Tokyo International Airport: Wikis

  
  

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Tokyo International Airport
東京国際空港
Tōkyō Kokusai Kūkō
HND control tower.jpg
IATA: HNDICAO: RJTT
Summary
Airport type Public
Operator Tokyo Aviation Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (airfield); Japan Airport Terminal Co., Ltd. (terminals)
Location Ōta, Tokyo, Japan
Hub for Air Do
All Nippon Airways
Japan Airlines
Skymark Airlines
Skynet Asia Airways
Elevation AMSL 21 ft / 6 m
Coordinates 35°33′12″N 139°46′52″E / 35.55333°N 139.78111°E / 35.55333; 139.78111 (Tokyo International Airport)Coordinates: 35°33′12″N 139°46′52″E / 35.55333°N 139.78111°E / 35.55333; 139.78111 (Tokyo International Airport)
Website www.tokyo-airport-bldg.co.jp
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
16R/34L 3,000 9,843 Asphalt concrete
16L/34R 3,000 9,843 Asphalt concrete
04/22 2,500 8,202 Asphalt concrete
Statistics (2009)
Number of passengers 62,100,754
Sources: Japanese AIP at AIS Japan[1]
Statistics from ACI
Haneda Airfield in 1937

Tokyo International Airport (東京国際空港 Tōkyō Kokusai Kūkō?) (IATA: HNDICAO: RJTT), located in Ōta, Tokyo, 14 km (8.7 mi) south of Tokyo Station,[1] Japan, is one of the two primary airports serving the Greater Tokyo Area. It is commonly known as Haneda Airport (羽田空港 Haneda Kūkō?).

Although Haneda was originally the primary airport for the Tokyo region, it now shares that role with Narita International Airport. Haneda handles almost all domestic flights to and from Tokyo while Narita handles almost all international flights. In recent years, however, international service from Haneda has expanded significantly with the addition of "scheduled charter" flights to Seoul (S. Korea), Shanghai (PRC) and Hong Kong. The Japanese government plans to expand Haneda's international role in the future with more regional flights and off-peak charter services.

Haneda handled 62,100,754 passengers in 2009. By passenger throughput, it was the second busiest airport in Asia and the fifth busiest in the world, after Atlanta's Hartsfield-Jackson Airport, London Heathrow, Beijing's International Airport and Chicago's O'Hare Airport. It is the primary base of Japan's two major domestic airlines, Japan Airlines (Terminal 1) and All Nippon Airways (Terminal 2), as well as low-cost carriers Hokkaido International Airlines, Skymark Airlines, Skynet Asia Airways, and StarFlyer. Haneda is expected to be able to handle 90 million passengers after its expansion in 2010.

Contents

History

World War II

Haneda Airfield (羽田飛行場 Haneda Hikōjō?) first opened in 1931 on a small piece of bayfront land at the south end of today's airport complex. It was Japan's largest civil airport at the time it was constructed, and took over from the army air base at Tachikawa as the main operating base of Japan Air Transport, then the country's flag carrier. During the 1930s, Haneda handled flights to destinations in Japan, Korea and Manchuria. In 1939, the airport's first runway was extended to 800m and a second 800m runway was completed.[2]

US occupation

In 1945, U.S. occupation forces took over the airport and renamed it Haneda Army Air Base. The Army evicted many nearby residents to make room for various construction projects, including extending one runway to 1,650m and the other to 2,100m. US military personnel based at Haneda were generally housed at the Washington Heights residential complex in central Tokyo (now Yoyogi Park).

During the Korean War, Haneda was the main regional base for United States Navy flight nurses, who evacuated patients from Korea to Haneda for treatment at military hospitals in Tokyo and Yokosuka.[3]

The U.S. military gave part of the base back to Japan in 1952; this portion became known as Tokyo International Airport. The US military maintained a base at Haneda until 1958 when the remainder of the property was returned to the Japanese government.

International era

Haneda Air Force Base received its first international passenger flights in 1947 when Northwest Orient Airlines began scheduled service to the United States, China, South Korea, and the Philippines. Japan Airlines began its first domestic operations from Haneda in 1951.

During its first years of postwar civil operations, Tokyo International Airport did not have a passenger terminal building. The Japan Airport Terminal Co., Ltd. TYO: 9706 was founded in 1953 in order to develop the airport's first passenger terminal, which opened in 1955. An extension for international flights opened in 1963.[4]

European carriers began service to Haneda in the 1950s, with BOAC operating de Havilland Comet flights to London via the southern route in 1952, and SAS operating DC-7 flights to Copenhagen via Anchorage beginning in 1957. JAL and Aeroflot began cooperative service from Haneda to Moscow in 1967. Both Pan Am and Northwest Orient used Haneda as an Asian regional hub.

The Tokyo Monorail began service between Haneda and central Tokyo in 1964, in time for the Tokyo Olympics. During 1964, Japan also lifted travel restrictions on its citizens, causing passenger traffic at the airport to swell. A new runway and international terminal was completed in 1970, but demand continued to outpace expansion.[4]

The government anticipated this growth in the early 1960s. The government believed that further expansion of Haneda would be impractical due to the cost and technical issues inherent in a large-scale landfill project in Tokyo Bay. Instead, a plan was put forward to build a new airport to handle Tokyo's international flights. In 1978, New Tokyo International Airport (now Narita Airport) opened, taking over almost all international service in the Greater Tokyo Area, and Haneda became a domestic airport.

Domestic era

ANA aircraft at Terminal 2
Terminal 2, completed in 2004, now houses ANA, StarFlyer, and Air Do.

While most international flights moved from Haneda to Narita in 1978, airlines based on Taiwan continued to use Haneda Airport for many years due to the ongoing political conflict between the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China. China Airlines served Taipei and Honolulu from Haneda; Taiwan's second major airline, EVA Air, joined CAL at Haneda in 1989.

All Taiwan flights were moved to Narita in 2002, and Haneda-Honolulu services ceased. In 2003, JAL, ANA, KAL and Asiana began service to Gimpo Airport near Seoul, providing a "scheduled charter" city-to-city service.

Despite the Transport Ministry's initial reservations about expanding Haneda Airport onto new landfill in Tokyo Bay, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government began using the adjacent bay area as a waste dumping site, thus creating a large amount of landfill upon which the airport could expand. In July 1988, a new runway opened on the landfill area. In September 1993, the old airport terminal was replaced by a new West Passenger Terminal, nicknamed "Big Bird," which was built farther out on the landfill. Two new runways were completed in March 1997 and March 2000. In 2004, Terminal 2 opened at Haneda for ANA and Air Do; the 1993 terminal, now known as Terminal 1, became the base for JAL, Skymark and Skynet Asia Airways.[5]

In October 2006, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao reached an informal agreement to launch bilateral talks regarding an additional city-to-city service between Haneda and Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport.[6] On 25 June 2007, the two governments concluded an agreement allowing for the Haneda-Hongqiao service to commence from October 2007.[7]

In June 2007 Haneda gained the right to host international flights that depart between 8:30 PM and 11:00 PM and arrive between 6 AM and 8:30 AM. The airport allows departures and arrivals between 11 PM and 6 AM (as Narita Airport is closed during these hours[8]).[9]

Macquarie Bank and Macquarie Airports owned a 19.9% stake in Japan Airport Terminal until 2009, when they sold their stake back to the company.[10]

Future international development

Plan showing location of fourth runway

A third terminal for international flights is planned for completion in October 2010. The cost to construct the five-story terminal building and attached 2,300-car parking deck will be covered by a Private Finance Initiative process, revenues from duty-free concessions and a facility use charge of ¥2,000 per passenger. Both the Tokyo Monorail and the Keikyū Airport Line will be routed to stop at the new terminal, and an international air cargo facility will also be constructed nearby.[11]

A fourth runway is presently under construction to the south of the existing airfield, and is planned to be completed by 2010. This runway is expected to increase Haneda's operational capacity from 285,000 movements to 407,000 movements per year, permitting increased frequencies on existing routes, as well as routes to new destinations[11].

In particular, Haneda will offer additional slots to handle 60,000 overseas flights a year (30,000 during the day and 30,000 during late night and early morning hours).[12][13] The Ministry of Transport originally planned to allocate a number of the newly available landing slots to international flights of 1,947 km (1,210 mi) or less (the distance to Ishigaki, the longest domestic flight operating from Haneda).[11] The destinations within this range include all of Korea, parts of eastern and northern China (including Shanghai, Qingdao, Dalian, Harbin,and Beijing) and parts of the Russian Far East (including Vladivostok and Sakhalin).[14]

In May 2008, a further liberalization was announced, allowing flights to any destination to operate between 11 PM and 6 AM.[12]

Country Approved
flights per day[15]
Approved routes Requested routes
Republic of Korea 4
Hong Kong 4
Singapore 4 Japan Air Lines and All Nippon Airways have not announced route bids
Malaysia 2
Thailand 2

Bangkok (carriers not specified)[17]

United States 8

Japan Air Lines and All Nippon Airways have not announced route bids

Canada 2

Vancouver and/or Toronto (carriers not specified)[23]

Germany 4
Netherlands 2 Amsterdam (carriers not specified)[24]
France 2 Paris (carriers not specified)[25]
United Kingdom 2 London (carriers not specified; "British Airways has offered to support and facilitate a new service between London Heathrow and Haneda")[26]

V Australia announced interest in operating nonstop service to Sydney.[27] All Nippon Airways has expressed interest in using some of the new slots to start a low-cost carrier operation, but delayed this program in March 2009 amid the ongoing global recession.[28] Given that Japan Airlines decided to stay in the Oneworld alliance on February 9, the airline may cooperate with its Oneworld partner British Airways in offering services linking London Heathrow Airport and Tokyo Haneda International Airport[29].

Incidents and accidents

Terminals

Haneda Airport has three terminals. The main terminals, 1 and 2, are connected by an underground walkway; a free shuttle bus runs between the main terminals and the smaller International Terminal every five minutes.

Haneda Airport is open 24 hours. The two main passenger terminals are only open from 5 AM to 11:30 PM. The terminals may be extended to 24-hour operation due to StarFlyer's late-night and early-morning service between Haneda and Kitakyushu, which began in March 2006.

All three terminals are managed by Japan Airport Terminal Co., Ltd. (日本空港ビルディング株式会社 Nippon Kūkō Birudingu Kabushikigaisha?), a private company. The rest of the airport is managed by the government. It has 46 jetways altogether.

Terminal 1

Terminal 1 ticketing concourse

Terminal 1, called "Big Bird," opened in 1993, replacing the smaller 1970 terminal complex. The linear building features a six-story restaurant and shopping area in its center section and a large rooftop observation deck.

Terminal 2

Terminal 2 ticketing concourse

Terminal 2 opened on December 1, 2004. It features an open-air rooftop restaurant, a six-story "marketplace" area with restaurants and shops, and the 387-room Haneda Excel Hotel Tokyu.

The construction of Terminal 2 was financed by levying a ¥100 passenger service facility charge on tickets, the first domestic Passenger Service Facilities Charge (PSFC) in Japan.

International Terminal

Haneda's international terminal currently handles charter flights, as scheduled international flights are generally required to use Narita Airport. There are daily "scheduled charter" flights between Haneda and central airports in three other Asian cities—Seoul (Gimpo), Shanghai (Hongqiao) and Hong Kong) — as well as other charter flights at late night and early morning hours when Narita Airport is closed.

In December 2007, Japan and the People's Republic of China reached a basic agreement on opening charter services between Haneda and Beijing Nanyuan Airport. However, because of difficulties in negotiating with the Chinese military operators of Nanyuan, the first charter flights in August 2008 (coinciding with the 2008 Summer Olympics) used Beijing Capital International Airport instead[31], as do current scheduled charters to Beijing.

This International Terminal facility is to be replaced with the new, larger International Terminal (see Future development above).

Airlines and Destinations

Airlines Destinations Terminal
Air China Beijing-Capital International
All Nippon Airways Akita, Fukuoka, Hachijojima, Hakodate, Hiroshima, Iwami, Kagoshima, Kobe, Kochi, Komatsu, Kumamoto, Kushiro, Matsuyama, Miyakejima, Miyazaki, Monbetsu, Nagasaki, Naha, Nemuro-Nakashibetsu, Noto, Odate-Noshiro, Okayama, Oita, Osaka-Itami, Osaka-Kansai, Oshima, Saga, Sapporo-Chitose, Shonai, Takamatsu, Tottori, Toyama, Wakkanai, Yamaguchi-Ube, Yonago 2
All Nippon Airways Beijing-Capital, Hong Kong, Seoul-Gimpo, Shanghai-Hongqiao, Taipei-Songshan [begins 31 October][32] International
Asiana Airlines Seoul-Gimpo International
China Eastern Airlines Shanghai-Hongqiao International
Hokkaido International Airlines Asahikawa, Hakodate, Memanbetsu, Sapporo-Chitose 2
Japan Airlines Akita, Amami-Oshima, Aomori, Asahikawa, Fukuoka, Hakodate, Hiroshima, Izumo, Kagoshima, Kitakyushu, Kobe [ends 1 April], Kochi, Komatsu, Kumamoto, Kushiro, Matsuyama, Memanbetsu, Misawa, Miyazaki, Nagasaki, Naha, Nanki-Shirahama, Oita, Okayama, Osaka-Itami, Osaka-Kansai, Sapporo-Chitose, Takamatsu, Tokachi-Obihiro, Tokushima, Yamagata, Yamaguchi-Ube 1
Japan Airlines Beijing-Capital, Hong Kong, Seoul-Gimpo, Shanghai-Hongqiao International
Japan Transocean Air Ishigaki, Kumejima, Miyako, Naha 1
Korean Air Seoul-Gimpo International
MIAT Mongolian Airlines Ulan Bator International
Shanghai Airlines Shanghai-Hongqiao International
Singapore Airlines Singapore [begins 31 October][33] International
Skymark Airlines Asahikawa, Fukuoka, Kobe, Naha, Sapporo-Chitose 1
Skynet Asia Airways Kagoshima, Kumamoto, Miyazaki, Nagasaki 2
StarFlyer Kitakyushu 1
StarFlyer Osaka-Kansai 2

Cargo facilities

Haneda is the third-largest air cargo hub in Japan after Narita and Kansai. The airport property is adjacent to the Tokyo Freight Terminal, the main rail freight yard serving central Tokyo.

Scheduled cargo routes from Haneda include:

Airlines Destinations
All Nippon Airways Osaka-Kansai, Saga, Sapporo-Chitose

Other facilities

Haneda Airport has a special VIP terminal and two parking spots for private aircraft. This area is often used by foreign heads of state visiting Japan, as well as by the Japanese Air Force One and other aircraft carrying government officials. (Narita is also regularly used for such flights despite its much greater distance from central Tokyo.) The Tokyo Metropolitan Police have historically conducted heightened security measures, including ID checks of visibly foreign passengers, during times when the airport is being used for state visits.[34] Japan Airlines operates the Safety Promotion Center at the periphery of the airport.

The Japan Coast Guard has a base at Haneda which is used by Special Rescue Team.

Ground transportation

Rail

Tokyo Monorail station at Terminal 1.

Haneda Airport is served by the Keihin Kyuko Railway (Keikyū) and Tokyo Monorail. The monorail has two stations (Haneda Airport Terminal 1 Station and Haneda Airport Terminal 2 Station); Keikyū operates a single station between the terminals (Haneda Airport Station).

Keikyū offers trains to Shinagawa Station and Yokohama Station and through service to the Toei Asakusa Line, which makes several stops in eastern Tokyo. Some Keikyū trains also run through to the Keisei Oshiage Line and Keisei Main Line, making it possible to reach Narita International Airport by train. Although a few direct trains run in the morning, a transfer along the Keisei Line is generally necessary to reach Narita.

Tokyo Monorail trains run between the airport and Hamamatsuchō Station, where passengers can connect to the Yamanote Line to reach other points in Tokyo, or Keihin Tohoku Line to Saitama, and have a second access option to Narita Airport via Narita Express, Airport Narita, or Sōbu Line (Rapid) Trains at Tokyo Station. Express trains make the nonstop run from Haneda Airport to Hamamatsuchō in 16 minutes. Hamamatsuchō Station is also located adjacent to the Toei Oedo Line Daimon station.

An International Terminal Station is under construction to serve the future international terminal.

Road

The airport is bisected by the Bayshore Route of the Shuto Expressway and is also accessible from Route 1. Scheduled bus service to various points in the Kanto region is provided by Airport Transport Service (Friendly Airport Limousine) and Keihin Express Bus.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b AIS Japan
  2. ^ 羽田空港の歴史 (国土交通省関東地方整備局東京空港整備事務所)
  3. ^ Susan H. Godson, Serving Proudly (Naval Institute Press).
  4. ^ a b 羽田空港の歴史 (日本空港ビルデング株式会社)
  5. ^ 東京国際空港(羽田)沖合展開事業について (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport)
  6. ^ Japan, China to consider Tokyo-Shanghai shuttle flights, Kyodo, October 10, 2006.
  7. ^ Shuttle flights to connect Tokyo, Shanghai in October, Channel NewsAsia, 25 June 2007.
  8. ^ Boeing: Narita Airport Noise Regulations
  9. ^ "ANA to start Haneda-Hong Kong route in April," Daily Yomiuri Online
  10. ^ Japan Airport Rises on Plan to Buy Macquarie Shares, Bloomberg News, May 20, 2009.
  11. ^ a b c 羽田空港再拡張及び首都圏第3空港について (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport)
  12. ^ a b Japan to Double Haneda Airport Overseas Flight Slots, Bloomberg.net, May 20, 2008
  13. ^ International Haneda flights to double by '10, The Japan Times, May 21, 2008.
  14. ^ Great Circle Mapper
  15. ^ 羽田国際線、「方面まんべんなく」-中国は最大1日20便
  16. ^ Singapore Airlines To Fly Twice-Daily To Tokyo Haneda
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ http://news.delta.com/index.php?s=18&item=123
  19. ^ http://www.stockhouse.com/News/USReleasesDetail.aspx?n=7631266
  20. ^ http://www.aa.com/intl/jp/aboutUs_en/pr20100217.jsp
  21. ^ http://finance.yahoo.com/news/Continental-Airlines-and-prnews-95734843.html?x=0&.v=1
  22. ^ http://www.hawaiinewsnow.com/global/story.asp?s=11995262&utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter
  23. ^ [2]
  24. ^ http://www.japantoday.com/category/features/view/japan-netherlands-agree-on-regular-haneda-amsterdam-night-flights
  25. ^ [3]
  26. ^ [4] [5]
  27. ^ Virgin Blue May Start Tokyo-Sydney Flights Within 18 Months, Bloomberg, 2 June 2009.
  28. ^ [6]
  29. ^ oneworld alliance (2010-01-12). "US$2 billion in enhanced commercial benefits for Japan Airlines". Press release. http://www.oneworld.com/ow/news/details?objectID=20395. Retrieved 2010-01-12. 
  30. ^ "28 NOV 1972 McDonnell Douglas DC-8-62 Japan Air Lines - JAL." Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 23 March 2009.
  31. ^ 国交省:羽田-北京間にチャーター便 北京五輪の8月に, Mainichi Shimbun, June 11, 2008.
  32. ^ http://finance.yahoo.com/news/ANA-Group-Corporate-Plan-for-iw-2467042907.html?x=0&.v=1
  33. ^ http://www.singaporeair.com/mediacentre/pacontent/news/NE_5209.jsp
  34. ^ Debito Arudou, "Instant Checkpoints in Japan: Extranationality As Sufficient Grounds For Criminal Suspicion." [7]

External links








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