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To Kill a Mockingbird  
First edition cover – late printing
Author Harper Lee
Country United States
Language English
Publisher J. B. Lippincott & Co.
Publication date July 11, 1960
Media type Print (Hardback and Paperback)
Pages 296 (first edition, hardback)

To Kill a Mockingbird is a Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Harper Lee published in 1960. It was instantly successful and has become a classic of modern American literature. The plot and characters are loosely based on the author's observations of her family and neighbors, as well as on an event that occurred near her hometown in 1936, when she was 10 years old.

The novel is renowned for its warmth and humor, despite dealing with serious issues of rape and racial inequality. The narrator's father, Atticus Finch, has served as a moral hero for many readers and as a model of integrity for lawyers. One critic explained the novel's impact by writing, "In the twentieth century, To Kill a Mockingbird is probably the most widely read book dealing with race in America, and its protagonist, Atticus Finch, the most enduring fictional image of racial heroism."[1]

As a Southern Gothic novel and a Bildungsroman, the primary themes of To Kill a Mockingbird involve racial injustice and the destruction of innocence. Scholars have noted that Lee also addresses issues of class, courage and compassion, and gender roles in the American Deep South. The book is widely taught in schools in English-speaking countries with lessons that emphasize tolerance and decry prejudice. Despite its themes, To Kill a Mockingbird has been subject to campaigns for removal from public classrooms. Often the book is challenged for its use of racial epithets, and writers have noticed that regardless of its popularity since its publication, some readers are displeased by the novel's treatment of black characters.

Lee's novel was initially reviewed by at least 30 newspapers and magazines, whose critics varied widely in their assessments. More recently, British librarians ranked the book ahead of the Bible as one "every adult should read before they die".[2] The book was adapted into an Oscar-winning film in 1962 by director Robert Mulligan, with a screenplay by Horton Foote. Since 1990, a play based on the novel has been performed annually in Harper Lee's hometown of Monroeville, Alabama. To date, it is Lee's only published novel, and although she continues to respond to the book's impact, she has refused any personal publicity for herself or the novel since 1964.


Biographical background and publication

Born in 1926, Harper Lee grew up in the Southern town of Monroeville, Alabama, where she became close friends with the soon-to-be famous writer Truman Capote. She attended Huntingdon College in Montgomery (1944–45), and then studied law at the University of Alabama (1945–49). While attending college, she wrote for campus literary magazines: Huntress at Huntingdon and the humor magazine Rammer Jammer at the University of Alabama. At both colleges, she wrote short stories and other works about racial injustice, a rarely mentioned topic on such campuses at the time.[3] In 1950, Lee moved to New York City, where she worked as a reservation clerk for British Overseas Airways Corporation; there, she began writing a collection of essays and short stories about people in Monroeville. Hoping to be published, Lee presented her writing in 1957 to a literary agent recommended by Capote. An editor at J. B. Lippincott advised her to quit the airline and concentrate on writing. Donations from friends allowed her to write uninterrupted for a year.[4]

Lee spent two and a half years writing To Kill a Mockingbird. A description of the book's creation by the National Endowment for the Arts relates an episode when Lee became so frustrated that she tossed the manuscript out the window into the snow. Her agent made her retrieve it.[5] The book was published on July 11, 1960. It was initially titled Atticus, but Lee renamed it to reflect a story that went beyond a character portrait.[6] The editorial team at Lippincott warned Lee that she would probably sell only several thousand copies.[7] In 1964, Lee recalled her hopes for the book when she said, "I never expected any sort of success with 'Mockingbird.' ... I was hoping for a quick and merciful death at the hands of the reviewers but, at the same time, I sort of hoped someone would like it enough to give me encouragement. Public encouragement. I hoped for a little, as I said, but I got rather a whole lot, and in some ways this was just about as frightening as the quick, merciful death I'd expected."[8] Instead of a "quick and merciful death", Reader's Digest Condensed Books chose the book for reprinting in part, which gave it a wide readership immediately.[9] Since the original publication, the book has never been out of print.

Plot summary

The story takes place during three years of the Great Depression in the fictional "tired old town" of Maycomb, Alabama. The narrator, six-year-old Scout Finch, lives with her older brother Jem and their widowed father Atticus, a middle-aged lawyer. Jem and Scout befriend a boy named Dill who visits Maycomb to stay with his aunt for the summer. The three children are terrified of, and fascinated with, their neighbor, the reclusive "Boo" Radley. The adults of Maycomb are hesitant to talk about Boo and for many years, few have seen him. The children feed each other's imaginations with rumors about his appearance and reasons for remaining hidden, and they fantasize about how to get him out of his house. Following two summers of friendship with Dill, Scout and Jem find that someone is leaving them small gifts in a tree outside the Radley place. Several times, the mysterious Boo makes gestures of affection to the children, but, to their disappointment, never appears in person.

Atticus is appointed by the court to defend a black man named Tom Robinson, who has been accused of raping Mayella Ewell, a young white woman. Although many of Maycomb's citizens disapprove, Atticus agrees to defend Tom to the best of his ability. Other children taunt Jem and Scout for Atticus' actions, calling him a "nigger-lover". Scout is tempted to stand up for her father's honor by fighting, even though he has told her not to. For his part, Atticus faces a group of men intent on lynching Tom. This danger is averted when Scout, Jem, and Dill shame the mob into dispersing by forcing them to view the situation from Atticus' and Tom's points of view.

Because Atticus does not want them to be present at Tom Robinson's trial, Scout, Jem, and Dill watch in secret from the colored balcony. Atticus establishes that the accusers—Mayella and her father, Bob Ewell, the town drunk—are lying. It also becomes clear that the friendless Mayella was making sexual advances towards Tom and her father caught her in the act. Despite significant evidence of Tom's innocence, the jury convicts him. Jem's faith in justice is badly shaken, as is Atticus', when a hopeless Tom is shot and killed while trying to escape from prison.

Humiliated by the trial, Bob Ewell vows revenge. He spits in Atticus' face on the street, tries to break into the presiding judge's house, and menaces Tom Robinson's widow. Finally, he attacks the defenseless Jem and Scout as they walk home from the school Halloween pageant. Jem's arm is broken in the struggle, but amid the confusion, someone comes to the children's rescue. The mysterious man carries Jem home, where Scout realizes that he is the reclusive Boo Radley.

Maycomb's sheriff arrives and discovers that Bob Ewell has been killed in the struggle. The sheriff argues with Atticus about the prudence and ethics of holding Jem or Boo responsible. Atticus eventually accepts the sheriff's story that Ewell simply fell on his own knife. Boo asks Scout to walk him home, and after she says goodbye to him at his front door, he disappears again. While standing on the Radley porch, Scout imagines life from Boo's perspective and regrets that they never repaid him for the gifts he had given them.

Autobiographical elements

Lee has said that To Kill a Mockingbird is not an autobiography, but rather an example of how an author "should write about what he knows and write truthfully".[10] Nevertheless, several people and events from Lee's childhood parallel those of the fictional Scout. Lee's father, Amasa Coleman Lee, was an attorney, similar to Atticus Finch, and in 1919, he defended two black men accused of murder. After they were convicted, hanged, and mutilated,[11] he never tried another criminal case. Lee's father was also the editor and publisher of the Monroeville newspaper. Although more of a proponent of racial segregation than Atticus, he gradually became more liberal in his later years.[12] Though Scout's mother died when she was a baby, and Lee was 25 when her mother died, her mother was prone to a nervous condition that rendered her mentally and emotionally absent.[13] Lee had a brother named Edwin, who — like the fictional Jem — was four years older than his sister. As in the novel, a black housekeeper came daily to care for the Lee house and family.

The character of Dill was modeled on Lee's childhood friend, Truman Capote, known then as Truman Persons.[14][15] Just as Dill lived next door to Scout during the summer, Capote lived next door to Lee with his aunts while his mother visited New York City.[16] Like Dill, Capote had an impressive imagination and a gift for fascinating stories. Both Lee and Capote were atypical children: both loved to read. Lee was a scrappy tomboy who was quick to fight, but Capote was ridiculed for his advanced vocabulary and lisp. She and Capote made up and acted out stories they wrote on an old Underwood typewriter Lee's father gave them. They became good friends when both felt alienated from their peers; Capote called the two of them "apart people".[17] In 1960, Capote and Lee traveled to Kansas together to investigate the multiple murders that were the basis for Capote's nonfiction novel In Cold Blood.

Down the street from the Lees lived a family whose house was always boarded up; they served as the models for the fictional Radleys. The son of the family got into some legal trouble and the father kept him at home for 24 years out of shame. He was hidden until virtually forgotten and died in 1952.[18]

The origin of Tom Robinson is less clear, though many have speculated that his character was inspired by several models. When Lee was 10 years old, a white woman near Monroeville accused a black man named Walter Lett of raping her. The story and the trial were covered by her father's newspaper, and Lett was convicted and sentenced to death. After a series of letters appeared claiming Lett had been falsely accused, his sentence was commuted to life in prison. He died there of tuberculosis in 1937.[19] Scholars believe that the plot may have also been influenced by the notorious case of the Scottsboro Boys,[20] in which nine black men were convicted of raping two white women on very poor evidence. However, in 2005 Lee stated that she had in mind something less sensational, although the Scottsboro case served "the same purpose" to display Southern prejudices.[21] Emmett Till, a black teenager who was murdered for flirting with a white woman in Mississippi in 1955, and whose death is credited as a catalyst for the Civil Rights Movement, is also considered a model for Tom Robinson.[22]


Harper Lee has a remarkable gift of story-telling. Her art is visual, and with cinematographic fluidity and subtlety we see a scene melting into another scene without jolts of transition.

—R. A. Dave in Harper Lee's Tragic Vision, 1974

The strongest elements of style noted by critics and reviewers is Lee's talent for narration, which in an early review in Time was called "tactile brilliance".[23] Writing a decade later, another scholar noted, "Harper Lee has a remarkable gift of story-telling. Her art is visual, and with cinematographic fluidity and subtlety we see a scene melting into another scene without jolts of transition."[24] Lee combines the narrator's voice of a child observing her surroundings with a grown woman's reflecting on her childhood, using the ambiguity of this voice combined with the narrative technique of flashback to play intricately with perspectives.[25] This narrative method allows Lee to tell a "delightfully deceptive" story that mixes the simplicity of childhood observation with adult situations complicated by hidden motivations and unquestioned tradition.[26] However, at times the blending is effective enough to cause reviewers to question Scout's preternatural vocabulary and depth of understanding.[27] Both Harding LeMay and the novelist and literary critic Granville Hicks expressed doubt that children as sheltered as Scout and Jem could understand the complexities and horrors involved in the trial for Tom Robinson's life.[28][29]

Writing about Lee's style and use of humor in a tragic story, scholar Jacqueline Tavernier-Courbin states: "Laughter ... [exposes] the gangrene under the beautiful surface but also by demeaning it; one can hardly ... be controlled by what one is able to laugh at."[30] Scout's role as a girl who beats up boys, hates wearing dresses, and swears for the fun of it provides humor, but Tavernier-Courbin notes that Lee uses parody, satire, and irony to address complex issues, especially by using a child's perspective. After Dill promises to marry her, then spends too much time with Jem, Scout reasons the best way to get him to pay attention to her is to beat him up, which she does several times.[31] Lee employs satire in describing Scout's first day in school, a frustrating experience; her teacher says she must undo the damage Atticus has wrought in teaching her to read and write, and forbids Atticus from teaching her further.[32] Scout tries to converse with Atticus' client, Mr. Cunningham, about what she understands as his "entailment", after he arrives to lynch Tom Robinson.[33] However, Lee treats the most unfunny situations with irony, as Jem and Scout try to understand how Maycomb embraces racism and still tries sincerely to remain a decent society. Satire and irony are used to such an extent that Tavernier-Courbin suggests one interpretation for the book's title: Lee is doing the mocking—of education, the justice system, and her own society by using them as subjects of her humorous disapproval.[30]

Critics also note the entertaining methods used to drive the plot.[34] When Atticus is out of town, Jem locks a Sunday school classmate in the church basement with the furnace during a game of Shadrach. This prompts their black housekeeper Calpurnia to escort Scout and Jem to her church, which allows the children a glimpse into her personal life, as well as Tom Robinson's.[35] Scout falls asleep during the Halloween pageant and makes a tardy entrance onstage, causing the audience to laugh uproariously. Scout is so distracted and embarrassed that she prefers to go home in her ham costume, which saves her life.[36]


Scholars have characterized To Kill a Mockingbird as both a Southern Gothic novel and a Bildungsroman. The grotesque and near-supernatural qualities of Boo Radley and his house, and the element of racial injustice involving Tom Robinson contribute to the aura of the Gothic in the novel.[37][38] Lee used the term "Gothic" to describe the architecture of Maycomb's courthouse and in regard to Dill's exaggeratedly morbid performances as Boo Radley.[39] Outsiders are also an important element of Southern Gothic texts and one scholar notes that Lee challenges every authority in Maycomb: the school and its teachers, the criminal justice system, and the religious establishments. Yet Scout still reveres Atticus as an authority above all others, because he believes that following one's conscience is the highest priority, even when the result is social ostracism.[40] However, scholars debate about the Southern Gothic classification, noting that Boo Radley is in fact human, protective, and benevolent. Furthermore, in addressing themes such as alcoholism, incest, rape, and racial violence, Lee wrote about her small town realistically rather than melodramatically. She portrays the problems of individual characters as universal underlying issues in every society.[38]

As children, Scout and Jem face hard realities and learn from them in To Kill a Mockingbird, leading critics to categorize the novel as a Bildungsroman, which typically describes the coming-of-age of the main character. Lee seems to examine Jem's sense of loss about how his neighbors have disappointed him more than Scout's. As Jem says to their neighbor Miss Maudie the day after the trial, "It's like bein' a caterpillar wrapped in a cocoon ... I always thought Maycomb folks were the best folks in the world, least that's what they seemed like".[41] This leads him to struggle with understanding the separations of race and class. Just as the novel is an illustration of the changes Jem faces, it is also an exploration of the realities Scout must face as an atypical girl on the verge of womanhood. As one scholar writes, "To Kill a Mockingbird can be read as a feminist Bildungsroman, for Scout emerges from her childhood experiences with a clear sense of her place in her community and an awareness of her potential power as the woman she will one day be."[42]


In the 33 years since its publication, (To Kill a Mockingbird) has never been the focus of a dissertation, and it has been the subject of only six literary studies, several of them no more than a couple of pages long.
—Claudia Johnson in To Kill a Mockingbird: Threatening Boundaries, 1994

Despite the novel's immense popularity upon publication, it has not received the close critical attention paid to other modern American classics. Claudia Durst Johnson, author of several books and articles about To Kill a Mockingbird, wrote in 1994: "In the 33 years since its publication, it has never been the focus of a dissertation, and it has been the subject of only six literary studies, several of them no more than a couple of pages long."[43] Another writer agreed in 2003 that the book is "an icon whose emotive sway remains strangely powerful because it also remains unexamined".[44]

Harper Lee has remained famously detached from interpreting the novel since the mid-1960s. However, she gave some insight into her themes when, in a rare letter to the editor, she wrote in response to the passionate reaction her book caused: "Surely it is plain to the simplest intelligence that To Kill a Mockingbird spells out in words of seldom more than two syllables a code of honor and conduct, Christian in its ethic, that is the heritage of all Southerners."[45]

Southern life and racial injustice

When the book was released, reviewers noted that it was divided into two parts, and opinion was mixed about Lee's ability to connect them.[46] The first part of the novel concerns the children's fascination with Boo Radley and their feelings of safety and comfort in the neighborhood. Reviewers were generally charmed by Scout and Jem's observations of their quirky neighbors. One writer was so impressed by Lee's detailed explanations of the people of Maycomb that he categorized the book as Southern romantic regionalism.[47] This sentimentalism can be seen in Lee's representation of the Southern caste system to explain almost every character's behavior in the novel. Scout's Aunt Alexandra explains Maycomb's inhabitants' faults and advantages through genealogy (families that have gambling streaks and drinking streaks),[48] and the narrator sets the action and characters amid a background of the Finch family history and the history of Maycomb. This regionalist theme is further reflected in Mayella Ewell's apparent powerlessness to admit her advances toward Tom Robinson, and Atticus' definition of "fine folks" being people with good sense who do the best they can with what they have. The South itself, with its traditions and taboos, seems to affect the plot more than the characters.[47]

The second part of the novel deals with what book reviewer Harding LeMay termed "the spirit-corroding shame of the civilized white Southerner in the treatment of the Negro".[28] In the years following its release, many reviewers considered To Kill a Mockingbird a novel primarily concerned with race relations.[49] Claudia Durst Johnson considers it "reasonable to believe" that the novel was shaped by two events involving racial issues in Alabama: Rosa Parks' refusal to sit at the back of the bus, which sparked the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott, and the 1956 riots at the University of Alabama after Autherine Lucy and Polly Myers were admitted (Myers eventually withdrew her application and Lucy was expelled, but reinstated in 1980).[50] In writing about the historical context of the novel's construction, two other literary scholars remark: "To Kill a Mockingbird was written and published amidst the most significant and conflict-ridden social change in the South since the Civil War and Reconstruction. Inevitably, despite its mid-1930s setting, the story told from the perspective of the 1950s voices the conflicts, tensions, and fears induced by this transition."[51] The novel's impact on race relations in the United States was noted as a factor in its success, that it "arrived at the right moment to help the South and the nation grapple with the racial tensions (of) the accelerating civil rights movement".[52] Its publication is so closely associated with the Civil Rights Movement that many studies of the book and biographies of Harper Lee include descriptions of important moments in the movement, despite the fact that she had no direct involvement in any of them.[53][54][55]

Scholar Patrick Chura, who suggests Emmett Till was a model for Tom Robinson, enumerates the injustices endured by the fictional Tom that Till also faced. Chura notes the icon of the black rapist causing harm to the representation of the "mythologized vulnerable and sacred Southern womanhood".[22] Any transgressions by black males that merely hinted at sexual contact with white females during the time the novel was set often resulted in a punishment of death for the accused. Tom Robinson's trial was juried by poor white farmers who convicted him despite overwhelming evidence of his innocence, as more educated and moderate white townspeople supported the jury's decision. Furthermore, the victim of racial injustice in To Kill a Mockingbird was physically impaired, which made him unable to commit the act he was accused of, but also crippled him in other ways.[22] Roslyn Siegel includes Tom Robinson as an example of the recurring motif among white Southern writers of the black man as "stupid, pathetic, defenseless, and dependent upon the fair dealing of the whites, rather than his own intelligence to save him".[56] Although Tom is spared from being lynched, he is killed with excessive violence during an attempted escape from prison, when he is shot seventeen times.

The theme of racial injustice appears symbolically in the novel as well. For example, Atticus must shoot a rabid dog, even though it is not his job to do so.[57] Carolyn Jones argues that the dog represents prejudice within the town of Maycomb, and Atticus, who waits on a deserted street to shoot the dog,[58] must fight against the town's racism without help from other white citizens. He is also alone when he faces a group intending to lynch Tom Robinson and once more in the courthouse during Tom's trial. Lee even uses dreamlike imagery from the mad dog incident to describe some of the courtroom scenes. Jones writes, "[t]he real mad dog in Maycomb is the racism that denies the humanity of Tom Robinson.... When Atticus makes his summation to the jury, he literally bares himself to the jury's and the town's anger."[58]

Despite the novel's thematic focus on racial injustice, its black characters are rarely explored as fully as the white characters.[59] In its use of racial epithets, stereotyped depictions of superstitious blacks, and Calpurnia, who seems to be an updated version of the "contented slave" motif, the book can be viewed as marginalizing black characters.[60] One writer asserts that the use of Scout's narration serves as a convenient mechanism for readers to be innocent and detached from the racial conflict. Scout's voice "functions as the not-me which allows the rest of us — black and white, male and female — to find our relative position in society".[59]

Although the novel has had a generally positive impact on race relations for white readers, it has received a more ambiguous reception by black readers. A teaching guide for the novel published by The English Journal cautions, "what seems wonderful or powerful to one group of students may seem degrading to another".[61] A Canadian language arts consultant found that the novel resonated well with white students, but that black students found it "demoralizing". A student who played Calpurnia in a school performance summed up her reaction this way: "It is from the white perspective, from a racist kind of view. You don't see much about the African American characters; you don't get to know them on a personal level.... But it definitely has a [universal] message behind it. I know it's basically about racism but that's not all that you can get out of it."[62]


In a 1964 interview, Lee remarked that her aspiration was "to be ... the Jane Austen of South Alabama."[38] Both Austen and Lee challenged the social status quo and valued individual worth over social standing. When Scout embarrasses her poorer classmate, Walter Cunningham, at the Finch home one day, Calpurnia, their black cook, chastises and punishes her for doing so.[63] Atticus respects Calpurnia's judgment, and later in the book even stands up to his sister, the formidable Aunt Alexandra, when she strongly suggests they fire Calpurnia.[64] One writer notes that Scout, "in Austenian fashion", satirizes women with whom she does not wish to identify.[65] Literary critic Jean Blackall lists the priorities shared by the two authors: "affirmation of order in society, obedience, courtesy, and respect for the individual without regard for status".[38]

Lee demonstrates how issues of gender and class intensify prejudice, silence the voices that might challenge the existing order, and greatly complicate many Americans' conception of the causes of racism and segregation.

—Theodore and Grace-Ann Hovet, 2001

Scholars argue that Lee's approach to class and race was more complex "than ascribing racial prejudice primarily to 'poor white trash' ... Lee demonstrates how issues of gender and class intensify prejudice, silence the voices that might challenge the existing order, and greatly complicate many Americans' conception of the causes of racism and segregation."[51] Lee's use of the middle-class narrative voice is a literary device that allows an intimacy with the reader, regardless of class or cultural background, and fosters a sense of nostalgia. Sharing Scout and Jem's perspective, the reader is allowed to engage in relationships with the conservative antebellum Mrs. Dubose; the lower-class Ewells, and the Cunninghams who are equally poor but behave in vastly different ways; the wealthy but ostracized Mr. Dolphus Raymond; and Calpurnia and other members of the black community. The children internalize Atticus' admonition not to judge someone until they have walked around in that person's skin, gaining a greater understanding of people's motives and behavior.[51]

Courage and compassion

The novel has been noted for its poignant exploration of different forms of courage.[66][67] Scout's impulsive inclination to fight students who insult Atticus reflects her attempt to stand up for him and defend him. Atticus is the moral center of the novel, however, and he teaches Jem one of the most significant lessons of courage.[68] In a statement that foreshadows Atticus' motivation for defending Tom Robinson and describes Mrs. Dubose, who is determined to break herself of a morphine addiction, Atticus tells Jem that courage is "when you're licked before you begin but you begin anyway and you see it through no matter what".[69]

Charles Shields, who has written the only book-length biography of Harper Lee to date, offers the reason for the novel's enduring popularity and impact is that "its lessons of human dignity and respect for others remain fundamental and universal".[70] Atticus' lesson to Scout that "you never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view — until you climb around in his skin and walk around in it" exemplifies his compassion.[67][71] She ponders the comment when listening to Mayella Ewell's testimony. When Mayella reacts with confusion to Atticus' question if she has any friends, Scout offers that she must be lonelier than Boo Radley. Having walked Boo home after he saves their lives, Scout stands on the Radley porch and considers the events of the previous three years from Boo's perspective. One writer remarks, "... [w]hile the novel concerns tragedy and injustice, heartache and loss, it also carries with it a strong sense [of] courage, compassion, and an awareness of history to be better human beings."[67]

Gender roles

Just as Lee explores Jem's development in coming to grips with a racist and unjust society, Scout realizes what being female means, and several female characters influence her development. Scout's primary identification with her father and older brother allows her to describe the variety and depth of female characters in the novel both as one of them and as an outsider.[42] Scout's primary female models are Calpurnia and her neighbor Miss Maudie, both of whom are strong willed, independent, and protective. Mayella Ewell also has an influence; Scout watches her destroy an innocent man in order to hide her own desire for him. The female characters who comment the most on Scout's lack of willingness to adhere to a more feminine role are also those who promote the most racist and classist points of view.[65] For example, Mrs. Dubose chastises Scout for not wearing a dress and camisole, and indicates she is ruining the family name by not doing so, in addition to insulting Atticus' intentions to defend Tom Robinson. By balancing the masculine influences of Atticus and Jem with the feminine influences of Calpurnia and Miss Maudie, one scholar writes, "Lee gradually demonstrates that Scout is becoming a feminist in the South, for with the use of first-person narration, she indicates that Scout/ Jean Louise still maintains the ambivalence about being a Southern lady she possessed as a child."[65]

Absent mothers and abusive fathers are another theme in the novel. Scout and Jem's mother died before Scout could remember her, Mayella's mother is dead, and Mrs. Radley died before Boo was confined to the house. Apart from Atticus, the fathers described are abusers.[72] Bob Ewell, it is hinted, molested his daughter,[59] and Mr. Radley imprisons his son in his house until Boo is remembered only as a phantom. Bob Ewell and Mr. Radley represent a form of masculinity that Atticus does not, and the novel suggests that such men as well as the traditionally feminine hypocrites at the Missionary Society can lead society astray. Atticus stands apart from other men as a unique model of masculinity; as one scholar explains: "It is the job of real men who embody the traditional masculine qualities of heroic individualism, bravery, and an unshrinking knowledge of and dedication to social justice and morality, to set the society straight."[72]

Laws, written and unwritten

To Kill a Mockingbird is noted for its extensive allusions to legal issues, particularly in scenes outside of the courtroom, and has drawn the attention of legal scholars. Claudia Durst Johnson notes that "a greater volume of critical readings has been amassed by two legal scholars in law journals than by all the literary scholars in literary journals".[73] The opening quote by the 19th-century essayist Charles Lamb reads: "Lawyers, I suppose, were children once." Johnson notes that even in Scout and Jem's childhood world, compromises and treaties are struck with each other by spitting on one's palm and laws are discussed by Atticus and his children: is it right that Bob Ewell hunts and traps out of season? Many social codes are broken by people in symbolic courtrooms: Mr. Dolphus Raymond has been exiled by society for marrying a black woman and having interracial children; Mayella Ewell is beaten by her father in punishment for kissing Tom Robinson; by being turned into a non-person, Boo Radley receives a punishment far greater than any court could have given him.[50] Scout repeatedly breaks codes and laws and reacts to her punishment for them. For example, she refuses to wear frilly clothes, saying that Aunt Alexandra's "fanatical" attempts to place her in them made her feel "a pink cotton penitentiary closing in on [her]".[74] Johnson states, "[t]he novel is a study of how Jem and Scout begin to perceive the complexity of social codes and how the configuration of relationships dictated by or set off by those codes fails or nurtures the inhabitants of (their) small worlds."[50]

Death of innocence

A color photograph of a northern mockingbird
Lee used the mockingbird to symbolize innocence in the novel.

Songbirds and their associated symbolism appear throughout the novel. The family's last name of Finch also shares Lee's mother's maiden name. The titular mockingbird is a key motif of this theme, which first appears when Atticus, having given his children air-rifles for Christmas, allows their Uncle Jack to teach them to shoot. Atticus warns them that, although they can "shoot all the bluejays they want", they must remember that "it's a sin to kill a mockingbird".[75] Confused, Scout approaches her neighbor Miss Maudie, who explains that mockingbirds never harm other living creatures. She points out that mockingbirds simply provide pleasure with their songs, saying, "They don't do one thing but sing their hearts out for us."[75] Writer Edwin Bruell summarized the symbolism when he wrote in 1964, "'To kill a mockingbird' is to kill that which is innocent and harmless—like Tom Robinson."[48] Scholars have noted that Lee often returns to the mockingbird theme when trying to make a moral point.[24][76][77]

Tom Robinson is the chief example among several innocents destroyed carelessly or deliberately throughout the novel. However, scholar Christopher Metress connects the mockingbird to Boo Radley: "Instead of wanting to exploit Boo for her own fun (as she does in the beginning of the novel by putting on gothic plays about his history), Scout comes to see him as a 'mockingbird' — that is, as someone with an inner goodness that must be cherished."[78] The last pages of the book illustrate this as Scout relates the moral of a story Atticus has been reading to her, and in allusions to both Boo Radley and Tom Robinson[22] states about a character who was misunderstood, "when they finally saw him, why he hadn't done any of those things ... Atticus, he was real nice," to which he responds, "Most people are, Scout, when you finally see them."[79]

The novel exposes the loss of innocence (and innocents) so frequently that reviewer R. A. Dave claims it is inevitable that all the characters have faced or will face defeat, giving it elements of a classical tragedy.[24] In exploring how each character deals with his or her own personal defeat, Lee builds a framework to judge whether the characters are heroes or fools. She guides the reader in such judgments, alternating between unabashed adoration and biting irony. Lee uses irony to describe Scout witnessing the Missionary Society meeting, whose members mock Scout, gossip, and "reflect a smug, colonialist attitude toward other races" while giving the "appearance of gentility, piety, and morality".[65] Conversely, when Atticus loses Tom's case, he is last to leave the courtroom, except for his children and the black spectators in the colored balcony, who rise silently as he walks underneath them, to honor his efforts.[80]


First Edition Points
To Kill a Mockingbird
by Harper Lee
Number of printings: 5000 approx.

Despite her editors' warnings that the book might not sell well, it quickly became a sensation, bringing acclaim to Lee not only in literary circles, but also in her hometown of Monroeville and throughout Alabama.[81] The book went through numerous subsequent printings and became widely available through its inclusion in the Book of the Month Club and editions released by Reader's Digest Condensed Books.[82]

Initial reactions to the novel were varied. The New Yorker declared it "skilled, unpretentious, and totally ingenious",[83] and The Atlantic Monthly's reviewer rated it as "pleasant, undemanding reading", but found the narrative voice—"a six-year-old girl with the prose style of a well-educated adult"—to be implausible.[27] Time magazine's 1960 review of the book states that it "teaches the reader an astonishing number of useful truths about little girls and about Southern life" and calls Scout Finch "the most appealing child since Carson McCullers' Frankie got left behind at the wedding".[23] The Chicago Sunday Tribune noted the even-handed approach to the narration of the novel's events, writing: "This is in no way a sociological novel. It underlines no cause... To Kill a Mockingbird is a novel of strong contemporary national significance."[84]

Not all comments were enthusiastic, however. Some reviews lamented the use of poor white Southerners, and one-dimensional black victims,[85] and Granville Hicks labeled the book "melodramatic and contrived".[29] When the book was first released, Southern writer Flannery O'Connor commented, "I think for a child's book it does all right. It's interesting that all the folks that are buying it don't know they're reading a child's book. Somebody ought to say what it is."[44] Carson McCullers apparently agreed with the Time magazine review, writing to a cousin: "Well, honey, one thing we know is that she's been poaching on my literary preserves."[86]

One year after being published, To Kill a Mockingbird had been translated into ten languages. In the years since, it has sold over 30 million copies and been translated into over 40 languages.[87] To Kill a Mockingbird has never been out of print in hardcover or paperback and has become part of the standard literature curriculum. A 2008 survey of secondary books read by students between grades 9–12 in the U.S. indicates the novel is the most widely read book in these grades.[88] A 1991 survey by the Book of the Month Club and the Library of Congress Center for the Book found that To Kill a Mockingbird was rated behind only the Bible in books that are "most often cited as making a difference",[89] and has appeared on numerous other lists that describe its impact.[note 1]

Atticus Finch and the legal profession

One of the most significant impacts To Kill a Mockingbird has had is Atticus Finch's model of integrity for the legal profession. As scholar Alice Petry explains, "Atticus has become something of a folk hero in legal circles and is treated almost as if he were an actual person."[90] Morris Dees of the Southern Poverty Law Center cites Atticus Finch as the reason he became a lawyer, and Richard Matsch, the federal judge who presided over the Timothy McVeigh trial, counts Atticus as a major judicial influence.[91] One law professor at the University of Notre Dame stated that the most influential textbook he taught from was To Kill a Mockingbird, and an article in the Michigan Law Review claims, "No real-life lawyer has done more for the self-image or public perception of the legal profession," before questioning whether, "Atticus Finch is a paragon of honor or an especially slick hired gun".[92]

In 1992, an Alabama editorial called for the death of Atticus, saying that as liberal as Atticus was, he still worked within a system of institutionalized racism and sexism and should not be revered. The editorial sparked a flurry of responses from attorneys who entered the profession because of him and esteemed him as a hero.[93] Critics of Atticus maintain he is morally ambiguous and does not use his legal skills to challenge the racist status quo in Maycomb.[44] However, in 1997, the Alabama State Bar erected a monument to Atticus in Monroeville, marking his existence as the "first commemorative milestone in the state's judicial history".[94] In 2008, Lee herself received an honorary special membership to the Alabama State Bar for creating Atticus who "has become the personification of the exemplary lawyer in serving the legal needs of the poor".[95]


Challenges and bans

To Kill a Mockingbird has been a source of significant controversy since its being the subject of classroom study as early as 1963. The book's racial slurs, profanity, and frank discussion of rape have led people to challenge its appropriateness in libraries and classrooms across the United States. The American Library Association reported that To Kill a Mockingbird was #23 of the 100 most frequently challenged books of 2000–2007.[96][97]

One of the first incidents of the book being challenged was in Hanover, Virginia, in 1966: a parent protested that the use of rape as a plot device was immoral. Johnson cites examples of letters to local newspapers, which ranged from amusement to fury; those letters expressing the most outrage, however, complained about Mayella Ewell's attraction to Tom Robinson over the depictions of rape.[98] Upon learning the school administrators were holding hearings to decide the book's appropriateness for the classroom, Harper Lee sent $10 to The Richmond News Leader suggesting it to be used toward the enrollment of "the Hanover County School Board in any first grade of its choice".[45] The National Education Association in 1968 placed the novel second on a list of books receiving the most complaints from private organizations—after Little Black Sambo.[99]

With a shift of attitudes about race in the 1970s, To Kill a Mockingbird faced challenges of a different sort: the treatment of racism in Maycomb was not condemned harshly enough. In one high-profile case outside the U.S., school districts in the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia attempted to have the book removed from standard teaching curricula in the 1990s, stating:

The terminology in this novel subjects students to humiliating experiences that rob them of their self-respect and the respect of their peers. The word 'Nigger' is used 48 times [in] the novel... We believe that the English Language Arts curriculum in Nova Scotia must enable all students to feel comfortable with ideas, feelings and experiences presented without fear of humiliation... To Kill a Mockingbird is clearly a book that no longer meets these goals and therefore must no longer be used for classroom instruction.[100]

The response to these attempts to remove the book from standard teaching was passionate across Canada and the United States, and many of the initial complainants were labeled as overly sensitive and "benign censors."[100] Isaac Saney, who supports attempts to ban the book, concludes that the media response to the removal effort was a form of institutionalized racism: "The media's editorialising against all 'censorship' and 'banning' includes vigorous hostility to the censorship and banning of racism. Its advocacy of freedom of speech includes freedom of speech for racists and fascists."[100][note 2]

Canard of Capote authorship

Lee's childhood friend, author Truman Capote, wrote on the dust jacket of the first edition, "Someone rare has written this very fine first novel: a writer with the liveliest sense of life, and the warmest, most authentic sense of humor. A touching book; and so funny, so likeable."[101] This comment has been construed to suggest that Capote wrote the book or edited it heavily.[5] The only supporting evidence for this rumor is the 2003 report of a Tuscaloosa newspaper, which quoted Capote's biological father, Archulus Persons, as claiming that Capote had written "almost all" of the book.[102] The rumors were put to rest in 2006 when a Capote letter was donated to Monroeville's literary heritage museum. Writing to a neighbor in Monroeville in 1959, Capote mentioned that Lee was writing a book that was to be published soon. Extensive notes between Lee and her editor at Lippincott also refute the rumor of Capote's authorship.[103] Lee's older sister Alice has responded to the rumor, saying: "That's the biggest lie ever told."[19]


A color photograph of Harper Lee smiling and speaking to President George W. Bush while other seated Medal of Freedom recipients look on
Harper Lee and President George W. Bush at the November 5, 2007 ceremony awarding Lee the Presidential Medal of Freedom for To Kill a Mockingbird

During the years immediately following the novel's publication, Harper Lee enjoyed the attention its popularity garnered her, granting interviews, visiting schools, and attending events honoring the book. In 1961, when To Kill a Mockingbird was in its 41st week on the bestseller list, it was awarded the Pulitzer Prize, stunning Lee.[104] It also won the Brotherhood Award of the National Conference of Christians and Jews in the same year, and the Paperback of the Year award from Bestsellers magazine in 1962.[82][105] Starting in 1964, Lee began to turn down interviews, complaining of monotonous questioning. She has declined ever since to talk with reporters about the book. She has also steadfastly refused to provide an introduction, writing in 1995: "Introductions inhibit pleasure, they kill the joy of anticipation, they frustrate curiosity. The only good thing about Introductions is that in some cases they delay the dose to come. Mockingbird still says what it has to say; it has managed to survive the years without preamble."[106]

In 2001, Lee was inducted into the Alabama Academy of Honor.[107] In the same year, Chicago mayor Richard M. Daley initiated a reading program throughout the city's libraries, and chose his favorite book, To Kill a Mockingbird, as the first title of the One City, One Book program. Lee declared that "there is no greater honor the novel could receive".[108] By 2004, the novel had been chosen by 25 communities for variations of the citywide reading program, more than any other novel.[109]

In 2006, Lee was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Notre Dame.[110] During the ceremony, the students and audience gave Lee a standing ovation, and the entire graduating class held up copies of To Kill a Mockingbird to honor her.[111]

Lee was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom on November 5, 2007 by President George W. Bush. In his remarks, Bush stated, "One reason To Kill a Mockingbird succeeded is the wise and kind heart of the author, which comes through on every page... To Kill a Mockingbird has influenced the character of our country for the better. It's been a gift to the entire world. As a model of good writing and humane sensibility, this book will be read and studied forever."[112]


1962 film

A black and white photograph of Alan J. Pakula seated next to Harper Lee in director's chairs watching the filming of To Kill a Mockingbird
Film producer Alan J. Pakula with Lee; Lee spent three weeks watching the filming, then "took off when she realized everything would be fine without her".[107]

The book was made into the well-received 1962 film with the same title, starring Gregory Peck as Atticus Finch. The film's producer, Alan J. Pakula, remembered Paramount Studios executives questioning him about a potential script: "They said, 'What story do you plan to tell for the film?' I said, 'Have you read the book?' They said, 'Yes.' I said, 'That's the story.'"[113] The movie was a smash hit at the box office, making more than $20 million, against a $2 million budget. It won three Oscars: Best Actor for Gregory Peck, Best Art Direction-Set Decoration, Black-and-White, and Best Writing, Screenplay Based on Material from Another Medium for Horton Foote. It was nominated for five more Oscars including Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Mary Badham, the actress who played Scout.[114]

Harper Lee was pleased with the movie, saying: "In that film the man and the part met... I've had many, many offers to turn it into musicals, into TV or stage plays, but I've always refused. That film was a work of art."[115] Peck met Lee's father, the model for Atticus, before the filming. Lee's father died before the film's release, and Lee was so impressed with Peck's performance that she gave him her father's pocketwatch, which he had with him the evening he was awarded the Oscar for best actor.[116] Years later, he was reluctant to tell Lee that the watch was stolen out of his luggage in London Heathrow Airport. When Peck eventually did tell Lee, he said she responded, "'Well, it's only a watch.' Harper—she feels deeply, but she's not a sentimental person about things."[117] Lee and Peck shared a friendship long after the movie was made. Peck's grandson was named "Harper" in her honor.[118]

In May 2005, Lee made an uncharacteristic appearance at the Los Angeles Public Library for an event in her honor. It was hosted by Peck's widow Veronique, who said of Lee: "She's like a national treasure. She's someone who has made a difference...with this book. The book is still as strong as it ever was, and so is the film. All the kids in the United States read this book and see the film in the seventh and eighth grades and write papers and essays. My husband used to get thousands and thousands of letters from teachers who would send them to him."[8]


The book has also been adapted as a play by Christopher Sergel. It debuted in 1990 in Monroeville, a town that labels itself "The Literary Capital of Alabama". The play runs every May on the county courthouse grounds and townspeople make up the cast.[119] White male audience members are chosen at the intermission to make up the jury. During the courtroom scene the production moves into the Monroe County Courthouse and the audience is racially segregated. Author Albert Murray said of the relationship of the town to the novel (and the annual performance): "It becomes part of the town ritual, like the religious underpinning of Mardi Gras. With the whole town crowded around the actual courthouse, it's part of a central, civic education—what Monroeville aspires to be."[120]

According to a National Geographic article, the novel is so revered in Monroeville that people quote lines from it like Scripture; yet Harper Lee herself has refused to attend any performances, because "she abhors anything that trades on the book's fame".[121] To underscore this sentiment, Lee demanded that a book of recipes named Calpurnia's Cookbook not be published and sold out of the Monroe County Heritage Museum.[122] Despite her discouragement, a rising number of tourists have come to Monroeville, hoping to see Lee's inspiration for the book, or Lee herself. Local residents call them "Mockingbird groupies", and although Lee is not reclusive, she refuses publicity and interviews with an emphatic "Hell, no!"[123]

See also


  1. ^ In 1999, it was voted the "Best Novel of the 20th century" by readers of the Library Journal. It is listed as number five on the Modern Library's Reader's List of the 100 Best Novels in the English language since 1900 and number four on the rival Radcliffe Publishing Course's Radcliffe Publishing Course's 100 Best Board Picks for Novels and Nonfiction. To Kill a Mockingbird appeared first on a list developed by librarians in 2006 who answered the question, "Which book should every adult read before they die?" followed by the Bible and The Lord of the Rings trilogy. The British public voted in the BBC's Big Read broadcast to rank it 6th of all time in 2003. BBC - The Big Read
  2. ^ In August 2009, St. Edmund Campion Secondary School in Toronto removed To Kill a Mockingbird from the grade 10 curriculum because of a complaint regarding the language in the book. (Noor, Javed [August 12, 2009]. "Complaint prompts school to kill 'Mockingbird' ", The Star (Toronto). Retrieved on August 19, 2009.)


  1. ^ Crespino, Joseph (Summer 2000). "The Strange Career of Atticus Finch". Southern Cultures (University of North Carolina Press) 6 (2): 9–29. 
  2. ^ Pauli, Michelle (2006-03-02). "Harper Lee tops librarians' must-read list". Guardian Unlimited.,,1721526,00.html. Retrieved 2008-02-13. 
  3. ^ Shields, p. 79–99.
  4. ^ "Nelle Harper Lee". Alabama Academy of Honor. Alabama Department of Archives and History. 2001. Retrieved 2007-11-13. 
  5. ^ a b "National Endowment of the Arts. "The Big Read: To Kill a Mockingbird (About the Author)."". National Endowment of the Arts. Retrieved 2007-11-14. 
  6. ^ Shields, p. 129.
  7. ^ Shields, p. 14.
  8. ^ a b Lacher, Irene (2005-05-21). "Harper Lee raises her low profile for a friend; The author of 'To Kill a Mockingbird' shuns fanfare. But for the kin of Gregory Peck". Los Angeles Times: p. E.1. 
  9. ^ Shields, p. 242.
  10. ^ "Harper Lee," in American Decades. Gale Research, 1998.
  11. ^ Shields, p. 120–121.
  12. ^ Shields, p. 122–125.
  13. ^ Shields, p. 40–41.
  14. ^ Krebs, Albin. "Truman Capote Is Dead at 59; Novelist of Style and Clarity", The New York Times, August 26, 1984, p. 1.
  15. ^ "Truman Capote". UXL Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2003. Retrieved 2007-11-13. 
  16. ^ Fleming, Anne Taylor (1976-07-09). "The Private World of Truman Capote". The New York Times Magazine: p. SM6. 
  17. ^ Steinem, Gloria (November 1967). "Go Right Ahead and Ask Me Anything (And So She Did): An Interview with Truman Capote". McCall's: 76. 
  18. ^ Hile, Kevin S. (August 1994). "Harper Lee". Authors and Artists for Young Adults. 13. Detroit: Gale Research. ISBN 9780810385665. 
  19. ^ a b Bigg, Matthew (2007-09-23). "Novel Still Stirs Pride, Debate; 'Mockingbird' Draws Tourists to Town Coming to Grips With Its Past". The Washington Post: p. A3. 
  20. ^ Johnson, Boundaries p. 7–11.
  21. ^ Shields, p. 118.
  22. ^ a b c d Chura, Patrick (Spring 2000). "Prolepsis and Anachronism: Emmet Till and the Historicity of To Kill a Mockingbird". Southern Literary Journal 32 (2): 1. 
  23. ^ a b "About Life & Little Girls". Time. 1960-08-01.,9171,869711,00.html?internalid=atb100. Retrieved 2008-02-15. 
  24. ^ a b c Dave, R.A. (1974). "Harper Lee's Tragic Vision". Indian Studies in American Fiction. MacMillan Company of India, Ltd. ISBN 978-0333900345. 
  25. ^ Graeme Dunphy, "Meena's Mockingbird: From Harper Lee to Meera Syal", Neophilologus, 88 (2004) 637-660. PDF online
  26. ^ Ward, L. "To Kill a Mockingbird (book review)." Commonwealth: December 9, 1960.
  27. ^ a b Adams, Phoebe (August 1960). "To Kill a Mockingbird". The Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved 2007-11-13. 
  28. ^ a b LeMay, Harding (1960-07-10). "Children Play; Adults Betray". New York Herald Tribune. 
  29. ^ a b Hicks, Granville (1960-07-23). "Three at the Outset". Saturday Review XLIII (30). 
  30. ^ a b Tavernier-Courbin, Jacqueline (2007). "Humor and Humanity in To Kill a Mockingbird". in Alice Petry (ed.). On Harper Lee: Essays and Reflections. University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 9781572335783. 
  31. ^ Lee, p. 46.
  32. ^ Lee, p. 19.
  33. ^ p. 174.
  34. ^ Boerman-Cornell, William (1999). "The Five Humors". English Journal 88 (4): 66. doi:10.2307/822422. 
  35. ^ Lee, p. 133.
  36. ^ Lee, p. 297.
  37. ^ Johnson, Boundaries p. 40–41.
  38. ^ a b c d Blackall, Jean (2007). "Valorizing the Commonplace: Harper Lee's Response to Jane Austen". in Alice Petry (ed.). On Harper Lee: Essays and Reflections. University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 9781572335783. 
  39. ^ Johnson, Boundaries p. 39–45.
  40. ^ Fine, Laura (2007). "Structuring the Narrator's Rebellion in To Kill a Mockingbird". in Alice Petry (ed.). On Harper Lee: Essays and Reflections. University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 9781572335783. 
  41. ^ Lee, p. 246.
  42. ^ a b Ware, Michele (2003). "'Just a Lady': Gender and Power in Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird". in Jerilyn Fisher and Ellen S. Silber (eds.). Women in literature: reading through the lens of gender. Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313313462. 
  43. ^ Johnson, Boundaries p. 20.
  44. ^ a b c Metress, Christopher (September 2003). "The Rise and Fall of Atticus Finch". The Chattahoochee Review 24 (1). 
  45. ^ a b "Harper Lee Twits School Board In Virginia for Ban on Her Novel". The New York Times: p. 82. 1966-01-16. 
  46. ^ Johnson, Boundaries p. 20–24
  47. ^ a b Erisman, Fred (April 1973). "The Romantic Regionalism of Harper Lee". The Alabama Review XXVI (2). 
  48. ^ a b Bruell, Edwin (December 1964). "Keen Scalpel on Racial Ills". English Journal 51 (9). 
  49. ^ Henderson, R (1960-05-15). "To Kill a Mockingbird". Library Journal. 
  50. ^ a b c Johnson, Claudia (Autumn 1991). "The Secret Courts of Men's Hearts". Studies in American Fiction 19 (2). 
  51. ^ a b c Hovet, Theodore and Grace-Ann (Fall 2001). "'Fine Fancy Gentlemen' and 'Yappy Folk': Contending Voices in To Kill a Mockingbird". Southern Quarterly: A Journal of the Arts in the South 40. 
  52. ^ Flora, Joseph (2006). "Harper Lee". Southern Writers: A New Biographical Dictionary. Louisiana State University Press. 
  53. ^ Johnson, Boundaries p. xi–xiv
  54. ^ Bloom, Harold (1999). Modern Critical Interpretations: To Kill a Mockingbird. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers. 
  55. ^ Shields, p. 219–220, 223, 233–235
  56. ^ Siegel, Roslyn (1976). "The Black Man and the Macabre in American Literature". Black American Literature Forum (Indiana State University) 10: 133. doi:10.2307/3041614. 
  57. ^ Lee, p. 107–113.
  58. ^ a b Jones, Carolyn (Summer 1996). "Atticus Finch and the Mad Dog". Southern Quarterly: A Journal of the Arts in the South 34 (4). 
  59. ^ a b c Baecker, Diane (Spring 1998). "Telling It In Black and White: The Importance of the Africanist Presence in To Kill a Mockingbird". Southern Quarterly: A Journal of the Arts in the South 36 (3): 124–32. 
  60. ^ Banfield, Beryle (1998). "Commitment to Change: The Council on Interracial Books for Children and the World of Children's Books". African American Review (Indiana State University) 32: 17. doi:10.2307/3042264. 
  61. ^ Suhor, Charles; Bell, Larry (1997). "Preparing to teach To Kill a Mockingbird". English Journal (National Council of Teachers of English) 86 (4): 1–16. 
  62. ^ Martelle, Scott (2000-06-28). "A Different Read on 'Mockingbird'; Long a classroom starting point for lessons about intolerance, the Harper Lee classic is being reexamined by some who find its perspective limited". Los Angeles Times: p. 6. 
  63. ^ Lee, p. 27.
  64. ^ Lee, p. 155.
  65. ^ a b c d Shackleford, Dean (Winter 1996–1997). "The Female Voice in To Kill a Mockingbird: Narrative Strategies in Film and Novel". Mississippi Quarterly: the Journal of Southern Cultures 50 (1): 101–13. 
  66. ^ "Nelle Harper Lee." Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2007.
  67. ^ a b c Jolley, Susan (2002). "Integrating Poetry and "To Kill a Mockingbird"". English Journal 92: 34. doi:10.2307/822224. 
  68. ^ Mancini, p. 19.
  69. ^ Lee, p. 128.
  70. ^ Shields, p. 1.
  71. ^ Lee, p. 33.
  72. ^ a b Fine, Laura (Summer 1998). "Gender Conflicts and Their 'Dark' Projections in Coming of Age White Female Southern Novels". Southern Quarterly: A Journal of the Arts in the South 36 (4): 121–29. 
  73. ^ Johnson, Boundaries p.25–27.
  74. ^ Lee, p. 146.
  75. ^ a b Lee, p. 103.
  76. ^ Schuster, Edgar (1963). "Discovering Theme and Structure in the Novel". English Journal 52 (7): 506. doi:10.2307/810774. 
  77. ^ Johnson, Casebook p. 207.
  78. ^ Metress, Christopher. "Lee, Harper." Contemporary Southern Writers. St. James Press, 1999.
  79. ^ Lee, p. 322–323.
  80. ^ Lee, p. 241.
  81. ^ Shields, p. 185–188.
  82. ^ a b Bain, Robert (1980). "Harper Lee". Southern Writers: A Biographical Dictionary. Louisiana State University Press. pp. 276–277. ISBN 080710390X. 
  83. ^ "To Kill a Mockingbird". The New Yorker. September 1960. 
  84. ^ Sullivan, Richard (1960-07-17). "To Kill a Mockingbird". Chicago Sunday Times. 
  85. ^ Johnson , Boundaries p.21, 24.
  86. ^ Kiernan, F., "Carson McCullers" (Book Review). Atlantic Monthly (1993) v. 287 no. 4 (April 2001) p. 100–2.
  87. ^ "Book description: To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee". HarperCollins. 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  88. ^ "What Kids Are Reading: The Book Reading Habits of Students in American Schools", Renaissance Learning, Inc., 2008.
  89. ^ Johnson, Boundaries p. 14.
  90. ^ Petry, p. xxiii.
  91. ^ Petry, p. xxiv.
  92. ^ Lubet, Steven (May 1999). "Reconstructing Atticus Finch". Michigan Law Review 97 (6): 1339–62. doi:10.2307/1290205. 
  93. ^ Petry, p. xxv–xxvii.
  94. ^ "'Mockingbird' Hero Honored in Monroeville". The Birmingham News (Alabama): p. 7A. 1997-05-03. 
  95. ^ "Harper Lee Can Take a Place at the Bar", The Birmingham News (March 17, 2008).
  96. ^ "Top 100 Banned/Challenged Books in 2000-2007", American Library Association, 2007.
  97. ^ "Banned and/or Challenged Books". American Library Association. Retrieved 2007-11-11. 
  98. ^ Johnson, Casebook p. 208–213.
  99. ^ Mancini, p. 56.
  100. ^ a b c Saney, Isaac (July–September 2003). "The Case Against To Kill a Mockingbird". Race & Class 45 (1): 99–110. doi:10.1177/0306396803045001005. 
  101. ^ "First Edition Points to identify To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee". Pulitzer Prize First Edition Guide. Retrieved 2007-11-14. 
  102. ^ Windham, Ben (2003-08-24). "An Encounter with Harper Lee". The Tuscaloosa News. 
  103. ^ Scheible, Sue (2006-02-27). "To kill a rumor: Capote letter helps solve ‘Mockingbird’ mystery". The Patriot Ledger. Retrieved 2007-11-14. 
  104. ^ Shields, p.199–200.
  105. ^ Mancini, p. 15.
  106. ^ Tabor, May (1995-08-23). "A 'new foreword' that isn't". The New York Times: p. C.11. 
  107. ^ a b Bellafante, Ginia (2006-01-30). "Harper Lee, Gregarious for a Day". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-11-13. 
  108. ^ "Chicago Launches City-wide Book Group". Library Journal. 2001-08-13. 
  109. ^ "To Read a Mockingbird". Library Journal (New York) 129 (14): 13.. 2004-09-01. 
  110. ^ Brow, Dennis (2006-04-11). "Honorary degree recipients are leaders in diverse fields". University of Notre Dame. Retrieved 2007-11-09. 
  111. ^ "Commencement 2006". Notre Dame Magazine (University of Notre Dame). July 2006. Retrieved 2007-11-09. 
  112. ^ "President Bush Honors Medal of Freedom Recipients". White House press release. 2007-11-05. Retrieved 2007-11-09. 
  113. ^ Nichols, Peter (1998-02-27). "Time Can't Kill 'Mockingbird' [Review]". The New York Times: p. E.1. 
  114. ^ "To Kill a Mockingbird (film)". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 2008-03-29. .
  115. ^ Jones, Carolyn (2002). "Harper Lee". in Carolyn Perry (ed.). The History of Southern Women's Literature. Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 9780807127537. 
  116. ^ Bobbin, Jay (1997-12-21). "Gregory Peck is Atticus Finch in Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird". The Birmingham News (Alabama): p. 1.F. 
  117. ^ King, Susan (1997-12-22). "How the Finch Stole Christmas; Q & A With Gregory Peck". Los Angeles Times: p. 1. 
  118. ^ King, Susan (1999-10-18). "Q&A; Film Honors Peck, 'Perfectly Happy' in a Busy Retirement". Los Angeles Times: p. 4. 
  119. ^ "Literary History of Monroeville". Monroeville Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 2007-11-11. 
  120. ^ Hoffman, Roy (1998-08-09). "Long Lives the Mockingbird". New York Times Book Review (New York): p. 31. 
  121. ^ Newman, Cathy (January 2006). "To Catch a Mockingbird". Retrieved 2007-11-11. 
  122. ^ Robinson, David. "The One and Only". Retrieved 2008-03-29. 
  123. ^ Pressley, Sue (1999-06-10). "Quiet Author, Home Town Attract 'Groupies,' Press; To Live With 'Mockingbird'". The Washington Post: p. A.3. 


  • Johnson, Claudia. To Kill a Mockingbird: Threatening Boundaries. Twayne Publishers: 1994. ISBN 0805780688
  • Johnson, Claudia. Understanding To Kill a Mockingbird: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historic Documents. Greenwood Press: 1994. ISBN 0313291934
  • Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. HarperCollins: 1960 (Perennial Classics edition: 2002). ISBN 0060935464
  • Mancini, Candice, ed. (2008). Racism in Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird,  The Gale Group. ISBN 0737739046
  • Petry, Alice. "Introduction" in On Harper Lee: Essays and Reflections. University of Tennessee Press: 1994. ISBN 1572335785
  • Shields, Charles. Mockingbird: A Portrait of Harper Lee. Henry Holt and Co.: 2006. ISBN 080507919X

External links

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Preceded by
Advise and Consent
by Allen Drury
Pulitzer Prize for Fiction
Succeeded by
The Edge of Sadness
by Edwin O'Connor


Up to date as of January 14, 2010

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