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Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. It can be consumed, used as an organic pesticide, and, in the form of nicotine tartrate, it is used in some medicines.[1] In consumption it most commonly appears in the forms of smoking, chewing, snuffing, or dipping tobacco, or snus. Tobacco has long been in use as an entheogen in the Americas. However, upon the arrival of Europeans in North America, it quickly became popularized as a trade item and as a recreational drug. This popularization led to the development of the southern economy of the United States until it gave way to cotton. Following the American Civil War, a change in demand and a change in labor force allowed for the development of the cigarette. This new product quickly led to the growth of tobacco companies, until the scientific controversy of the mid-1900s.
There are many species of tobacco, which are all encompassed by the plant genus Nicotiana. The word nicotiana (as well as nicotine) was named in honor of Jean Nicot, French ambassador to Portugal, who in 1559 sent it as a medicine to the court of Catherine de Medici.[2]
Because of the addictive properties of nicotine, tolerance and dependence develop. Absorption quantity, frequency, and speed of tobacco consumption are believed to be directly related to biological strength of nicotine dependence, addiction, and tolerance.[3][4] The usage of tobacco is an activity that is practiced by some 1.1 billion people, and up to 1/3 of the adult population.[5] The World Health Organization reports it to be the leading preventable cause of death worldwide and estimates that it currently causes 5.4 million deaths per year.[6] Rates of smoking have leveled off or declined in developed countries, however they continue to rise in developing countries.
Tobacco is cultivated similarly to other agricultural products. Seeds are sown in cold frames or hotbeds to prevent attacks from insects, and then transplanted into the fields. Tobacco is an annual crop, which is usually harvested mechanically or by hand. After harvest, tobacco is stored for curing, which allows for the slow oxidation and degradation of carotenoids. This allows for the agricultural product to take on properties that are usually attributed to the "smoothness" of the smoke. Following this, tobacco is packed into its various forms of consumption, which include smoking, chewing, sniffing, and so on.

Contents

Etymology

The Spanish word "tabaco" is thought to have its origin in Arawakan language, particularly, in the Taino language of the Caribbean. In Taino, it was said to refer either to a roll of tobacco leaves (according to Bartolome de Las Casas, 1552), or to the tabago, a kind of Y-shaped pipe for sniffing tobacco smoke (according to Oviedo; with the leaves themselves being referred to as cohiba).[7]
However, similar words in Spanish and Italian were commonly used from 1410 to define medicinal herbs, originating from the Arabic tabbaq, a word reportedly dating to the 9th century, as the name of various herbs.[8]

History

Early developments

Tobacco had already long been used in the Americas when European settlers arrived and introduced the practice to Europe, where it became popular. At high doses, tobacco can become hallucinogenic[citation needed]; accordingly, Native Americans never used the drug recreationally. Instead, it was often consumed as an entheogen; among some tribes, this was done only by experienced shamans or medicine men.[citation needed] Eastern North American tribes would carry large amounts of tobacco in pouches as a readily accepted trade item, and would often smoke it in pipes, either in defined ceremonies that were considered sacred, or to seal a bargain,[9] and they would smoke it at such occasions in all stages of life, even in childhood.[10] It is believed that tobacco is a gift from the Creator and that the exhaled tobacco smoke carries one's thoughts and prayers to heaven.[11]
An Illustration from Frederick William Fairholt's Tobacco, its History and Association, 1859.

Popularization

Following the arrival of the Europeans, tobacco became increasingly popular as a trade item. It fostered the economy for the southern United States until it was replaced by cotton. Following the American civil war, a change in demand and a change in labor force allowed inventor James Bonsack to create a machine which automated cigarette production.
This increase in production allowed tremendous growth in the tobacco industry until the scientific revelations of the mid-1900s.

Contemporary

Following the scientific revelations of the mid-1900s, tobacco became condemned as a health hazard, and eventually became encompassed as a cause for cancer, as well as other respiratory and circulatory diseases. This led to the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) which settled the lawsuit in exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco products.
In the 1970s, Brown & Williamson cross-bred a strain of tobacco to produce Y1. This strain of tobacco contained an unusually high amount of nicotine, nearly doubling its content from 3.2-3.5% to 6.5%. In the 1990s, this prompted the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to use this strain as evidence that tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes.
In 2003, in response to growth of tobacco use in developing countries, the World Health Organization (WHO)[12] successfully rallied 168 countries to sign the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The Convention is designed to push for effective legislation and its enforcement in all countries to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco. This led to the development of tobacco cessation products.

Biology

Nicotiana

Nicotine is the compound responsible for the addictive nature of Tobacco use.
Tobacco flower, leaves, and buds
There are many species of tobacco, which are encompassed by the genus of herbs Nicotiana. It is part of the nightshade family (Solanaceae) indigenous to North and South America, Australia, south west Africa and the South Pacific.
Many plants contain nicotine, a powerful neurotoxin, that is particularly harmful to insects. However, tobaccos contain a higher concentration of nicotine than most other plants. Unlike many other Solanaceae, they do not contain tropane alkaloids, which are often poisonous to humans and other animals.
Despite containing enough nicotine and other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids (varying between species) to deter most herbivores,[13] a number of such animals have evolved the ability to feed on Nicotiana species without being harmed. Nonetheless, tobacco is unpalatable to many species, and therefore some tobacco plants (chiefly tree tobacco, N. glauca) have become established as invasive weeds in some places.

Types

There are a number of types of tobacco including, but are not limited to:
  • Aromatic fire-cured, it is cured by smoke from open fires. In the United States, it is grown in northern middle Tennessee, central Kentucky and in Virginia. Fire-cured tobacco grown in Kentucky and Tennessee are used in some chewing tobaccos, moist snuff, some cigarettes, and as a condiment in pipe tobacco blends. Another fire-cured tobacco is Latakia, which is produced from oriental varieties of N. tabacum. The leaves are cured and smoked over smoldering fires of local hardwoods and aromatic shrubs in Cyprus and Syria.
  • Brightleaf tobacco, Brightleaf is commonly known as "Virginia tobacco", often regardless of the state in which they are planted. Prior to the American Civil War, most tobacco grown in the US was fire-cured dark-leaf. This type of tobacco was planted in fertile lowlands, used a robust variety of leaf, and was either fire cured or air cured. Most Canadian cigarettes are made from 100% pure Virginia tobacco.[14]
  • Burley tobacco, is an air-cured tobacco used primarily for cigarette production. In the U.S., burley tobacco plants are started from palletized seeds placed in polystyrene trays floated on a bed of fertilized water in March or April.
  • Cavendish is more a process of curing and a method of cutting tobacco than a type. The processing and the cut are used to bring out the natural sweet taste in the tobacco. Cavendish can be produced from any tobacco type, but is usually one of, or a blend of Kentucky, Virginia, and burley, and is most commonly used for pipe tobacco and cigars.
  • Criollo tobacco is a type of tobacco, primarily used in the making of cigars. It was, by most accounts, one of the original Cuban tobaccos that emerged around the time of Columbus.
  • Dokham, is a tobacco originally grown in Iran, mixed with leaves, bark, and herbs for smoking in a midwakh.
  • Turkish tobacco, is a sun-cured, highly aromatic, small-leafed variety (Nicotiana tabacum) that is grown in Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, and Macedonia. Originally grown in regions historically part of the Ottoman Empire, it is also known as "oriental". Many of the early brands of cigarettes were made mostly or entirely of Turkish tobacco; today, its main use is in blends of pipe and especially cigarette tobacco (a typical American cigarette is a blend of bright Virginia, burley and Turkish).
  • Perique, a farmer called Pierre Chenet is credited with first turning this local tobacco into the Perique in 1824 through the technique of pressure-fermentation. Considered the truffle of pipe tobaccos, it is used as a component in many blended pipe tobaccos, but is too strong to be smoked pure. At one time, the freshly moist Perique was also chewed, but none is now sold for this purpose. It is typically blended with pure Virginia to lend spice, strength, and coolness to the blend.
  • Shade tobacco, is cultivated in Connecticut and Massachusetts. Early Connecticut colonists acquired from the Native Americans the habit of smoking tobacco in pipes, and began cultivating the plant commercially, even though the Puritans referred to it as the "evil weed". The industry has weathered some major catastrophes, including a devastating hailstorm in 1929, and an epidemic of brown spot fungus in 2000, but is now in danger of disappearing altogether, given the value of the land to real estate speculators.
  • White burley, in 1865, George Webb of Brown County, Ohio planted red burley seeds he had purchased, and found that a few of the seedlings had a whitish, sickly look. The air-cured leaf was found to be more mild than other types of tobacco.
  • Wild tobacco, is native to the southwestern United States, Mexico, and parts of South America. Its botanical name is Nicotiana rustica.
  • Y1 is a strain of tobacco cross-bred by Brown & Williamson in the 1970s to obtain an unusually high nicotine content. In the 1990s, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) used it as evidence that tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes.[15]

Impact

Social

Smoking in public was for a long time something reserved for men, and when done by women was sometimes associated with promiscuity.[citation needed] In Japan during the Edo period, prostitutes and their clients would often approach one another under the guise of offering a smoke, and the same was true for 19th century Europe.[16]
Following the American Civil War the usage of tobacco, primarily in cigarettes, became associated with masculinity and power, and is an iconic image associated with the stereotypical capitalist. Today, tobacco is often rejected; this has spawned quitting associations and anti-smoking campaigns. Bhutan is the only country in the world where tobacco sales are illegal.[17]

Demographic

Research is limited mainly to tobacco smoking, which has been studied the more extensively than any other form of consumption. As of 2000, smoking is practiced by some 1.22 billion people, of which men are more likely to smoke than women[18] (however the gender gap declines with age),[19][20] poor more likely than rich, and people in developing countries or transitional economies are more likely than people in developed countries.[21] As of 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) reports that of the 58.8 million deaths to occur globally,[22] 5.4 million are tobacco-attributed.[23]

Health

Tobacco use leads most commonly to diseases affecting the heart and lungs, with smoking being a major risk factor for heart attacks, strokes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), emphysema, and cancer (particularly lung cancer, cancers of the larynx and mouth, and pancreatic cancer).
The World Health Organization estimates that tobacco caused 5.4 million deaths in 2004[24] and 100 million deaths over the course of the 20th century.[25] Similarly, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention describes tobacco use as "the single most important preventable risk to human health in developed countries and an important cause of premature death worldwide."[26]
Rates of smoking have leveled off or declined in the developed world. .Smoking rates in the United States have dropped by half from 1965 to 2006, falling from 42% to 20.8% in adults.^ Utah has the lowest rate of smoking in the United States.

^ Smoking had steadily declined among adults in recent years; though the trend has stalled between 2004 and 2006, according to the latest CDC report there was a 1% drop in smoking prevalence among U.S. adults in 2007.

^ CDC. State-specific prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults, and children s and adolescents exposure to environmental tobacco smoke United States.

[27] In the developing world, tobacco consumption is rising by 3.4% per year.[28]
When the market for tobacco reduced in the West, the industry looked to India and China for 'emerging markets'. Dr. Sharad Vaidya, a cancer surgeon worked tirelessly to fight this, through research, advocacy and passion. He successfully raised awareness, introduced it in the curriculum of children and managed to establish legislation banning public smoking, stopping sports sponsorship, sale to minors (<21 years) - an age suggested by Jayant Vaidya [2], starting in Goa.

Economic

"Much of the disease burden and premature mortality attributable to tobacco use disproportionately affect the poor", and of the 1.22 billion smokers, 1 billion of them live in developing or transitional economies.[21]
In Indonesia, the lowest income group spends 15% of its total expenditures on tobacco. In Egypt, more than 10% of households expediture in low-income homes is on tobacco. The poorest 20% of households in Mexico spend 11% of their income on tobacco.[29]

Political

The tobacco lobby gives money to politicians to vote in favor of deregulating tobacco. It is estimated that the United States tobacco lobby spends an average of $106,415 each day legislature meets; however the industry lost its support when the U.S. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) filed charges against the Tobacco Institute, a tobacco industry advocacy group.[30] This resulted in the Master Settlement Agreement, which forced the organization to disband and place all records on a website.[31]

Production

Cultivation

Tobacco plants growing in a field in Intercourse, Pennsylvania
Tobacco is cultivated similar to other agricultural products. Seeds were at first quickly scattered onto the soil. However, young plants came under increasing attack from flea beetles (Epitrix cucumeris or Epitrix pubescens), which caused destruction of half the tobacco crops in United States in 1876. By 1890 successful experiments were conducted that placed the plant in a frame covered by thin fabric. Today, tobacco is sown in cold frames or hotbeds, as their germination is activated by light.
In the United States, tobacco is often fertilized with the mineral apatite, which partially starves the plant of nitrogen, to produce a more desired flavor. Apatite, however, contains radium, lead 210, and polonium 210 — which are known radioactive carcinogens.
After the plants have reached relative maturity, they are transplanted into the fields, in which a relatively large hole is created in the tilled earth with a tobacco peg. Various mechanical tobacco planters were invented in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to automate the process: making the hole, fertilizing it, guiding the plant in — all in one motion.
Tobacco is cultivated annually, and can be harvested in several ways. In the oldest method, the entire plant is harvested at once by cutting off the stalk at the ground with a sickle. .In the nineteenth century, bright tobacco began to be harvested by pulling individual leaves off the stalk as they ripened.^ Two Methods: When the plants are well ripened the stalk is split with a knife down to about one-third of its length from the ground and cut off.
  • Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corp. Crop Book Dept.. Tobacco 16 January 2010 6:39 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This type of tobacco is harvested before it has reached the degree of ripeness necessary to other types, nor does it so plainly develop the conditions indicating ripening.
  • Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corp. Crop Book Dept.. Tobacco 16 January 2010 6:39 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Page 42 lower leaves they are stripped off and graded and tied into bundles.
  • Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corp. Crop Book Dept.. Tobacco 16 January 2010 6:39 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The leaves ripen from the ground upwards, so a field of tobacco may go through several so-called "pullings," more commonly known as topping (topping always refers to the removal of the tobacco flower before the leaves are systematically removed and, eventually, entirely harvested. As the industrial revolution took hold, harvesting wagons used to transport leaves were equipped with man-powered stringers, an apparatus which used twine to attach leaves to a pole. In modern times, large fields are harvested mechanically or by hand, although topping the flower and in some cases the plucking of immature leaves is still done by hand.

Curing

Sun-cured tobacco, Bastam, Iran.
Curing and subsequent aging allow for the slow oxidation and degradation of carotenoids in tobacco leaf. This produces certain compounds in the tobacco leaves, and gives a sweet hay, tea, rose oil, or fruity aromatic flavor that contributes to the "smoothness" of the smoke. Starch is converted to sugar, which glycates protein, and is oxidized into advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), a caramelization process that also adds flavor. Inhalation of these AGEs in tobacco smoke contributes to atherosclerosis and cancer.[32] Levels of AGE's is dependent on the curing method used.
Tobacco can be cured through several methods which include but are not limited to:
  • Air cured tobacco is hung in well-ventilated barns and allowed to dry over a period of four to eight weeks. Air-cured tobacco is low in sugar, which gives the tobacco smoke a light, sweet flavor, and high in nicotine. Cigar and burley tobaccos are air cured.
  • Fire cured tobacco is hung in large barns where fires of hardwoods are kept on continuous or intermittent low smoulder and takes between three days and ten weeks, depending on the process and the tobacco. . Fire curing produces a tobacco low in sugar and high in nicotine. Pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff are fire cured.
  • Flue cured tobacco was originally strung onto tobacco sticks, which were hung from tier-poles in curing barns (Aus: kilns, also traditionally called Oasts). These barns have flues which run from externally fed fire boxes, heat-curing the tobacco without exposing it to smoke, slowly raising the temperature over the course of the curing. The process will generally take about a week. This method produces cigarette tobacco that is high in sugar and has medium to high levels of nicotine.
  • Sun-cured tobacco dries uncovered in the sun. This method is used in Turkey, Greece and other Mediterranean countries to produce oriental tobacco. Sun-cured tobacco is low in sugar and nicotine and is used in cigarettes.

Consumption

Tobacco is consumed in many forms and through a number of different methods. Below are examples including, but not limited to, such forms and usage.
  • Beedi are thin, often flavored, south Asian cigarettes made of tobacco wrapped in a tendu leaf, and secured with colored thread at one end.
  • Chewing tobacco is one of the oldest ways of consuming tobacco leaves. It is consumed orally, in two forms: through sweetened strands, or in a shredded form. When consuming the long sweetened strands, the tobacco is lightly chewed and compacted into a ball. When consuming the shredded tobacco, small amounts are placed at the bottom lip, between the gum and the teeth, where it is gently compacted, thus it can oftentimes be called dipping tobacco. Both methods stimulate the saliva glands, which led to the development of the spittoon.
  • Cigars are tightly rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco which is ignited so that its smoke may be drawn into the smoker's mouth.
  • Cigarettes are a product consumed through the inhalation of smoke and manufactured from cured and finely cut tobacco leaves and reconstituted tobacco, often combined with other additives, then rolled or stuffed into a paper-wrapped cylinder.
  • Creamy snuffs are tobacco paste, consisting of tobacco, clove oil, glycerin, spearmint, menthol, and camphor, and sold in a toothpaste tube. It is marketed mainly to women in India, and is known by the brand names Ipco (made by Asha Industries), Denobac, Tona, Ganesh. It is locally known as "mishri" in some parts of Maharashtra.
  • Dipping tobaccos are a form of smokeless tobacco. Dip is occasionally referred to as "chew", and because of this, it is commonly confused with chewing tobacco, which encompasses a wider range of products. A small clump of dip is 'pinched' out of the tin and placed between the lower or upper lip and gums.
  • Electronic cigarette is an alternative to tobacco smoking, although no tobacco is consumed. It is a battery-powered device that provides inhaled doses of nicotine by delivering a vaporized propylene glycol/nicotine solution.
  • Gutka is a preparation of crushed betel nut, tobacco, and sweet or savory flavorings. It is manufactured in India and exported to a few other countries. A mild stimulant, it is sold across India in small, individual-size packets.
  • Hookah is a single or multi-stemmed (often glass-based) water pipe for smoking. Originally from India, the hookah has gained immense popularity, especially in the Middle East. A hookah operates by water filtration and indirect heat. It can be used for smoking herbal fruits or cannabis.
  • Kreteks are cigarettes made with a complex blend of tobacco, cloves and a flavoring "sauce". It was first introduced in the 1880s in Kudus, Java, to deliver the medicinal eugenol of cloves to the lungs.
  • Roll-Your-Own, often called rollies or roll ups, are very popular, particularly in European countries. These are prepared from loose tobacco, cigarette papers and filters all bought separately. They are usually much cheaper to make.
  • Pipe smoking typically consists of a small chamber (the bowl) for the combustion of the tobacco to be smoked and a thin stem (shank) that ends in a mouthpiece (the bit). Shredded pieces of tobacco are placed into the chamber and ignited.
  • Snuff is a generic term for fine-ground smokeless tobacco products. .Originally the term referred only to dry snuff, a fine tan dust popular mainly in the eighteenth century.^ He referred to "snuff" as "sniff", a term not often used.
    • Indymedia Italia - Independent Media Center Italia 2 February 2010 16:35 UTC italy.indymedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Snuff powder originated in the UK town of Great Harwood, and was famously ground in the town's monument prior to local distribution and transport further up north to Scotland. There are two major varieties which include European (dry) and American (moist); although American snuff is often referred to as dipping tobacco.
  • Snus is steam-cured moist powder tobacco product that is not fermented, and does not induce salivation. It is consumed by placing it in the mouth against the gums for an extended period of time. It is a form of snuff that is used in a manner similar to American dipping tobacco, but does not require regular spitting.
  • Topical tobacco paste is sometimes recommended as a treatment for wasp, hornet, fire ant, scorpion, and bee stings.[33] An amount equivalent to the contents of a cigarette is mashed in a cup with about a 0.5 to 1 teaspoon of water to make a paste that is then applied to the affected area.
  • Tobacco water is a traditional organic insecticide used in domestic gardening. Tobacco dust can be used similarly. .It is produced by boiling strong tobacco in water, or by steeping the tobacco in water for a longer period.^ I ate a lot, drank a lot of water, took deep breaths, and day by day, the craving went away, until finally, I no longer had strong urges to smoke.
    • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

    When cooled, the mixture can be applied as a spray, or 'painted' on to the leaves of garden plants, where it will prove deadly to insects.

Art

Pictogram voting wait.svg

Advertising

Cinema

Gallery

Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes.  
A historic kiln in Myrtleford, Victoria, Australia.  
Basma tobacco leaves drying in the sun at Pomak village in Xanthi, Greece.  
Broadleaf tobacco inspected in Chatham, Virginia, United States.  
Tobacco field in northern Poland  
Flowers of tobacco plant in northern Poland in September  

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ colonia 13 509Heading: 1550–1575 Tobacco, Europe.
  3. ^ "Tobacco Facts - Why is Tobacco So Addictive?". Tobaccofacts.org. http://www.tobaccofacts.org/tob_truth/soaddictive.html. Retrieved 2008-09-18. 
  4. ^ "Philip Morris Information Sheet". Stanford.edu. http://www.stanford.edu/group/SICD/PhilipMorris/pmorris.html. Retrieved 2008-09-18. 
  5. ^ Saner L. Gilman and Zhou Xun, "Introduction" in Smoke; p. 26
  6. ^ (PDF) WHO Report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2008 (foreword and summary). World Health Organization. 2008. pp. 8. http://www.who.int/tobacco/mpower/mpower_report_forward_summary_2008.pdf. "Tobacco is the single most preventable cause of death in the world today.". 
  7. ^ "World Association of International Studies, Stanford University". http://wais.stanford.edu/Cuba/cuba_ColumbusDiscoversCuba(110503).html. 
  8. ^ "Online Etymological Dictionary". http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=tobacco. 
  9. ^ eg. Heckewelder, History, Manners and Customs of the Indian Nations who Once Inhabited Pennsylvania, p. 149 ff.
  10. ^ "They smoke with excessive eagerness ... men, women, girls and boys, all find their keenest pleasure in this way." - Dièreville describing the Mi'kmaq, c. 1699 in Port Royal.
  11. ^ Tobacco: A Study of Its Consumption in the United States, Jack Jacob Gottsegen, 1940, p. 107.
  12. ^ "WHO | WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC)". Who.int. http://www.who.int/fctc/en/index.html. Retrieved 2008-09-18. 
  13. ^ Panter et al. (1990)
  14. ^ Imperial Tobacco Canada - Our products
  15. ^ "Inside the Tobacco Deal - interview with David Kessler". PBS. 2008. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/settlement/interviews/kessler.html. Retrieved 2008-06-11. 
  16. ^ Timon Screech, "Tobacco in Edo Period Japan" in Smoke, pp. 92-99
  17. ^ The First Nonsmoking Nation,Slate.com
  18. ^ "Guindon & Boisclair" 2004, pp. 13-16.
  19. ^ Women and the Tobacco Epidemic: Challenges for the 21st Century 2001, pp.5-6.
  20. ^ Surgeon General's Report — Women and Smoking 2001, p.47.
  21. ^ a b "WHO/WPRO-Tobacco". World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. 2005. http://www.wpro.who.int/NR/exeres/978BE0FD-AE30-46C6-8F75-1F40AE7B57BC.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-01. 
  22. ^ The Global Burden of Disease 2004 Update 2008, p.8.
  23. ^ The Global Burden of Disease 2004 Update 2008, p.23.
  24. ^ WHO global burden of disease report 2008
  25. ^ WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2008
  26. ^ "Nicotine: A Powerful Addiction." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  27. ^ Cigarette Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2006
  28. ^ WHO/WPRO-Smoking Statistics
  29. ^ MPOWER p. 26
  30. ^ "Tobacco Spends Over $100,000 Daily for Lobbying in DC". Action on Smoking and Health. http://www.no-smoking.org/oct01/10-23-01-1.html. 
  31. ^ "Tobacco Institute". Sourcewatch.org. http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Tobacco_Institute. 
  32. ^ Cerami C, Founds H, Nicholl I, Mitsuhashi T, Giordano D, Vanpatten S, Lee A, Al-Abed Y, Vlassara H, Bucala R, Cerami A (1997). "Tobacco smoke is a source of toxic reactive glycation products". Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America (Pnas) 94 (25): 13915–20. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.25.13915. PMID 9391127. 
  33. ^ Beverly Sparks, "Stinging and Biting Pests of People" Extension Entomologist of the University of Georgia College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences Cooperative Extension Service.

Bibliography

Further reading

  • Breen, T. H. (1985). Tobacco Culture. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00596-6. Source on tobacco culture in eighteenth-century Virginia pp. 46–55
  • Burns, Eric. .The Smoke of the Gods: A Social History of Tobacco.^ Contrary to popular social belief, it is NOT illegal to smoke tobacco products at any age.
    • 30 Fascinating Cigarette Smoking Facts - Listverse 9 February 2010 13:13 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

    Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2007.
  • W.K. Collins and S.N. Hawks. "Principles of Flue-Cured Tobacco Production" 1st Edition, 1993
  • Fuller, R. Reese (Spring 2003). Perique, the Native Crop. Louisiana Life.
  • Gately, Iain. Tobacco: A Cultural History of How an Exotic Plant Seduced Civilization. Grove Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8021-3960-4.
  • Graves, John. "Tobacco that is not Smoked" in From a Limestone Ledge (the sections on snuff and chewing tobacco) ISBN 0-394-51238-3
  • Grehan, James. “Smoking and “Early Modern” Sociability: The Great Tobacco Debate in the Ottoman Middle East (Seventeenth to Eighteenth Centuries)”. The American Historical Review, Vol. III, Issue 5. 2006. 22 March 2008 http://www.historycooperative.org.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/journals/ahr/111.5/grehan.html
  • Killebrew, J. B. and Myrick, Herbert (1909). Tobacco Leaf: Its Culture and Cure, Marketing and Manufacture. Orange Judd Company. Source for flea beetle typology (p. 243)
  • Murphey, Rhoads. Studies on Ottoman Society and Culture: 16th-18th Centuries. Burlington, VT: Ashgate: Variorum, 2007 ISBN 9780754659310 ISBN 0754659313
  • Price, Jacob M. “Tobacco Use and Tobacco Taxation: A battle of Interests in Early Modern Europe”. Consuming Habits: Drugs in History and Anthropology. Jordan Goodman, et al. New York: Routledge, 1995 166-169 ISBN 0-415-09039-3
  • Poche, L. Aristee (2002). Perique tobacco: Mystery and history.
  • Tilley, Nannie May The Bright Tobacco Industry 1860–1929 ISBN 0-405-04728-2. Source on flea beetle prevention (pp. 39–43), and history of flue-cured tobacco
  • Rivenson A., Hoffmann D., Propokczyk B. et al. Induction of lung and pancreas exocrine tumors in F344 rats by tobacco-specific and areca-derived N-nitrosamines. Cancer Res (48) 6912–6917, 1988. (link to abstract; free full text pdf available)
  • Schoolcraft, Henry R. Historical and Statistical Information respecting the Indian Tribes of the United States (Philadelphia, 1851-57)
  • Shechter, Relli. Smoking, Culture and Economy in the Middle East: The Egyptian Tobacco Market 1850–2000. New York: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., 2006 ISBN 1-84511-1370

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Quotes about smoking Tobacco - cigars, cigarettes, and pipes

Contents

Smoking

  • When I heard smoking will kill you I bought shares in Marlboro and Dunhill.
Thomas Geraghty
  • Life is too short to not to blow; but you can always make the process a little slow!
Gurdeepak Ahuja
  • Asthma doesn't seem to bother me any more unless I'm around cigars or dogs. The thing that would bother me most would be a dog smoking a cigar.
Steve Allen
  • A custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the nose, harmful to the brain, dangerous to the lungs, and in the black, stinking fume thereof, nearest resembling the horrible Stygian smoke of the the pit that is bottomless.
James I of England
  • Gentlemen, you may smoke.
[ending the long ban on smoking held by Queen Victoria in the early 20th Century]
King Edward VII
  • I'll smoke anything anybody gives me, I'm not particular.
Peter Falk
  • If smoking is not allowed in heaven, I shall not go.
Mark Twain
.
  • If they made all cigars and cigarettes in the shape of a certain male body part, most men would stop smoking immediately.^ All the men and boys smoked.
    • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But if I choose to light up and smoke again, I'm certain my health would suffer through emphysema or lung cancer or any one of a number of illnesses which result directly from smoking.
    • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Don't know if you want to smoke or not, pressured by your peers to smoke, and they all have told you it is just a lot of stories about your health and how bad smoking is for you.
    • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

    Maybe that wouldn't happen because cigars pretty much look like that anyway and you'll still see men licking and sucking on them as if they were hungrily welcoming a boyfriend who just came back from a long trip.
Duane Alan Hahn
  • It has always been my rule never to smoke when asleep, and never to refrain when awake.
Mark Twain
.
  • It's easy to quit smoking.^ Back in the mid to late 70's I had a 10 year heroin habit that I quit and this was a piece of cake compared to quitting the smoking habit and by no stretch of the imagination is quitting any habit easy.
    • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

    I've done it hundreds of times.
Mark Twain
.
  • I'm not really a heavy smoker any more.^ In reality...I was always a heavy smoker.
    • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

    I only get through two lighters a day now.
Bill Hicks
  • Remember, if you smoke after sex you're doing it too fast.
Woody Allen
  • Looking back now, I have come to realize that she was my nicotine.
Tipper Boharic
  • My own experience has been that the tools I need for my trade are paper, tobacco, food, and a little whisky.
William Faulkner
  • My smoking might be bothering you, but it's killing me.
Colette
.
    • Variation People always come up to me and say that my smoking is bothering them...^ But if I choose to light up and smoke again, I'm certain my health would suffer through emphysema or lung cancer or any one of a number of illnesses which result directly from smoking.
      • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ I remember thinking about my mother, and all the times I’d pleaded with her to quit smoking, and there I was, starting up the awful habit myself.
      • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ I always had a problem with weight and one of my neighbors said he and his wife had lost 20 pounds, just by smoking!
      • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

      Well, it's killing me!
Wendy Liebman
  • The only way to break a bad habit was to replace it with a better habit.
Jack Nicholson, explaining why he switched from cigarettes to cigars
  • Nobody has died because of not smoking, but why take a chance?
Satish Chothani
.
  • Non-smokers...die every day.^ The average 25 year-old-pack-a-day smoker will die 8 years younger than his or her non-smoking peer will?
    • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

    Sleep tight!
Bill Hicks

Cigars

  • A good cigar is like a beautiful chick with a great body who also knows the American League box scores.
M*A*S*H, Klinger, Bug-Out 1976
  • A woman is an occasional pleasure but a cigar is always a smoke.
Groucho Marx
  • Ah, if only I had brought a cigar with me! This would have established my identity.
Charles Dickens
  • Eating and sleeping are the only activities that should be allowed to interrupt a man's enjoyment of his cigar.
Mark Twain
  • Given the choice between a woman and a cigar, I will always choose the cigar.
Groucho Marx
  • I drink a great deal. I sleep a little, and I smoke cigar after cigar. That is why I am in two-hundred-percent form.
Winston Churchill
.
  • I have made it a rule never to smoke more that one cigar at a time.
  • Variation: I smoke in moderation.^ I can tell you that there was never one cigarette that I ever smoked that was worth the price that we have paid.
    • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We have made one trip to Boston, which is basically informational, and it has been decided to take more tests and set up appointments which take months to arrange.
    • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I'm still the time bomb waiting to go off, even if I never smoke again.
    • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

    Only one cigar at a time.
Mark Twain
  • I smoke ten to fifteen cigars a day. At my age I have to hold on to something.
George Burns
  • If I paid ten dollars for a cigar, first I'd make love to it, then I'd smoke it.
George Burns
  • If I had taken my doctor's advice and quit smoking when he advised me to, I wouldn't have lived to go to his funeral.
98 year old George Burns
  • Cigars are like new life in a twisted world
James Francesco
  • Of course, I started as a collector. A true collector. I can remember as if it were only yesterday the heart- pounding excitement as I spread out upon the floor of my bedroom The Edward G. Robinson Collection of Rare Cigar Bands. I didn't play at collecting. No cigar anywhere was safe from me.
Edward G. Robinson
  • Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar.
Sigmund Freud
  • There are men here and there to whom the whole of life is like an after-dinner hour with a cigar; easy, pleasant, empty, perhaps enlivened by some fable of strife to be forgotten - before the end is told - even if there happens to be any end to it.
Joseph Conrad
  • There is nothing more agreeable than having a place where one can throw on the floor as many cigar butts as one pleases without the subconscious fear of a maid who is waiting like a sentinel to place an ashtray where the ashes are going to fall.
Fidel Castro
  • What this country needs is a good five-cent cigar!
Thomas Marshall, Vice-president of Woodrow Wilson
  • Cigar smoking is a hobby, not a habit.
Art Fuente

Cigarettes

  • The cigarettes Mr. Slump smoked were prepared by doctors, so the advertisements declared, with the sole purpose of protecting his respiratory system. Yet Mr. Slump suffered and the young secretary suffered with him, hideously. For the first hours of every day he was possessed by a cough which arose from tartarean depths and was relieved only by whisky.
Evelyn Waugh, The Loved One, Ch. 7
  • A cigarette is the only consumer product which when used as directed kills its consumer.
Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland
  • For the first time in history, sex is more dangerous than the cigarette afterward.
Jay Leno
  • I'll tell you why I like the cigarette business. It cost a penny to make. Sell it for a dollar. It's addictive. And there's a fantastic brand loyalty.[1]
Warren Buffett
  • I tried to stop smoking cigarettes by telling myself I just didn't want to smoke, but I didn't believe myself.
Barbara Kelly
  • The cigarette is a portable therapist.
Terri Guillemets
  • The only "safer" cigarette is your last one.
Duane Alan Hahn
  • There's something luxurious about having a girl light your cigarette. In fact, I got married once on account of that.
Harold Robbins
  • Cigarettes are one of the greatest things ever invented. And to all you anti-smokers out there, if I ever became president I would make sure that you were put in the electric chair.
John Frusciante

Roll-Your-Own

Pipes

  • I believe that pipe smoking contributes to a somewhat calm and objective judgment in all human affairs.
Albert Einstein
  • If you can't send money, send tobacco.
George Washington to the Continental Congress, 1776
  • Man, the creature who knows he must die, who has dreams larger than his destiny, who is forever working a confidence trick on himself, needs an ally. Mine has been tobacco.
John Boynton Priestley
  • Pipe-smokers spend so much time cleaning, filling and fooling with their pipes, they don't have time to get into mischief.
Bill Vaughan
  • [Tobacco] is the passion of honest men and he who lives without tobacco is not worthy of living.
Moliere (Jean Baptiste Poquelin)
  • The believing we do something when we do nothing is the first illusion of tobacco.
Ralph Waldo Emerson

See also

Notes and references

External links

Wikipedia
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Look up tobacco in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.TOBACCO, the name (see below) for the leaves of several species of Nicotiana (nat.^ Several active ingredients and special methods of production are involved in making sure the nicotine in a cigarette is many times more potent than that of a tobacco plant.
  • 30 Fascinating Cigarette Smoking Facts - Listverse 9 February 2010 13:13 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

ord. Solanaceae), variously prepared for use as a narcotic. .While it is principally manufactured for smoking, a large amount is also prepared for chewing, and, to a more limited extent, it is taken in the form of snuff.^ Baseline: 79 percent of worksites with 50 or more employees had formal smoking policies that prohibited or limited smoking to separately ventilated areas in 199899.

^ The report concluded that among teens, smoking participation responds more strongly to price than does the amount of daily cigarette consumption.

^ And the male/female ratios are correct; more men smoke in American than women… consider the prison populations and the large number of manufacturing workers who smoke.
  • 30 Fascinating Cigarette Smoking Facts - Listverse 9 February 2010 13:13 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

.Under one or other of these forms the use of tobacco is more widely spread than is that of any other narcotic or stimulant.^ Other forms of tobacco are not safe alternatives to smoking cigarettes.

^ She had been raped by one of them, the other was more interested in 7 to 8 year old girls (95).
  • Indymedia Italia - Independent Media Center Italia 2 February 2010 16:35 UTC italy.indymedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Researchers have identified more than 4,000 chemicals in tobacco smoke; of these, at least 43 cause cancer in humans and animals.

Table of contents

History

.Although the fact has been controverted, there cannot be a doubt that the knowledge of tobacco and its uses came to the rest of the world from America.^ The report further concluded that for spit tobacco use, insufficient knowledge among youth of the health effects also is a factor.

^ Scientific knowledge about the health effects of tobacco use has increased greatly since the first Surgeon Generals report on tobacco was released in 1964.

^ Education should aim to prevent initiation among youth, provide knowledge about effective cessation methods, and increase understanding of the health effects of tobacco use.

.In November 1492 a party sent out by Columbus from the vessels of his first expedition to explore the island of Cuba brought back information that they had seen people who carried a lighted firebrand to kindle fire, and perfumed themselves with certain herbs which they carried along with them.^ Why do you think they sell nicotine patches to people who are trying to quit?
  • 30 Fascinating Cigarette Smoking Facts - Listverse 9 February 2010 13:13 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Details were provided for only one film, and they turned out to be very similar to the snuff scene added to the movie 'Snuff', brought out in early 1976 (63).
  • Indymedia Italia - Independent Media Center Italia 2 February 2010 16:35 UTC italy.indymedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I know people who automatically reach for the smokes before they even get out of bed.
  • 30 Fascinating Cigarette Smoking Facts - Listverse 9 February 2010 13:13 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

.The habit of snuff-taking was observed and described by Ranton Pane, a Franciscan who accompanied Columbus on his second voyage (1494-1496), and the practice of tobacco-chewing was first seen by the Spaniards on the coast of South America in 1502. As the continent of America was opened up and explored, it became evident that the consumption of tobacco, especially by smoking, was a universal and immemorial usage, in many cases bound up with the most significant and solemn tribal ceremonies.^ Spit tobacco: Chewing tobacco, snuff, or smokeless tobacco.

^ Also there has been many tests with second hand smoke which results say does not actually kill people, but many will argue that these scientific results are either dishonest or completely made up, (what would these scientists gain from lying?
  • 30 Fascinating Cigarette Smoking Facts - Listverse 9 February 2010 13:13 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Reduce the proportion of children who are regularly exposed to tobacco smoke at home.

.The term tobacco appears not to have been a commonly used original name for the plant, and it has come to us from a peculiar instrument used for inhaling its smoke by the inhabitants of Hispaniola (San Domingo).^ A multicomponent approach to school-based tobacco use prevention [48] also may increase the long-term effectiveness of prevention efforts.

^ Serum cotinine: A biological marker for tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured in the blood.

^ Reduce illness, disability, and death related to tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke.

.The instrument, described by Oviedo (Historia de las Indias Occidentales, Salamanca, 1535), consisted of a small hollow wooden tube, shaped like a Y, the two points of which being inserted in the nose of the smoker, the other end was held into the smoke of burning tobacco, and thus the fumes were inhaled.^ Secondhand smoke: A mixture of the smoke exhaled by smokers and the smoke that comes from the burning end of the tobacco product.

^ Bidis are small brown cigarettes, often flavored, consisting of tobacco hand-rolled in tendu or temburni leaf and secured with a string at one end.

^ But to my mind, inhaling hot smoke into one’s lungs is THE most unnatural thing a human being could possibly do.
  • 30 Fascinating Cigarette Smoking Facts - Listverse 9 February 2010 13:13 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

This apparatus the natives called "tabaco "; but it must be said that the smoking pipe of the continental tribes was entirely different from the imperfect tabaco of the Caribees. Benzoni, on the other hand, whose Travels in America (1542-1556) were published in 1565, says that the Mexican name of the herb was " tabacco." The tobacco plant itself was first brought to Europe in 1558 by Francisco Fernandes, a physician who had been sent by Philip II of Spain to investigate the products of Mexico. By the French ambassador to Portugal, Jean Nicot, seeds were sent from the Peninsula to the queen, Catherine de' Medici. The services rendered by Nicot in spreading a knowledge of the plant have been commemorated in the scientific name of the genus Nicotiana. At first the plant was supposed to possess almost miraculous healing powers, and was designated " herba panacea," " herba santa," " sana sancta Indorum "; " divine tobacco " it is called by Spenser, and " our holy herb nicotian " by William Lilly. While the plant came to Europe through Spain, the habit of smoking was initiated and spread through English example. .Ralph Lane, the first governor of Virginia, and Sir Francis Drake brought with them in 1586, from that first American possession of the English crown, the implements and materials of tobacco smoking, which they handed over to Sir Walter Raleigh.^ Even this had to be done in stages – first they banned smoking within 1 metre of the bar (which was stupidly pointless).
  • 30 Fascinating Cigarette Smoking Facts - Listverse 9 February 2010 13:13 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Smoking should be illegal in places where it is unavoidable for others to avoid inhaling second hand smoke should they wish to do so.
  • 30 Fascinating Cigarette Smoking Facts - Listverse 9 February 2010 13:13 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ They both have asthma and allergies and I wonder how much the second hand smoke damaged them directly.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

.Lane is credited with having been the first English smoker, and through the influence and example of the illustrious Raleigh, who " tooke a pipe of tobacco a little before he went to the scaffolde," the habit became rooted among Elizabethan courtiers.^ For example, people who quit smoking before age 50 years have half the risk of dying in the next 15 years compared with people who continue to smoke.

^ Most smokers take up the habit in their mid teens, well before the legal age for purchasing them, and is seen as a right of passage towards adulthood.
  • 30 Fascinating Cigarette Smoking Facts - Listverse 9 February 2010 13:13 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ About six weeks before my twelfth birthday I took up the grown-up habit of smoking.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

.During the 17th century the indulgence in tobacco spread with marvellous rapidity throughout all nations, and that in the face of the most resolute opposition of statesmen and priests, the " counterblaste " of a great monarch, penal enactments of the most severe description, the knout, excommunication and capital punishment.^ During the torture the perpetrators would scream at her that this was all her fault, and would put her face in the other girl's blood.
  • Indymedia Italia - Independent Media Center Italia 2 February 2010 16:35 UTC italy.indymedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several national organizations have expressed opposition to the enactment of preemptive laws, including the American Public Health Association, the Institute of Medicine, and a working group of State attorneys general.

Botany

.There are about fifty species of Nicotiana, nearly all of which are natives of America.^ I remember thinking about my mother, and all the times I’d pleaded with her to quit smoking, and there I was, starting up the awful habit myself.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

Few, however, are of economic importance. The great bulk of the tobacco supply is derived from FIG. I. - Flowering Top of N. Tabacum. N. tabacum, the Virginian tobacco, a native of some part of Central or South America and now cultivated in almost all temperate and warmer countries. It is a coarse rank-growing annual, with a simple, unbranched, cylindrical stem which attains a height of 6 ft. and upwards, terminating in a panicle of pink or rose-coloured flowers and an elongated corolla tube (fig. I). The plant has alternate, simple, oblong-lanceolate leaves, those at the lower part of the stem being slightly stalked, and of large size, reaching to 2 ft. in length, while the upper are semi-amplexical and of variable outline. The seeds are brown in colour, with a rough surface, of minute size, and exceedingly numerous; as many as 1,000,000 may be produced by a single plant. The whole of the green parts of the plant are covered with long soft hairs which exude a viscid juice, giving the surface a moist glutinous feeling. The hairs are multicellular, and of two kinds, one branching and ending in a fine point, while the other, unbranched, terminates in a clump of small cells. Stomata occur on both surfaces of the leaves, and, with the peculiar hair structure render the microscopic appearance of the plant highly characteristic.
FIG. 2. - Microscopic Structure of Tobacco Leaf.
.From this species the tobaccos of Cuba, the United States, the Philippine Islands and the Latakia of Turkey are derived, and it is also largely cultivated in India; the variety macrophylla is the source of the Maryland tobaccos.^ State laws on tobacco control United States.

^ CDC. State-specific prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults, and children s and adolescents exposure to environmental tobacco smoke United States.

^ In these and other States, tobacco control programs are supported through funding from the Federal Government, private foundations, State tobacco taxes, State lawsuit settlements, and other sources.

N. persica, Persian tobacco, the source of the famous Shiraz tobacco, is regarded as only a variety of N. tabacum, and an introduction from America. .East Indian, or Green, tobacco is the product of another species, N. rustica, a smaller plant with a much-branched stem and greenish-yellow flowers with a short, broad tube.^ Several active ingredients and special methods of production are involved in making sure the nicotine in a cigarette is many times more potent than that of a tobacco plant.
  • 30 Fascinating Cigarette Smoking Facts - Listverse 9 February 2010 13:13 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

It is a native of Mexico, and now widely cultivated in southern Germany, Hungary and the East Indies.

Cultivation

.Tobacco is cultivated in localities scattered over almost the whole world, ranging as far north as Quebec, Stockholm and the southern shores of Lake Baikal in one hemisphere, and as far south as Chile, the Cape of Good Hope and Victoria in the other.^ Besides the psychological indoctrination, X1 and the other victims reported to have undergone a whole range of other traumatic experiences.
  • Indymedia Italia - Independent Media Center Italia 2 February 2010 16:35 UTC italy.indymedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, there was one thing the authors couldn't do and that was to publish the names of those who had been accused by a whole range of witnesses.
  • Indymedia Italia - Independent Media Center Italia 2 February 2010 16:35 UTC italy.indymedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Whilst, however, the plant adapts itself to a great variety of climatic conditions and will grow on almost all kinds of soil, the flavour and quality of the produce are profoundly affected by variations in these two factors. .Very slight differences in climate appear to cause very great differences in the quality of the tobacco, and ordinary meteorological records are of little use in determining the suitability or not of a region for a particular kind of leaf; this essential point must be determined by experiment.^ Spit tobacco use among adolescents also differs significantly by students gender, race, and ethnicity.

^ The second reason is that these networks are protected by those involved, who apparently have the power to make sure that very little information on these networks appears in the public domain.
  • Indymedia Italia - Independent Media Center Italia 2 February 2010 16:35 UTC italy.indymedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In general, tropical and semitropical conditions as to temperature, with a comparatively dry climate, give the best results.
Given suitable climatic conditions, the type of tobacco produced is determined mainly by the soil, and particularly by its mechanical or physical condition. Speaking generally, clay soils retentive of moisture produce heavy-cropping tobaccos which cure to a dark brown or red colour. Sandy soils produce tobaccos with a thin leaf, curing to a yellow or bright red colour. .In the same locality, i.e. under the same climatic conditions, quite different kinds of tobacco may be produced in direct relation to the character of the soil.^ This may have also been due to the fact that I also quit a daily marijuana habit on the same day, but really I think that’s besides the point.
  • 30 Fascinating Cigarette Smoking Facts - Listverse 9 February 2010 13:13 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

.Thus the bright yellow tobacco used for cigarettes, &c., is largely produced in Virginia and N. Carolina on a loose porous sand, which must be at least a foot deep, and contains usually about 8% of clay; this sand is underlaid by a clay subsoil, and, as Mr Milton Whitney points out in Tobacco Soils (U.S.A. Dept.^ Evidence indicates substitution of tobacco products among both adults and youth, so measuring the use of multiple products (cigarettes, spit tobacco, and cigars at a minimum) is important.

^ An increase in the excise tax on tobacco products would reduce rates of use of both cigarettes and spit tobacco among adults and youth.

^ Lite’ cigarettes are produced by infusing tobacco with CO2 and superheating it until the tobacco ‘puffs up’ like expanding foam.
  • 30 Fascinating Cigarette Smoking Facts - Listverse 9 February 2010 13:13 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

of Agriculture, Farmers' Bulletin, No. 83), this clay is the same as that on which the heavy manufacturing and export tobacco is grown. .Where the clay is exposed on the surface the heavy type of tobacco is produced, and bright tobacco where the clay is covered by from 12 to 20 in.^ Cover-up, not to protect the innocent but to protect the regularly named elements of the British establishment who surface whenever widespread evidence of child abuse is exposed.
  • Indymedia Italia - Independent Media Center Italia 2 February 2010 16:35 UTC italy.indymedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

of sand. Tobacco soils should be well drained and contain a Iarge percentage of humus.
.Tobacco being cultivated over such a large area of the world, under very varying climatic conditions, and by many different races of mankind, the methods employed in its production naturally differ very considerably.^ Spit tobacco use among adolescents also differs significantly by students gender, race, and ethnicity.

^ Part of this discussion has focused on making tobacco products safer, while acknowledging that there is no such thing as a safe cigarette.

^ Several active ingredients and special methods of production are involved in making sure the nicotine in a cigarette is many times more potent than that of a tobacco plant.
  • 30 Fascinating Cigarette Smoking Facts - Listverse 9 February 2010 13:13 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

.As the United States of America produce more tobacco than any other country it will be best to deal generally with conditions there and to refer to marked differences in dealing with production in other countries.^ State laws on tobacco control United States.

^ But certainly more women in America smoke than in other countries.
  • 30 Fascinating Cigarette Smoking Facts - Listverse 9 February 2010 13:13 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ CDC. State-specific prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults, and children s and adolescents exposure to environmental tobacco smoke United States.

The seed is sown in nursery beds, and the plants set out in the field later. Tobacco seeds are very small, and it is estimated that about 300,000 to 400,000 seeds go to the ounce. .Allowing for those which fail to germinate (perhaps 25%), loss in transplanting, weak and backward plants, &c., one ounce of seed should yield about 40,000 plants.^ Myrlt@Blomand.net Myrl We are sorry to report our loss of Myrl on 2/25/01, she is one of our angels now of EFFORTS .
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

The greatest possible care is bestowed on the preparation of the seed bed - it must have good, very rich soil in fine tilth, be protected from winds, and yet well exposed to sunlight; the southern or south-eastern slope of an open place in a forest is often selected. Hot beds are made when necessary. A bed with an area of about 50 sq. yds. is adequate for i oz. of seed. To destroy the seeds, &c., of weeds, and the larvae of insect pests, a fire is often lighted, kept from the ground itself by intervening wood logs, or the seed-bed is thoroughly steamed. After this treatment the upper 2 or 3 in, of soil are well pulverized, and fertilizers added, usually, to prevent reintroduction of seeds of weeds, in the form of guano or chemical manures. .The seed is now set; usually it is thoroughly mixed with a relatively large quantity of fine ashes, sand or meal, to facilitate thin and even sowing, and the surface of the bed is afterwards lightly brushed over with a broom; it is very important to avoid burying the seed at all deeply; a light covering of cloth or muslin, raised on short sticks, is often stretched over the bed.^ I learned how important exercise was and also which foods to avoid that can cause shortness of breath to get worse.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

Great care is necessary in attending to the watering of the young and delicate seedlings, which are ready for transplanting in from fifty to sixty days after sowing. .They must be well hardened off before being set out in the open.^ I tapered off by setting time limits: to begin, I had to wait 15 minutes from stubbing out one cigarette to lighting the next.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Well off to the ER where I spent 11 days just laying in bed trying to get the smoke out of my lungs.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I know people who automatically reach for the smokes before they even get out of bed.
  • 30 Fascinating Cigarette Smoking Facts - Listverse 9 February 2010 13:13 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

The land for their reception must be thoroughly well tilled and manured. If moist, ridges are formed about 3 to 4 ft. apart; the distance apart in the rows varies greatly with various types of tobacco: 3 ft. is the normal for ordinary manufacturing and smoking tobaccos, 1 to i z ft. for Cuba and Sumatra types. Cigar tobaccos become coarse if planted too widely. An acre of tobacco planted 3 ft. by 15 in. will contain 11,600 plants and 3 ft. 6 in. by 15 in., 10,000 plants. .During the transplanting, preferably done on cloudy days or during light rains, the plants must be handled very carefully; machines are now available which can set out and water plants over from two to six acres in a working day.^ Tony in Dallas Oldman757@AOL.COM Tony has now had his lung transplant and is doing very well!
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I tapered off by setting time limits: to begin, I had to wait 15 minutes from stubbing out one cigarette to lighting the next.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ My husband hid my cigarettes, but I struggled out of bed after he left for work each day and managed to find them.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

.After transplanting the crop takes about another sixty days to mature, i.e. about 120 days in all from the date the seed was sown.^ Longest was about 1 month or so but would always use a bad day as an excuse to pick up another cigarette and I'd rip the patch off.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We can talk all day about health risks vs personal rights, but for me, it all comes down to the fact that you stink during and after smoking.
  • 30 Fascinating Cigarette Smoking Facts - Listverse 9 February 2010 13:13 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

During this period, until the plants begin to ripen, the tilth is maintained and weeds checked first by horse cultivators or horsehoes, and, as the plants increase in size, by hand labour. .When the plants show signs of flowering they are topped " to prevent seed formation, the terminal buds being removed, and only a certain number of leaves left on each plant to ripen.^ Earlier data indicated that only about half of smokers aged 12 to 17 years were ever asked to show proof of age when they tried to purchase cigarettes.

This operation requires experienced judgment to decide when it should be done; the number of leaves to be left varies with the variety and vigour of the plant, the nature of the soil, climate, seasons and particular use for which the crop'is intended. The product from plants which have not been topped is of little value. In the U.S.A., in the cigar tobacco district, fifteen to twenty leaves are often left on each plant, and of manufacturing tobaccos only ten to twelve leaves. As one result of the topping, suckers are usually formed; these also must be removed, although, e.g. in Florida, vigorous suckers are sometimes allowed to remain when the plant is cut, and produce a " sucker crop " inferior in character to the first or principal crop, but still serviceable.
The leaves now ripen, indicated by a change from a dark to lighter green, and by the appearance of yellow spots. Ripening is complete in about 35 days after topping or about 155 days after sowing. A ripe leaf easily cracks or shows a crease when folded between the fingers. .The leaves on a plant decrease in age from below upwards, and all are not ripe at exactly the same time.^ But at the same time, it is unfair to leave things how they are (before bans are passed, I mean).
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.In high quality tobaccos the leaves are " primed " or picked singly as they ripen, but in the great bulk of American tobaccos the whole plant is cut close to the ground when the middle leaves are about ripe.^ Baseline: 37 percent of middle, junior high, and senior high schools were smoke-free and tobacco-free in 1994.

^ CDC. Tobacco use among middle and high school students Florida, 1998 and 1999.

In either case leaves should not be gathered when wet with dew or rain, or in very hot sunshine; the afternoon is usually the best time. The next step is to remove the harvested crop to the drying-shed; primed leaves are placed at once in shallow baskets or boxes, and when under cover are strung on string or on wire and hung up on laths in the barn. Cut plants are allowed to wilt, or become flaccid, before removal from the field, to prevent injury to the turgid leaves. These cut plants may be laid in rows on the ground to wilt, or spitted on long rods or laths supported on trestles, or placed on special drying racks. .When sufficiently wilted they are hauled to the barn and hung up there on the same laths on which they were placed in the field.^ Incidentally, if a person wants a lung transplant, they say that Barnes-Jewish is the place.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

.A very interesting development of quite recent years is that of growing some valuable cigar tobaccos under artificial shade.^ Although all States prohibit the sale of tobacco products to minors, enforcement of laws has been limited until recent years.

^ After all of this I STILL smoke, I have been for a little over 10 years I am trying to quit but it is very hard.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I used the patch and quit for a year, which was very hard since my husband was still smoking and the cigarettes were all around.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

Sumatra produced the best cigar wrappers of the world, and efforts to cultivate Sumatra tobacco in Florida under apparently suitable conditions of climate and soil were not successful. It was noticed, however, that if the tobacco was grown under the shade of trees the character of the leaf was improved. Artificial shading, first by laths, and later by cheesecloth, both supported on posts, was then resorted to with eminently satisfactory results. .The U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, in co-operation with local growers, devoted a great deal of attention and money to the problem, and Sumatra tobacco of very high quality is now produced in Florida and Connecticut.^ CDC. Tobacco use among middle and high school students Florida, 1998 and 1999.

.The yield of leaf is often much increased, the plants are protected from the weather, and the enhanced value of the crop much more than repays the very considerable expense involved in artificially shading whole fields.^ Smoking tobacco is the ultimate gateway drug in that it is legally available, and involves mastering a unique method of intake – much more so than alcohol (which has such a significant effect that users need look no further for stimulation).
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^ Several active ingredients and special methods of production are involved in making sure the nicotine in a cigarette is many times more potent than that of a tobacco plant.
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So successful have the results been that American-grown tobacco of the Sumatra type is now exported even to Cuba.
.Important changes take place in the tobacco leaf from the time it is cut until the finished product is ready for consumption.^ Consumption: The amount of tobacco products consumed or used by the population.

^ By the time I was in seventh grade I was taking change from the "house money" and buying packs of cigarettes.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Although all States prohibit the sale of tobacco products to minors, enforcement of laws has been limited until recent years.

.These may be all placed under curing, but it is usual to recognize three stages: (I) curing proper; (2) fer- Curing. mentation; and (3) ageing.^ I may not look quite my age, but I certainly don’t look under 19.
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^ Lung cancer kills more people than all three of these combined and yet I never see a poster advising people to get screened for that!
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ These women were usually beautiful, dominant and strong, so soon other women associated smoking with all of these values.
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.Sun curing, now but little practised in the United States, is the simplest method.^ Well, now that I am much older, and I hope much wiser, it comes a little too late for me.......you see I have Emphysema and Asthma and I know there is NO cure for this disease.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

The wilted tobacco is suspended on racks in the sun. Great care is necessary to protect it from rain, and it must if necessary be placed in a barn in which fires may be required during wet weather. This method is employed in a portion of Virginia and results in a very sweet chewing tobacco.
Air curing is essentially similar to sun curing. The tobacco is hung in a barn in which there is a free circulation of air during dry weather. Artificial heat may be resorted to in bad weather; in the States, cigar tobaccos and " White Burley " are usually cured in this way. .The process takes about six weeks.^ About six weeks before my twelfth birthday I took up the grown-up habit of smoking.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

.In fire curing the tobacco is hung in the barn, and, after it has become of a rich yellow colour, slow fires, producing a gradual increase in temperature up to about 150° F., are lighted on the floor and maintained for four or five days.^ I gradually increased the time so that I was down to one a day at the end of a month.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Think about it the next time you “light up”.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Scientific knowledge about the health effects of tobacco use has increased greatly since the first Surgeon Generals report on tobacco was released in 1964.

The firing must be repeated at intervals as the leaves become soft again. A considerable portion of the tobacco exported to England and Africa is fire-cured.
In flue curing, also known as the Virginian cure, fires are set outside the barn; and the heat led in iron pipes or flues, into the building are under the suspended tobacco, which is placed there quite fresh from the field. .The temperature is raised, during three to five days, from about 90° F. to 140° F. for primed leaves, or 160° to 175° F. for tobacco on the stalk.^ We can talk all day about health risks vs personal rights, but for me, it all comes down to the fact that you stink during and after smoking.
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.The process, which requires great judgment and care, results in the bright yellow leaf so largely used for pipe tobacco, cigarettes and chewing tobacco.^ Bidis are small brown cigarettes, often flavored, consisting of tobacco hand-rolled in tendu or temburni leaf and secured with a string at one end.

^ Evidence indicates substitution of tobacco products among both adults and youth, so measuring the use of multiple products (cigarettes, spit tobacco, and cigars at a minimum) is important.

^ An increase in the excise tax on tobacco products would reduce rates of use of both cigarettes and spit tobacco among adults and youth.

In a modification of this method, known as the Kentucky cure, large barns are used, the temperature is not raised above 100° F., and the process occupies from four to six weeks. By whichever way treated, the tobaccoleaf after curing is brittle and cannot be handled without crumbling to powder. The contents of the barn are therefore left till moist weather occurs, and then by the admission of atmospheric air the leaf blades absorb moisture and become soft and pliant. In this condition the leaves are stripped from the stems and sorted into qualities, such as " lugs, " or lower leaves, " firsts " and " seconds. ." These are made up into " hands, " or small bundles of from six to twelve leaves.^ Also there has been many tests with second hand smoke which results say does not actually kill people, but many will argue that these scientific results are either dishonest or completely made up, (what would these scientists gain from lying?
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Each bundle is tied round with a separate leaf, and in this condition the tobacco is ready for bulking for fermentation.
The tobacco, whether in bundles, hands or separate leaves, is piled up or bulked on the floor in a barn into a solid stack to the height of 5 or 6 ft. .Within this stack a process of F ermenta? fermentation is quickly set up, and the temperature of the mass rises steadily till it reaches about 130° F. Great care is now taken to prevent overheating and to secure the uniform fermentation of all the tobacco.^ They didn't care about all the millions of people that die from their product.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I live(d) in Indiana and go to college (and now intern) in Kentucky, so I have seen how popular tobacco is pretty much all my life.
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^ And not only do you die in this gruesome manner, but all the people that you love and care about, get to watch you die.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

.The pile is from time to time taken down and rebuilt, the tobacco from the top going to the bottom and that exposed at the edges being turned in to the centre.^ However, there are times when you hasten it by catching a common cold, which quickly turns into pneumonia and you get to go to the hospital.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

.In from three to five weeks the fermentation should be sufficiently carried out, and the leaves then have a nice uniform brown colour.^ I shelled out a lot of money for Smokenders---this worked for about three weeks, if you don't count the drags from my husband's cigarettes.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

Dark-coloured leaves are produced when the temperature is allowed to mount higher than when light leaves are required. Fermentation is essentially a chemical process due apparently to the presence of enzymes, developed in the leaf during the earlier curing stages. .The view has been put forward that fermentation is due to the activity of bacteria, distinct types occurring in various tobaccos, but the balance of evidence is against it.^ Overwhelming evidence indicates that nicotine found in tobacco is addictive and that addiction occurs in most smokers during adolescence.

.On the bacterial theory it was thought possible to inoculate a poor tobacco with, say, the special bacteria present in Cuban tobacco, and so give the product the aroma and other good qualities rof the more valuable tobacco.^ But if you put something addictive, and pair it with product placements, advertising, and peer pressure, all which are planned by the tobacco industry, then you should realise that they have to take more responsibility than you’re giving them credit for.
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^ DiFranza, J.R., and Lew, R.A. Morbidity and mortality in children associated with the use of tobacco products by other people.

^ Several active ingredients and special methods of production are involved in making sure the nicotine in a cigarette is many times more potent than that of a tobacco plant.
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.When fermentation is completed the tobacco is graded, an operation carried out very carefully in the case of the better cigar tobaccos, and packed for export, cigar tobaccos in bales, and other kinds in hogsheads.^ The hand rolling tobacco seems completely different to the other pre-rolled stuff.
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.It is then kept at a moderate and fairly uniform temperature in a warehouse, when, although there is no marked outward change, the tobacco becomes more mellow.^ Also if smoking was more addicting then heroin like ‘experts’ say why is there no help groups for them?
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^ There is no way that you’re going to ever convince me that weed is better for my lungs than tobacco.
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^ Also, there has been no proof of menthol cigarettes having any more of an effect on blood flow than regular cigarettes.
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.Two years are usually required for ageing, but some tobaccos are kept for four or five years before being manufactured.^ It took me two years to stop smoking after being diagnosed with emphysema.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In most countries around the world, the legal age for the purchase of tobacco products is now 18, raised from 16, while in Japan the age minimum is 20 years old.
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^ For example, people who quit smoking before age 50 years have half the risk of dying in the next 15 years compared with people who continue to smoke.

.An artificial aroma is sometimes given to tobaccos, especially for the " fillers " of cigars, by saucing or treating the leaves with a solution containing an infusion of fine quality tobacco stems, rum, sour wine and various flavouring materials such as oil of aniseed, tincture of valerian, powdered cloves, cinnamon and liquorice.^ Consumption usually is measured in units, such as the number of cigarettes smoked or pounds of spit tobacco used over a given period of time.

Pests and Diseases

.Tobacco, like other cultivated plants, is subject to attack by various pests and diseases, but fortunately these are less destructive than with many crops.^ Researchers have identified more than 4,000 chemicals in tobacco smoke; of these, at least 43 cause cancer in humans and animals.

^ In a 1995 survey, stores with self-service displays were 61 percent more likely to sell tobacco to minors than stores without self-service displays.

^ In these and other States, tobacco control programs are supported through funding from the Federal Government, private foundations, State tobacco taxes, State lawsuit settlements, and other sources.

On the other hand, comparatively trivial incidents do more harm to a relatively delicate plant like the tobacco than to more robust plants.
The " tobacco flea-beetle " (Epitrix parvula, Fabr.) is a small active beetle, the larvae of which attack the roots, while the adult beetles eat holes in the leaves. The latter is the more serious, as in addition to the actual damage done by the beetle the holes afford entrance to fungus spores, &c. Under the name " horn worms " are included the larvae or caterpillars of species of Protoparce. These comparatively large and voracious animals, when abundant, do great damage by eating the leaves. Other caterpillars, "budworms" (Heliothis, spp.), attack the buds or burrow into the seed-pods. Seedling plants of tobacco, like many other crops, are liable to attack by " cut worms," the caterpillars of species of Peridromia and Agrotis. " Plant bugs," which suck the juice of the leaves, have been recorded as serious enemies in some parts of the world. Recently, shade-grown tobacco in some localities has suffered considerably from the attacks of small sucking insects known as thrips, which produce " white veins " in the leaf. White vein may also be induced by other causes besides the attacks of thrips.
.Stored tobacco is liable to be attacked and ruined by the " cigarette beetle," a cosmopolitan insect of very varied tastes, feeding not only on dried tobacco of all kinds, including snuff, but also on rhubarb, cayenne pepper, tumeric, ginger, figs and herbarium specimens.^ Very soon (if it hasn’t take effect already) smoking will be banned in all public places in Oregon including bars and bowling alleys .
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Other beetles, such as the rice weevil (Calandra oryza), also attack dried tobacco.
.The fungoid diseases of tobacco are comparatively unimportant; there are, however, some diseases of obscure origin which at times cause considerable damage.^ I did go to the library at that time but the only book they had was one from 1950 and I thought boy, this is some rare disease; there are not even any books about it!
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ His illness may have been caused in part by his years of working in construction or the fact that there was lung disease present in his family.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ However, there are times when you hasten it by catching a common cold, which quickly turns into pneumonia and you get to go to the hospital.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

" Mosaic disease " is the name given to a condition in which the leaves are more or less sharply differentiated into light and dark green patches. The matter has been fully investigated by Mr A. F. Woods (Bulletin No. 18, Bureau of Plant Industry, U.S. Department of Agriculture), who attributes it not to any specific parasite but to a disturbance of the normal physiological activity of the cells.
" Frog's eye," or " leaf spot," denotes the occurrence of small white specks on the leaf. This disease is probably bacterial in origin. Wind and hail may break plants or damage leaves, especially if required for wrapper purposes. The provision of wind breaks is the only effective remedy.
Diseases which occur in curing are important. Excessive humidity causes small dark spots to appear; these become confluent and the whole leaf may become dark and decay. Various names are given, such as " pole burn," " pole sweat," " house burn." The disease is checked by raising the temperature above 110° F., and reducing the humidity of the barn. Stem rot, due to a mould (Botrytis sp.), occurs in wet weather. Too rapid drying of the outer tissue of the leaf leads to the formation of " white veins," which injure leaves required for wrapper purposes, otherwise it is not important. Another defect arising during curing and fermentation is the efflorescence of salts on the surface, a phenomenon known as " saltpetre "; light brushing and spraying with a weak solution of acetic acid are effective remedies.

Improvement by Selection

.Careful examination of a large number of individuals of one variety growing under similar conditions reveals differences in such characters as number of leaves per plant, the size and shape of the leaves, tendency to form suckers, time of maturing and resistance to disease.^ Obviously such a drastic move would have to be performed over a period of time and in several different stages, but I really do wish it would happen.
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^ Consumption usually is measured in units, such as the number of cigarettes smoked or pounds of spit tobacco used over a given period of time.

Other tests show variability in burning quality, elasticity of leaf, texture, taste, &c. .The United States Department of Agriculture has closely investigated this important question and the results attained are brought together by Messrs H. D. Shamel and W. W. Cobey in Tobacco Breeding (Bulletin 96, Bureau of Plant Industry, 1907).^ State laws on tobacco control United States.

^ CDC. State-specific prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults, and children s and adolescents exposure to environmental tobacco smoke United States.

^ Workplace smoking policies in the United States: Results from a national survey of more than 100,000 workers.

No crop, it is pointed out, responds so readily to breeding as tobacco, or deteriorates more rapidly, as regards both yield and quality, if neglected. The variations are classified as: (1) Variation in type due to crossing, change of soil and climate, especially, for example, when seed from the tropics is introduced to temperate regions. (2) Variations within the type, due to natural tendency to vary, local conditions and maturity of seed. .When Cuban tobaccos were first introduced into Florida, the type broke up, but by carefully selecting the best plants and using them only as sources of seed for later crops, a good type was obtained.^ Age at first tobacco use .

^ In 1997, 15.8 percent of male high school students currently used spit tobacco, compared to only 1.5 percent of female high school students.

^ Increase the average age of first use of tobacco products by adolescents and young adults.

The tobacco flower is fortunately perfectly self-fertile, and by enclosing the flowers of selected plants in paper bags, so as to exclude all possibility of hybridization, progeny true to the type of the mother plant can be obtained.
.No attempt should ever be made to raise large crops of tobacco from imported seed, but only a small crop, and the seed of the selected plants should be used for future propagation.^ In 1997, 15.8 percent of male high school students currently used spit tobacco, compared to only 1.5 percent of female high school students.

^ Tobacco companies should be made to pay Please God.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Education should aim to prevent initiation among youth, provide knowledge about effective cessation methods, and increase understanding of the health effects of tobacco use.

In selection work the grower must keep definitely in view the special market requirements for the kinds of tobacco he is producing. .Thus for wrapper tobaccos, amongst other points a broad, rounded leaf, which will yield perhaps eight wrappers, is much more valuable than a narrow pointed leaf which yields perhaps only four.^ Smoking tobacco is the ultimate gateway drug in that it is legally available, and involves mastering a unique method of intake – much more so than alcohol (which has such a significant effect that users need look no further for stimulation).
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^ I know nicotine is as addictive, or perhaps more addictive, than crack for some people.
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^ If not from the lung rejecting it will be more than likely from one of my other organs failing due to the medications I am on baring some accident that would cause my death.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

Plants may be found growing side by side, the one with broad leaves, the other with narrow, but by selection the broad type can be perpetuated and gradually improved.
.Hybridization can also be readily controlled in the case of tobaccos, and in this connexion it is useful to note that, if pollen is desired of some variety growing at a distance, it will retain its vitality for several weeks if kept perfectly dry, and so can readily be sent by post from one place to another.^ Well, maybe by then the medical field will have come up with some new ways to keep this ole body functioning on one lung or maybe even another new one.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

Another favourable feature is the fact that a single capsule contains from 4000 to 8000 seeds, and one tobacco plant may easily produce from 500,000 to 1,000,000 seeds.
Production. United States. - .Tobacco cultivation dates in the States from the very early years of the 17th century, when it was taken up in Virginia.^ I knew something was wrong when I was around 45 years old when I had a very rough time keeping up with friends going through the airport in Newark, NJ .
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

A general description has already been given of the methods of cultivation and preparation. In 1906 the total area under tobacco in twenty-five states was 796,099 acres, and the production 682,428,530 Ib, valued at about £13,500,000. The principal tobacco-producing states, with the approximate value of their crops, were: Kentucky, £3,885,400; Ohio, £1,706,600;£1,706,600; North Carolina, £1,396,153; Wisconsin, £1,342,600; Virginia, £1,206,309, Pennsylvania, £979,550; Connecticut, £883,184; Tennessee, £511,035£511,035 Florida, £330,750; New York, £244,053, and Maryland, £241,046. The average yield per acre in the States as a whole in 1906 was 857.2 lb. New Hampshire had the highest average, 1785 lb per acre, and Mississippi the lowest, 440 Ib.
The successful production of cigar tobaccos from Cuban and Sumatran seed was a development of the late 19th century. Perique tobacco is worthy of special notice. This famous tobacco is produced only at Grand Points in Louisiana. Great care is given to the cultivation, and damp atmospheric conditions are desirable during the ripening stages. The leaves, when stripped from the stalks, are made into rolls and subjected to great pressure, which is released daily to allow the leaves to absorb their expressed juice. To the chemical changes, mainly oxidation, which go on in this juice while it is exposed to the air, the characteristic aroma and flavour of Perique tobacco are mainly due.

Cuba

Tobacco is the second industry of the country, the value of the crop being surpassed only by that of sugar. The cultivation was formerly a monopoly of the Spanish crown, but from 1817 payment of a tax, usually heavy, has been the only restriction. The superiority of Cuban tobaccos in flavour and aroma, especially for cigar fillers, has long been recognized, but exactly to what conditions these qualities are due is not fully known. The leaf known as " Vuelta Abajo," produced in the province of Pinar del Rio, is perhaps the best cigar leaf of the world. The other tobacco-producing provinces in order of importance are Havana, Santa Clara and Santiago de Cuba. The crop is mostly grown in the open, air-cured and carefully fermented. Cuban tobacco is grown as a " winter " crop, the summer months being those of high rainfall. .Cultivation under shade was recently tried with satisfactory results; " 166.65 acres cultivated under cheesecloth produced in 1903 10 bales of wrappers and 1.5 bales of fillers of tobacco per acre, the output under the old system having been 4'5 bales of tobacco per acre of which only 10% represented wrappers of good colour " (Diplomatic and Consular Report on Cuba, 1904, No.^ It’s so much more rewarding because a) it costs next to nothing (a 10 pack lasts me a good few weeks) and b) you get those good old head rushes!
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^ The end result was that her breathing got much worse trying to fight; and there was no turning around at that point.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

3522).
Mexico is an important tobacco-producing country, and Mexican leaf is largely used in Europe for cigar wrappers and other purposes. Mexican tobacco approximates more or less closely to that of Cuba, and is cultivated and prepared in very similar ways.

France

Tobacco cultivation is an important industry, and the home production is carried out under government supervision. In 1905, 53,750 planters cultivated 39,439 acres, and the total crop amounted to 61,614,900 lb, of the approximate value of £2,000,000. The variety grown is usually of the Virginia type, and the leaf is coarse, dark and heavy, and suited to the manufacture of plug and snuff.

Germany

The chief tobacco-producing divisions are Baden and Alsace. The leaf is of medium size, heavy, and is mainly used in the manufacture of cigars.
.Hungary produces tobacco of a rich, dark brown colour, useful for cigars, and also a small, bright yellow leaf, of value as a cigarette and pipe tobacco.^ Lite’ cigarettes are produced by infusing tobacco with CO2 and superheating it until the tobacco ‘puffs up’ like expanding foam.
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Russia

In northern Russia the produce is mainly a large, coarse, heavy, dark leaf, of use only for the manufacture of plug and snuff. In southern and Asiatic Russia good tobacco of the Turkish type is produced.
Italy produces two principal types, a dark, heavy Virginian tobacco on the heavy soils of northern Italy, and a Turkish type tobacco on the sandy soils of the southern part of the country.

Syria

The distinctive Latakia tobacco is produced in the province of Saida in northern Syria. The leaf is subjected to the smoke produced by burning in the green condition leafy branches of species of evergreen oaks (Quercus spp.). .The process of fumigation lasts from seven to nine months, and during it the tobacco acquires its black colour and peculiar flavour.^ Better flavor Lasts longer Less nicotine (although still some), because the tobacco is not as processed as a cigarette.
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^ I lasted for 9 months during which time I was frantically stuffing food into my mouth and gained 40 pounds!
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

Greece

Grecian tobacco is grown from Turkish seed and closely resembles Turkish tobacco in character and uses. Egyptian cigarettes are to a great extent made from Grecian tobacco. .Paper is a monopoly in Greece, and Grecian cigarette manufacturers, to escape the monopoly, have transferred their business to Egypt, where they make cigarettes from Grecian tobaccos by the aid of Greek workmen.^ U.S. cigarette manufacturers now make more money selling cigarettes to countries around the globe than they do selling to Americans.
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^ The ‘Cork Tip’ filter was originally invented in 1925 by Hungarian inventor Boris Aivaz, who patented the process of making the cigarette filter from crepe paper.
  • 30 Fascinating Cigarette Smoking Facts - Listverse 9 February 2010 13:13 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Several active ingredients and special methods of production are involved in making sure the nicotine in a cigarette is many times more potent than that of a tobacco plant.
  • 30 Fascinating Cigarette Smoking Facts - Listverse 9 February 2010 13:13 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

Turkey

Tobacco is an important crop in Turkey, where its cultivation and manufacture are monopolies. The ordinary tobacco and cigarette trade is controlled by the Regie Compagnie interessee des tabacs de l'empire Ottoman, and Narquileh tobacco (called " tumbeki " and used in " hubble-bubbles ") is in the hands of a similar organization. The small Turkish leaf is famous throughout the world. Some of the finest flavoured tobaccos are produced in the regions around Cavalla in Macedonia and ancient Ephesus in Asia Minor. .The cultivation of Turkish tobaccos has been taken up in various parts of the world, e.g. South Africa, and to maintain the standard of the produce fresh supplies of seed were obtained annually from Turkey.^ Lite’ cigarettes are produced by infusing tobacco with CO2 and superheating it until the tobacco ‘puffs up’ like expanding foam.
  • 30 Fascinating Cigarette Smoking Facts - Listverse 9 February 2010 13:13 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

To guard against this competition, the export of tobacco seed from Turkey was prohibited in 1907. The method of cultivation in Turkey is simple, and the plants are set out close together. For the best qualities the leaves are primed, aircured, and then subjected to a lengthy treatment corresponding to mild fermentation. High prices are obtained for the best Turkish tobaccos. Thus in 1906 from Cavalla and Xanthi 11,000 tons were exported of a value of about £1,101,000, the range of the various qualities per kilo (2·1 lb) being Ghienbek. 10s 5d. to 16s. 0d.
Kir.. 4s. iod. „ 6s. 0d.
Pursuccian 2S I'd. „ 3s. 9d.
Drama.. 2s od. „ 2s. 10d.
Inferior brands. ... os. 7d. „ 2s. 0d.
The exports go mainly to Austria-Hungary, Rumania, Italy, Egypt, the United Kingdom and the United States.

Japan

.Tobacco cultivation is a government monopoly, and in 1905 the crop amounted to about 106,572,000 ib, yielding a profit to the government of some £3,500,000. The produce is usually leaf of considerable size, of medium colour and suited only for cigarette and pipe smoking.^ So think long and hard before picking up that first cigarette and if you do smoke, give it some real serious thought about quitting; Pronto!
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When you first stop smoking, all you can think about is -- I want a cigarette.....
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to beat the cigarettes you need only do two things; quit smoking and change your whole life.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

China

The cultivation is widespread throughout Southern China. The picked leaves are usually either prepared for market by simple exposure to the sun for a few days, or in addition are sprinkled with groundnut oil and sometimes other materials also, which result in an increase of strength.

Sumatra

The tobaccos of Sumatra are especially valued for outside wrappers of cigars, being very uniform, of fine texture, light brown colour, thin and elastic. They do not, however, possess the aroma essential to cigar-fillers. The industry is of quite recent growth, dating only from 1862. The famous tobacco region, about 15,000 sq. m. in area, is on the east coast of the island, almost directly on the equator, and has a very uniform and' high temperature and a very high rainfall. The soil is mainly of volcanic origin. Deli is the principal district and produces the best tobaccos. .The estates are usually very large, and are divided up into fields which are cultivated in rotation, each field being given several years' rest after producing one crop.^ They put a needle directly into an artery, usually near your wrist, and draw blood (very painful).
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ One of my grown children took up smoking during the “rebellious” years, and had a horrible time quitting.
  • 30 Fascinating Cigarette Smoking Facts - Listverse 9 February 2010 13:13 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ In that case, you may speed up your death by several months or even a year or two.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

The tobacco is air-cured, fires being only employed during continuous wet weather, and the process of curing occupies four or five weeks. The fermentation is very carefully controlled, and to obtain the desired light colour the temperature is kept comparatively low. The leaves are graded with the most scrupulous care and finally packed in bales of about 176 lb each. The high quality of Sumatra tobacco is due in part to the local conditions of soil and climate, and perhaps to an even greater degree to the care taken at every stage in its cultivation and preparation. The work is done by Chinese coolies under European - chiefly Dutch - supervision. The commercial success of some of the companies has been very striking, dividends as high as III % having been paid.
Java and Borneo tobacco is very similar to that of Sumatra.

The Philippines

Tobacco is extensively cultivated in the plains and on the rich alluvial deposits along the sides of rivers. During recent years the average value of the product has fallen, due apparently to deterioration in'quality. .The exports of manufactured tobacco, such as Manila cheroots, find their principal market in China, British India, Australasia and the United Kingdom, whilst of the leaf tobacco fully three-quarters goes to Spain.^ I also abhor what the Tobacco Industry has done with such indignation I can't find the words to express it.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

British Empire. - Tobacco is grown for local use in many parts of India, but the principal centres of its cultivation on a commercial scale are Bombay, Madras and the Punjab. American experts are frequently employed to superintend the estates and factories. In Ceylon tobacco is grown in the northern portion of the island; the produce is but little suited to the European market and is mainly exported to southern India and Cochin China.
British North Borneo competes with Sumatra as the source of the best cigar wrappers. The cultivation was begun in the island in 1883 by planters seeking new lands free from the heavy taxation to which they were subjected in Sumatra. The industry is now in the hands of three large companies, the survivors of some twenty or more which have started at various times. .The greater portion of the most suitable land appears to be already under cultivation and there is little immediate prospect for much expansion of the industry.^ Well, now that I am much older, and I hope much wiser, it comes a little too late for me.......you see I have Emphysema and Asthma and I know there is NO cure for this disease.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

The annual value of tobacco exported is over £300,000.
In Australia tobacco is produced on a small scale in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. Efforts are being made to develop the industry. New Zealand has attempted to produce tobacco as a commercial crop, but the effort was abandoned several years ago.
In the West Indies tobacco is grown on a small scale in many of the British colonies, but only in Jamaica is there a definite industry. An expert, Mr F. V. Chambers, recently reported on Jamaica tobacco as of good quality and flavour but often of a heavy nature. The shade-grown tobacco was, however, hardly likely for making wrappers to be excelled by any tobacco in the world.
In the British African possessions the outlook for tobacco cultivation is in several instances favourable. Rhodesian-grown Turkish tobacco is already on the English market, as also various brands of tobacco from the Transvaal. Natal and Cape Colony have also industries of considerable local importance. Tobacco cultivation has made considerable progress in Nyasaland (British Central Africa). In 1900 there were 69 acres under this crop, the yield being 44 80 lb of the value of £113. In 1907 the acreage had increased to 2330, the yield to 413,316 Ib, and the value to £6889. Flue-cured bright tobacco is principally produced, but sun-cured is also exported; and in1906-1907experiments with Turkish tobacco gave encouraging results.
Canada produces in Ontario and Quebec coarse Virginian type tobacco.
.Chemistry. The constituents of tobacco, as of all other vegetable matter, can be grouped under three heads: water, mineral acids and bases (which pass into the ash on combustion) and organic substances.^ SMOKING! Yes, the stupid act of putting a 120mm or less piece of wrapped up substance called tobacco into our mouth; some with cotton filters on one end others just the tobacco.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

The following analyses of upper leaves made at the Connecticut state station, and recorded in Report No. 63, Office of Experiment Stations, U.S. Department of Agriculture, indicate the more important constituents and also the changes which take place during fermentation.
Unfermented.
Fermented.
Water
23.50
23'40
Ash
14.89
15.27
Nicotine. .
2.50
I. 79
Nitric acid (HNO 3). .
1.89
1.97
Ammonia (NH 3).. .
o 67
0.71
Other nitrogenous matters
12.19
13.31
Fibre. .. .. .
7.90
8.78
Starch. .. .
3.20
3.36
Nitrogen free extract
29'39
27.99
Ether extract.. .
3'87
3.42
Nicotine (C 1 oH 14 N 2) is a volatile alkaloid which appears to be present only in plants of the genus Nicotiana (see Nicotine).
Manufacture. In the manufacture of tobacco for smoking, we have to do with the numerous forms of tobacco used for smoking in pipes, embracing cut smoking mixtures, cake or plug, and roll or spun tobacco. Under this heading come also the cigar and cigarette manufacture.
The raw material in the warehouses is of various qualities: some is strong, rough and harsh, and so is unfit for ordinary smoking; other samples are mild and fine, with aromatic and pleasant flavour, but devoid of strength. By a proper mixing and blending the manufacturer is enabled to prepare the smoking mixture which is desirable for his purpose; but certain of the rough, bitter qualities cannot be manufactured without a preliminary treatment by which their intense disagreeable taste is modified. The storing of such tobacco for a lengthened period matures and deprives it of harshness, and the same result may be artificially hastened by macerating the leaves in water acidulated with hydrochloric acid, and washing them out with pure water. The most efficient means, however, of improving strong, ill-tasting tobacco is by renewed fermentation artificially induced by moisture and heat.
The manufacturer having prepared his mixture of leaves, proceeds to damp them, pure water alone being used in the United Kingdom, whereas on the Continent and in America certain S mo ki ng sauces are employed, which consist of mixtures of mixtures. aromatic substances, sugar, liquorice, common salt and saltpetre, &c., dissolved in water. The primary object is to render the leaves soft and pliant; the use of the sauces is to improve the flavour and burning qualities of the leaves used. When uniformly damped, the leaves are separately opened out and smoothed, the midrib, if not already removed, is torn out, except when " bird'seye " cut is to be made, in which mixture the midrib gives the peculiar " bird's-eye " appearance. The prepared tobacco, while still moist and pliant, is pressed between cylinders into a light cake, and cut into fine uniform shreds by a machine analogous to the chaff-cutter. .The cut tobacco is now roasted, partly with the view of driving off mositure and bringing the material into a condition for keeping, but also partly to improve its smoking quality.^ By now I had tried cutting down on the smoking.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Now I’ve got one cigarette left and I keep refusing to smoke it because then there won’t be any left.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

.The roasting is most simply effected by spreading it on heated slabs, on which it is constantly turned, or a roasting machine is used, consisting of a revolving drum in which the tobacco is rotated, gradually passing from one end to the other, and all the time under the influence of a current of heated air.^ I gradually increased the time so that I was down to one a day at the end of a month.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ SMOKING! Yes, the stupid act of putting a 120mm or less piece of wrapped up substance called tobacco into our mouth; some with cotton filters on one end others just the tobacco.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I remember all the times when I was learning to play guitar, all the hours I sat practicing till I got it just right, puffing one cigarette after another.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

The increase in favour of packet tobaccos has brought about the invention of elaborate packing machines.
For roll, twist of pigtail tobacco the raw material is damped or sauced as in the case of cut tobacco. The interior of the roll consists of small and broken leaf of various kinds, called Roll " fillers "; and this is enclosed within an external Tobacco. covering of large whole leaf of bright quality, such leaves being called " covers." The material is supplied to the twisting machinery by an attendant, and formed into a cord of uniform thickness, twisted and wound on a drum by mechanism analogous to that used in rope-spinning. From the drum of the twisting machine the spun tobacco is rolled into cylinders of various sizes. These are enclosed in canvas, and around the surface of each stout hempen cord is tightly and closely coiled. .In this form a large number, after being cooked or stoved in moist heat for about twenty-four hours, are piled between plates in an hydraulic press, and subjected to great pressure for a month or six weeks, during which time a slow fermentation takes place, and a considerable exudation of juice results from the severe pressure.^ This continues for twenty-four hours each day.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For about four months, started getting better and started feeling pretty good.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I was in the hospital for a week the first time and still was sick for months.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

The juice is collected for use as a sheep-dip.
Cake or plug tobacco is made by enveloping the desired amount of fillers within covering leaves of a fine bright colour. The packages are placed in moulds, and submitted to powerful pressure Cake . in an hydraulic press, by which they are moulded into Tobacco solid cakes. Both cake and roll tobacco are equally used for smoking and chewing; for the latter purpose the cake is frequently sweetened with liquorice, and sold as honey-dew or sweet cavendish.
For cigar-making the finest and most delicately flavoured qualities of tobacco are generally selected. A cigar consists of a core or Cigars. central mass of fillers enveloped in an inner and an outer C cover, the former the binder and the latter the wrapper. .The fillers or inner contents of the cigar must be of uniform quality, and so packed and distributed in a longitudinal direction that the tobacco may burn uniformly and the smoke can be freely drawn from end to end.^ I beg you before you light the first cigarette, you are may contemplate smoking that you realize that you are starting to end you life with that first puff!
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

For the binder whole leaf of the same quality as the fillers is used, but for the wrapper only selected leaves of the finest quality and colour, free from all injury, are employed. The covers are carefully cut to the proper size and shape with a sharp knife, and, after being damped and smoothed out are placed together in a pile. In making cigars by the hand, the operator rolls together a sufficient quantity of material to form the filling of one cigar, and experience enables him or her to select very uniform quantities. This quantity is wrapped in the inner cover, an oblong piece of leaf the length of the cigar to be made, and of width sufficient to enclose the whole material. .The cigar is then rolled in the hand to consolidate the tobacco and bring it into proper shape, after which it is wrapped in the outer cover, a shaped piece made to enclose the whole in a spiral manner, beginning at the thick end of the cigar and working down to the pointed end, where it is dexterously finished by twisting to a fine point between the fingers.^ SMOKING! Yes, the stupid act of putting a 120mm or less piece of wrapped up substance called tobacco into our mouth; some with cotton filters on one end others just the tobacco.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It was at this point, that the doctors told us that nothing was working, that the body was starting to shut down due to her compromised immune system.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At this point, she was given whole blood and white cell transfusions...and a gastric tube was put into her stomach...nothing was staying down.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

The finished cigars are either spread out in the sunlight to be dried, or exposed to a gentle heat. They are then sorted into qualities according to their colour, packed in boxes, in which they are stored for sale. Machinery is now employed for forming and moulding the fillings of the cheaper grades of cigars.
.Havana cigars are, as regards form, classification, method of putting up and nomenclature, the models followed by manufacturers of all classes of the goods.^ I couldn't get a good seat, for climbing stairs is very hard, so we would sit on the bottom bleacher and have to put up with everyone walking in front of us.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I was also in a good situation where there were people around me who were willing to put up with my irritability and my demanding uninterrupted time to concentrate on my cigarettes.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I would only tell you that my mother left this world putting up a "good fight", a fight that probably never would have been won.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

Genuine (" legitimas ") Havana cigars are such only as are made in the island; and the cigars made in Europe and elsewhere from genuine Cuban tobacco are classed as " Havanas." Other brands of home manufacture contain some proportion of Cuban tobacco; and very good cigars may be made in which the name only of that highly-prized leaf is employed. .When we come to the inferior classes of cigars, it can only be said that they may be made from any kind of leaf, the more ambitious imitations being treated with various sauces designed to give them a Havana flavour.^ The only reason you wanted to go to the doctor was to keep from working, they said.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

The highest class of Cuban-made cigars, called " vegueras," are prepared from the very finest Vuelta Abajo leaf, rolled when it is just half dry, and consequently never damped with water at all. .Next come the " regalias," similarly made of the best Vuelta Abajo tobacco; and it is only the lower qualities, " ordinary regalias," which are commonly found in commerce, the finer, and the " vegueras," being exceedingly high-priced.^ I made a choice and it was a bad one and the price to pay is just too high.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

The cigars, when dry, are carefully sorted according to strength, which is estimated by their colour, and classed in a scale of increasing strength as claro, colorado claro, maduro and oscuro. They are pressed into the cigar boxes for sale, and branded with the name or trade mark of their makers. Cheroots differ from ordinary cigars only in shape, being either in the form of a truncated cone, or of uniform thickness throughout, but always having both ends open and sharply cut across. .Cheroots come principally from Manila, but there are now large quantities imported into the United Kingdom from the East Indies and Burma.^ Well, now that I am much older, and I hope much wiser, it comes a little too late for me.......you see I have Emphysema and Asthma and I know there is NO cure for this disease.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

Cigarettes consist of small rolls of fine cut tobacco wrapped in a covering of thin tough paper specially made for such use. Originally Cigarettes. cigarettes were entirely prepared by the smoker himself; .Ci but now they are very largely made by automatic machinery.^ They are very angry at those cigarettes that have taken my life away from me and now is taking me away from them.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

.The machines cut the paper, gum its edge, measure out the proper quantity of tobacco, wrap it up, make the gummed edge adhere, and cut the ends.^ SMOKING! Yes, the stupid act of putting a 120mm or less piece of wrapped up substance called tobacco into our mouth; some with cotton filters on one end others just the tobacco.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

.In other machines a roll of narrow paper, in width equal to the circumference of the cigarette, is converted into a long tube, filled with tobacco, and automatically cut off into proper lengths.^ First of all it was the addictive product called nicotine and other synthetic additives rolled up in that slender stick called a cigarette.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

Such machines can make several hundred cigarettes per hour. The best cigarettes, however, are made by hand; the tobacco leaves are selected and hand-cut, and the paper tubes are filled by hand.
The manufacture of snuff is the most complex, tedious and difficult undertaking of the tobacco manufacture, but it is now of but little ff importance. The tobacco best suited for snuff-making Snuff. is thick fleshy leaf of a dark colour, but scraps and waste pieces resulting from the preparation of smoking mixtures and cigars, and the midribs of leaves are largely used. The material is moistened with a solution of common salt and placed in very large heaps to ferment for some weeks. Various flavouring materials, such as liquorice, tonka beans (Dipteryx odorata) and other ingredients are added, the natures of which are often trade secrets.
The mass is dried, ground, and allowed to ferment again, the process being repeated if necessary. The peculiar properties of snuff are dependent on the presence of free nicotine, free ammonia and the aromatic principles developed during fermentation.
Fiscal Restrictions. In nearly all civilized countries the cultivation of tobacco and its manufacture are conducted under state supervision and form an important source of public revenue. In some, for instance, France, Austria-Hungary and Italy, the cultivation is a state monopoly, and in other countries the crop is subject to heavy excise duties. Since the time of Charles II. the growth of tobacco in Great Britain has been practically prohibited, the original enactment to that effect having been passed to encourage trade with the young colony of Virginia. In 1886 experiments were conducted, under certain restrictions, and the plant was grown in Norfolk, Kent and other counties with sufficient success to prove the entire practicability of raising tobacco as a commercial crop in England. .In more recent years tobacco has been grown in Ireland, but up to 1910 it had been found impracticable to obtain from the government sufficient relaxation from fiscal restrictions to encourage the home cultivation, though in 1907 the prospect of licences being issued was held out.^ The most recent change we have to make is leaving our home of 24 years.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ My golden years turned to tarnished brass while my fingers were being stained with the cigarette I held in them.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

Statistics. The following table, taken from the Year Book of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, ig06, indicates the crops of tobacco in 1905 in the regions mentioned, so far as figures are available.
1905.
North America
721, 49 2,000 lb.
South America
108,575,000 „
Europe .
630,13 3 ,000 „
Asia
690,161,000 „
Africa
23,346,000 „
Australia and Fiji
1,486,000 „
Total 2,175,193,000 lb.
The estimated value of the world's annual crop is approximately £40,000,000.

Consumption of Tobacco

The comparative consumption of tobacco in various countries is best appreciated by expressing it in pounds per head, and the following figures are taken from Bartholomew's Atlas of the World's Commerce: Belgium 6.21 lb, United States 5.4 0 lb, Germany 3.44 Ib, Austria 3.02 lb, Australasia 2.20 lb, Canada 2.54 lb, Hungary 2.42 lb, France 2.16 lb, United Kingdom 1.95 lb, Russia 1 10 lb.
The literature of tobacco is very extensive. William Bragge of Birmingham published in 1880 a revised bibliography of the subject, Bibliotheca nicotiana, extending to 248 quarto pages. From such a mass of authorities it would be vain here to make selections, but mention may be made of Fairholt's capital gossiping work, Tobacco, its History and Associations (2nd ed., 1876). .As modern standard works there may also be quoted Tiedemann's Geschichte des Tabaks (1856) and Wagner's Tabakcultur, Tabakand CigarrenFabrication (1884).^ His illness may have been caused in part by his years of working in construction or the fact that there was lung disease present in his family.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

In the foregoing account various passages from the article by J. Paton and W. Dittmar, in the 9th ed. of the Ency. Brit., have been utilized. (W. G. F.)


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

In Jewish Law.

The use of tobacco for smoking and in the form of snuff is commonamong Jews, who in some countries control to a large extent the manufacture and sale of the product. It is asserted that a Jew named Luis de Terres, who accompanied Columbus on his expedition in 1492, settled in Cuba, learned the use of tobacco, and introduced it into Europe. From this time Jews have been connected with the trade in tobacco, one of the most important in early American history (M. J. Kohler, in "Publ. Am. Jew. Hist. Soc." x. 52). The introduction of tobacco into Europe encountered the resolute opposition of the clergy, who characterized tobacco-smoking as "offering incense to Satan." The Rabbis, however, discussed the use of tobacco not from a moral, but from a legal standpoint—concerning its prohibition on Sabbaths, holy days, and fast-days, and as to whether smoking requires a special benediction. .As a subject of controversy it appears first in the "Keneset ha-Gedolah" of R. Ḥayyim Benveniste (1603-73) and the "Magen Abraham" of Abraham Gombiner (1635-83), which fact tends to show that during the seventeenth century the practise of tobacco-smoking spread rapidly among the Jews of all nations.^ For no other excuse than to appear "cool" I smoked my first cigarette when I was 16.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

Gombiner describes the "drinking of tabak through a pipe by drawing the smoke into the mouth and discharging it." The rabbi is in doubt whether or not one must pronounce a benediction before inhaling the smoke, since it is a means of refreshment. As an argument against pronouncing a blessing he observes that there is no "substance" in the benefit derived ("Magen Abraham," to Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 210, 9). He prohibits smoking tobacco "through the mouth" on Passover, as he was informed that the tobacco was soaked in beer, which is "ḥameẓ" (ib. 343). .Benveniste expresses himself very forcibly against smoking "ṭuṭun" (tobacco) on the Ninth of Ab; and he even excommunicated one who smoked on that day ("Keneset ha-Gedolah," to Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 551, 21).^ I stopped that very day for "one day at a time."
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I began to be sick with allergies, asthma, and at one point, pneumonia---not serious enough to be hospitalized which left me free to smoke even though the doctor, my husband and even my little children were very angry with me when I did.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But smoking, as anyone who has ever smoked for any length of time, will tell you is a very addicting disease.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

.He points out the inconsistency of those authorities who permit smoking on holy days because it is a "necessity," a "means of sustaining life," and who allow it on fast-days because smoke has no "substance" like food.^ For those of you who are still smoking.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The cokes and chips were no problem, so I set out to smoke.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I would go to school and kids would tell me I smelled like smoke because I was around theirs all the time.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

In Benveniste's opinion smoking should be prohibited on holy days; he quotes the venerable R. Joseph Escapa as coinciding in this view, though he thought it unwise to enforce a generally accepted law.

Tobacco-Lovers.

The Jews of Turkey at that time must have been very much addicted to the habit, for Benveniste pictures them as inveterate smokers, impatient for the close of Sabbath, when they might resume smoking, and as watching for the appearance of the three stars which indicate the end of the day; some began smoking even before "Habdalah." "They lingeredin the streets and public houses, every man with a censer in his hand, inhaling the smoke and discharging it in fantastic diffusion," until "a thick cloud of incense went up" (comp. Ezek 8:11). He declares that the Name of God is desecrated when the Gentiles observe Jews smoking on their fast-days, while Mohammedans refrain from smoking on theirs ("Keneset ha-Gedolah," ib. 567 [ed. Constantinople, 1729, pp. 101 et seq.]). Some Jews, unable to abstain from tobacco even for one day, filled a hooka with smoke on Friday and inhaled it on the Sabbath. Others would visit Mohammedan neighbors for the sake of the tobacco smoke in their houses. This practise was eventually prohibited on the ground that it would make Judaism ridiculous in the eyes of the Gentiles (Alkalai, "Zekor le-Abraham," i. 142-143, Salonica, 1798).
.The Turkish narghile, in which the smoke passes through water, early became popular; Benveniste rules that the "tumbak" (cake of tobacco, over which a burning coal is placed at the other end of the narghile) extinguishes the fire, which is forbidden even on holy days.^ SMOKING! Yes, the stupid act of putting a 120mm or less piece of wrapped up substance called tobacco into our mouth; some with cotton filters on one end others just the tobacco.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I even cut down to maybe 4 or 5 a day thinking that I was actually smoking since I was only smoking that many a day.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ My smoking continued---a pack or two a day---through high school and college.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

Gombiner prohibits tumbak because it is like "mugmar" (spice for burning), mentioned in the Talmud, which likewise is prohibited. This, however, is disputed by R. Mordecai ha-Levi in his "Darke No'am" (No. 9, Venice, 1698), who permits the use of the narghile on holy days (see "Be'er Heṭeb," to Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 514, 1). .The controversy finally ended in a victory for those rabbis who permitted the use of tobacco on holy days and fast-days, except of course on Yom Kippur, which is like Sabbath; still, some Jews still abstain from smoking on the Ninth of Ab.^ For those of you who are still smoking.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I had been having a pretty bad day of breathing and of course, still smoking.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I know a lot of people who are old, and still smoking."
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

Snuff.

.In spite of some objections, snuff-taking was permitted at any time—Sabbaths, holy days, fast-days, and Yom Kippur ("Leḳeṭ ha-Ḳemaḥ," p.^ Take nebulizer treatments 4 times a day.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ My excuse for taking it up again each time was some crisis.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

51b, Amsterdam, 1707). .Jacob Ḥaziz (1620-74) quotes a responsum of Isaiah Pinto permitting the use of snuff on Sabbaths, even though it cures catarrh; for everybody, even healthy people, snuff, and it can not therefore be considered a drug ("Halakot Ḳeṭannot," No.^ Even though this disease is the fourth leading cause of death, and kills about 120,000 people a year.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I tried unsuccessfully several times after that, even though I had not had any physical problems -- no coughing or shortness of breath.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But it's no doubt that his smoking was a primary cause, even though he stopped smoking about 20 years before he died.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

101).
.It appears that women used tobacco almost as much as men (see Elijah of Lublin, "Yad Eliyahu," responsum No.^ Well, now that I am much older, and I hope much wiser, it comes a little too late for me.......you see I have Emphysema and Asthma and I know there is NO cure for this disease.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

65, Amsterdam, 1712). .Jewish women in the Orient mostly used the narghile, while in Russia old women used snuff; others smoked cigarettes, like men.^ I am 25 years old, I used to smoke cigarettes, but not anymore.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When I was old enough to know better, I thought I would be "cool" and smoke cigarettes.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I started smoking at the age of 17, when my little brother used to sneak me cigarettes when we were doing homework, late at night in my room.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

So prevalent was the habit of smoking that it was practised even in the bet hamidrash. A strong effort, however, was made to prohibit smoking and snuffing in places of worship ("Paḥad Yiẓaḳ," ט, p. 62a). In some batte midrashot prohibitory notices were posted in front of the doors ("Ha-Maggid," 1859, vol. iii., No. 16).
In countries where the government had a monopoly of the tobacco trade, manufacturing and trading privileges were assigned to Jewish merchants at a fixed price per annum for a number of years. The question was raised whether the contractor had a prior right to the next contract as against the claims of a new competitor. Lampronti decided that contracts were open to competition, inasmuch as the matter depended on the laws and regulations of the government ("Paḥad Yiẓḥaḳ," א, p. 90a). Russian Jews have invented some practical cigarette-making machines for which they have obtained patents.
A remarkable book is Raphael Kohen's "Ḥuṭ ha-Meshullash" (Odessa, 1874), which deals with the question of cigar-smoking on Sabbaths, and which finally reaches the conclusion that it is permissible on the ground that it affords "'oneg shabbat" (delight and enjoyment). Not daring to publish his name, the author issued his book under a pseudonym. His discussion was not considered a serious one; nevertheless it is of a kind unusual in Hebrew literature.
There are several Hebrew poems for and against smoking. Solomon Wilder of Amsterdam composed one in acceptance of a tobacco-pipe as a birthday present ("Ha-Karmel," 1862, vol. ii., No. 20). .Another poem characterizes the cigar and cigarette as "the two tails of these smoking firebrands" (Isa 7:4; see "Ha-Boḳer Or," i.^ I smoked two packs of cigarettes a day for thirty years.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to beat the cigarettes you need only do two things; quit smoking and change your whole life.
  • Cigarette Anyone? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.emphysema.net [Source type: Original source]

123).
Bibliography: Ha-Maggid, viii., No. 37; Ha-Ẓefirah, i., No. 8; Keneset ha-Gedolah, iii., end; A. K. Kaufman, Räuchert un Shikkert, Warsaw, 1900; Löw, Lebensalter, p. 351; Abrahams, Jewish Life in the Middle Ages, p. 139; Steinschneider, in Die Deborah (1894), vol. xl., No. 1.
This entry includes text from the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906.
Facts about TobaccoRDF feed

Simple English

Tobacco
File:Tabak
Flowering Nicotiana tabacum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Nicotiana
L.
Species

Numerous, see text

Tobacco is a plant of the nightshade family, found mainly in North America and South America. Dried tobacco leaves are often smoked in cigars, cigarettes and pipes, but can also be chewed in the mouth or sniffed in the nose. Tobacco contains a very powerful chemical called nicotine which makes it very hard for tobacco users to stop using it.

History

Native Americans used tobacco before Europeans arrived in America. These Europeans learned to smoke and brought it back to Europe, where it became very popular. At that time tobacco was usually smoked in a pipe.


The Europeans who moved to America started to farm tobacco so that they could sell it in Europe. This became one of the main causes of the African slave trade. In 1610 a European man called John Rolfe arrived in the American state of Virginia and set up a tobacco farm which made him very rich. Rolfe was the first farmer to use nicotiana tabacum, which is the type of tobacco most commonly smoked today. He also married Pocahontas, a Native American woman who became famous when went to live in London.

In the 17th and 18th centuries tobacco made farmers very rich and towns quickly grew in the states of Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina. In 1883 one third of United States tax money came from tobacco.

In 1864 the first American tobacco factory opened to produce 20 million cigarettes annually. By 1964 the cigarette contained over 500 added chemicals. Today tobacco manufacturers are still not required by law to list the 500+ ingredients.

Tobacco and health

Tobacco users (especially smokers) risk many very serious and often deadly illnesses, such as cancer, strokes, heart disease, and lung disease. The United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention describes tobacco use as "the single most important preventable risk to human health in developed countries and an important cause of premature (early) death worldwide".

Growing tobacco

Top Ten Tobacco Producers - 2005
(million metric ton)
China 2.51
Brazil 0.88
India 0.60
United States 0.29
Indonesia 0.14
Turkey 0.14
Greece 0.12
Argentina 0.12
Italy 0.11
Pakistan 0.08
World Total 6.38
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
[1]


bjn:Timbaku


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

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