The Full Wiki

Togarmah: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Thargamos and his sons.
The order of the figures from left to right is: Movakan, Bardos, Kartlos, Haos, Lekos, Thargamos, Caucas, Egros. An opening folio of the Georgian Chronicles (Vakhtangiseuli redaction), 1700s.

Togarmah (Hebrew: תּוגרמה/Togarmah ; Armenian: Թորգոմ/T’orgom ; Georgian: თარგამოს/T’argamos) third son of Gomer, and grandson of Japheth, brother of Ashkenaz and Riphat (Genesis 10:3). He is held to be the ancestor of the peoples of the South Caucasus (the Georgians and the Armenians).


Togarmah's descendants


Caucasian/Armenian theory

Jewish historian Flavius Josephus (37 – c. 100 AD), Roman Catholic priest Jerome (c. 347 – 420 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 – 636 AD) regarded Togarmah as the father of the Phrygians.

Saint Hippolytus (c. 170-c. 236 AD), the Father of the Church History Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 263 – c. 339 AD), and the Christian bishop Theodoret (c. 393 – c. 457 AD) regarded him as a father of Armenians.

Both Armenian Moses of Chorene and Georgian Leonti Mroveli regarded Togarmah as the founder of their nations along with other Caucasian people.

In native Armenian language, Armenians still call themselves "Hayer" and their county "Hayastan" (the land of Hayk) after their founder Haik who was son of Togarmah according to the both above mentioned Georgian and Armenian historians. In the past the country was historically called by natives Metz Hayk/Hayq (Greater Armenia) and Poqr Hayk/Hayq (Lesser Armenia). This is true for Georgia (Kartlos/Sakartvelo) and other Peoples of the Caucasus like Kakheti (after Kakhos- son of Kartlos) or Leketi (after Lekos son of Togarmah) according to Leonti Mroveli.

Other names were either changed or replaced by Greek, French or English descriptions, but the native language and self-designation in Caucasus preserve some historical facts and figures reflecting the recorded history of Georgian and Armenian people.

According to the Fausset's Bible Dictionary by A. R. FAUSSET (ZONDERVAN PUBLISHING HOUSE) first printing in 1949 and 22 printing 1980 ISBN 0-310-24310-6 page 695:

"Togarmah son of Gomer, brother of Ashkenaz and Riphat answering to Armenia. From Toka, sanskrit for tribe or race and Armah (Armenia)². The Armenians represent Haik to be their founder and son of Thorgau (Moses Choren i. 4,9-11). The Phrygians, the race that overspread Asia Minor, probably migrated from Armenia, their language resembled Armenian (Eudoxus,in Steph.Byz on Armenia). The Phrygian is Indo-germanic as inscriptions prove, and resembled Greek (Plato, Cartyl. In Ezekiak xxvii 14 Togarmah appears trading with Tyre for hourses and mules; so Strabo (xi 13,9) makes Armenian famouse for breeding hourses. In xxxviii 6 Togarmah comes with Gomer from the north against Palestine, this and Genesis x.3 imply Togarma's connection with the Japhetic races, which modern researches confirms to as Armenia. The Armenian connection with the Celts (Gomer i.e Cimbri, Cimmerians, Crimea, Cymry) implies in Togarmah being Gomer's son, is not unlikley. The Imperial Dictionay makes Togarmah to mean the Torkomans who have always joined the Turks, i.e Gog (Ezk. xxxviii 1-6) or the king of the north (Daniel xi 40); Bochart makes Goghasan the original form, among the Colchians, Armenians, and Chaldeans, for which the Greeks gave Caucasus."

² Grimm (Gesch. deutsch. Sprache, II, 325)

According to The Georgian Chronicles and The History of Armenia Togarmah lived in Babylon who received the land between two Seas (Black Sea and Caspian Sea) and two Mountains (Mount Elbrus and Mount Ararat) in his possession when people started division of lands and migration in different parts of the world. He then settled near Mount Ararat and divided his land among his sons: [1] [2]

  1. Haik (Հայք) - first son of Togarmah, inherited Mount Ararat and founded the Armenian nation.
  2. Kartlos (ქართლოსი) - settled in north-east from Ararat, founder of Kartli (Sa'kartvelo) who united other brothers and founded the Georgian nation.
  3. Bardos
  4. Movakos (Movkans)
  5. Lekos (Lek) - settled in Caucasus Mountains
  6. Heros (Herans)- settled in the eastern part of Ararat
  7. Caucas (Kovkases) - settled beyond the Caucasus Range
  8. Egros (Egers) - settled between the Black Sea and Likhi Range. (western Georgia)

Turkic Theory

According to other records, Togarmah is regarded as the ancestor of the Turkic peoples. For example, The French Benedictine monk and scholar Calmet (1672-1757) places Togarmah in Scythia and Turcomania (in the Eurasian Steppes and Central Asia).[3] Also in his letters, King Joseph ben Aaron, the ruler of the Khazars, writes:

"You ask us also in your epistle: "Of what people, of what family, and of what tribe are you?" Know that we are descended from Japhet, through his son Togarmah. I have found in the genealogical books of my ancestors that Togarmah had ten sons. These are their names: the eldest was Ujur (Agiôr - Uyghur), the second Tauris (Tirôsz - Tauri), the third Avar (Avôr - Avar), the fourth Uauz (Ugin - Oghuz), the fifth Bizal (Bizel - Pecheneg), the sixth Tarna, the seventh Khazar (Khazar), the eighth Janur (Zagur), the ninth Bulgar (Balgôr - Bulgar), the tenth Sawir (Szavvir/Szabir - Sabir)."[4]

In Jewish sources too Togarmah is listed as the father of the Turkic peoples: The medieval Jewish scholar: Joseph ben Gorion lists in his Josippon the ten sons of Togarma thusly:

  1. Kozar (the Khazars)
  2. Pacinak (the Pechenegs)
  3. Aliqanosz (the Alans)
  4. Bulgar (the Bulgars)
  5. Ragbiga (Ragbina, Ranbona)
  6. Turqi (possibly the Kökturks)
  7. Buz (the Oghuz)
  8. Zabuk
  9. Ungari (either the Hungarians or the Oghurs/Onogurs)
  10. Tilmac (Tilmic)."

In the Chronicles of Jerahmeel, they are listed as:

  1. Cuzar (the Khazars)
  2. Pasinaq (the Pechenegs)
  3. Alan (the Alans)
  4. Bulgar (the Bulgars)
  5. Kanbinah
  6. Turq (possibly the Kökturks)
  7. Buz (the Oghuz)
  8. Zakhukh
  9. Ugar (either the Hungarians or the Oghurs/Onogurs)
  10. Tulmes

Another medieval rabbinic work, the Book of Jasher, further corrupts these same names into:

  1. Buzar (the Khazars)
  2. Parzunac (the Pechenegs)
  3. Balgar (the Bulgars)
  4. Elicanum (the Alans)
  5. Ragbib
  6. Tarki (the Kökturks)
  7. Bid (the Oghuz)
  8. Zebuc
  9. Ongal (Hungarians or Oghurs/Onogurs)
  10. Tilmaz.

In Arabic records, Togorma's tribes are these:

  1. Khazar
  2. Badsanag
  3. Asz-alân
  4. Bulghar
  5. Zabub
  6. Fitrakh (Kotrakh?) (can be divided like Ko-etrakh. etrakh means turks, sounds like gokturks)
  7. Nabir
  8. Andsar (Ajhar)
  9. Talmisz
  10. Adzîgher.

The Arabic account however, also adds an 11th clan: Anszuh.

Yet another tradition of the sons of Togarmah appears in Pseudo-Philo, where their names are said to be "Abiud, Saphath, Asapli, and Zepthir". The Chronicles of Jerahmeel, in addition to giving the above names from Yosippon, elsewhere lists Togarmah's sons similarly as "Abihud, Shafat, and Yaftir".

Biblical Mention

Togarmah is mentioned as being a Nation from the Far North in the Bible. Bible NCV Ezk 38:6 - "There will also be Gomer with all its troops and the nation of Togarmah from the far north with all its troops-mant nations with you."

In Ezekiel 27:14 Togarmah is mentioned after Tubal, Javan and Mesech as supplying horses and mules to the Tyrians, and in Ezekiel 38:6 it is said to have supplied soldiers to the army of Gog (Gyges of Lydia).


  1. ^ The Georgian Chronicles by Leonti Mroveli
  2. ^ "The History of Armenia" by Moses of Chorene
  3. ^ The Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. (1835) B. B. Edwards and J. Newton Brown. Brattleboro, Vermont, Fessenden & Co., p. 1125.
  4. ^ Pritsak O. & Golb. N: Khazarian Hebrew Documents of the Tenth Century, Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1982.

Jon Ruthven. The Prophecy That Is Shaping History: New Research on Ezekiel's Vision of the End. Fairfax, VA: Xulon Press, 2003.[1]. A major study on the historical geography of Togarmah, Rosh, Meshech, Tubal and the other northern nations listed in Ezekiel 38-39 and elsewhere.


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary




From Hebrew תֹּגַרְמָה

Proper noun




  1. (Biblical) A grandson of Japheth; traditional ancestor of Armenians and Georgians, sometimes also of Turkic peoples.
  2. (rare) A male given name of biblical origin.


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

  1. A son of Gomer, and grandson of Japheth (Gen 10:3).
  2. A nation which traded in horses and mules at the fairs of Tyre (Ezek 27:14; 38:6); probably an Armenian or a Scythian race; descendants of (1).
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)


Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address