his final recorded act as an emperor.[69] He set out for the Sabine territories but fell ill at the first posting station[76] where he died of a fever, reportedly in the same farm-house as his father.[77] Allegedly, the last words he uttered before passing away were: "I have made but one mistake".[69][76] Titus had ruled the Roman Empire for just over two years, from the death of his father in 79 to his own on September 13 81.[69] He was succeeded by Domitian, whose first act as emperor was to deify his brother.[78]

Historians have speculated on the exact nature of his death, and to which mistake Titus alluded in his final words. Philostratus writes that he was poisoned by Domitian with a sea hare, and that his death had been foretold to him by Apollonius of Tyana.[79] Suetonius and Cassius Dio maintain he died of natural causes, but both accuse Domitian of having left the ailing Titus for dead.[69][78] Consequently, Dio believes Titus's mistake refers to his failure to have his brother executed when he was found to be openly plotting against him.[69]

According to the Babylonian Talmud (Gittin 56b), an insect flew into Titus's nose and picked at his brain for seven years. He noticed that the sound of a blacksmith hammering caused the ensuing pain to abate, so he paid for blacksmiths to hammer nearby him; however, the effect wore off and the insect resumed its gnawing. When he died, they opened his skull and found the insect had grown to the size of a bird. The Talmud gives this as the cause of his death and interprets it as divine retribution for his wicked actions.[80]

Legacy

Historiography

Titus's record among ancient historians stands as one of the most exemplary of any emperor. All the surviving accounts from this period, many of them written by his own contemporaries, present a highly favourable view towards Titus. His character has especially prospered in comparison with that of his brother Domitian.

The Wars of the Jews offers a first-hand, eye-witness account on the Jewish rebellion and the character of Titus. The neutrality of Josephus' writings has come into question however as he was heavily indebted to the Flavians. In 71, he arrived in Rome in the entourage of Titus, became a Roman citizen and took on the Roman nomen Flavius and praenomen Titus from his patrons. He received an annual pension and lived in the palace.[81] It was while in Rome, and under Flavian patronage, that Josephus wrote all of his known works. The War of the Jews is heavily slanted against the leaders of the revolt, portraying the rebellion as weak and unorganized, and even blaming the Jews for causing the war.[82] The credibility of Josephus as a historian has subsequently come under fire.[83]

Another contemporary of Titus was Publius Cornelius Tacitus, who started his public career in 80 or 81 and credits the Flavian dynasty with his elevation.[84] The Histories—his account of this period—was published during the reign of Trajan. Unfortunately only the first five books from this work have survived until the present day, with the text on Titus's and Domitian's reign entirely lost.

Suetonius Tranquilius gives a short but highly favourable account on Titus's reign in The Lives of Twelve Caesars,[85] emphasizing his military achievements and his generosity as Emperor, in short describing him as follows:

Titus, of the same surname as his father, was the delight and darling of the human race; such surpassing ability had he, by nature, art, or good fortune, to win the affections of all men, and that, too, which is no easy task, while he was emperor.[85]

Finally, Cassius Dio wrote his Roman History over a hundred years after the death of Titus. He shares a similar outlook as Suetonius, possibly even using the latter as a source, but is more reserved, noting:

His satisfactory record may also have been due to the fact that he survived his accession but a very short time, for he was thus given no opportunity for wrongdoing. For he lived after this only two years, two months and twenty days — in addition to the thirty-nine years, five months and twenty-five days he had already lived at that time. In this respect, indeed, he is regarded as having equalled the long reign of Augustus, since it is maintained that Augustus would never have been loved had he lived a shorter time, nor Titus had he lived longer. For Augustus, though at the outset he showed himself rather harsh because of the wars and the factional strife, was later able, in the course of time, to achieve a brilliant reputation for his kindly deeds; Titus, on the other hand, ruled with mildness and died at the height of his glory, whereas, if he had lived a long time, it might have been shown that he owes his present fame more to good fortune than to merit.[54]

Pliny the Elder, who later died during the eruption of Mount Vesuvius,[86] dedicated his Naturalis Historia to Titus.[87]

In contrast to the ideal portrayal of Titus in Roman histories, in Jewish memory "Titus the Wicked" is remembered as an evil oppressor and destroyer of the Temple. For example, one legend in the Babylonian Talmud describes Titus as having had sex with a whore on a Torah scroll inside the Temple during its destruction.[88]

Titus in later arts

The Triumph of Titus, by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1885). The composition suggests a love affair between Titus and Domitian's wife Domitia Longina (see below).

The war in Judaea and the life of Titus, particularly his relationship with Berenice, have inspired writers and artists through the centuries. The bas-relief in the Arch of Titus has been influential in the depiction of the destruction of Jerusalem, with the Menorah frequently being used to symbolise the looting of the Second Temple.

Literature

Paintings

  • The Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus by Wilhelm von Kaulbach (1846). Oil on canvas, 585 x 705 cm. Neue Pinakothek, Munich. An allegorical depiction of the destruction of Jerusalem, dramatically centered around the figure of Titus.
  • The Destruction of the Temple at Jerusalem by Nicolas Poussin (1637). Oil on canvas, 147 x 198,5 cm. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. Depicts the destruction and looting of the Second Temple by the Roman army led by Titus.
  • The Destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem by Francesco Hayez (1867). Oil on canvas, 183 x 252 cm. Galleria d'Arte Moderna, Venice. Depicts the destruction and looting of the Second Temple by the Roman army.
  • The Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans Under the Command of Titus, A.D. 70 by David Roberts (1850). Oil on canvas, 136 x 197 cm. Private collection. Depicts the burning and looting of Jerusalem by the Roman army under Titus.
  • The Triumph of Titus and Vespasian by Giulio Romano (1540). Oil on wood, 170 x 120 cm. Louvre, Paris. Depicts Titus and Vespasian as they ride into Rome on a triumphal chariot, preceded by a parade carrying spoils from the war in Judaea. The painting anachronistically features the Arch of Titus, which was not completed until the reign of Domitian.
  • The Triumph of Titus by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1885). Oil on canvas. Private collection. This painting depicts the triumphal procession of Titus and his family. Alma-Tadema was known for his meticulous historical research on the ancient world.[89] Vespasian, dressed as Pontifex Maximus, walks at the head of his family, followed by Domitian and his first wife Domitia Longina, who he had only recently married. Behind Domitian follows Titus, dressed in religious regalia. An exchange of glances between Titus and Domitia suggests an affair which historians have speculated upon.[69][76]

Notes

  1. ^ Suetonius claims Titus was born in the year Caligula was assassinated, 41. However, this contradicts his statement that Titus died in his 42nd year, as well as Cassius Dio, who notes that Titus was 39 at the time of his accession. See Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Titus 1, 11; Cassius Dio, Roman History LXVI.18; and Brian Jones; and Robert Milns (2002). Suetonius: The Flavian Emperors: A Historical Commentary. London: Bristol Classical Press. pp. 91. ISBN 1-85399-613-0. 
  2. ^ Jones (1992), p. 3
  3. ^ Jones (1992), p. 1
  4. ^ a b Jones (1992), p. 2
  5. ^ Jones (1992), p. 8
  6. ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Titus 2
  7. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Titus 3
  8. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Titus 4, with Jones and Milns, p. 95–96
  9. ^ Tacitus, Annals XVI.30–33
  10. ^ Gavin Townend, "Some Flavian Connections", The Journal of Roman Studies (1961), p 57. See Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Titus 4
  11. ^ Jones (1992), p. 11
  12. ^ Philostratus, The Life of Apollonius of Tyana VII.7
  13. ^ a b c Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Titus 4
  14. ^ Jones and Milns, pp. 96, 167.
  15. ^ Josephus, The Wars of the Jews II.19.9
  16. ^ Josephus, The Wars of the Jews III.1.2
  17. ^ a b Josephus, The War of the Jews III.4.2
  18. ^ Josephus, The Wars of the Jews III.7.34
  19. ^ Josephus, The Wars of the Jews III.8.8
  20. ^ Josephus, The Wars of the Jews III.10
  21. ^ Josephus, The Wars of the Jews IV.9.2
  22. ^ Tacitus, Histories II.1
  23. ^ a b Tacitus, Histories II.2
  24. ^ Tacitus, Histories II.41–49
  25. ^ Josephus, The Wars of the Jews IV.10.4
  26. ^ Tacitus, Histories II.5
  27. ^ Josephus, The Wars of the Jews IV.11.1
  28. ^ Tacitus, Histories II.82
  29. ^ Tacitus, Histories IV.3
  30. ^ Josephus, The Wars of the Jews V.1.4
  31. ^ Josephus, The Wars of the Jews V.1.6
  32. ^ Josephus, The Wars of the Jews V.2.2
  33. ^ Josephus, The Wars of the Jews V.6–V.9
  34. ^ Josephus, The Wars of the Jews V.11.1
  35. ^ Josephus, The Wars of the Jews VI.2–VI.3
  36. ^ Josephus, The Wars of the Jews VI.4.1
  37. ^ Josephus, The War of the Jews VI.4.3
  38. ^ Josephus, The Wars of the Jews VI.4.5
  39. ^ Sulpicius Severus, Chronicles II.30.6–7. For Tacitus as the source, see T. D. Barnes (July 1977). "The Fragments of Tacitus' Histories". Classical Philology 72 (3): 224–231, pp. 226–228. doi:10.1086/366355. 
  40. ^ Josephus, The Wars of the Jews VI.6.1
  41. ^ a b Josephus, The Wars of the Jews VI.9.3
  42. ^ Philostratus, The Life of Apollonius of Tyana 6.29
  43. ^ Josephus, The Wars of the Jews VII.3.1, VII.5.2
  44. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Titus 5
  45. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LXV.6
  46. ^ Josephus, The Wars of the Jews VII.5.5
  47. ^ Josephus, The Wars of the Jews VII.5.6
  48. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LXV.1
  49. ^ a b c d e Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Titus 6
  50. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LXV.16
  51. ^ Tacitus, Histories II.81
  52. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LXV.15
  53. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LXVI.17
  54. ^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History LXVI.18
  55. ^ a b c d Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Titus 7
  56. ^ a b c d e f g Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Titus 8
  57. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals I.72
  58. ^ a b c d Cassius Dio, Roman History LXVI.19
  59. ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Titus 9
  60. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LXVI.22
  61. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LXVI.23
  62. ^ The exact number of casualties is unknown; however, estimates of the population of Pompeii range between 10,000 ([1]) and 25,000 ([2]), with at least a thousand bodies currently recovered in and around the city ruins.
  63. ^ a b c d Cassius Dio, Roman History LXVI.24
  64. ^ Tacitus, Agricola 22
  65. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LXVI.20
  66. ^ Tacitus, Histories I.2
  67. ^ Sanford, Eva Matthews (1937). "Nero and the East". Harvard Studies in Classical Philology (Harvard University) 48: 75–103. doi:10.2307/310691. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0073-0688%281937%2948%3C75%3ANATE%3E2.0.CO%3B2-5. Retrieved 2007-09-10. 
  68. ^ Tacitus, Histories I.2
  69. ^ a b c d e f g Cassius Dio, Roman History LXVI.26
  70. ^ Roth, Leland M. (1993). Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History and Meaning (First ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press. ISBN 0-06-430158-3. 
  71. ^ Claridge, Amanda (1998). Rome: An Oxford Archaeological Guide (First ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1998. pp. 276–282. ISBN 0-19-288003-9. 
  72. ^ a b c Cassius Dio, Roman History LXVI.25
  73. ^ Coins bearing the inscription Divus Vespasianus were not issued until 80 or 81 by Titus.
  74. ^ Jones, Brian W. The Emperor Titus. New York: St. Martin's P, 1984. 143.
  75. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Domitian 5
  76. ^ a b c Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Titus 10
  77. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Titus 11
  78. ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Domitian 2
  79. ^ Philostratus, The Life of Apollonius of Tyana 6.32
  80. ^ Medicine in the Bible and Talmud, Fred Rosner, p.76. Pub. 1995, KTAV Publishing House, ISBN 0-88125-506-8. Extract viewable at ([3])
  81. ^ Josephus, The Life of Flavius Josephus 76
  82. ^ Josephus, The Wars of the Jews II.17
  83. ^ Josephus, Flavius, The Jewish War, tr. G.A. Williamson, introduction by E. Mary Smallwood. New York, Penguin, 1981, p. 24
  84. ^ Tacitus, Histories I.1
  85. ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Titus 1
  86. ^ The Destruction of Pompeii, 79 AD, Translation of Pliny's letters. Original.
  87. ^ Pliny the Elder, Natural Histories Preface
  88. ^ Babylonian Talmud (Gittin 56b)
  89. ^ Prettejohn, Elizabeth (March 2002). "Lawrence Alma-Tadema and the Modern City of Ancient Rome". The Art Bulletin 84 (1): 115–129. doi:10.2307/3177255. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0004-3079%28200203%2984%3A1%3C115%3ALAATMC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-D. Retrieved 2007-07-31. 

References

  • Jones, Brian W. (1992). The Emperor Domitian. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-10195-6. 
  • Brian Jones; and Robert Milns (2002). Suetonius: The Flavian Emperors: A Historical Commentary. London: Bristol Classical Press. pp. 91. ISBN 1-85399-613-0. 

Further reading

Primary sources

Secondary material

Titus
Born: December 30 39 AD Died: September 13 81 AD
Political offices
Preceded by
Fabius Valens and Arrius Antoninus
Consul of the Roman Empire with Vespasian
70
Succeeded by
Vespasian and Marcus Cocceius Nerva
Preceded by
Vespasian and Marcus Cocceius Nerva
Consul of the Roman Empire with Vespasian
72
Succeeded by
Domitian and Lucius Valerius Catullus Messallinus
Preceded by
Domitian and Lucius Valerius Catullus Messallinus
Consul of the Roman Empire together with Vespasian
74-77
Succeeded by
Decimus Iunius Novius Priscus Rufus and Lucius Ceionius Commodus Verus
Preceded by
Decimus Iunius Novius Priscus Rufus and Lucius Ceionius Commodus
Consul of the Roman Empire
79-80
Succeeded by
Lucius Flavius Silva Nonius Bassus and Lucius Asinius Pollio Verrucosus
Preceded by
Vespasian
Flavian Dynasty
69–96
Succeeded by
Domitian
Preceded by
Vespasian
Roman Emperor
79–81
Succeeded by
Domitian

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Titus (TV series) article)

From Wikiquote

Titus (2000-2002) is a dark comedy based on the life of stand-up comedian Christopher Titus.

Contents

Season 1

Sex With Pudding [1.1]

Titus: Dave's my brother. I love him with all my heart. No matter how many times I'm charged as an accessory.

Titus: Erin's office. Inflammable. Non-flammable. You gotta be a dictionary to know what burns.

Dad's Dead [1.2]

Titus: Hey, once you've driven a drunk father to mom's parole hearing, what else is there?

Erin: So I'm sitting in a meeting when my pager goes off with a message. It says "Dad's dead." So I race out of the meeting and drive all the way to Santa Maria because, naturally, I think "My dad's dead"!
Titus: Honey, your dad is not dead.
Erin: [with dry sarcasm] Yeah, I know that now. [back to normal] Because if he were, what I walked in on my mother doing to him would be so... sick.

Dave Moves Out [1.3]

Titus: All he does is mess with people's minds!
Ken: You're right, I do.
Titus: See, you're doing it right now!
Ken: [slyly] No, I'm not.
Titus: Yes, you are!
Ken: All right, I am.
Titus: Stop it!

[Flashback to when Titus was 17]
Christopher: Daddy! My key doesn't work in the door any more! I have laundry!
Ken: [opens door] Laundry? [squirts dish soap over Titus' shirt] Here's some soap. Go find a rock in a river.

The Breakup [1.4]

Titus: Normal people can live with happiness. Screwed up people will try to destroy it.

Titus: The most powerful person in your life is the one that knows all your secrets and all your lies, and has the power to lift you up or rip out your guts. It's even scarier if she knows your truths.

Titus Integritous [1.5]

Titus: I'm doing the right thing. I'm integritous.
Tommy: "Integritous"?
Titus: It's a word.

Dave I'm Integritous. It's my gladiator name.

Red Asphalt [1.6]

Titus: A Glock-9 holds seventeen bullets. Is that what we've come to? I piss you off in traffic you need seventeen bullets to kill me?

[Thinking they are going to die, Titus, Erin, Dave, and Tommy are voicing their regrets in life.]
Erin: I never got to see Ireland.
Titus: Honey, you never got to see San Diego.
Erin: [with dry sarcasm] That helps.

Mom's Not Nuts [1.7]

Titus: My dad is a negative, judgmental pain in the ass who destroyed my self-esteem and tortured me my entire life. My mom's a violent, paranoid schizophrenic. God, I love my dad.

Ken Titus: I hear Looney Tunes made dinner... I'm surprised. Usually, the turkey is saying such threatening things to her, she can't get close enough to cook it.

Intervention [1.8]

Titus: We think you have a problem. It's about your drinking.
Ken: But I haven't had a drink in a month.
Titus: Dad, we'd like you to start again.

[Ken, having started drinking again, reveals that Tommy had a dream about Titus in which Titus was naked.]
Tommy: The nudity, it wasn't gratuitous, it was integral to the plot of of the dream!
Titus: [disgusted] There was a plot?
Tommy: You were a pirate.
[Titus moans in disgust.]

Episode Eleven [1.9]

[As a practical joke, Titus has convinced hospital staffers to shave Ken's testicles.]
Ken: I look like a nine year-old boy.

Officer Charlie Regan: You have a custom car shop? I want my Viper flamed.
Dave: And I want my pot back.
Titus: Dave, we're bribing him.
Dave: But he already has my pot!

Season 2

Titus is Dead [2.1]

[Ken Titus is recovering from a heart attack.]
Ken: Jesus was laughing when I went into the light!
Titus: He was laughing 'cause you were trying to get into heaven!

Nurse Kathy: Are you talking? Because I'm fine with you dying. The murderer has paid me through the end of the week.
Titus: Whoa, whoa, whoa — attempted murderer. And I would have pled it down to manslaughter. You don't even know the law, lady!

The Test [2.2]

Dave: Here's your sperm, and the wheelbarrow's in the tree.

Titus: Dave, wake up. We've got to get our blood tested.
Dave: Is there something wrong with my sperm?
[Titus glares at Dave.]
Titus: I'm sure of it.

The Surprise Party [2.3]

Titus: In a normal family, surprise means presents, cake, and a party. In my family, surprise means homelessness, abandonment, and destruction of private property.

Dave: Taco Night is a tasty corn shell full of lies!

What's Up Hollywood? [2.4]

Titus: Dad has found a new way to screw with me. He told me he was "proud" of me.
Erin: Well it's about time he said that. You're great at what you do!
Dave: He got to her!
Titus: Dave, she likes me.
Dave: [slyly] Oh, right.

[After Ken's arrest for DWI, which occurred while he was driving his newly-customized pickup truck.]
Ken: You built me a cop magnet! I might as well be a black guy driving a large powdered doughnut!

Locking Up Mom [2.5]

Erin: Christopher, do you think we're doing the right thing? This place is like a prison.
Titus: Well, Mom is like a criminal.

[The hospital doctors want to begin Juanita's hearing without Ken.]
Juanita: He's probably stuck in traffic.
Titus: [accusingly] Or in a mason jar.
Dave: Or something you put jam in!
[Titus stares at Dave.]
Titus: Like a mason jar.

The Perfect Thanksgiving [2.6]

[at the hospital, after the Tituses and Fitzpatricks got into a Thanksgiving family fued]
Titus: Oh, Kathy, I'm so glad you're here. That's how much pain I'm in.

[Titus has shrieked after having his shoulder re-located]
Dave: Titus, this place is freaking me out. Did you just hear that little girl scream?
Titus: [scoffing] Yeah, what's her deal?

Tommy's Girlfriend [2.7]

Dave: Here's what you do. You give her a fish with a note attached that says "Life stinks without you." You stuff it with chick stuff like little soaps. But erotically-shaped little soaps. Otherwise she might think it's a let's-be-friends fish.

[Tommy has misinterpreted Titus' instructions about running into an ex-girlfriend.]
Tommy: You said make it look like an accident!
Titus: [incredulous] Not a car accident! Who are you? Dave?
Dave: Yeah, dumbass.

The Reconciliation [2.8]

Ken: Choose. Who do you want in your life, her or me?
Titus: I don't have to choose between you. I'm not 5... 7, 12, or 16 any more.

[Juanita's fiancee Bill is analyzing the Titus family]
Ken: He sounds like some dime store shrink!
Bill: Stanford, actually.

Last Noelle [2.9]

Sunday! Sunday! Sunday! [2.10]

When I Say Jump [2.11]

Titus: Normal people see a bridge spanning a 1500 foot gorge and think, "What a beautiful architectural achievement." Screwed-up people see the same bridge and think, "Oh, I gotta jump off of that!" With a parachute. I'm not an idiot.

Erin: Christopher, you know how some girls have dreams about being beauty queens, or astronauts, or doctors?
Titus: No.
Erin: My dream was always to be the only girl in my family... to never get arrested.

Episode 27 [2.12]

Titus: My father never chooses me for anything, unless he needs a human shield.

[Titus is showing Kathy the video of Ken's drunk driving arrest.]
Titus: Has anyone ever seen a cop that pissed off?
[Dave proudly raises his hand.]
Titus: Besides Dave?

The Smell of Succes [2.13]

[Titus has lost his business and kicked Erin out.]
Ken All of this crap is going to work out. You've just got to quit being a wussy!

Ken: You know, I liked you better when you had hope.
Titus: No, you didn't.

Deprogramming Erin [2.14]

Titus: I do a lot of crazy things when I'm drunk.
Erin: I'm in a sack.
Titus And when I'm sober!

[Titus has put Erin in a sack]
Tommy: I'm letting her out.
Titus: Go ahead.
Tommy: OWWW!
Titus: She might bite you.

NASCAR [2.15]

[Spotting a hitchhiker]
Titus: It's 1 am in the morning[sic] in the desert. She's either a werewolf or an alien.
Ken: Maybe she came to our planet to see if there's life in my pants!

[Having been tricked by Erin into spending time together, Titus and Ken plot on how to pay her back.]
Titus: What's the worst thing you can do to a pretty woman?
Ken: Throw hot acid in her face.
[Titus spit-takes his coffee.]
Titus: Dad, more practical joke, less lifetime deformity.
Ken: I was talking hypothetically! I love Erin!

Life Forward [2.16]

Ken Titus: Hey! Don't you ever call me again and tell me that you love me and you forgive me!
Christopher: Hi, Dad.
Ken Titus: I would rather a highway patrol officer show up on my doorstep with your head in a bag!

Jerry October: Welcome to Life Forward, where people discover what holds them back in life.
Ken Titus: All these people have kids?

Gift of the Car Guy [2.17]

[Titus learns that Erin has been working as a waitress in a strip club.]
Titus: Why didn't you drag her out of there?
Ken: You don't drag a woman out of a strip club! You put a twenty in your zipper and you back out, slowly.

Titus: Dad, you know she can't work in a place like that. You should have done something.
Ken: All right, how much?
Titus: Something. Anything. Just get her the hell out of there.
Ken: Numbnuts, how much money do you want to keep her from working there?
Titus: "Numbuts"?
Ken: Erin is not going to work at that bar! I don't want to have to check every waitress' face before I pinch her behind. [opens his checkbook] Three grand?
Titus: What?
Ken: Five grand.
Titus: You know, you're amazing? My business is going under, you won't lend me money. I start drinking again, you don't lend me money. But my girlfriend makes you uncomfortable about staring at the nipples of disturbed ex-cheerleaders, and all of sudden you're willing to fork over five grand? Well, you know something, dad? I'll take it!

Tommy's Girlfriend II [2.18]

Hard Ass [2.19]

Tommy: It's Amy! Well, well, someone's turning into a woman!
Amy: Yeah. And I'm looking at her.

Ken Titus: There's a huge pile of gay on your front porch.
Tommy: I'm not gay!
Ken Titus: Yeah, tell it to your shirt.

Private Dave [2.20]

Titus: Dave, thank God you're not dead!
Dave: Well, no thanks to you. I was supposed to kill myself an hour ago.
Titus: I just got your suicide note. Maybe next time you shouldn't mail it!

[After throwing Titus through a window]
Sgt. Gordon: Maybe you should join the Air Force now that you know how to fly.

Three Strikes [2.21]

Michael: This will be my third strike.
Erin: He'll go to prison for the rest of his life!
Titus: Get to the bad part!

Cop: We found this guy outside, hiding in a bush.
Dave: Please tell they didn't find my secret stash of weed!
Titus: Dave!
Dave: I mean, my secret stash of... pot.

The Pit [2.22]

Ken: Your driver is launching cock-eyed. You might want to have a talk with him instead of looking at the headlines for typos.
Jay Leno: That was very funny. Are you a Nielsen box?
Ken: No.
Jay Leno: Then shut up, then!

Christopher: People on TV suck. If you ever meet somebody from TV, I want you to punch them right in the face. It'll probably get you on TV.

The Pendulum [2.23]

Erin: You taught [Christopher] how to swim by chucking him in a lake. You taught him not to stick his finger in a light socket by letting him stick is finger in a light socket! You let a car fall on him; I still don't know what that taught him.
Ken Titus: Cars are heavy.
Erin: Everybody knows that!
Ken Titus: So does he, thanks to me!

The Wedding [2.24]

Titus: Where's my tux?
Tommy: Somebody's bringing it.
Titus: "Somebody" who?
Tommy: Nobody. Dave.
Titus: No!

Bill: Where is all of this anger coming from?
Titus: Well, some of it's from my childhood. But a little of it is from you punching my mom in the face!

Season 3

Racing in the Streets [3.1]

Ken: What's your hurry? Your fifteen kids will still be waiting for you when you get home.
Castro: [sarcastically] Si, señor. But first I have to go feed the donkey, put on a big sombrero and fall asleep underneath a tree. [back to normal] You racist Irish drunk. [Castro and his team walk off.]
Ken: Now that's my kind of Mexican!

Ken: Oh, by the way; shorts that go all the way down to your ankles — pants!

Amy's Birthday [3.2]

Tommy's Not Gay [3.3]

[Tommy has used the words "daquilicious" and "skosh" in conversation.]
Tommy: Oh, my God. "Daquilicious." "Skosh." I'm a homo!
Titus: *spit-take*

Ken: Fruits have the same rights as normal people. It's not like they're from Vietnam.

Shannon's Song [3.4]

Grad School [3.5]

House Boat [3.6]

The Trial [3.7]

Titus: I wish everybody had a mom like mine.
Prosecutor: A mother who kills people?
Titus: Person. She killed one person. You make it sound like a hobby!

Grandma Titus [3.8]

Tommy: Do you remember me, Mrs. Titus?
Grandma Titus: Of course, Tommy. Have you found a nice young man to settle down with?
Tommy: I'm not gay.
Grandma Titus: Oh. Then you're not the Tommy I knew.

Errr [3.9]

Tommy's Crush [3.10]

[Titus is facing off against Shannon's husband Stefan.]
Titus: Dad, what are we, German-Irish?
Ken: White. That's all that matters.
Erin: [offended] Papa Titus!
Ken: In society's eyes, I'm saying!

Into Thin Air [3.11]

[Hanging from a tree, Titus falls and gets caught in another tree.]
Dave: That's justice, Titus! Tree justice. The mighty oak strikes back!
[Titus looks around at his surroundings.]
Titus: It's a spruce!

Too Damn Good [3.12]

Titus: You said I was the worst possible result of an orgasm!
Ken: You took that as an insult?

Bachelor Party [3.13]

[after Nicky's water breaks; two neighbors who can help don't get along]
Christopher: Is everybody here missing a chromosome?
Nicky: Hey, I live here. And anybody with a forehead that big shouldn't be making chromosome jokes.
[Titus frowns and feels his forehead]

Ken Titus: Come on, let's go! I'm out of booze and sober is nipping at my heels!
Nicky: Oh, boo hoo! I've got a watermelon nipping at my crotch!
Ken Titus: Now I'm hungry. [to diner owners] Can I get a fruit plate?

Hot Streak [3.14]

Erin: You want him to have your kind of fun. You need to go have his kind of fun.
Titus: [confused] You want me to rip myself a new one?

[Ken goes bust at the blackjack table.]
Ken: Damn it! The wussy must be here!

The Session [3.15]

Same Courtesy [3.16]

After Mrs. Shafter [3.17]

[Tommy's gay father, Perry, shows up.]
Ken: Shouldn't you be out there dancing with the construction worker, the cop, and the Indian?

The Visit [3.18]

Insanity Genetic(1) [3.19]

Titus: Do you know what my first thought was when I heard my mother killed herself?
Titus/Ken: Did she take anyone else out with her?

Stewardess: Sir, were you smoking in the bathroom?
Ken: [through a cloud of smoke] Define... "in the bathroom."

Insanity Genetic(2) [3.20]

[The FBI believes that the Titus family to be a terrorist group.]
Erin: We can't plan a hijacking! Listen, we can't even plan a wedding.
[straight cut to Titus]
Titus: Oh, we planned the wedding. We didn't plan on my mom killing her husband at the wedding. That was Mom's idea. She didn't know what to get us.

Titus: If you asked them to kill Gerald Ford, only two of them would do it.
[cut to Dave]
Dave: So, he wants Ford dead...

The Protector [3.21]

[A boy at school has been harassing Erin's niece Amy.]
Titus: I hate bullies!
Tommy: You're about to beat up a kid with a bat!
Titus: What's your point?

Cast

Exernal links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Titus
disambiguation
This is a disambiguation page, which lists works which share the same title. If an article link referred you here, please consider editing it to point directly to the intended page.


Titus may refer to:

In the Bible

See also: Bible/Titus
Titus
disambiguation
This is a disambiguation page. If an article link referred you here, please consider editing it to point directly to the intended page.

Titus is a book in the Bible. The following English translations may be available:

Other


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

TITUS, one of the companions of St Paul, was of Greek origin (Gal. ii. 3), and was perhaps a native of Asia Minor. He appears to have been among the apostle's earliest converts, being first mentioned (Gal. ii. i) as having accompanied Paul and Barnabas to Jerusalem (cf. Acts xv. 2) "to represent the success of the Pauline gospel outside Judaism." Here the conservative section demanded that he should be circumcised; but Paul successfully opposed this (see Paul). Subsequently he came into close connexion with the Achaean churches and especially with Corinth, bearing letters from Paul and being charged with promoting the proposed collection for poor Christians in Judaea. In these matters he proved himself a trusty lieutenant, winning the esteem of the Corinthians by his zeal and disinterestedness. The liberality which a generation later was recognized by Clement of Rome as a traditional virtue of the Corinthian Church owed its inception to Titus. In the epistle with which his name is associated he is represented (Titus i. 5) as having been left by Paul in Crete to "set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city." He is expected afterwards to join Paul at Nicopolis (iii. 12). In 2 Tim. iv. To he is spoken of as having gone (perhaps on a mission) to Dalmatia. Tradition, obviously resting on the Epistle to Titus, has it that he died in Crete as bishop at an advanced age; another line connects him with Venice. Attempts to make him the author of the "We" sections in Acts and to include him in the seventy disciples are futile. There is more to be said for the suggestion that he was the brother of St Luke.

See A. Souter and E. P. Boys-Smith in The Expository Times, xviii. 285, 335, 380.


<< Titmouse

The Epistle To Titus >>


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Etymology

Latin Titus, a Roman and Sabine praenomen of unknown meaning.

Proper noun

Singular
Titus

Plural
-

Titus

Wikipedia-logo.png Titus on Wikipedia.Wikipedia
Wikisource-newberg-de.png Wikisource has an article on “Titus”. Wikisource
Wiktionary has an Appendix listing books of the Bible

  1. (Biblical) A book in the New Testament of the Bible, the epistle to Titus.
  2. (Biblical) An early Christian, the addressee of the said epistle.
  3. A male given name.

Quotations

Related terms

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Anagrams


Strategy wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Category:Titus article)

From StrategyWiki, the free strategy guide and walkthrough wiki

Titus Interactive S.A.
Founded 1985
Located France
Closed 2004

Titus Software, later known as Titus Interactive S.A., was a long-running French software publisher that produced and published video games for various formats over its lifetime.

History

Founded by brothers Eric and Hervé Caen in France in 1985[1], Titus began releasing titles on the Commodore Amiga, and PC before moving on to consoles such as the Game Boy, and Nintendo 64, finally publishing titles for the Nintendo GameCube and Sony Computer Entertainment PlayStation 2.

Titus acquired BlueSky Software and the even longer-lived UK developer Digital Integration in 1998 and went public, listing on the French stock market.[1] It also gained a majority interest in American struggling publisher Interplay in 1999, naming Hervé Caen CEO of the company after the departure of Interplay's Brian Fargo.[2] By the turn of the century the strain of Titus' expansion was beginning to slow, and the company fizzled ingloriously into financial, then legal difficulties, culminating in a close of business in 2004.

Developed Games

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 IGN Staff (1998). Eric Caen of Titus Software (interview). IGN.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-04.
  2. Ackerman, Kyle (2002). The Saga Behind the Sagas: Interplay and the Business of Gaming. FrictionlessInsight.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-04.

Pages in category "Titus"

The following 6 pages are in this category, out of 6 total.

A

I

P

  • Prince of Persia 2: The Shadow and the Flame (SNES)

Q

V

W


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

Meaning: honourable

Was with Paul and Barnabas at Antioch, and accompanied them to the council at Jerusalem (Gal 2:1ff; Acts 15:2), although his name nowhere occurs in the Acts of the Apostles.

He appears to have been a Gentile, and to have been chiefly engaged in ministering to Gentiles; for Paul sternly refused to have him circumcised, inasmuch as in his case the cause of gospel liberty was at stake.

We find him, at a later period, with Paul and Timothy at Ephesus, whence he was sent by Paul to Corinth for the purpose of getting the contributions of the church there in behalf of the poor saints at Jerusalem sent forward (2Cor 8:6; 2Cor 12:18). He rejoined the apostle when he was in Macedonia, and cheered him with the tidings he brought from Corinth (7:6-15).

After this his name is not mentioned till after Paul's first imprisonment, when we find him engaged in the organization of the church in Crete, where the apostle had left him for this purpose (Tit 1:5).

The last notice of him is in 2 Tim 4:10, where we find him with Paul at Rome during his second imprisonment. From Rome he was sent into Dalmatia, no doubt on some important missionary errand. We have no record of his death.

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

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Titus Software
Image:Titus software log.gif
Type Defunct (as of 2004)
Founded 1985
Headquarters France
Products
Parent Company N/A
Website


The notorious Titus Software is a game developer/publisher. They are responsible for developing/publishing such games as Superman 64 for the N64, Robocop for the Xbox & PS2, Blues Brothers 2000 for the N64, Kao the Kangaroo for the GBA and Xena: Warrior Princess: The Talisman of Fate for the N64 among others.

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This article uses material from the "Titus Software" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Titus
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Bust of Emperor Titus
Reign 24 June 79 –
13 September 81
Full name Titus Flavius Vespasianus
(from birth to AD 69);
Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus (from 69 to accession);
Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (as emperor)
Born 30 December 39(39-12-30)
Birthplace Rome
Died September 13, 81 (aged 41)
Place of death Rome
Buried Rome
Predecessor Vespasian
Successor Domitian
Wives Arrecina Tertulla (63)
Marcia Furnilla (65)
Offspring Julia Flavia
Dynasty Flavian dynasty
Father Vespasian
Mother Domitilla the Elder

, including the Menorah and the trumpets of Jericho]] , was completed during the reign of Titus and inaugurated with spectacular games that lasted for 100 days.]]

Titus (Titus Flavius Vespasianus, 30 December 39 – 13 September 81) was Roman Emperor from 79 to 81. A member of the Flavian dynasty, Titus succeeded his father Vespasian upon his death.[1][2]

Contents

Military service

Before becoming emperor, Titus gained renown as a military commander. He served as a military tribune in Germany and Britain. It was he who brought the reinforcements after the revolt of Boudicca. Two tribes had destroyed Colchester, London and St Albans, and wiped out a whole legion, but were finally defeated by the Roman governor of Britain.

Judaea

He served under his father in Judaea during the First Jewish-Roman War (66–70), where he commanded a legion. The campaign came to a brief halt with the death of emperor Nero in 68, but soon continued in the Year of the Four Emperors. When Vespasian was declared emperor on 1 July 69, Titus was left in charge of ending the Jewish rebellion. In 70, he successfully laid siege to Jerusalem. He destroyed the city and Temple in Jerusalem. For this, Titus was awarded a Roman triumph.[3] To this day, the Arch of Titus commemorates his victory.

Rome

When Vespasian became Emperor, Titus and his brother Domitian received the title of Caesar from the Senate.[4] Titus held seven consulships during Vespasian's reign[5] and acted as his secretary, appearing in the Senate on his behalf.[5]

Under the rule of his father, Titus gained some notoriety in Rome as a ruthless Prefect of the Praetorian Guard.

Berenice

During the Jewish wars, Titus had begun a love affair with Berenice, sister of Agrippa II. The Herodians had collaborated with the Romans during the rebellion, and Berenice herself had supported Vespasian upon his campaign to become emperor.[6] In 75, she returned to Titus and openly lived with him in the palace as his promised wife. The Romans were wary of her, and disapproved of their relationship. When the pair was publicly denounced by Cynics in the theatre, Titus caved in to the pressure and sent her away,[7] but his reputation suffered.

Emperor

depicting Titus, c. 79. The reverse commemorates his triumph in the Judaean wars, representing a Jewish captive kneeling in front of a trophy of arms.]]

Titus ruled to great acclaim after the death of Vespasian in 79. He was considered a good emperor by Suetonius and other contemporary historians.

As emperor, he is best known for completing the Colosseum and for his generosity in relieving the suffering caused by two disasters, the Mount Vesuvius eruption of 79 and a fire in Rome in 80.

Because of his supposed vices, many Romans feared he would be another Nero.[8] But Titus proved to be an effective emperor and was well-loved when people found that he had virtues instead of vices.[8] One of his first acts as an emperor was to stop trials based on treason charges,[9] which had long plagued Rome.

Under Augustus, The law of treason had been revived and applied to cover slander and libel. This led to a long cycle of trials and executions under such emperors as Tiberius, Caligula and Nero. This spawned entire networks of informers who terrorized Rome for decades.[9] Titus put an end to this practice, against himself or anyone else, declaring:

"It is impossible for me to be insulted or abused in any way. For I do naught that deserves censure, and I care not for what is reported falsely".[10]

Consequently, no senators were put to death during his reign;[10] he thus kept to his promise that he would assume the office of Pontifex Maximus "for the purpose of keeping his hands unstained".[11] The informers were publicly punished and banished from the city. Titus then made it unlawful for persons to be tried under different laws for the same offense (double jeopardy|).[9] Finally, when Berenice returned to Rome, he sent her away.[8]

After barely two years in office, Titus died of a fever on 13 September 81. He was deified (declared a god) by the Roman Senate and succeeded by his younger brother Domitian.

References

  1. Cassius Dio, Roman History LXVI.18
  2. Brian Jones; and Robert Milns (2002). Suetonius: the Flavian Emperors: a historical commentary. London: Bristol Classical Press. pp. 91. ISBN 1-85399-613-0. 
  3. Josephus, Flavius 1981. The Jewish War, transl. G.A. Williamson, introduction by E. Mary Smallwood. Penguin, London.
  4. Cassius Dio Roman history LXV.1
  5. 5.0 5.1 Suetonius, On the Life of the Caesars, Life of Titus 6
  6. Tacitus, Histories II.81
  7. Cassius Dio, Roman History LXV.15
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Suetonius, Twelve Caesars, Life of Titus 7
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Suetonius, Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Titus 8
  10. 10.0 10.1 Cassius Dio, Roman History LXVI.19
  11. Suetonius, Twelve Caesars, Life of Titus 9







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