To Have and Have Not (film): Wikis


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To Have and Have Not

To Have and Have Not movie poster
Directed by Howard Hawks
Produced by Howard Hawks
Jack L. Warner
Written by Novel:
Ernest Hemingway
Jules Furthman
William Faulkner
Cleve F. Adams
Whitman Chambers
Starring Humphrey Bogart
Walter Brennan
Lauren Bacall
Dolores Moran
Hoagy Carmichael
Music by William Lava
Franz Waxman
Cinematography Sidney Hickox
Editing by Christian Nyby
Distributed by Warner Bros.
Release date(s) October 11, 1944 (1944-10-11) (U.S.)
Running time 100 min
Country United States
Language English

To Have and Have Not (1944) is a thriller romance war adventure film directed by Howard Hawks and starring Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall that is nominally based on the novel of the same name by Ernest Hemingway.



The film is set in the Caribbean city of Fort de France, Martinique under the Vichy regime in the summer of 1940, shortly after the fall of France to the Germans. In this exotic location, the world-weary fishing boat captain Harry 'Steve' Morgan (Humphrey Bogart) is urged to help the French Resistance smuggle some people onto the island. He refuses, until the client, Johnson (Walter Sande) who has been hiring out his fishing boat (and owes him $825) is accidentally shot before paying him.

The hotel owner Gerard, commonly known as Frenchy (Marcel Dalio) (the leader of the Free French), asks Harry to rent him his boat for one night to transport some members of the resistance underground. Broke, he ends up smuggling onto Martinique Helene (Dolores Moran) and Paul De Bursac (Walter Szurovy). Meanwhile, a romance unfolds between Harry and Marie 'Slim' Browning (Lauren Bacall), an American pickpocket who has come to the island.[1]

After picking up Helene and Paul De Bursac, Harry is spotted by a patrol boat, and Paul is wounded before they escape. Harry is surprised to find that Marie stayed in Martinique to be with him. At Frenchy's request, Harry removes the bullet from De Bursac's shoulder and learns that the De Bursacs have been assigned to help a man escape from Devil's Island. De Bursac asks for Harry's assistance, but Harry turns him down.[2]

Later, the police, who recognized Harry's boat the previous night, reveal that they have Harry's buddy, a rummy, Eddie (Walter Brennan) in custody and will coerce him to tell the truth about the boat's cargo. At gunpoint, Harry forces the police to arrange for Eddie's release and sign harbor passes, so that he can take the De Bursacs to Devil's Island. Slim says goodbye to her piano-playing friend Cricket (Hoagy Carmichael). After Eddie returns, he, Harry and Marie leave Martinique for a more committed life together.[3]



Bacall and Bogart

Howard Hughes sold the book rights to independent director Howard Hawks. Hawks sold the rights to Warner Bros. William Faulkner, “out of print and broke”, was on the payroll, helping with the script.[4]

This was Lauren Bacall's first film, at the age of 19. Howard Hawks' wife "Slim" noticed Bacall on the cover of Harper's Bazaar and showed the photo to her husband, who soon sought out Bacall and signed her for the role. After filming began, a romance developed between Bacall and Humphrey Bogart, despite the disapproval of Hawks. This romance eventually led to Bacall's first marriage and ended Bogart's marriage with Mayo Methot, his third wife. It created a memorable onscreen chemistry between Bogart and Bacall, which would be used in The Big Sleep, Dark Passage, and Key Largo.

Although Hawks had a high regard for Hemingway's works in general, he considered To Have and Have Not his worst book, a "bunch of junk," and told Hemingway so;[5][6] Hawks and Hemingway worked on the story together. The film preserves the book's title, and the names and characteristics of some of the characters, but nothing from beyond the first fifth of the volume. The setting was moved from Cuba to Martinique in order to placate the Roosevelt administration's "good neighbor" policy that did not want to show Cuba in an unfavorable light. The screenplay was further developed by Jules Furthman, and, at the end, William Faulkner (an intense rival of Hemingway).[7] In addition, Slim's part was greatly extended to take advantage of the Bogart-Bacall chemistry.


Bacall, with Hoagy Carmichael in the background on piano

In the movie, Bacall sings "How Little We Know" by Hoagy Carmichael and Johnny Mercer. Another Carmichael song, "Hong Kong Blues" (co-written with Stanley Adams), was also used. Carmichael plays Cricket, the piano player in the film. There is a persistent myth that teenage boy Andy Williams, the future singing star, dubbed the singing for Bacall. According to authoritative sources, including Hawks and Bacall, this was not true. Williams and some female singers were tested to dub for Bacall, because of fears that she lacked the necessary vocal skills. But those fears proved groundless, and she did the singing herself.

Andy Williams says he sang the song and that it is his voice you hear.[8]

Another song played in the film was "Am I Blue?", written by Harry Akst and Grant Clarke.

Adaptations to Other Media

To Have and Have Not was adapted as an hour-long radio play on the October 14, 1946 broadcast of Lux Radio Theater with Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall reprising their screen roles.


The second film version of To Have and Have Not, titled The Breaking Point (1950), was directed by Michael Curtiz and stars John Garfield. It shifted the action to southern California and made Garfield a former PT Boat captain.

The third film version, titled The Gun Runners (1958), was directed by Don Siegel and stars Audie Murphy in the Bogart/Garfield role and Everett Sloane in Walter Brennan's role as the alcoholic sidekick, although Sloane's interpretation was less overtly comedic than Brennan's.

See also

  • Casablanca (1942), another film in which Bogart plays an American trying to stay neutral while running a business in Vichy-controlled territory.


  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 250.
  5. ^ Hawks telling Hemingway he could film his worst book and that this one was "a bunch of junk": interview with Hawks by Joseph McBride for the Directors' Guild of America, October 21–23, 1977, private publication of the Directors' Guild, p.21; quoted at length in Mast, p.243.
  6. ^ You Must Remember This (retrospective for Warner Brothers' 85th anniversary), American Masters, PBS, broadcast September 23, 2008.
  7. ^ Mast relates the contributions of each of the people who worked on the screenplay. He says "the film's many upstairs sequences are Faulkner's primary contribution to the the film's conception" (p.257).
  8. ^ Berman, D. (2009, December, 19). The Npr news quiz [Radio series episode]. In (Executive producer), Wait, Wait, Don't Tell Me!. Chicago: National Public Radio.


  • Mast, Gerald (1982). Howard Hawks, Storyteller. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-503091-5.  

External links



Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

To Have and Have Not is a 1944 is a thriller romance war adventure film directed by Howard Hawks and starring Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall. It is nominally based on the novel To Have and Have Not by Ernest Hemingway.


  • Slim: You know you don't have to act with me, Steve. You don't have to say anything, and you don't have to do anything. Not a thing. Oh, maybe just whistle. You know how to whistle, don't you, Steve? You just put your lips together and... blow.
  • Slim: You know Steve, you're not very hard to figure, only at times. Sometimes I know exactly what you're going to say. Most of the time. The other times... the other times, you're just a stinker.
  • Eddie: Was you ever bit by a dead bee?


  • Slim: Who was the girl, Steve?
    Steve: Who was what girl?
    Slim: The one who left you with such a high opinion of women.
  • Slim: Give her my love.
    Steve: I'd give her my own if she had that on!
  • Officer at port: Name?
    Steve: Harry Morgan.
    Officer at port: Nationality?
    Steve: Eskimo.
    Officer at port: What?
    Steve: American.

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