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City of Toledo
—  City  —

Flag

Seal
Nickname(s): The Glass City
Location in the state of Ohio
Location of Toledo within Lucas County, Ohio.
Coordinates: 41°39′56″N 83°34′31″W / 41.66556°N 83.57528°W / 41.66556; -83.57528
Country United States
State Ohio
County Lucas
Founded 1833
Government
 - Mayor Michael P. Bell (I)
Area
 - City 84.1 sq mi (217.8 km2)
 - Land 80.6 sq mi (208.8 km2)
 - Water 3.5 sq mi (8.9 km2)
Elevation 614 ft (187 m)
Population (2007 revised)
 - City 316,851
 Density 3,767.7/sq mi (1,454.7/km2)
 Urban 503,008
 Metro 650,955
Time zone EST (UTC−5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC−4)
Area code(s) 419, 567
FIPS code 39-77000[1]
GNIS feature ID 1067015[2]
Website http://www.toledo.oh.gov/

Toledo is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio within the Great Lakes Region and the county seat of Lucas County.[3] Named after Toledo, Spain,[4] it is located on the western end of Lake Erie, on the Michigan border. It is the principal city in the Toledo Metropolitan Statistical Area. In the 2000 census, the city proper had a population of 313,619, the fourth-largest in the state. According to the US Census, the Lucas county metropolitan area had a population of 650,955,[5] while the Toledo/Fremont Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 711,952.[6] Toledo is home to the University of Toledo.

Contents

NW Ohio Regional Hub

Toledo is the hub city of an 11 county Northwest Ohio regional trade area and broadcast media market of 1 million residents.

City of Industry in Great Lakes Region

Toledo is a city well known for its industry, particularly in glass and auto parts production, as well as its art community, education, and local sports teams. Residents of Toledo are usually referred to as Toledoans, while the city itself has been nicknamed the Glass City. Toledo is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis which has 54 million residents. Downtown Toledo faces the Maumee River and in recent years much riverfront redevelopment has upgraded the natural beauty of the riverfront with walking trails, lighting, landscaping and restaurant area adjacent to International Park.

History

The area was first settled by Americans in 1794, after the Battle of Fallen Timbers, with the founding of Fort Industry. However, with the War of 1812, many settlers fled the area. Resettling began again around 1817 when a Cincinnati syndicate purchased a 974-acre (3.9 km2) tract at the mouth of Swan Creek and named it Port Lawrence. Immediately to the north of that another syndicate founded the town of Vistula.[7] These two towns physically bordered each other with Cherry Street dividing them (this is why present day streets on the northeast side of Cherry Street run at a slightly different angle from those to the southwest of it).

In 1825, the Ohio state legislature authorized the construction of Miami and Erie Canal and later its Wabash and Erie Canal extension in 1833. The canal's purpose was to connect the city of Cincinnati to Lake Erie because at that time no highways existed in the state and it was thus very difficult for goods produced locally to reach the larger markets east of the Appalachian Mountains. During the canal’s planning phase, many small towns along the northern shores of Maumee River heavily competed to be the ending terminus of the canal knowing it would give them a profitable status.[8] The towns of Port Lawrence and Vistula merged in 1833 to better compete against the towns of Waterville, Maumee, and Manhattan.

The inhabitants of this joined settlement chose the name Toledo, "but the reason for this choice is buried in a welter of legends. One recounts that Washington Irving, who was traveling in Spain at the time, suggested the name to his brother, a local resident; this explanation ignores the fact that Irving returned to the United States in 1832. Others award the honor to Two Stickney, son of the major who quaintly numbered his sons and named his daughters after States. The most popular version attributes the naming to Willard J. Daniels, a merchant, who reportedly suggested Toledo because it 'is easy to pronounce, is pleasant in sound, and there is no other city of that name on the American continent."[7] Despite Toledo’s efforts, the final terminus was decided to be built in Manhattan a half mile to the north of the Toledo because it was closer to the lake. As a compromise, the state placed two sidecuts before the terminus, one in Toledo at Swan Creek and another in Maumee.

An almost bloodless conflict between Ohio and the Michigan Territory, called the Toledo War (1835-1836), was "fought" over a narrow strip of land from the Indiana border to Lake Erie, now containing the city and the suburbs of Sylvania and Oregon. The strip—which varied between five and eight miles (13 km) in width—was claimed by the state of Ohio and the Michigan Territory due to old conflicting legislation about where the Ohio-Michigan state line should be. Militias from both states were sent but never engaged. The only casualty of the conflict was a Michigan deputy sheriff—stabbed in the leg by Two Stickney during the arrest of his elder brother, One Stickney—and the loss of two horses, two pigs and a few chickens stolen from an Ohio farm by lost members of the Michigan militia. In the end, the state of Ohio was awarded the land after the state of Michigan was given the Upper Peninsula in exchange. Stickney Avenue in Toledo is named for One and Two Stickney.[9]

Toledo was very slow to expand in its first two decades of existence. Its very first lot was sold in the Port Lawrence section of the city in 1833. It held 1,205 persons in 1835, and five years later it held just seven more men. Settlers came and went quickly through Toledo and between 1833 and 1836, ownership of land had changed so many times that none of the original parties still existed. Yet, completion of the canal and its additional sidecut entrance finally occurred in Toledo in 1843. Soon after the canal was functional, the canal boats became too large to use the shallow waters at the terminus in Manhattan, and soon more boats began using the Swan Creek sidecut rather than its official ending. This quickly put the Manhattan warehouses out of business and triggered a stampede to move business to Toledo.

A 1955 map of Toledo

Most of the Manhattan's residents moved out by 1844. The 1850 census shows Toledo had 3,829 residences and Manhattan had 541. The 1860 census shows Toledo with a population of 13,768 with Manhattan listing 788. Thus, although the towns were only a mile apart, Toledo grew by 359% in ten years while Manhattan only grew by 148%, the difference being Toledo had the canal entrance and Manhattan did not. By the 1880s, the vacant streets of Manhattan and also Tremainsville, a small town to the west, were reused when Toledo expanded over top of them.[8][10]

In the last half of the 19th century, railroads slowly began to replace canals as the major form of transportation. Toledo soon became a hub for several railroad companies as well as being a hotspot for many other industries such as furniture production, carriage makers, breweries, glass companies, and others. At this time, a large number of immigrants came to the area attracted by the many factory jobs available and the city's easy accessibility. By 1880, Toledo was one of the largest cities in Ohio.

Toledo continued to expand in population and industry into the early 20th century, but because of a dependency on manufacturing, the city was hit hard by the Great Depression.

Geography

Toledo is located at 41°39′56″N 83°34′31″W / 41.66556°N 83.57528°W / 41.66556; -83.57528 (41.665682, -83.575337).[11] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 84.1 square miles (217.8 km²), of which, 80.6 square miles (208.8 km²) of it is land and 3.5 square miles (8.9 km²) of it (4.10%) is water. The city sits astride the Maumee River at the southern end of Maumee Bay, which is the westernmost inlet of Lake Erie. Toledo is north of what was formerly the Great Black Swamp, giving rise to another nickname, Frog Town. An important ecological site, Toledo sits within the borders of a sandy oak savanna called the Oak Openings Region that once took up over 300 square miles.[12]

Climate

Toledo, like several other cities in the Great Lakes region, experiences a lake-moderated Humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa), characterized by four distinct seasons varying significantly in temperature and precipitation. Lake Erie moderates its climate somewhat, especially in late spring and fall, when air and water temperature differences are maximal. However, this effect is tempered in the winter by the fact that Lake Erie freezes over much more readily than the other Great Lakes, coupled with prevailing winds that are often westerly. Southerly and westerly prevailing winds combined with warm surface waters of Lake Erie in summer also negate the lake's cooling ability on the city, however the lake's presence increases humidity.

The warmest month of the year is July, when high temperatures average 83 °F (30 °C), and overnight low temperatures average 63 °F (19 °C), the warmest of any Great Lakes city. January is the coldest month, when high temperatures average 31 °F (-1 °C), and low temperatures average 16 °F (-9 °C). The wettest month of the year is June, when 3.84 inches (97.5 mm) of precipitation falls. The driest month is January, when 2.00 inches (50.8 mm) of precipitation falls, mostly as snowfall. The warmest temperature ever recorded in Toledo was 105 °F (41 °C) on July 14, 1936. The coldest temperature ever recorded was -20 °F (-29 °C), on January 21, 1984. The record high in the month of January in Toledo was set January 7, 2008 with the high temperature at 68 °F (20 °C) which was broken at Toledo Express Airport.[13]

Climate data for Toledo
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 68
(20)
71
(22)
81
(27)
88
(31)
95
(35)
104
(40)
105
(41)
99
(37)
98
(37)
91
(33)
80
(27)
70
(21)
105
(41)
Average high °F (°C) 31
(-0.6)
35
(1.7)
46
(7.8)
59
(15)
71
(21.7)
79
(26.1)
83
(28.3)
81
(27.2)
74
(23.3)
62
(16.7)
48
(8.9)
36
(2.2)
58.75
(14.9)
Average low °F (°C) 16
(-8.9)
19
(-7.2)
28
(-2.2)
38
(3.3)
49
(9.4)
58
(14.4)
63
(17.2)
61
(16.1)
53
(11.7)
42
(5.6)
33
(0.6)
22
(-5.6)
40.16
(4.5)
Record low °F (°C) -20
(-29)
-14
(-26)
-6
(-21)
8
(-13)
25
(-4)
32
(0)
40
(4)
34
(1)
26
(-3)
15
(-9)
2
(-17)
-19
(-28)
-20
(-29)
Precipitation inches (mm) 1.93
(49)
1.88
(47.8)
2.62
(66.5)
3.24
(82.3)
3.14
(79.8)
3.80
(96.5)
2.80
(71.1)
3.19
(81)
2.84
(72.1)
2.35
(59.7)
2.78
(70.6)
2.64
(67.1)
33.21
(843.5)
Source: The Weather Channel[14] September 2009

Cityscape

Downtown Toledo's skyline from across the Maumee River

Neighborhoods and suburbs

(see also: Toledo Neighborhoods) Toledo consists of the following neighborhoods:

  • Beverly
  • Birmingham
  • DeVeaux
  • Crossgates
  • Five Points
  • Downtown
  • East Toledo
  • Franklin Park
  • Harvard Terrace
  • Lagrange (includes the Polish International Village)
  • Library Village
  • North River
  • North Towne
  • Old Orchard
  • Old West End
  • Old South End
  • ONYX
  • Ottawa
  • Out Chase (Chase Block)
  • Out Hill (Hill Side)
  • Out Stickney (33)
  • Point Place
  • Reynolds Corners
  • Scott Park
  • South End
  • South Toledo
  • Southwyck
  • WestWood
  • Wernert's Corner
  • Trilby
  • University Hills
  • Uptown
  • Warehouse District
  • Warren Sherman
  • Westgate
  • Westmoreland
Toledo Metropolitan Area

According to the US Census Bureau, the Toledo Metropolitan Area covers 4 Ohio counties and combines with other micropolitan areas and counties for a combined statistical area. Some of the suburbs in Ohio include:Bowling Green, Holland, Lake Township, Maumee, Millbury, Monclova Township, Northwood, Oregon, Ottawa Hills, Perrysburg, Rossford, Springfield Township, Sylvania, Walbridge, Waterville, Whitehouse, Washington Township

There are also some suburbs in the State of Michigan including:Bedford Township, Erie Township, Lambertville,Ottawa Lake, Temperance, Whiteford Township

The eleven county Northwest Ohio/Toledo/Fremont media market includes over 1 million residents.[15]

Culture

Fine art

Greek revival facade of the Monroe Street entrance, Toledo Museum of Art

The Stranahan Theater is a major concert hall located on the city's south side. The historic Valentine Theatre is Downtown. The Toledo Repertoire Theatre was created in 1933 and performs both Broadway hits and lesser-known original works. The Collingwood Arts Center is housed in a 1905 building designed by architect E. O. Fallis in the "Flemish Gothic" style. The parlor is used to showcase art exhibitions while the second and third floor rooms are rented to local artists. The Toledo Museum of Art is an internationally-acclaimed museum located in a Greek Revival building. Its Center for Visual Arts addition by Frank Gehry was added recently and the Museum's new Glass Pavilion across Monroe Street opened in August 2006. The Ballet Theatre of Toledo provides an opportunity for area students to study ballet and perform their art.[16]

Media

The front page of Toledo Blade

The Blade, a daily newspaper, is the primary newspaper in Toledo and was founded in 1835. Page one of each issue asserts "One of America's Great Newspapers." The city's arts and entertainment weekly is the Toledo City Paper. In March 2005, the weekly newspaper Toledo Free Press began publication, and it has a focus on news and sports. Other weeklies include the West Toledo Herald, El Tiempo, La Prensa, Sojourner's Truth, Toledo Journal, and now Midwesturban Newspaper. Toledo Tales provides satire and parody of life in the Glass City. The Old West End Magazine is published monthly and highlights "The Best in Urban Historic Living". The Midwest Urban Newspaper and Toledo Journal are African-American owned newspapers. It is published weekly, and normally focuses on African-American issues. Monthly issues are also published on the Old West End Association web site. http://www.toledooldwestend.com/main.aspx Seven television stations licensed in Toledo including: 5 WT05 - CW, 11 WTOL - CBS, 13 WTVG - ABC, 24 WNWO-TV - NBC, 30 WGTE-TV - PBS, 36 WUPW - Fox, 40 WLMB - FN, and 48 WMNT-CA - MNTV There also fourteen radio stations licensed in Toledo.

Sites of interest

Toledo Zoo pedestrian bridge
Looking onto Fifth Third Field

Sports

Club League Venue Established Championships
Toledo Mud Hens IL, Baseball Fifth Third Field 1897 3
Toledo Walleye ECHL, Ice hockey Lucas County Arena 2009 0
Toledo Bullfrogs af2, Arena football Lucas County Arena 2010 0
  • Racing- Toledo Speedway is a local auto racetrack that features, among other events, stock car racing and concerts. Raceway Park hosts harness racing and features an enclosed grandstand.

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1840 1,222
1850 3,829 213.3%
1860 13,768 259.6%
1870 31,584 129.4%
1880 50,137 58.7%
1890 81,434 62.4%
1900 131,822 61.9%
1910 168,497 27.8%
1920 243,164 44.3%
1930 290,718 19.6%
1940 282,349 −2.9%
1950 303,616 7.5%
1960 318,003 4.7%
1970 383,818 20.7%
1980 354,635 −7.6%
1990 332,943 −6.1%
2000 313,619 −5.8%
Est. 2008 293,201 −6.5%
U.S. Census Bureau[20]

As of the census[1] of 2000, there were 313,619 people, 128,925 households, and 77,355 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,890.2 people per square mile (1,502.0/km²). There were 139,871 housing units at an average density of 1,734.9/sq mi (669.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 70.23% White, 23.55% African American, 0.31% Native American, 1.03% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.28% from other races, and 2.57% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.47% of the population. The top 5 largest ancestries include German (23.4%), Irish (10.8%), Polish (10.1%), English (6.0%), and French (4.6%).[21]

In 2000 there were 128,925 households in Toledo, out of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.2% were married couples living together, 17.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.0% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.04.

In the city the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, and 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 91.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males. There was a total of 139,871 housing units in the city, of which 10,946 (7.8%) were vacant.

The median income for a household in the city was $32,546, and the median income for a family was $41,175. Males had a median income of $35,407 versus $25,023 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,388. About 14.2% of families and 17.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.9% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over.

The U.S. Census Bureau estimated Toledo's population as 297,806 in 2006 and 295,029 in 2007. In response to an appeal by the City of Toledo, the Census Bureau's July 2007 estimate was revised to 316,851, slightly more than in 2000.[22]

Economy

One SeaGate, the tallest building in Toledo, is the location of Fifth-Third Bank's Northwest Ohio headquarters.

Historically, before the industrial revolution, Toledo was a port city on the Great Lakes. But with the advent of the automobile, the city became best known for industrial manufacturing, although these industries have declined considerably in past decades. Both General Motors and Chrysler have factories in metropolitan Toledo, and automobile manufacturing has been important at least since Kirk[23] began operations early in the 20th Century. The city is home to three Fortune 500 companies: Dana Corporation, Owens Corning and Owens Illinois. Formerly located at One SeaGate, O-I has recently relocated to suburban Perrysburg. One SeaGate is currently the location of Fifth-Third Bank's Northwest Ohio headquarters. HCR Manor Care is an up and coming Fortune 1000 company headquartered in Toledo. Though the largest employer in Toledo was Jeep for much of the 20th century, this honor has recently gone to the University of Toledo. Manufacturing as a whole now employs fewer Toledoans than does the healthcare industry, now the city's biggest employer. In 2001, a taxpayer lawsuit was filed against Toledo that challenged the constitutionality of tax incentives it extended to DaimlerChrysler for the expansion of its Jeep plant. The case was won by the city on a technical issue after it reached the U.S. Supreme Court in DaimlerChrysler Corp. v. Cuno, 547 U.S. ___ (2006).

Toledo is the primary market city for northwest Ohio, a region of nine counties with a population in excess of one million. As such there is a high concentration of retail establishments and medical facilities in Toledo.

Toledo is known as the Glass City because of its long history of innovation in all aspects of the glass industry: windows, bottles, windshields, construction materials, and glass art, of which the Toledo Museum of Art has a large collection. Several large glass companies have their origins here. Owens-Illinois, Owens Corning, Libbey Glass, Pilkington North America (formerly Libbey Owens Ford), and Therma-Tru have long been a staple of Toledo's economy. Other off-shoots and spinoffs of these companies also continue to play important roles in Toledo's economy. Fiberglass giant Johns Manville's two plants in the metro area were originally built by a subsidiary of Libbey Owens Ford. Many other companies that service the glass industry also began in Toledo, such as Toledo Engineering and Glasstech.[24][25]

Several large, Fortune 500 automotive related companies had their headquarters in Toledo. Electric AutoLite, Sheller-Globe Corporation, Champion Spark Plug, Questor, and Dana Corporation are examples of large auto parts companies that began in Toledo. Faurecia Exhaust Systems, which is a $2 billion subsidiary to France's Faurecia SA, is located in Toledo. Only Dana Corporation is still in existence as an independent entity.

Toledo is home of Jeep headquarters and has 2 production facilities, one in the city and one in suburban Perrysburg. The manufacturing dependency continued into World War II when Toledo became involved in wartime production of several products, particularly the Willys Jeep.[26] Willys-Overland was a major automaker headquartered in Toledo until 1953.

While Toledo has a "rust belt" reputation due to its manufacturing history, in the 2000s, the city received a lot of interest and growth in "green jobs" due to economic development around solar energy. For example, the University of Toledo and Bowling Green State University received Ohio grants for solar energy research.[27] Also, companies like Xunlight opened plants in Toledo and the surrounding area.[28]

The National Arbor Day Foundation has designated Toledo as a Tree City USA.[29]

Education

Colleges and universities

These higher education institutions operate campuses in Metro Toledo:

Primary and secondary schools

Toledo Public Schools operates public schools within much of the city limits, along with the Washington Local School District in northern Toledo. Toledo is also home to several public charter schools including two Imagine Schools.

Additionally, several private and parochial primary and secondary schools are present within the Toledo area. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Toledo operates Roman Catholic primary and secondary schools.

Private high schools in Toledo include Maumee Valley Country Day School, Central Catholic High School, St. Francis de Sales High School, St. John's Jesuit High School and Academy, Notre Dame Academy, St. Ursula Academy (Ottawa Hills), Cardinal Stritch High School (Oregon), the Toledo Islamic Academy, Freedom Christian Academy, Toledo Christian Schools, Emmanuel Christian, the David S. Stone Hebrew Academy (Sylvania), and Apostolic Christian Academy.

Charter Schools Include : Horizon Science Academy and Toledo School for the Arts (TSA)

Transportation

Major roads

The Veterans' Glass City Skyway over the Maumee River
  • (northbound) - Erie Street (Anthony Wayne Trail to Cherry Street), Cherry Street (Erie Street to Greenbelt Parkway)
  • (southbound) - Michigan Avenue (Spielbusch Avenue to Anthony Wayne Trail), Spielbusch Avenue (Greenbelt Parkway to Michigan Avenue)

In addition to the above highways, the Ohio Turnpike carries long distance east-west traffic through the area on Interstate 80 and Interstate 90, and is the major east-west highway through the area. The Turnpike is connected to Toledo via highways leading to the city from 5 exits on the Turnpike (Exits 52, 59, 64, 71, and 81, although only Exits 59, 64, and 71 are signed on the Turnpike as leading to Toledo). The Turnpike connects Toledo to South Bend and Chicago to the West and Cleveland to the East. While the Turnpike enters Lucas County and the city limits of Toledo, due to the fact that the 5 Toledo area exits are spaced widely apart (2 are in Lucas County, 2 are in Wood County, and 1 is in Ottawa County, with none of the 5 exits within the city limits of Toledo), the Turnpike itself has only a limited role in the local transportation infrastructure.

CN SD60-F sits in Toledo, Ohio

Air

Toledo Express Airport serves the city. For international flights and expanded destinations, the Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport is a 50 minute drive north.

Rail transportation

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Toledo under the Capitol Limited and the Lake Shore Limited. Both lines stop at Martin Luther King, Jr. Plaza, which is the train station in Toledo.

Freight rail service in Toledo is operated by the Norfolk Southern Railway, CSX Transportation, Canadian National Railway, Ann Arbor Railroad, and Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway. All except the Wheeling have local terminals; the Wheeling operates into Toledo from the east through trackage rights on Norfolk Southern to connect with the Ann Arbor and the CN.

References in popular culture

  • John Denver sang a disparaging song about visiting Toledo entitled "Saturday Night In Toledo, Ohio" which was composed by Randy Sparks. It was written in 1967 when Sparks and his group arrived in Toledo at 10pm on a Saturday night, and found everything closed. The song was written as they drove down to Kansas City and their next gig.[30]
  • Toledo is also mentioned in a song, "Our Song" by Yes from their 1983 album 90125. [31]

Notable residents

Toledo has produced a number of famous artists, including actors Jamie Farr (as well as his character from M*A*S*H, Maxwell Q. Klinger) and Katie Holmes, musicians Tom Scholz and Scott Shriner, and jazz pianist Art Tatum. Famous writers and journalists from the city include P. J. O'Rourke and Gloria Steinem. Famous athletes include Baseball Hall of Fame members Roger Bresnahan and Addie Joss, U.S. boxing Olympian Devin Vargas, and professional basketball player John Amaechi.

Sister cities

Toledo linked with Toledo, Spain as sister cities in 1931, creating the first Sister Cities relationship in North America. In total Toledo has eight sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International (SCI):

As of March 2007, Toledo also had five "friendship cities":[32]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  2. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. http://geonames.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Template.cfm?Section=Find_a_County&Template=/cffiles/counties/usamap.cfm. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  4. ^ Bulletin - United States Geological Survey. Geological Survey (U.S.). 1905. p. 301. 
  5. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007 (CBSA-EST2007-01)" (CSV). 2007 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2007-03-27. http://www.census.gov/popest/metro/tables/2007/CBSA-EST2007-07.csv. Retrieved 2009-03-19. 
  6. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population of Combined Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007" (CSV). 2007 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2008-03-27. http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/metro_general/2007/CSA-EST2007-alldata.csv. Retrieved 2009-03-19. 
  7. ^ a b Federal Writers' Project. "The Ohio Guide", 1940
  8. ^ a b Gieck, Jack A photo album of Ohio’s canal era, 1825-1913. Chapters 1,7,8. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1988
  9. ^ Professional Surveyor Magazine
  10. ^ Simonis, Louis A. Maumee River, 1835: with the William C. Holgate journal, May 16-June 24, 1835, from Utica, New York, to Huntington, Indiana. Defiance, Ohio: Defiance County Historical Society, 1979
  11. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2005-05-03. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  12. ^ http://www.oakopen.org/history/
  13. ^ Toledo Normals and Records for January
  14. ^ "Monthly Averages for Toledo, OH". The Weather Channel. 2009. http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/businesstraveler/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USOH0953. Retrieved 2008-12-09. 
  15. ^ Toledo Regional Alliance
  16. ^ "Arts and Entertainment" from the doToledo website: http://www.dotoledo.org/gtcvb/members/display.asp?id=arts retrieved on April 19th, 2009
  17. ^ http://www.tonypackos.com/history.php
  18. ^ "Ohio DOT endorses design for Maumee River crossing". Civil Engineering 70 (9): 12. September 2000. 
  19. ^ [1]
  20. ^ "City of Toledo Population". U.S. Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/SAFFPopulation?_event=Search&_name=toledo&_state=04000US39&_county=toledo&_cityTown=toledo&_zip=&_sse=on&_lang=en&pctxt=fph. Retrieved 2009-11-28. 
  21. ^ Toledo city, Ohio - QT-P13. Ancestry: 2000
  22. ^ "Thousands added to Toledo census count". Toledo Blade. 2009-01-14. http://www.toledoblade.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20090114/NEWS16/901140384. Retrieved 2009-02-14. 
  23. ^ Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877-1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p.158.
  24. ^ Toledo Engineering Co - Offices (also see: About Us)
  25. ^ Glasstech - About Us
  26. ^ "Toledo, Ohio", Ohio History Central, July 1, 2005, http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=808
  27. ^ State awards solar research grant to UT, BGSU
  28. ^ Old US Industrial Town Looking Forward to a Green Future
  29. ^ Tree Cities at arborday.org
  30. ^ Toledo Free Press interview 12/26/2008
  31. ^ >/ "Our Song" - Lyrics</
  32. ^ Toledo Sister Cities International (via archive.org)

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

TOLEDO, a city and port of entry, the county-seat of Lucas county, Ohio, U.S.A., on both banks of the Maumee river, about 4 m. from Maumee Bay, Lake Erie, and about 95 m. W. of Cleveland. Pop. (1900), 131,822, of whom 1710 were negroes, and 27,822 were foreign-born, including 12,373 Germans, 2449 English Canadians, and 1636 English; (1910 census) 168,497. Area, 28.57 sq. m. Toledo is served by the Ann Arbor, the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Detroit, Toledo & Milwaukee, the Detroit & Toledo Shore Line, the Hocking Valley, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the Michigan Central, the Pennsylvania, the Pere Marquette, the Toledo, St Louis & Western, the Wabash, and the Wheeling & Lake Erie railways, by a "belt line" (30 m. long), the Toledo Railway & Terminal Company, by ten interurban electric railways (about 585 m.), and by the Wabash & Erie and the Miami & Erie canals. A channel 400 ft. wide and 21 ft. deep admits the largest vessels from Lake Erie to the city. Six passenger and freight steamship lines communicate with Cleveland, Buffalo, Sandusky, Detroit, Port Huron, Alpena, Mackinac, Georgian Bay and other points on the Great Lakes, and the city has 25 m. of docks. The city park system includes Ottawa Park (280 acres), Bay View Park (202 acres), Riverside Park (118 acres), Central Grove Park (loo acres), Collins Park (90 acres), Walbridge Park (67 acres), with a zoological collection, Navarre Park (53 acres), several smaller parks and triangles, and a boulevard, 18 m. long (incomplete in 1910), connecting the parks. Noteworthy public buildings are the County Court-house, the Public Library (about 85,000 volumes in 1910), the Soldiers' Memorial Building, the Toledo Club and the Toledo Museum of Art (1901). The city is the seat of Toledo University, including Toledo Medical College (1880), which is affiliated, for clinical purposes, with the Toledo Hospital (1876). There are numerous hospitals and charities.

Toledo is the port of entry for the Miami customs district and is an important shipping point for the iron and copper ores and lumber from the Lake Superior and Michigan regions, for petroleum, coal, fruit, and grain and clover-seed. In 1909 the imports of the port were valued at 042,286 and the exports at $600,794. The capital invested in manufacturing under the factory system in 1905 was $3 8, 6 43,39 0 (62.4% more than that of 1900). The value of the factory products in 1905 was $44,823,004 (40.2% more than in 1900). Foundry and machine-shop products ($4,087,497) were the most valuable manufactures in 1905. In flour and grist mill products (value in 1905, $3,676,290) Toledo is the most important city of the state. Other important manufactures in 1905 were petroleum products ($2,006,484); lumber and planing mill products ($1,604,274); women's clothing ($1,477,648); children's carriages and sleds ($ 1 ,4 6 5,599); car-shop construction and repairs, by steam railway companies ($1,366,506); carriages and wagons ($ 1, 22 5,387); structural iron work ($1,102,035); agricultural implements, bicycles, automobiles (a recent and growing industry), plate and cut-glass (made largely from a fine quality of sand found near the city), tobacco, spices and malted liquors. The building of boats, and of large vessels is also an important industry. At Rossford (pop. about 400), a suburb, is the large plant of the Ford plate-glass works. The water supply is derived from the Maumee river and is filtered by a municipal filtration plant.

The administration of the city became famous after 1897 when Samuel Milton Jones (1846-1904), a manufacturer of oil machinery, was elected mayor by the Republican party; he was re-elected on a non-partisan ticket in 1899, 1901 and 1903, and introduced business methods into the city government. His honesty and sincerity in business and politics gained him the nickname "Golden Rule" Jones. The independent movement which he started was carried on under Brand Whitlock (b. 1869), a lawyer and writer who was mayor of Toledo in 1906-1911. The city council has 16 members, three elected at large and the others by wards, and there are boards of public service, public safety, public health and education.

The site of Toledo lies within an immense tract of land, constituting sixteen reservations, acquired by the United States government from several Indian tribes in 1795, and a stockade fort, called Fort Industry, was built here about 1800. In 1817 two companies bought from the government a portion of the tract, at the mouth of Swan Creek, including most of the land now occupied by Toledo. Upon the tract farthest up-stream the town of Port Lawrence was laid out. (in 1817). In 1832 a. rival company laid out the town of Vistula on the tract immediately below Port Lawrence, in the following year these towns were united and were named Toledo, and in 1837 the city was incorporated. The "Toledo War" was a dispute over the boundary between Ohio and Michigan. When Ohio Territory was organized in 1800 its northern boundary was described as a line drawn from the southern extremity of Lake Michigan due east to the Pennsylvania line, and the official map of the time placed the southern end of Lake Michigan at 42° 20' N. lat. The state constitution adopted in 1802 followed the enabling act in accepting this line, but made the proviso that if it should not intersect Lake Erie east of the mouth of the Miami river, then the northern boundary should be a line from the southern end of Lake Michigan to the most northern cape of Maumee Bay and thence to the Territorial line, and to the Pennsylvania line. In 1805 the Territory of Michigan was organized with a southern. boundary in accordance with the line extending due east from the southern end of Lake Michigan; and therefore there was in dispute a strip of land, about 5 m. wide at its western end and about 8 m. wide at its eastern end, a rich agricultural region, stretching across portions of what are now Lucas, Fulton and Williams counties, and including all of what are now Ashtabula and Lake counties, and portions of Geauga and Cuyahoga counties, in Ohio. Within the belt lay what is now Toledo, and its great importance as a lake port was even then clearly recognized. On the 29th of January 1818 the Ohio legislature accepted the "Harris line" (surveyed in 1817 in accordance with the proviso of the state constitution) as the northern boundary of the state. Acting on the recommendation of Governor Robert Lucas (1781-1853), on the 23rd of February 1835 the Ohio legislature passed an Act extending the northern boundaries of what were then Wood, Henry and Williams counties (lying partly within the disputed strip) north to the Harris line, and providing for the organization of new townships within this added territory, and for the appointment of three commissioners to re-mark the line. Upon the appointment (March 9, 1835) by Governor Lucas of the three commissioners to re-mark the Harris line, Governor Stevens T. Mason of Michigan ordered out a division of Michigan militia, which near the end of March entered and took possession of Toledo. A division of Ohio militia marched to Perrysburg, on the Maumee river, about 10 m. south of Toledo; but both militias disbanded when Richard Rush, of Philadelphia, and Benjamin C. Howard, of Baltimore, appeared at Toledo as peace emissaries, appointed by President Jackson. In April several members of the party accompanying the Ohio commissioners. were arrested by Michigan militia. In June the Ohio legislature created Lucas county, mostly from the disputed territory, and made Toledo its county-seat. President Jackson now urged Michigan to discontinue interfering with the re-marking of the Harris line, and requested Ohio to postpone putting into effect the Act of February 1835; but as petty outbreaks continued throughout the summer and an Ohio judge and court officers at Toledo were arrested in September, he peremptorily removed Governor Mason from office. In June 1836 Congress decided the dispute in favour of Ohio, and in 1837 Michigan was admitted to the Union as a state upon condition of relinquishing all claim to the disputed territory, but received what is now known as the Upper Peninsula (the land between Lakes Superior, Huron and Michigan).


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Simple English

City of Toledo
File:Toledo Ohio
Flag
Nickname(s): The Glass City

City of Toledo
Location in Ohio
Coordinates: 41°39′56″N 83°34′31″W / 41.66556°N 83.57528°W / 41.66556; -83.57528
Country United States
State Ohio
Founded 1833
Government
 - Mayor Carty Finkbeiner
Area
 - City 84.1 sq mi (217.8 km2)
 - Land 80.6 sq mi (208.8 km2)
 - Water 3.5 sq mi (8.9 km2)
Elevation 614 ft (187 m)
Population (2006)
 - City 298,446
 Density 3,890.2/sq mi (1,502/km2)
 Metro 653,695
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s) 419, 567
Website http://www.ci.toledo.oh.us/

Toledo is a large city in Ohio, USA. It was named after Toledo, Spain. It is a large industrial city, and has many factories that make things like car parts and glass. In 1835, a fight between Ohio and Michigan began over what state the city and surrounding terroritory belonged to. It is about an hour from Detroit, Michigan. The main highways in and out of Toledo are Interstate 75, Interstate 90, and U.S. 24 (Detroit Boulevard, Telegraph Road) and It is the 59th largest city in the United States.

In 1936, the first building covered in glass was built here.

Famous people from Toledo








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