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Sefer Torah at old Glockengasse synagogue (reconstruction), Cologne
.The term "Torah" (Hebrew: תּוֹרָה, "teaching" or "instruction", sometimes translated as "law"[1]), refers either to the Five Books of Moses (or Pentateuch) or to the entirety of Judaism's founding legal and ethical religious texts.^ Only the third book of the Pentateuch exhibits rather the features of a legal code.

^ On the other hand, the Pentateuch ascribes to Moses the literary authorship of at least four sections, partly historical, partly legal, partly poetical.

^ Prophetic Books.-Express reference to the written law of Moses is found only in the later Prophets: Bar., ii, 2, 28; Dan., ix, 11, 13; Mal., iv, 4.

[2][3] .A "Sefer Torah" (סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה, "book of Torah") or Torah scroll, is a copy of the Torah written on parchment in a formal, traditional manner by a specially trained scribe under very strict requirements.^ He answers that Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai saw that the relationship between one’s mouth and Torah sheBa’al Peh is the same as the relationship between written Torah and its scroll.

^ While the words of written Torah sanctify the parchment the text is written on, the words of Torah sheBa’al Peh sanctify the mouth of man which utters them.

.The Torah is the first of three parts of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), the founding religious document of Judaism,[4] Messiannic, and Hebrew belief, and is divided into five books, whose names in English are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, in reference to their themes (Their Hebrew names, Bereshit, בראשית, Shmot שמות, Vayikra ויקרא, Bamidbar במדבר, and Dvarim דברים, are derived from the wording of their initial verses).^ The Book of Exodus consists of a brief introduction and three main parts: .

^ At what precise time the first part of the Bible was divided into five books is a question not yet finally settled.

^ In Greek pentateuchos , is the name of the first five books of the Old Testament.

The Torah contains a variety of literary genres, including allegories, historical narrative, poetry, genealogy, and the exposition of various types of law. .According to rabbinic tradition, the Torah contains the 613 mitzvot (מצוות, "commandments"), which are divided into 365 negative restrictions and 248 positive commands.^ According to Rava, this episode is a national excuse, which Rashi explains to mean that if the Jewish people are brought to judgment, they can claim that they were coerced into accepting the Torah.
  • Lincoln Square Synagogue - Divrei Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.lss.org [Source type: General]

^ The patriarchs, according to the Ramban, had taken upon themselves to observe all the mitzvot of the Torah (which of course had not been given) in the Land of Israel, but not outside of it.
  • Lincoln Square Synagogue - Divrei Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.lss.org [Source type: General]

^ Not even the Jews can keep all the 613 miztvot positives and negatives of the Torah.Tsk tsk what a burden, man is not able to keep the instructions so feels totally bereft of any honour for failing God !
  • Torah Spirituality for the Nations - Fair debate...? - Forums - Israel National News 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.israelnationalnews.com [Source type: Original source]

[5] .In rabbinic literature, the word "Torah" denotes both the written text, "Torah Shebichtav" (תורה שבכתב, "Torah that is written"), as well as an oral tradition, "Torah Shebe'al Peh" (תורה שבעל פה, "Torah that is oral").^ While the words of written Torah sanctify the parchment the text is written on, the words of Torah sheBa’al Peh sanctify the mouth of man which utters them.

^ The written words of Torah reveal to us the letter of the law, but Rabbinic interpretation reveals to us the spirit and intent of the law which are equally crucial.

^ He answers that Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai saw that the relationship between one’s mouth and Torah sheBa’al Peh is the same as the relationship between written Torah and its scroll.

.The oral portion consists of the "traditional interpretations and amplifications handed down by word of mouth from generation to generation," now embodied in the Talmud and Midrash.^ Only kal v’chomer can be derived purely on the basis of sevara , logical inference, while all the other middot require a tradition handed down from one’s teacher.

[6]
.Jewish, Messianic, and Hebrew religious tradition ascribes authorship of the Torah to Moses through a process of divine inspiration.^ On the other hand, the Pentateuch ascribes to Moses the literary authorship of at least four sections, partly historical, partly legal, partly poetical.

^ The Jewish tradition concerning the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch was brought in to the Christian Church by Christ Himself and the Apostles.

^ Moses Maimonides the medieval Jewish sage also spoke of Him in his Mishneh Torah where he spoke of "Jesus of Nazareth who aspired to be the Messiah and was executed by the court (Sanhedrin)".
  • Torah Spirituality for the Nations - Fair debate...? - Forums - Israel National News 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.israelnationalnews.com [Source type: Original source]

.This view of Mosaic authorship is first found explicitly expressed in the Talmud, dating from the 1st to the 6th centuries AD, and is based on textual analysis of passages in the Torah and the subsequent books of the Hebrew Bible.^ Even the Talmud and the older Rabbinic writings call the first part of the Bible the book of the law, while in Aramaic it is simply termed law (cf.

^ The views of Genebrard, Pereira, Bonfrere, a Lapide, Masius, Jansenius, and of other notable Biblicists of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are equally elastic with regard to the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch.

^ It is true that the Pentateuch contains no express declaration of its entire Mosaic authorship; but even the most exacting of critics will hardly require such testimony.

.The Zohar, the most significant text in Jewish mysticism, states that the Torah was created prior to the creation of the world, and that it was used as the blueprint for Creation.^ But geology teaches most incontrovertibly that the world must have existed during a long period prior to the races of organized beings now occupying its surface.
  • Introduction to the Pentateuch. 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC stempublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The New Testament scriptures and the teachings of TheWay were the product of pure Hebrew thought that was embraced by their most enlightened of Jewish Visionaries, Mystics and Sages.
  • No Jew Has Read The Torah/Law 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC ebionite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Gemara (Menachos 29) tells us that Hashem used the letter “ hey ” to create this world, and the letter “ yud ” to create the next world.

[7] .According to dating of the text by Orthodox rabbis the revelation of the Torah to Moses occurred in 1312 BCE at Mount Sinai.^ It is well known that the entire Oral Torah as well as every original contribution that a future Torah scholar will articulate was already presented to Moshe at Mount Sinai.

^ Although the Torah gives us no specific date for the episode of the spies, we are told that this story occurred in the days of bikkurei anavim, the blossoming of the first grapes.

^ As the Rabbis mention in several places in the Talmud, the manner in which we read from the Torah is supposed to be reminiscent of the Revelation at Sinai.

[8] .Contemporary secular biblical scholars date the completion of the Torah, as well as the prophets and the historical books, no earlier than the Persian period (539 to 334 BCE).^ It is well known that the entire Oral Torah as well as every original contribution that a future Torah scholar will articulate was already presented to Moshe at Mount Sinai.

^ For I know of no stronger proof of the truth of the book of Deuteronomy, and of the whole Pentateuch, than its ending so differently from what we should have expected, or indeed wished.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the Torah gives us no specific date for the episode of the spies, we are told that this story occurred in the days of bikkurei anavim, the blossoming of the first grapes.

[9] .Scholarly discussion for much of the 20th century was principally couched in terms of the documentary hypothesis, according to which the Torah is a synthesis of documents from a small number of originally independent sources.^ Only a very small number of Jews are Torah Observant.
  • No Jew Has Read The Torah/Law 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC ebionite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Criticism and tradition are incompatible in their views as to the age and sequence of the documentary sources, as to the origin of the various legal codes, and as to the time and manner of the redaction of the Pentateuch.

[10]
.Outside of its central significance in Judaism, Messianic, and Hebraic lifestyles, the Torah is accepted by Christianity as part of the Bible, comprising the first five books of the Old Testament.^ Pentateuch and the historical books of the Old Testament.
  • Introduction to the Pentateuch. 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC stempublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Greek pentateuchos , is the name of the first five books of the Old Testament.

^ Even the Talmud and the older Rabbinic writings call the first part of the Bible the book of the law, while in Aramaic it is simply termed law (cf.

[11] .The various denominations of Jews and Christians hold a diverse spectrum of views regarding the exactitude of scripture.^ The Jew or Christian who listens to Brown, however, is forced to look up obscure quotes from various Jewish sources that may or may not be even accurately used.
  • Torah Spirituality for the Nations - Fair debate...? - Forums - Israel National News 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.israelnationalnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Did you know that the Christian Scriptures states that G-d did not want the majority of Jews to accept Jesus as the Messiah?
  • No Jew Has Read The Torah/Law 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC ebionite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The problem is that from this false perception of the Hebrew scriptures was born the Christian Gnostic doctrine that the god of the Jews was a demiurge -- a lower god -- and not the same god that Yeshua declared.
  • No Jew Has Read The Torah/Law 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC ebionite.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Torah has also been accepted to varying degrees by the Samaritans, an ethnoreligious group of the Levant, and others as the authentic revealed message of YHWH to the early Israelites and as factual history, in both cases as conveyed by Moses.^ Like few others, singer Travis Morrison conveys both the intimacy and the distance -- and the un-understandingness of it all -- that comes with thinking about a dead person.
  • matthue roth: author, performance poet, orthodox jew at large 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.matthue.com [Source type: General]

^ Genesis may be considered as the introduction to the other four books; it contains the early history down to the preparation of Israel's exit form Egypt.

.Meaning and names The word "Torah" in Hebrew "is derived from the root ירה which in the hifil conjugation means "to teach" (cf.^ The Hebrew holy man did not need to teach in our sense of the word.
  • No Jew Has Read The Torah/Law 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC ebionite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ THE INNER MEANING OF THE SCRIPTURES: The inner knowledge of the scriptures are as a bridge between this world and the Heavenly Kingdom: So if it is true -- i.e., that the Torah and other scriptures are an allegory -- then how are we to believe the written word of God?
  • No Jew Has Read The Torah/Law 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC ebionite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This perhaps is also the deeper meaning of the Sefas Emes’s teaching that the offering of the two loaves of the shtei halechem on Shavuos represent the offering of Torah and tefillah.

Lev. 10:11). .The meaning of the word is therefore "teaching," "doctrine," or "instruction"; the commonly accepted "law" gives a wrong impression."^ The word “ chomah ” is written without the letter vov , which therefore also spells “ cheimah ” –meaning anger.

^ The Ishbitzer teaches (Mei haShiloach, P’ VaYakhel ) that when the Torah uses the the instruction " re’u, " see, it means there is some deeper meaning below what is apparent.

^ I, II Esdras.-The Books of Esdras and Nehemias, too, taken in their natural and commonly accepted sense, consider the Pentateuch as the book of Moses, not merely as a book containing the law of Moses.

[12] Other translational contexts in the English language include custom, theory, guidance,[13] or system.[14] The term "Torah" is therefore also used in the general sense to include both Judaism's written law and oral law, serving to encompass the entire spectrum of authoritative Jewish religious teachings throughout history, including the Mishnah, the Talmud, the Midrash and more, and the inaccurate rendering of "Torah" as "Law"[15] may be an obstacle to "understanding the ideal that is summed up in the term talmud torah (תלמוד תורה, "study of Torah,"), characterized in Jewish tradition as excelling all things."[6]
Within the Hebrew Bible,
."The earliest name for the first part of the Bible seems to have been "The Torah of Moses."^ Even the Talmud and the older Rabbinic writings call the first part of the Bible the book of the law, while in Aramaic it is simply termed law (cf.

^ At what precise time the first part of the Bible was divided into five books is a question not yet finally settled.

^ One could even read directly from a Torah scroll as a part of personal study, without having to gather ten men first.

.This title, however, is found neither in the Torah itself, nor in the works of the pre-Exilic literary prophets.^ Ya’akov, however, wanted shalom in the second sense, of recognizing that the natural beauty of the world was a kli that we have to work at integrating and making shaleim with the world of Torah.

.It appears in Joshua (8:31–32; 23:6) and Kings (I Kings 2:3; II Kings 14:6; 23:25), but it cannot be said to refer there to the entire corpus.^ This custom prevailed before the critics allow the existence of the Deuteronomic law (III Kings, xii, 26-31), so that the latter cannot have introduced it.

^ It is true that in a number of passages persons are said to offer sacrifice who are not of Aaronitic descent: Judges, vi, 25 sqq.; xiii, 9; I Kings, vii, 9; x, 8; xiii, 9; II Kings, vi, 17; xxiv, 25; III Kings, viii, 5, 62; etc.

^ Judges; I, II Kings.-In the Book of Judges and the first two Books of Kings there is no explicit reference to Moses and the book of the law, but a number of incidents and statements presuppose the existence of the Pentateuchal legislation and institutions.

In contrast, there is every likelihood that its use in the post-Exilic works (Mal. 3:22; man. 9:11, 13; Ezra 3:2; 7:6; Neh. 8:1; II Chron. 23:18; 30:16) was intended to be comprehensive. .Other early titles were "The Book of Moses" (Ezra 6:18; Neh.^ Genesis may be considered as the introduction to the other four books; it contains the early history down to the preparation of Israel's exit form Egypt.

13:1; II Chron. 35:12; 25:4; cf. II Kings 14:6) and "The Book of the Torah" (Neh. 8:3) which seems to be a contraction of a fuller name, "The Book of the Torah of God" (Neh. 8:8, 18; 10:29–30; cf. 9:3)."[16]
al manner by a specially trained Torah scribe under very strict requirements.
.Islam refers to the Torah as "Tawrat" (توراة, "Law"), an Arabic word for the revelations given to the Islamic prophet "Musa" (موسى, Moses in Arabic).^ Chazal explain that the sixth day refers to the date in Sivan when the Torah was given, namely, Shavuous.

^ Prophetic Books.-Express reference to the written law of Moses is found only in the later Prophets: Bar., ii, 2, 28; Dan., ix, 11, 13; Mal., iv, 4.

^ I'm not sure why exactly -- I've heard that it's a reference to when Moses wrote the Torah at the end of his life, or for the everlastingness of the Torah itself, how it's called a "Tree of Life" and all that.
  • matthue roth: author, performance poet, orthodox jew at large 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.matthue.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Authorship

Traditional attribution

."Mosaic authorship" is the ascription to of the authorship of the five books of the Torah or Pentateuch.^ What do the defenders of the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch answer?

^ The Rabbinic writers adopted the expression "the five-fifths of the law" or simply "the five-fifths" to denote the five books of the Pentateuch.

^ This religion of the Jews is codified in our actual Pentateuch, but has been fictitiously projected backwards in the historical books into the Mosaic and pre-prophetic times.

.This is expressed in the Talmud, a collection of Jewish traditions and exegesis dating from the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, and was presumably based on the several verses in the Torah describing Moses writing "torah" (instruction) from God.^ Moses Maimonides the medieval Jewish sage also spoke of Him in his Mishneh Torah where he spoke of "Jesus of Nazareth who aspired to be the Messiah and was executed by the court (Sanhedrin)".
  • Torah Spirituality for the Nations - Fair debate...? - Forums - Israel National News 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.israelnationalnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moses alone remains with God on the mountain for forty days, and receives various instructions about the tabernacle and other points pertaining to Divine worship.

^ As the Rabbis mention in several places in the Talmud, the manner in which we read from the Torah is supposed to be reminiscent of the Revelation at Sinai.

.June 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] According to the Encyclopedia Judaica, "The traditional doctrine of Mosaic authorship of the entire Torah has its source in Deuteronomy 31:9–12, 24, more than in any other passage...The Torah itself contains no explicit statement ascribing its authorship to Moses, while Mosaic attribution is restricted to legal and ritual prescription and is hardly to be found in connection with the narrative material."^ What is of still greater moment, he then ascribed the authorship of Deuteronomy to Moses.
  • Introduction to the Pentateuch. 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC stempublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Deuteronomy, consisting mainly of discourses, is practically a summary repetition of the Mosaic legislation, and concludes also the history of the people under the leadership of Moses.

^ On the other hand, the Pentateuch ascribes to Moses the literary authorship of at least four sections, partly historical, partly legal, partly poetical.

[16] .However, according to Catholic Encyclopedia, the attribution of the Torah to Moses dates as back to the Bible itself, noting the fact that several books of the Bible, reference the Torah as the Book of Moses, Law of Moses, etc,[17] and can also be found in the New Testament.^ Did He not mean, did not the Jew understand Him to mean, the five books of the law by the writings of Moses?
  • Introduction to the Pentateuch. 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC stempublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Chazal explain that the sixth day refers to the date in Sivan when the Torah was given, namely, Shavuous.

^ Hence, whether dealing by law through Moses, or by grace in His Son, one half in both Old Testament and New consists of facts profoundly instructive for the most reflective, but withal coming down to the level of a child.
  • Introduction to the Pentateuch. 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC stempublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

[17] .Deuteronomy 31:9 and Deuteronomy 31:24-26 describe how Moses writes "torah" (instruction) on a scroll and lays it beside the ark of the Covenant.^ I'm not sure why exactly -- I've heard that it's a reference to when Moses wrote the Torah at the end of his life, or for the everlastingness of the Torah itself, how it's called a "Tree of Life" and all that.
  • matthue roth: author, performance poet, orthodox jew at large 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.matthue.com [Source type: General]

^ Ex., xxxiv, 1, 4, shows how Moses had prepared the tables, and Ex., xxxiv, 10-26, gives us the contents of the ten words.

^ Deut., xxxi, 24-9, is especially noted; for it knows that Moses wrote the "words of this law in a volume" and commanded it to be placed in the ark of the covenant as a testimony against the people who have been so rebellious during the lawgiver's life and will "do wickedly" after his death.

[18] The attribution of the Torah to Moses is also expressed by the early Roman historian Josephus Flavius. .Statements implying belief in Mosaic authorship of the Torah are contained in Joshua,[19] Kings,[20] Chronicles,[21] Ezra[22] and Nehemiah.^ The Torah (Devarim 20:19) tells us that "man is like the tree of the field".

^ Sharbano , Tevet 21, 5770 (07/01/2010) If Yeshu is throughout Torah where does Torah define a reward based upon mere belief.
  • Torah Spirituality for the Nations - Fair debate...? - Forums - Israel National News 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.israelnationalnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is true that the Pentateuch contains no express declaration of its entire Mosaic authorship; but even the most exacting of critics will hardly require such testimony.

[23]
The rabbis of the Talmud (c. .200-500 CE) discussed exactly how the Torah was transmitted to Moses.^ I'm not sure why exactly -- I've heard that it's a reference to when Moses wrote the Torah at the end of his life, or for the everlastingness of the Torah itself, how it's called a "Tree of Life" and all that.
  • matthue roth: author, performance poet, orthodox jew at large 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.matthue.com [Source type: General]

.In the Babylonian Talmud Gittin 60a it is written "Said R' Yochanan, the Torah was given in a series of small scrolls," implying that the Torah was written gradually and compiled from a variety of documents over time.^ He answers that Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai saw that the relationship between one’s mouth and Torah sheBa’al Peh is the same as the relationship between written Torah and its scroll.

^ Thus far it has been shown negatively that an historic and legal document claiming to be written at the time of Moses involves no antecedent improbability of its authenticity.

.Another opinion there that states that the entire Torah was given at one time.^ To state the blasphemy is to refute it; yet such is the inevitable issue if there be one word of reality in what is thus alleged against the Pentateuch.
  • Introduction to the Pentateuch. 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC stempublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Another medrash states that the sea split into 600,000 paths-- one for each family.

^ Let me cite the competent opinion given entirely apart from controversy by Mr. H. F. Clinton, which may serve to illustrate more than one point.
  • Introduction to the Pentateuch. 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC stempublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

.Menachem Mendel Kasher points to certain traditions of the Oral Torah that showed Moses quoting Genesis prior to the epiphany at Sinai.^ It is well known that the entire Oral Torah as well as every original contribution that a future Torah scholar will articulate was already presented to Moshe at Mount Sinai.

^ Besides these four passages there are certain indications in Deuteronomy which point to the literary activity of Moses.

^ We need not show that Jesus and the Apostles quoted the whole of the Pentateuch as written by Moses.

.Based on a number of Bible verses and rabbinic statements, he suggests that Moses had certain documents authored by the Patriarchs that he made use of when redacting that book.^ I don't know how useful it will be to know about what random teenagers in the future think of Bible verses, but I know that I love writing about what I think of them.
  • matthue roth: author, performance poet, orthodox jew at large 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.matthue.com [Source type: General]

^ Even the Talmud and the older Rabbinic writings call the first part of the Bible the book of the law, while in Aramaic it is simply termed law (cf.

^ How grievous the unbelief then which does not tremble to say after such an utterance, "it is certain that Moses himself could not have written the book of Deuteronomy, nor made such changes in the old legislation as are contained in the discourses of the book!"
  • Introduction to the Pentateuch. 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC stempublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

[24] .According to Moses Maimonides, the 12th Century rabbi and philosopher, Moses was the Torah's author, receiving it from God either as divine inspiration or as direct dictation in the Hebrew year 2449 AM (1313 BCE).^ The Alexandrian philosopher Philo is convinced that the entire Pentateuch is the work of Moses, and that the latter wrote a prophetic account of his death under the influence of a special divine inspiration ("De vita Mosis", ll.

^ Moses Maimonides the medieval Jewish sage also spoke of Him in his Mishneh Torah where he spoke of "Jesus of Nazareth who aspired to be the Messiah and was executed by the court (Sanhedrin)".
  • Torah Spirituality for the Nations - Fair debate...? - Forums - Israel National News 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.israelnationalnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moses alone remains with God on the mountain for forty days, and receives various instructions about the tabernacle and other points pertaining to Divine worship.

[25][26]
.Later rabbis (and the Talmudic rabbis as well - see tractate Bava Basra 15a) and Christian scholars noticed some difficulties with the idea of Mosaic authorship of the entire Torah, notably the fact that the book of Deuteronomy describes Moses' death; later versions of the tradition therefore held that some portions of the Torah were added by others - the death of Moses in particular was ascribed to Joshua.^ What is of still greater moment, he then ascribed the authorship of Deuteronomy to Moses.
  • Introduction to the Pentateuch. 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC stempublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Deuteronomy, consisting mainly of discourses, is practically a summary repetition of the Mosaic legislation, and concludes also the history of the people under the leadership of Moses.

^ On the other hand, the Pentateuch ascribes to Moses the literary authorship of at least four sections, partly historical, partly legal, partly poetical.

.The Talmud explains this by saying that Moses wrote it tearfully, in anticipation of his death; another tradition is that Joshua added these words after Moses died (the next book is the Book of Joshua which, according to Jewish tradition, was written by Joshua himself), and that the final verses of the book of Deuteronomy read like an epitaph to Moses.^ January 26, 2008 We read this week in Parashat Yitro “G-d spoke all these words saying: I am G-d who brought you out of Egypt….” But we have several questions.
  • Lincoln Square Synagogue - Divrei Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.lss.org [Source type: General]

^ I must say that all attempts to put a later date on these books seems to me to fail simply from want of evidence.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So Moses the servant of the Lord died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of the Lord.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Mosaic authorship was accepted with very little discussion by both Jews and Christians until the 17th century, when the rise of secular scholarship and the associated willingness to subject even the Bible to the test of reason led to its rejection by mainstream biblical scholars.^ The voice of tradition, both Jewish and Christian, is so unanimous and constant in proclaiming the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch that down to the seventeenth century it did not allow the rise of any serious doubt.

^ Jews after the fourth century B.C., but also the Christians for many centuries could maintain their conviction that the entire Pentateuch was written by Moses.

^ It is true that the Pentateuch contains no express declaration of its entire Mosaic authorship; but even the most exacting of critics will hardly require such testimony.

The majority of modern scholars believe that the Torah is the product of many hands, stretching over many centuries, reaching its final form only around the 6th and 5th centuries BCE.

Academic analysis

.Many contemporary secular biblical scholars date the completion of the Torah, as well as the prophets and the historical books, no earlier than the Persian period (539 to 334 BCE).^ It is well known that the entire Oral Torah as well as every original contribution that a future Torah scholar will articulate was already presented to Moshe at Mount Sinai.

^ For I know of no stronger proof of the truth of the book of Deuteronomy, and of the whole Pentateuch, than its ending so differently from what we should have expected, or indeed wished.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the Torah gives us no specific date for the episode of the spies, we are told that this story occurred in the days of bikkurei anavim, the blossoming of the first grapes.

[9] .Scholarly discussion for much of the 20th century was principally couched in terms of the documentary hypothesis, according to which the Torah is a synthesis of documents from a small number of originally independent sources.^ Only a very small number of Jews are Torah Observant.
  • No Jew Has Read The Torah/Law 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC ebionite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Criticism and tradition are incompatible in their views as to the age and sequence of the documentary sources, as to the origin of the various legal codes, and as to the time and manner of the redaction of the Pentateuch.

[10]
.According to the most influential version of the hypothesis, as formulated by Julius Wellhausen (1844–1918), the Pentateuch is composed of four separate and identifiable texts, dating roughly from the period of Solomon up until exilic priests and scribes.^ Or again, as this priest instructed the Samaritan population in the law of the god of the country, is it not reasonable to suppose that he taught them the Pentateuchal law which the ten tribes carried with them when they separated from Juda?

.These various texts were brought together as one document (the Five Books of Moses of the Torah) by scribes after the exile.^ What has been said clearly shows that the critics are at variance in many respects, but they are at one in maintaining the post- Mosaic origin of the Pentateuchal documents.

^ If the Hebrew contemporaries of Moses kept written records, why should not the Pentateuchal sources be among these documents?

^ For the rest, whether Moses wrote the book down, and put it together in the shape in which we now have it, we shall never be able to tell.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

  • The Jahwist (or J) - written c 950 BCE.[10] The southern kingdom's (i.e. Judah) interpretation. It is named according to the prolific use of the name "Yahweh" (or Jaweh, in German, the divine name or Tetragrammaton) in its text.
  • The Elohist (or E) - written c 850 BCE.[10] The northern kingdom's (i.e. Israel) interpretation. As above, it is named because of its preferred use of "Elohim" (a generic title used to describe a god, God, or gods).
  • The Deuteronomist (or D) - written c 650-621 BCE.[10] Dating specifically from the time of King Josiah of Judah and responsible for the book of Deuteronomy as well as Joshua and most of the subsequent books up to 2 Kings.
  • The Priestly source (or P) - written during or after the exile, c 550-400 BCE.[10] So named because of its focus on Levitical laws.
.The documentary hypothesis has been increasingly challenged since the 1970s, and alternative views now see the Torah as having been compiled from a multitude of small fragments rather than a handful of large coherent source texts,[27] or as having gradually accreted over many centuries and through many hands.^ Likewise, the lowest mountain, Har Sinai, rather than the most majestic, was chosen for Mattan Torah (Tractate Sotah,5a).

^ This rigid view of the Mosaic authorship began to develop in the eighteenth century, and practically gained the upper hand in the nineteenth.

[28] The shorthand Yahwist, Priestly and Deuteronomistic is still used nevertheless to characterise identifiable and differentiable content and style.
The 19th century dating of the final form of Genesis and the Pentateuch to c. .500-450 BCE continues to be widely accepted irrespective of the model adopted,[29] although a minority of scholars known as biblical minimalists argue for a date largely or entirely within the last two centuries BCE. David Hubbard's 1956 thesis on the Kebra Nagast notes that the few quotations that appear to be from a pre-Hilkiah Deuteronomic source are either from a lost 10th centery written version or an oral tradition.^ It is well known that the entire Oral Torah as well as every original contribution that a future Torah scholar will articulate was already presented to Moshe at Mount Sinai.

^ These two sources were combined by a redactor into one work soon after the middle of the sixth century.

^ Two of the greatest personalities in our history, Moses and David, were denied their greatest ambition, but ended their lives accepting G-d’s judgment.
  • Lincoln Square Synagogue - Divrei Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.lss.org [Source type: General]

Structure

Books of the Torah
  1. Genesis
  2. Exodus
  3. Leviticus
  4. Numbers
  5. Deuteronomy
.The Hebrew names of the five books of the Torah are known by their incipit, taken from initial words of the first verse of each book.^ In Greek pentateuchos , is the name of the first five books of the Old Testament.

^ At what precise time the first part of the Bible was divided into five books is a question not yet finally settled.

^ In Palestine, the opening words of the several books served as their titles; hence we have the names: bereshith, we'elleh shemoth or simply shemoth, wayyiqra, wayedhabber , and elleh haddebarim or simply debarim .

For example, the Hebrew name of the first book, Bereshit, is the first word of Genesis 1:1:
  1. Bereshit (בְּרֵאשִׁית, literally "In the beginning")
  2. Shemot (שִׁמוֹת, literally "Names")
  3. Vayikra (ויקרא, literally "He called")
  4. B'midbar (במדבר, literally "In the desert")
  5. Devarim (דברים, literally "Things" or "Words")
The Anglicized names are derived from the Greek and reflect the essential theme of each book:
  1. Genesis: "creation,"
  2. Exodus: "departure"
  3. Leviticus: refers to the Levites and the regulations that apply to their presence and service in the Temple, which form the bulk of the third book.
  4. Numbers (Arithmoi): contains a record of the numbering of the Israelites in the wilderness of Sinai and later on the plain of Moab.
  5. Deuteronomy: "second law," refers to the fifth book's recapitulation of the commandments reviewed by Moses before his death.
.According to the classical Jewish view, the stories in the Torah are not always in chronological order.^ To celebrate reading the story of Noah in the Torah, Amsterdam Jewish Salon had a cruise.
  • matthue roth: author, performance poet, orthodox jew at large 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.matthue.com [Source type: General]

^ According to Rava, this episode is a national excuse, which Rashi explains to mean that if the Jewish people are brought to judgment, they can claim that they were coerced into accepting the Torah.
  • Lincoln Square Synagogue - Divrei Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.lss.org [Source type: General]

.Sometimes they are ordered by concept according to the rule: "There is not 'earlier' and 'later' in the Torah" (אין מוקדם ומאוחר בתורה, Ein mukdam u'meuchar baTorah).^ Chabad) The 613 Mitzvot (Commands) according to Maimonides' order Sefer haMitzvot Straight listing in the order of the List of Mitzvot in the introduction to the Mishneh Torah, subdivided by book and section.
  • Cypess: The Electronic Parsha Warehouse 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC eparsha.com [Source type: Academic]

[30] This position is accepted by Orthodox Judaism. .Non-Orthodox Jews generally understand the same texts as signs that the current text of the Torah was redacted from earlier sources (see documentary hypothesis.^ Maybe it's my whole Orthodox Jew trip of believing that Torah was given to us as a gift.
  • matthue roth: author, performance poet, orthodox jew at large 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.matthue.com [Source type: General]

^ Criticism and tradition are incompatible in their views as to the age and sequence of the documentary sources, as to the origin of the various legal codes, and as to the time and manner of the redaction of the Pentateuch.

)

Contents

.Bereshit (Genesis) begins with the story of creation (Genesis 1-3) and Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, as well the account of their descendants.^ Like Adam and Eve, the task of the “newly created” couple is to study G-d’s wisdom together, deriving inspiration and guidance from it in the management of their joint household as well as their individual lives.

^ Yes God created the mind of man but it was blinded in the garden of Eden when Eve gave heed to and obeyed the voice of the serpent instead of obeying the command of GOD. We need renewal of spirit and mind only then you will have a clear picture of godly things.
  • Torah Spirituality for the Nations - Fair debate...? - Forums - Israel National News 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.israelnationalnews.com [Source type: Original source]

.Following these are the accounts of Noah and the great flood (Genesis 3-9), and his descendants.^ Bearing in mind these general outlines of the contents and the literary structure of Genesis, we shall easily understand the following analytical table.

.The Tower of Babel and the story of (Abraham)'s covenant with God (Genesis 10-11) are followed by the story of the patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and the life of Joseph (Genesis 12-50).^ September 12, 2009 We read in today’s Parasha about the covenant that we freely made with God.
  • Lincoln Square Synagogue - Divrei Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.lss.org [Source type: General]

^ Genesis 31: 18 is the next occurrence of Padan-aram, which here follows Jehovah's word to Jacob.
  • Introduction to the Pentateuch. 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC stempublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

.God gives to the Patriarchs a promise of the land of Canaan, but at the end of Genesis the sons of Jacob end up leaving Canaan for Egypt because of a famine.^ They looked for eternal promises which could not pass away, because they were according to the eternal laws of God, which stand good both for this world and for all worlds for this life and for the life everlasting.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the end of the story, Avraham is told that his brother had children whose progeny lead up to the birth of his son’s bashert , Rifka.

^ History of Jacob (37:2-50:26) -- This final portion of Genesis tells of the fate of Jacob's family down to the death of the Patriarch and of Joseph.

.Shemot (Exodus) is the story of Moses, who leads Israelites out of Pharaoh's Egypt (Exodus 1-18) to take them to the promised land.^ Moses views the Promised Land from a distance.

^ Why should not the Jews have gone on worshipping one God, even if they had forgotten that he brought them out of the land of Egypt?
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For Moses himself must not enter into the promised land.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the way, they camp at Mount Sinai/Horeb where Moses receives the Torah, including the Ten Commandments, from God, and mediates His laws and Covenant (Exodus 19-24) to the people of Israel.^ God is talking about the Ten Commandments He gave to Moses at Sinai.
  • Torah Spirituality for the Nations - Fair debate...? - Forums - Israel National News 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.israelnationalnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This, then, was what Moses commanded--to remember that they owed all to God.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I told her I believed that God made everyone the way they are for a reason, and it's not up to any of us to try and decide what that reason is -- it's between them and God."
  • matthue roth: author, performance poet, orthodox jew at large 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.matthue.com [Source type: General]

.Exodus also deals with the violation of the commandment against idolatry when Aaron took part in the construction of the Golden Calf (Exodus 32-34).^ For the sin of the golden calf (idolatry), klal Yisroel was forgiven by Hashem (Shmos 32:14).

Exodus concludes with the instructions on building the Tabernacle (Exodus 25-31; 35-40).
.Vayikra (Leviticus) begins with instructions to the Israelites on how to use the Tabernacle, which they had just built (Leviticus 1-10).^ So they begin, like Balaam, to tempt God, to see how far they can go; to see if God has forbidden this and that mean, or cowardly, or covetous, or ambitious deed.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God hovered over it at creation yet just 10 generations later, he used it to destroy the world.
  • Lincoln Square Synagogue - Divrei Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.lss.org [Source type: General]

^ The Book of Exodus shows what God had done and was doing for His people; the Book of Leviticus prescribes what the people must do for God, and how they must render themselves worthy of His constant presence.

.This is followed by rules of clean and unclean (Leviticus 11-15), which includes the laws of slaughter and animals permissible to eat (see also: Kashrut), the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 16), and various moral and ritual laws sometimes called the Holiness Code (Leviticus 17-26).^ The New Testament refers to the Mosaic law in various ways: the law (Matt., v, 17; Rom., ii, 12; etc.

^ Leviticus, called by Rabbinic writers "Law of the Priests" or "Law of the Sacrifices", contains nearly a complete collection of laws concerning the Levitical ministry.

.Bamidbar (Numbers) takes two censuses where the number of Israelites are counted (Numbers 1-3, 26), and has many laws mixed among the narratives.^ Moreover, xxxi, 9-13 states, "and Moses wrote this law", and xxxi, 26, adds, "take this book, and put it in the side of the ark.

The narratives tell how Israel consolidated itself as a community at Sinai (Numbers 1-9), set out from Sinai to move towards Canaan and spied out the land (Numbers 10-13). .Because of unbelief at various points, but especially at Kadesh Barnea (Numbers 14), the Israelites were condemned to wander for forty years in the desert in the vicinity of Kadesh instead of immediately entering the land of promise.^ After the return of the spies and their discouraging report which discouraged entering Eretz Yisrael, the Jewish people were told their punishment of having to undergo a 40 year sojourn in the desert.

^ Thus he first states what remained unchanged throughout the desert life of the people, and then reverts to the account of the wanderings from the first month of the second year.

^ For Moses himself must not enter into the promised land.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Even Moses sins and is told he would not live to enter the land (Numbers 20).^ He never even anywhere told them that they would live again after this life.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For Moses himself must not enter into the promised land.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You will see that Moses warns them that if they forget God, the Lord who brought them out of the land of Egypt, they would go after other gods.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

At the end of Numbers (Numbers 26-35) Israel moves from the area of Kadesh towards the promised land. .They leave the Sinai desert and go around Edom and through Moab where Balak and Balaam oppose them (Numbers 22-24; 31:8, 15-16).^ Armilus will banish Israel to the wilderness (Matthew 24:16) and there be great distress for them and they will have to hide in caves.
  • Torah Spirituality for the Nations - Fair debate...? - Forums - Israel National News 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.israelnationalnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then comes on Balaam's frame of mind, 'If Balak would give me his house full of silver and gold, I cannot go beyond the commandment of the Lord.'
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If everyone and their bff are commenting on Genesis 24:22, who's going to care about what Rashi has to say about it?
  • matthue roth: author, performance poet, orthodox jew at large 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.matthue.com [Source type: General]

They defeat two Transjordan kings, Og and Sihon (Numbers 21), and so come to occupy some territory outside of Canaan. .At the end of the book they are on the plains of Moab opposite Jericho ready to enter the Promised Land.^ For Moses himself must not enter into the promised land.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are still wandering in the land of Moab, when the time draws near when Moses must die.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Practically the entire Book of Deuteronomy claims to be a special legislation promulgated by Moses in the land of Moab: iv, 1-40; 44-49; v, 1 sqq.; xii, 1 sqq.

.Devarim (Deuteronomy) consists primarily of a series of speeches by Moses on the plains of Moab opposite Jericho exhorting Israel to obey God and further instruction on His Laws.^ Deuteronomy, consisting mainly of discourses, is practically a summary repetition of the Mosaic legislation, and concludes also the history of the people under the leadership of Moses.

^ Then he goes up into the mountain top, never to return; and the children of Israel are left alone with God and their own souls, to obey and prosper, or disobey and die.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He is the living God, in whom this world, as well as the world to come, lives and moves and has its being; and only by obeying his laws can man prosper, he and his children after him, upon this earth of God.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the end of the book (Deuteronomy 34), Moses is allowed to see the promised land from a mountain, but it is not known what happened to Moses on the mountain.^ Moses views the Promised Land from a distance.

^ For I know of no stronger proof of the truth of the book of Deuteronomy, and of the whole Pentateuch, than its ending so differently from what we should have expected, or indeed wished.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For Moses himself must not enter into the promised land.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

He was never seen again. .Knowing that he is nearing the end of his life, Moses appoints Joshua his successor, bequeathing to him the mantle of leadership.^ I'm not sure why exactly -- I've heard that it's a reference to when Moses wrote the Torah at the end of his life, or for the everlastingness of the Torah itself, how it's called a "Tree of Life" and all that.
  • matthue roth: author, performance poet, orthodox jew at large 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.matthue.com [Source type: General]

^ Moses appoints Josue as his successor, orders him to read the law to the people every seven years, and to place a copy of the same in the ark.

^ And so Moses' death-song, like his life's wish, ends in disappointment and sadness, and dread of the evils which are coming upon his beloved countrymen.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

Soon afterwards Israel begins the conquest of Canaan.

Torah and Judaism

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The Torah is the primary holy scripture of Judaism. .According to Talmudic teachings the Torah was created 974 generations (2,000 years) before the world was created, and is the blueprint that God used to create the world.^ The Gemara (Menachos 29) tells us that Hashem used the letter “ hey ” to create this world, and the letter “ yud ” to create the next world.

^ The Ishbitzer teaches (Mei haShiloach, P’ VaYakhel ) that when the Torah uses the the instruction " re’u, " see, it means there is some deeper meaning below what is apparent.

^ The goal of the Torah is not ascetic withdrawal from the world, but the use of the world for the purposes of the Torah.

.Furthermore, the Talmud teaches, everything created in this world is for the purpose of carrying out the word of the Torah, and the foundation of Jewish belief stems from the knowledge that the Lord is the God Who created the world.^ Even in our times when Eretz Yisrael is a strong, prosperous country, it still demands fortitude and sacrifice from those who dwell there, and it certainly is the Torah center of the Jewish world.

^ The goal of the Torah is not ascetic withdrawal from the world, but the use of the world for the purposes of the Torah.

^ Based upon the verse in the Torah, “And I shall be sanctified in the midst of the children of Israel”, the Gemara teaches that any “ davar shebiqdusha ” (matter related to the sanctification of G-d’s name) can only be carried out “in the midst of the children of Israel”, that is, in the presence of a minyan .

.Rabbinic writings offer various ideas on when the entire Torah was actually revealed to the Jewish people.^ The written words of Torah reveal to us the letter of the law, but Rabbinic interpretation reveals to us the spirit and intent of the law which are equally crucial.

^ The entire people must be legally clean; the various ways in which cleanness must be kept; interior cleanness must be added to external cleanness.

^ Why was this idea of shira only “discovered” by the Jewish people at Yam Suf?

The revelation to Moses at Mount Sinai is considered by many to be the most important revelatory event. .According to dating of the text by Orthodox rabbis this occurred in 1280 BCE. Some rabbinic sources state that the entire Torah was given all at once at this event.^ Chazal explain that the sixth day refers to the date in Sivan when the Torah was given, namely, Shavuous.

^ The gemara in Menachos tells us that Moshe Rabeinu was given a glimpse of Rabbi Akiva teaching Torah and he was confounded by the depths of the shiur.

.In the maximalist belief, this dictation included not only the quotations that appear in the text, but every word of the text itself, including phrases such as "And God spoke to Moses...", and included God telling Moses about Moses' own death and subsequent events.^ Moses alone remains with God on the mountain for forty days, and receives various instructions about the tabernacle and other points pertaining to Divine worship.

^ Not every word or phrase in these chapters is always necessarily to be taken in its literal sense so that it may never have another, as when it is manifestly used metaphorically or anthropomorphically.

^ Peter introduces a quotation from Deut., xviii, 15, with the words: "For Moses said" (Acts, iii, 22).

.Other classical rabbinic sources hold that the Torah was revealed to Moses over many years, and finished only at his death.^ The written words of Torah reveal to us the letter of the law, but Rabbinic interpretation reveals to us the spirit and intent of the law which are equally crucial.

.Another school of thought holds that although Moses wrote the vast majority of the Torah, a number of sentences throughout the Torah must have been written after his death by another prophet, presumably Joshua.^ The Alexandrian philosopher Philo is convinced that the entire Pentateuch is the work of Moses, and that the latter wrote a prophetic account of his death under the influence of a special divine inspiration ("De vita Mosis", ll.

.Abraham ibn Ezra and Joseph Bonfils observed that some phrases in the Torah present information that people should only have known after the time of Moses.^ It is well known that the entire Oral Torah as well as every original contribution that a future Torah scholar will articulate was already presented to Moshe at Mount Sinai.

^ But would not the Pentateuch have been known to the earlier Prophets, if it had been handed down from the time of Moses?

.Ibn Ezra hinted, and Bonfils explicitly stated, that Joshua (or perhaps some later prophet) wrote these sections of the Torah.^ The literal and historical meaning of some passages in these chapters presupposed, an allegorical and prophetical meaning may wisely and usefully be employed.

Other rabbis would not accept this belief.
It is commonly believed within Judaism that had Israel been faithful to the God of Israel, the rest of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible would have been unnecessary. Much of the rest of the Hebrew Bible concerns God's warnings and calling His people back to Himself. .Thus the first five books are seen as unique and sufficient as the complete revelation from God, while the remainder of the Tanakh deals with Man's departure disobeying the Torah.^ Thus the first book is called Genesis kosmou or simply Genesis ; the second, Exodus Aigyptou or Exodus ; the third, Leueitikon ; the fourth, Arithmoi ; and the fifth, Deuteronomion .

^ At what precise time the first part of the Bible was divided into five books is a question not yet finally settled.

^ In Greek pentateuchos , is the name of the first five books of the Old Testament.

The Talmud (tractate Sabb. 115b) states that a peculiar section in the Book of Numbers (10:35 — 36, surrounded by inverted Hebrew letter nuns) in fact forms a separate book. On this verse a midrash on the book of Mishle (also called Proverbs) states that "These two verses stem from an independent book which existed, but was suppressed!" Another (possibly earlier) midrash, Ta'ame Haserot Viyterot, states that this section actually comes from the book of prophecy of Eldad and Medad. .The Talmud says that God dictated four books of the Torah, but that Moses wrote Deuteronomy in his own words (Talmud Bavli, Meg.^ The writer of the Books of Kings believes that Moses is the author of Deuteronomy at least.

^ Besides these four passages there are certain indications in Deuteronomy which point to the literary activity of Moses.

^ Practically the entire Book of Deuteronomy claims to be a special legislation promulgated by Moses in the land of Moab: iv, 1-40; 44-49; v, 1 sqq.; xii, 1 sqq.

31b). .All classical beliefs, nonetheless, hold that the Torah was entirely or almost entirely Mosaic and of divine origin.^ It is well known that the entire Oral Torah as well as every original contribution that a future Torah scholar will articulate was already presented to Moshe at Mount Sinai.

^ Depreciating external evidence almost entirely, they consider the questions of the origin, the integrity, and the authenticity of the sacred books in the light of internal evidence (Encycl.

^ Divine origin of the Mosaic Law was implied in the names: law of Yahweh (I Esdr., vii, 10; etc.

[31]

Ritual use

.Torah reading (Hebrew: קריאת התורה, K'riat HaTorah ; "Reading [of] the Torah") is a Jewish religious ritual that involves the public reading of a set of passages from a Torah scroll.^ On the other hand, when the Torah is read in public and blessings are recited before and after it, a totally new quality emerges.

^ One could even read directly from a Torah scroll as a part of personal study, without having to gather ten men first.

^ (We see proof for this in the mitzvah of Haqhel, which is modeled after the Sinai experience, as well as in the public Torah readings orchestrated by King Josiah, King Hezeqiah, and Ezra.

.The term often refers to the entire ceremony of removing the Torah scroll (or scrolls) from the ark, chanting the appropriate excerpt with special cantillation, and returning the scroll(s) to the ark.^ R’ Nosson’s reference to what he terms "lofty Torah" about Rus and Boaz is perhaps no less enigmatic than Megillas Rus itself.

It is distinct from academic Torah study.
.Regular public reading of the Torah was introduced by Ezra the Scribe after the return of the Jewish people from the Babylonian captivity (c.^ After the return of the spies and their discouraging report which discouraged entering Eretz Yisrael, the Jewish people were told their punishment of having to undergo a 40 year sojourn in the desert.

^ If when Shavuos is over we return to our regular schedule and put the experience of mattan Torah out of our thoughts, we have celebrated the first day of Yom Tov but not the second.

^ The Jewish people heard Moshe’s call, we continue to read the same words every year, yet we failed to truly see what was required.

537 BCE), as described in the Book of Nehemiah.[32] .In the modern era, adherents of Orthodox Judaism practice Torah reading according to a set procedure they believe has remained unchanged in the two thousand years since the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem (70 CE).^ Thus he first states what remained unchanged throughout the desert life of the people, and then reverts to the account of the wanderings from the first month of the second year.

^ Torah who studied for two pairs of 12 years, and all that is left is a single great scholar who paired with his son hides in a cave for 12 years.

^ Our sages contrast the differing triggers for the destruction of the two Temples.

In the 19th and 20th centuries CE, new movements such as Reform Judaism and Conservative Judaism have made adaptations to the practice of Torah reading, but the basic pattern of Torah reading has usually remained the same:
.As a part of the morning or afternoon prayer services on certain days of the week or holidays, a section of the Pentateuch is read from a Torah scroll.^ Yet we know that the mitzvah of Torah Reading that occurs in the synagogue on Mondays, Thursdays, Shabbat and Holidays cannot be executed without a bona fide quorum.

^ One could even read directly from a Torah scroll as a part of personal study, without having to gather ten men first.

On Shabbat (Saturday) mornings, a weekly section ("parasha") is read, selected so that the entire Pentateuch is read consecutively each year.[33][34] .On Saturday afternoons, Mondays, and Thursdays, the beginning of the following Saturday's portion is read.^ Yet we know that the mitzvah of Torah Reading that occurs in the synagogue on Mondays, Thursdays, Shabbat and Holidays cannot be executed without a bona fide quorum.

On Jewish holidays and fast days, special sections connected to the day are read.
.Jews observe an annual holiday, Simchat Torah, to celebrate the completion of the year's cycle of readings.^ Yet we know that the mitzvah of Torah Reading that occurs in the synagogue on Mondays, Thursdays, Shabbat and Holidays cannot be executed without a bona fide quorum.

The Torah, being the core of Judaism, is naturally also the core of the synagogue. As such the Torah is "dressed" often with a sash, various ornaments and a crown (customs vary among synagogues and denominations). Congregants traditionally stand when the Torah is brought to be read.

Biblical law

Besides the narrative, the Torah also contains statements or principles of law and ethics. Collectively these laws, usually called biblical law or commandments, are sometimes referred to as the Law of Moses (Torat Moshe תּוֹרַת־מֹשֶׁה), Mosaic Law or simply the Law.

The Torah and the Oral Law

.Many Jewish laws are not directly mentioned in the Torah, but are derived from textual hints, which were expanded orally.^ They had respect for many of the legal statutes of the Torah which they understood as to form an ethical and lawful society.

This was called the oral tradition or oral Torah.
.Rabbinic tradition holds that the written Torah was transmitted in parallel with the oral tradition.^ The written words of Torah reveal to us the letter of the law, but Rabbinic interpretation reveals to us the spirit and intent of the law which are equally crucial.

^ Unless the critics can bring irrefutable evidence showing that in these sections we have only fiction, they must grant that these historical details were written down in contemporary documents, and not transmitted by mere oral tradition.

.Jews point to texts of the Torah, where many words and concepts are left undefined and many procedures are mentioned without explanation or instructions; the reader is required to seek out the missing details from the oral sources.^ One possible answer is that he need not be mentioned because once the Torah arrives at Bethuel’s name, it can immediately mention the birth of his daughter without listing his other children.

^ While the words of written Torah sanctify the parchment the text is written on, the words of Torah sheBa’al Peh sanctify the mouth of man which utters them.

.Many times in the Torah it says that/as you are/were shown on the mountain in reference of how to do a commandment (Exodus 25:40).^ We have all hears the expression “you are what you eat,” but from a Torah perspective it would perhaps be equally correct to say “you eat what you are,” or what you hope to be.

There are numerous examples of biblical commandments which are either too ambiguous or documented in such a concise fashion that proper adherence is absolutely impossible without the details provided by the oral tradition.[35]
  • Tefillin: As indicated in Deuteronomy 6:8 among other places, tefillin are to be placed on the arm and on the head between the eyes. .However, there are no details provided regarding what tefillin are or how they are to be constructed.
  • Kosher laws: As indicated in Exodus 23:19 among other places, a child may not be boiled in its mother's milk.^ Besides, there were, no doubt, many violations of the law, just as the Ten Commandments are violated to-day without detriment to their legal promulgation.

    ^ There was no doubt in their mind that nature would bend to the needs of the righteous, and therefore they did not respond with shira .

    ^ The great Apostle speaks in other passages of the law of Moses (Acts, xiii, 33; I Cor., ix, 9); he preaches Jesus according to the law of Moses and the Prophets (Acts, xxviii, 23), and cites passages from the Pentateuch as words written by Moses (Rom, x, 5-8; 19).

    .In addition to numerous other problems with understanding the ambiguous nature of this law, there are no vowelization characters in the Torah; they are provided by the oral tradition.^ But this natural inference finds no favour among the critics; for it implies that the historical and legal traditions codified in the Pentateuch, described the beginning, and not the end, of Israel's religious development.

    ^ Besides, there were, no doubt, many violations of the law, just as the Ten Commandments are violated to-day without detriment to their legal promulgation.

    ^ There was no doubt in their mind that nature would bend to the needs of the righteous, and therefore they did not respond with shira .

    This is particularly relevant to this law, as the Hebrew word for milk (חלב) is identical to the word for animal fat when vowels are absent. .Without the oral tradition, it is not known whether the violation is in mixing meat with milk or with fat.
  • Shabbos laws: With the severity of Sabbath violation, namely the death penalty, one would assume that direction would be provided as to how exactly such a serious and core commandment should be upheld.^ The ugly ones offer only a negative statement of "don't look for beauty," without a positive directive of what virtue can be gained by looking elsewhere.

    ^ One would think that surely the few moments a day we have to stand directly before Hashem should be filled with the most sublime thoughts and lofty requests.

    ^ Our ancestors in Egypt may have fallen prey to idol worship and ignored the commandment of circumcision (with the exception of the tribe of Levi) – both of which carry a death penalty.

    However, there is little to no information as to what can and cannot be performed on the Sabbath. Without the oral tradition, keeping this law would be impossible.
According to classical rabbinic texts this parallel set of material was originally transmitted to Moses at Sinai, and then from Moses to Israel. At that time it was forbidden to write and publish the oral law, as any writing would be incomplete and subject to misinterpretation and abuse.
However, after exile, dispersion and persecution, this tradition was lifted when it became apparent that in writing was the only way to ensure that the Oral Law could be preserved. .After many years of effort by a great number of tannaim, the oral tradition was written down around 200 CE by Rabbi Judah haNasi who took up the compilation of a nominally written version of the Oral Law, the Mishnah.^ Torah who studied for two pairs of 12 years, and all that is left is a single great scholar who paired with his son hides in a cave for 12 years.

^ Unless the critics can bring irrefutable evidence showing that in these sections we have only fiction, they must grant that these historical details were written down in contemporary documents, and not transmitted by mere oral tradition.

^ Their story was begun in Exodus, but interrupted by the Sinaitic legislation; Numbers takes up the account from the first month of the second year, and brings it down to the eleventh month of the fortieth year.

Other oral traditions from the same time period not entered into the Mishnah were recorded as "Baraitot" (external teaching), and the Tosefta. Other traditions were written down as Midrashim.
.Over the next four centuries this small, ingenious record of laws and ethical teachings provided the necessary signals and codes to allow the continuity of the same Mosaic Oral traditions to be taught and passed on in Jewish communities scattered across both of the world's major Jewish communities, (from Israel to Babylon).^ The Jewish tradition concerning the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch was brought in to the Christian Church by Christ Himself and the Apostles.

^ The same must be said with regard to the successive laws established by Moses, and the gradual fidelity of the Jewish people to the Mosaic law.

^ The voice of tradition, both Jewish and Christian, is so unanimous and constant in proclaiming the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch that down to the seventeenth century it did not allow the rise of any serious doubt.

After continued persecution more of the Oral Law had to be committed to writing. A great many more lessons, lectures and traditions only alluded to in the few hundred pages of Mishnah, became the thousands of pages now called the Gemara. Gemara is Aramaic, having been compiled in Babylon. The Mishnah and Gemara together are called the Talmud. .The Rabbis in Israel also collected their traditions and compiled them into the Jerusalem Talmud.^ Talmud of Jerusalem (Sota, v, 5), the rabbis, and the doctors of Israel (cf.

Since the greater number of Rabbis lived in Babylon, the Babylonian Talmud has precedence should the two be in conflict.
.Orthodox Jews and Conservative Jews accept these texts as the basis for all subsequent halakha and codes of Jewish law, which are held to be normative.^ Josue himself "wrote all these things in the volume of the law of the Lord" (xxiv, 26).

.Reform and Reconstructionist Jews deny that these texts may be used for determining normative law (laws accepted as binding) but accept them as the authentic and only Jewish version of understanding the Bible and its development throughout history.^ Not every word or phrase in these chapters is always necessarily to be taken in its literal sense so that it may never have another, as when it is manifestly used metaphorically or anthropomorphically.

(Reform and Reconstructionist, although they reject Jewish law as normative, do not accept the religious texts of any other faith.)

Divine significance of letters, Jewish mysticism

The Rabbis hold that not only are the words giving a Divine message, but indicate a far greater message that extends beyond them. Thus they hold that even as small a mark as a kotzo shel yod (קוצו של יוד), the serif of the Hebrew letter yod (י), the smallest letter, or decorative markings, or repeated words, were put there by God to teach scores of lessons. This is regardless of whether that yod appears in the phrase "I am the Lord thy God" (אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ, Exodus 20:2) or whether it appears in "And God spoke unto Moses saying" (וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים, אֶל-מֹשֶׁה; וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו, אֲנִי יְהוָה. Exodus 6:2). .In a similar vein, Rabbi Akiva, (50/55BC-135), is said to have learned a new law from every et (את) in the Torah (Talmud, tractate Pesachim 22b); the word et is meaningless by itself, and serves only to mark the accusative case.^ Perhaps this idea sheds light on the tragic death of Rabbi Akiva’s students who, the Talmud records, failed in some way to properly honor each other.

^ The gemara in Menachos tells us that Moshe Rabeinu was given a glimpse of Rabbi Akiva teaching Torah and he was confounded by the depths of the shiur.

^ Moshe was despondent until he heard Rabbi Akiva asked the source for a halacha, to which he replied, “ halacha l’Moshe m’Sinai ”, it is a law which was revealed to Moshe on Sinai.

In other words, the Orthodox belief is that even apparently contextual text "And God spoke unto Moses saying..." is no less important than the actual statement.
.One kabbalistic interpretation is that the Torah constitutes one long name of God, and that it was broken up into words so that human minds can understand it.^ The written words of Torah reveal to us the letter of the law, but Rabbinic interpretation reveals to us the spirit and intent of the law which are equally crucial.

^ Boaz’s name can be read as bo oz, within him is the strength of Torah, for it is Boaz who embodies the answer of Torah to the longing of tefillah..

^ The Mechiltah interprets this to mean " shetiyu kenuyim li ve’oskim b’Torah " -- namely, that you will constitute my possession, and study the Torah.

.While this is effective since it accords with our human reason, it is not the only way that the text can be broken up.^ However, the Chachamim understood that kedusha is not only that which descends from above, but kedusha can also come about by man rising up to draw it down into our lives.

Production and use of a Torah scroll

A Sefer Torah opened for liturgical use in a synagogue service
Manuscript Torah scrolls are still used, and still scribed, for ritual purposes (i.e. religious services); this is called a Sefer Torah ("Book [of] Torah"). They are written using a painstakingly careful methodology by highly qualified scribes. This has resulted in modern copies of the text that are unchanged from millennia-old copies. .It is believed that every word, or marking, has divine meaning, and that not one part may be inadvertently changed lest it lead to error.^ Not every word or phrase in these chapters is always necessarily to be taken in its literal sense so that it may never have another, as when it is manifestly used metaphorically or anthropomorphically.

.The fidelity of the Hebrew text of the Tanakh, and the Torah in particular, is considered paramount, down to the last letter: translations or transcriptions are frowned upon for formal service use, and transcribing is done with painstaking care.^ Divine names in the Greek translation of the Pentateuch differ in about 180 cases from those of the Hebrew text (cf.

.An error of a single letter, ornamentation, or symbol of the 304,805 stylized letters which make up the Hebrew Torah text renders a Torah scroll unfit for use, hence a special skill is required and a scroll takes considerable time to write and check.^ Hence a considerable time must have intervened between the compilation of the Pentateuch and its acceptance by the Samaritans, so that the work of combining must be placed in the fifth century.

^ The Tiferes Shlomo writes that Ya’akov transported his family across the “ nachal, ” a river, which is spelled with the same letters as make up the initial letters of the words “ L’hadlik Ner Chanukah.” The Chashmonaim clung to the concept of shalom Ya’akov personified.

.According to Jewish law, a sefer Torah (plural: Sifrei Torah) is a copy of the formal Hebrew text of hand-written on gevil or qlaf (forms of parchment) by using a quill (or other permitted writing utensil) dipped in ink.^ The written words of Torah reveal to us the letter of the law, but Rabbinic interpretation reveals to us the spirit and intent of the law which are equally crucial.

^ Halachically, there is a fundamental difference that exists between kal v’chomer and all the other middot used to explain the Torah.

^ They appeal to God's covenant, the sacrificial laws, the calendar of feasts, and other laws of the Pentateuch in such a way as to render it probable that a written legislation formed the basis of their prophetic admonitions (cf.

.Written entirely in Hebrew, a sefer Torah contains 304,805 letters, all of which must be duplicated precisely by a trained sofer (“scribe”), an effort which may take as long as approximately one and a half years.^ After all, we are all guaranteed to have one, so the magical meeting of soulmates must be destined to occur.

^ Rabbi Akiva was the father of all Torah sheBa’al Peh, but like the twelve middot of chessed and twelve middot of derush , ultimately his teaching was a revelation of what was already contained within the depths and profundity of the written Torah which was revealed by Moshe.

.Most modern Sifrei Torah are written with forty-two lines of text per column (Yemenite Jews use fifty), and very strict rules about the position and appearance of the Hebrew letters are observed.^ The written words of Torah reveal to us the letter of the law, but Rabbinic interpretation reveals to us the spirit and intent of the law which are equally crucial.

^ Fifteen is demarcted by the two hebrew letters "tes", which has the value of 9, and "vav", which has the value of six, together spelling Tu B'Shevat.

^ While the words of written Torah sanctify the parchment the text is written on, the words of Torah sheBa’al Peh sanctify the mouth of man which utters them.

See for example the Mishna Berura on the subject.[36] Any of several Hebrew scripts may be used, most of which are fairly ornate and exacting.
.The completion of the sefer Torah is a cause for great celebration, and it is a Mitzvah for every Jew to either write or have written for him a Sefer Torah.^ Even though a zar, one who is not a kohein, is permitted to light the menorah, the mitzvah of menorah is written in the Torah as being part of the role of Aharon.

.Torah scrolls are stored in the holiest part of the synagogue in the Ark known as the "Holy Ark" (אֲרוֹן הקֹדשׁ aron hakodesh in Hebrew.^ One could even read directly from a Torah scroll as a part of personal study, without having to gather ten men first.

) Aron in Hebrew means 'cupboard' or 'closet' and Kodesh is derived from 'Kadosh', or 'holy'.

Torah in other religions

.Both Christianity and Islam include the five books of Moses among their sacred texts.^ Both the Palestinian and the Alexandrian Jews had distinct names for each of the five books of the Pentateuch.

However, in both religions they lack the central significance that they have in Judaism.
In early Christianity a Koine Greek version of the Hebrew Bible, called in Latin the Septuagint was used, and as the Pentateuch, forms the beginning of the Old Testament that incorporate the Torah into the Catholic & Christian Orthodox Biblical canon that also includes some books not found in the Tanakh.[37] .Though different Christian denominations have slightly different versions of the Old Testament in their Bibles, the Torah as the "Five Books of Moses" (or "the Law") is common to them all.^ In Greek pentateuchos , is the name of the first five books of the Old Testament.

^ Even the Talmud and the older Rabbinic writings call the first part of the Bible the book of the law, while in Aramaic it is simply termed law (cf.

^ According to the trend of both Old and New Testament, and according to Jewish and Christian theology, the work of the great lawgiver Moses is the origin of the history of Israel and the basis of its development down to the time of Jesus Christ; but modern criticism sees in all this only the result, or the precipitate, of a purely natural historical development.

Islam draws heavily upon the Torah for Islamic concepts, teachings, and history of the early World.[38] from which it also derives that the .Arab people are descended from Abraham's first son Ishmael, the half-brother of Isaac.^ I. First, why did he command his brothers rather than his own sons, which is the normative procedure pertaining to last wills?

Muslims call the Torah the Tawrat and consider it the word of Allah given to Moses. .However, Muslims also believe that this original revelation was corrupted (tahrif) over time by Jewish scribes[39] and hence do not revere the present Jewish version Torah as much.^ It is well known that the entire Oral Torah as well as every original contribution that a future Torah scholar will articulate was already presented to Moshe at Mount Sinai.

A number of verses from the Qur'an are claimed to refer to Muhammed as the promised prophet to be found in the Torah.[40] The Torah in the Qur'an is always mentioned with respect in Islam. The Muslims' belief in the Torah, as well as the Prophethood of Moses, is one of the fundamental tenets of Islam.

See also

References

  1. ^ "The ancient Greek translation of the Tanak translated the word Torah as name, or law," Wylen, Stephen M. Settings of Silver: An Introduction to Judaism. Paulist Press, 2001. p. 16 [1], however, the degree to which this is accurate or potentially misleading is a matter of debate. See Torah#Meaning and names and see also Philip Birnbaum, Encyclopedia of Jewish Concepts, Hebrew Publishing Company, 1964, page 630, and Coggins, R. J. Introducing the Old Testament (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990), pg 3.
  2. ^ Torah at the Jewish Virtual Library
  3. ^ Philip Birnbaum, Encyclopedia of Jewish Concepts, Hebrew Publishing Company, 1964, page 630.
  4. ^ Philip Birnbaum, Encyclopedia of Jewish Concepts, Hebrew Publishing Company, 1964, page 648
  5. ^ Eisenberg, Ronald L. The JPS Guide to Jewish Traditions (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 2004), pg 515.
  6. ^ a b Philip Birnbaum, Encyclopedia of Jewish Concepts, Hebrew Publishing Company, 1964, page 630
  7. ^ Vol. 11 Trumah Section 61
  8. ^ http://www.aish.com/jl/h/48944541.html
  9. ^ a b John Joseph Collins, "The Bible After Babel", (2005)
  10. ^ a b c d e f Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
  11. ^ Coggins, R. J. Introducing the Old Testament (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990), pg 1.
  12. ^ Rabinowitz, Louis Isaac and Harvey, Warren. "Torah." Encyclopaedia Judaica. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 20. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. p39-46.
  13. ^ Philip Birnbaum, Encyclopedia of Jewish Conceptes, Hebrew Publishing Company, 1964, page 630
  14. ^ p.2767, Alcalay
  15. ^ pp.164-165, Scherman, Exodus 12:49
  16. ^ a b Sarna, Nahum M. et al. "Bible." Encyclopaedia Judaica. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 3. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. p576-679.
  17. ^ a b http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11646c.htm
  18. ^ Deuteronomy.
  19. ^ Joshua 1:7-8
  20. ^ 1 Kings 2-3 and 2 Kings 23:21 and 25
  21. ^ 2 Chronicles 8:13, 34:14 and 35:12
  22. ^ Ezra 3:2 and 6:18
  23. ^ Nehemiah 8:1 and 13:1
  24. ^ See Torah Shelemah, Mishpatim Part 3 summarised by Gil Student here
  25. ^ Eighth and ninth principles of Maimonidies' 13 Principles, Artscroll Daily Siddur, page 75.
  26. ^ p.33, Kantor
  27. ^ R. N. Whybray, "The Making of the Pentateuch: A Methodological Study", JSOT Press, Sheffield, 1987.
  28. ^ John Van Seters, "Abraham in History and Tradition", Yale University Press, ISBN, 1975.
  29. ^ For an overview of current critical theories on the origins of the Pentateuch, see Source Analysis: Revisions and Alternatives. For a more detailed treatment, see "An overlooked message: the critique of kings and affirmation of equality in the primeval history" from Biblical Theology Bulletin, Winter 2006.
  30. ^ Talmud Pesachim 7a
  31. ^ For more information on these issues from an Orthodox Jewish perspective, see Modern Scholarship in the Study of Torah: Contributions and Limitations, Ed. Shalom Carmy, and Handbook of Jewish Thought, Volume I, by Aryeh Kaplan.
  32. ^ Book of Nehemia, Chapter 8
  33. ^ The division of parashot found in the modern-day Torah scrolls of all Jewish communities (Ashkenazic, Sephardic, and Yemenite) is based upon the systematic list provided by Maimonides in Mishneh Torah, Laws of Tefillin, Mezuzah and Torah Scrolls, chapter 8. Maimonides based his division of the parashot for the Torah on the Aleppo Codex. Though initially doubted by Umberto Cassuto, this has become the established position in modern scholarship. (See the Aleppo Codex article for more information.)
  34. ^ Conservative and Reform synagogues may read parashot on a triennial rather than annual schedule. See: [2], [3]
  35. ^ Rietti, Rabbi Jonathan. The Oral Law: The Heart of The Torah
  36. ^ Mishnat Soferim The forms of the letters translated by Jen Taylor Friedman (geniza.net)
  37. ^ p.317, DeSilva
  38. ^ p.123, Wheeler
  39. ^ Is the Bible God's Word by Sheikh Ahmed Deedat
  40. ^ Qur'an 7:157–158, 7:144–144

Additional Sources

  • Kantor, Mattis, The Jewish time line encyclopedia: A yearby-year history from Creation to the present, Jason Aronson Inc., London, 1992
  • Wheeler, Brannon M., Moses in the Quran and Islamic Exegesis, Routledge, 2002
  • DeSilva, David Arthur, An Introduction to the New Testament: Contexts, Methods & Ministry, InterVarsity Press, 2004
  • Alcalay, Reuben., The Complete Hebrew - English dictionary, vol 2, Hemed Books, New York, 1996 ISBN 978-9654481793
  • Scherman, Nosson, (ed.), Tanakh, Vol.I, The Torah, (Stone edition), Mesorah Publications, Ltd., New York, 2001
  • Heschel, Abraham Joshua, Tucker, Gordon & Levin, Leonard, Heavenly Torah: As Refracted Through the Generations, London, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005
  • Hubbard, David “The Literary Sources of the Kebra Nagast” Ph.D. dissertation St Andrew s University, Scotland, 1956

External links


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
(Redirected to Tanakh/Torah article)

From Wikisource

Tanakh/Torah

Torah/Chumash - Pentateuch/Five Books of Moses

1. Bereishit - Genesis [בראשית]
2. Shemot - Exodus [שמות]
3. Vayikra - Leviticus [ויקרא]
4. Bemidbar - Numbers [במדבר]
5. Devarim - Deuteronomy [דברים]

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Etymology

.From Hebrew תורה (instruction, law or teaching).^ Torah Book article from: A Dictionary of the Bible Torah Hebrew for ‘instruction’ or ‘...revelation and teaching—the whole being known as Torah .
  • Torah – FREE Torah information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Torah research 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The word Torah means "teaching," "instruction," "scribe", or "law" in Hebrew.
  • I Love you Torah - Read and Listen Torah Online 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.iloveyoutorah.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "One Teaching" or "Unified Instruction" are some simple meanings and translations of the Hebrew for "Torah Echad."
  • Torah Echad: One Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.torahechad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Torah
Plural
-
Torah
.
  1. The first five books of the Hebrew Scriptures, attributed to Moses and therefore also known as the Five Books of Moses.^ The first five books of the Old Testament, supposed to be written by Moses.
    • Pentateuch — Infoplease.com 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The Hebrew names of the first five books are derived from the first few words of the book.
    • Torah / Torah 101 / Mechon Mamre 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.mechon-mamre.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Judaism 101: Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.jewfaq.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC kevin.lps.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Barmitzvahs.org - Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.barmitzvahs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Judaism The first five books of the Hebrew Scriptures.
    • Torah Definition | Definition of Torah at Dictionary.com 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

    Tradition holds that the Torah was handed down to Moses on Mount Sinai.
    .
  2. The full body of written Jewish law, including the Tanakh, the Talmud, the Mishnah and the midrashic texts.^ Mishnah ("Repetition"): The Mishnah is a six part review of Jewish law compiled in the 2nd century, which served as the focus of Talmudic interpretation; also a single passage of that work.

    ^ The Five Books of Moses (The Bible); (b) the overall body of Jewish religious teachings encompassing the whole body of Jewish law, practice and tradition .
    • Torah, The - Jewish Knowledge Base 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.chabad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Rabbinic commentaries on and interpretations of both Oral and Written Law have been viewed by some as extensions of sacred oral tradition, thus broadening still further the meaning of Torah to designate the entire body of Jewish laws , customs, and ceremonies.
    • Torah (sacred text) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It says in the Torah that both gossip and murder cause irreparable damage.
  3. The whole of Jewish law, both written and unwritten.
  4. The encompassing philosophy of Judaism.

Noun

Singular
Torah
Plural
Torahs
Torah (plural Torahs)
.
  1. A specially written scroll containing the five books of Moses, such as those used in religious services.^ Contains his critical analysis of the books of Moses.
    • Obvious Questions Concerning Whether Or Not Moses Wrote the Pentateuch 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.edwardtbabinski.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The first five books of Moses .
    • The Written Torah - Torah Shebikhtav 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC hebrew4christians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The narrowest meaning is the Five Books of Moses: .
    • Rabbi Scheinerman's Home Page - Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC scheinerman.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    An anonymous donor has provided us with a lovely new Torah.
    .
  2. A book containing the five books of Moses.^ Contains his critical analysis of the books of Moses.
    • Obvious Questions Concerning Whether Or Not Moses Wrote the Pentateuch 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.edwardtbabinski.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The first five books of Moses .
    • The Written Torah - Torah Shebikhtav 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC hebrew4christians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The narrowest meaning is the Five Books of Moses: .
    • Rabbi Scheinerman's Home Page - Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC scheinerman.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    There was a lovely leather-bound Torah on the bookshelf.

Synonyms

Translations

See also

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of ahort
  • Thora

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

.
Name applied to the five books of Moses, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.
^ The first five books of Moses .
  • The Written Torah - Torah Shebikhtav 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC hebrew4christians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tradition has it that Moses wrote the first five books of the Bible: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy - the Torah or Pentateuch.
  • Finding bible truth - the pentateuch 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.users.bigpond.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In its most limited sense, "Torah" refers to the Five Books of Moses : Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.
  • Judaism 101: Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.jewfaq.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Barmitzvahs.org - Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.barmitzvahs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The contents of the Torah as a whole are discussed, from the point of view of modern Biblical criticism, under Pentateuch, where a table gives the various sources; while its importance as a center of crystallization for the Hebrew canon is treated under Bible Canon.^ The contents of the Torah as a whole are discussed, from the point of view of modern Biblical criticism, under Pentateuch , where a table gives the various sources; while its importance as a center of crystallization for the Hebrew canon is treated under Bible Canon .

^ Hebrew canon ( in Hebrew Bible (Jewish sacred writings) ) Moses’ authorship ( in Moses (Hebrew prophet): Historical views of Moses ) original text ( in biblical literature: Textual criticism ) time and source ( in Julius Wellhausen (German scholar) ) translations from Hebrew ( in biblical translation ) interpretation .
  • Torah (sacred text) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Jewish internet learning center offering lessons, discussion and Torah in the areas of Judaism and Leadership, the Torah view of modern politics, discussions on Jerusalem, Israel's court and political system and other realted topic .

.The present article, therefore, is limited to the history of the Pentateuch in post-Biblical Judaism.^ The present article, therefore, is limited to the history of the Pentateuch in post-Biblical Judaism.

^ If the critics, therefore, can succeed in determining the number and the limits of the documentary sources, and of the post-Mosaic additions, whether inspired or profane, they render an important service to the traditional tenet of Pentateuchal authenticity.

^ Consider the ideas about God and human beings as presented in the Pentateuch, the scriptural basis of Judaism, and by extension of Christianity and Islam.
  • The Pentateuch 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC home.epix.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Torah receives its title from its contents, the name itself connoting "doctrine."^ The Torah receives its title from its contents, the name itself connoting "doctrine."

^ The English names for each of the Torah's five book are actually Greek, and like the Rabbinic names for the books, they are descriptive of the contents.
  • Overview: What is the Torah? - My Jewish Learning 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.myjewishlearning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Hellenistic Jews, however, translated it by νόμος = "law" (e.g., LXX., prologue to Ecclus.^ The Hellenistic Jews, however, translated it by νόμος = "law" ( e.g.

^ LXX., prologue to Ecclus.

[Sirach], .Philo, Josephus, and the New Testament), whence came the term "law-book"; this gave rise to the erroneous impression that the Jewish religion is purely nomistic, so that it is still frequently designated as the religion of law.^ [Sirach], Philo, Josephus, and the New Testament), whence came the term "law-book"; this gave rise to the erroneous impression that the Jewish religion is purely nomistic, so that it is still frequently designated as the religion of law.

^ The books that Christians call the New Testament are not part of Jewish scripture.
  • Judaism 101: Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.jewfaq.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The books that Christians call the New Testament are not part of our Hebrew scriptures (they were written in Greek in a spirit quite alien to Hebrew thought).
  • Torah / Torah 101 / Mechon Mamre 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.mechon-mamre.org [Source type: Original source]

.In reality, however, the Torah contains teachings as well as laws, even the latter being given in ethical form and contained in historical narratives of an ethical character.^ In reality, however, the Torah contains teachings as well as laws, even the latter being given in ethical form and contained in historical narratives of an ethical character.

^ Learning is to be centered on both the revealed and hidden aspects of Torah - both Halacha, and Chassidut (and Kabbalah) with students being given the option of a wide range of subjects to choose from.
  • Yeshiva Project - TORAH ONLINE:Authentic Torah. Authentic Judaism. Authentic Kabbalah. Authentic Chassidut. 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC torahonline.weebly.com [Source type: General]

^ While the Gospels record disputes about Jesus’s interpretation of a few of these, the notion of a Christian Jesus, who did not live by Torah or only by its ethical values, does not fit historical reality.

Contents

Name.

.In the books of the Bible the following names of the Pentateuch occur: (missing hebrew text) in 2Chr 17:9, Neh 9:3, and, with the added epithet (missing hebrew text) , 2Chr 34:14; while (missing hebrew text) alone, without (missing hebrew text) , is found in 2Kg 10:31, 1Chr 22:11, and 2Chr 12:1, xxxi.^ Samuel 11:14-12:22 .
  • Torah Reading Cycle | AZShabbat 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC bethsimchat.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In the Pentateuch this generally occurs in place names.

^ Brief comments: In 5 : 17, the phrase law and prophets refers to the first two divisions of the Jewish Bible , in the first century, before the third division, the writings, was added.
  • Jesus and Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.paulonpaul.org [Source type: Original source]

3, 4, and xxxv. .26. Sometimes (missing hebrew text) , or a word of similar meaning, is added, as (missing hebrew text) , Josh 24:26, Neh 8:18 (without (missing hebrew text) , ib. x.^ And actually, it can certainly be argued, in my opinion, that Mosaic content would be 'lost' if the names and glosses were NOT added--the very meaning of the words and sentences and paragraphs might be lost!

^ Instead of the two words above, the Ugaritic texts lead us to divide the two words as Mygysps k which means "like silver".
  • Torah, Ugartic Bible 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Interestingly, the Hebrew word used for G-d here, HaMakom , literally means “The Place.” May “The Place” reach out to console us.

29). .Another designation is (missing hebrew text) (missing hebrew text) , Josh 8:31, xxiii.^ Another designation is , Josh.

.6; 2Kg 14:6; Neh 8:1; or (missing hebrew text) , 1 Kg 2:3; 2Kg 23:25; Mal 3:22 (A. V. iv.^ (Matthew 19:7-8; 23:2; Mark 10:3; 12:26; John 3:14; 5:45-46; 6:32; 7:19,22-23.
  • Law - The Torah - The Five Books that form the Pentateuch 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.westelcom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The Hebrews could not all have gone outside the Camp, a distance of six miles, for the common necessities of nature, as commanded in Deuteronomy 23:12-14.
  • Obvious Questions Concerning Whether Or Not Moses Wrote the Pentateuch 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.edwardtbabinski.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Primary : Genesis 37-50, Exodus 21-23 ( Hebrew : Genesis 32:22-32)  Secondary : Carmichael .
  • REL/JSP 516 Torah/Pentateuch 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.aarweb.org [Source type: Academic]

4), with the addition of (missing hebrew text) ; Ezra iii. 2 (with the addition of (missing hebrew text) ), vii. .6; (missing hebrew text) , 2Chr 25:4 (preceded by (missing hebrew text) ), xxxv.^ The translation into Latin known as the Vulgate preceded the Massoretic text by some centuries, and was made by Jerome, who was noted as a Hebrew scholar.
  • Blue Letter Bible - Commentaries 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.blueletterbible.org [Source type: Original source]

.12. The oldest name doubtless is (missing hebrew text) (Deut 1:5; xxxi.^ Divine names in the Greek translation of the Pentateuch differ in about 180 cases from those of the Hebrew text (cf.

9, 11, 24; xxxii. 46; Neh 8:2), sometimes shortened to (missing hebrew text) (Deut 1:5; xxxi. 9, 11, 24; xxxii. 46; Neh 8:2), or to (missing hebrew text) (Neh 8:5), or to (missing hebrew text) (Deut 33:4). .The last two names occur with great frequency in Jewish tradition, where the Torah becomes a living creature.^ The last two names occur with great frequency in Jewish tradition, where the Torah becomes a living creature.

^ There are many different names for God in Jewish prayer and Torah, each of them opening our eyes to a different aspect of His light and reality.

^ Also, we compare the first two great couples Adam and Eve and Avraham and Sarah to see what the numerical differences in their names teaches us about their similiarities and differences.

.The expression "the five books," which is the origin of the term "Pentateuch," occurs only in Jewish tradition, which has also been the source for "Genesis," etc., as the names of the books of the Pentateuch (see Blau, "Zur Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift," pp.^ The expression "the five books," which is the origin of the term "Pentateuch," occurs only in Jewish tradition, which has also been the source for "Genesis," etc., as the names of the books of the Pentateuch (see Blau, "Zur Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift," pp.

^ Name the five legal codes in the pentateuch?
  • WikiAnswers - Who wrote the Pentateuch 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blau, "Zur Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift," pp.

40-43).

Quinary Division of the Torah.

.According to all critics, regardless of the schools to which they belong, the Torah forms a single work, which is represented, even at the present day, by the synagogal Scroll of the Law; nor does history know of any other Torah scroll.^ They are books of history and of laws.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All other prophecies are alluded to in the Torah.
  • Writing the Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.aish.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This Torah was also used as a standard to correct all other Torah scrolls.
  • Writing the Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.aish.com [Source type: Original source]

.The fivefold division of the Pentateuch was due to purely external causes, and not to a diversity of content; for in volume the Torah forms more than a fourth of all the books of the Bible, and contains, in round numbers, 300,000 letters of the 1,100,000 in the entire Bible.^ It is the book of the sojournings rather than the numberings.
  • Law - The Torah - The Five Books that form the Pentateuch 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.westelcom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Torah: A Women's Commentary , to be published by URJ Press, took more than a decade to produce and includes essays, commentaries and interpretations from more than 80 of the world's leading Jewish female Bible scholars, rabbis, historians, philosophers and archeologists.
  • http://huc.edu/newspubs/pressroom/07/7/torah.shtml 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC huc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Note: It must be noted that in the technical sense the Torah represents the five books of Moses (the Pentateuch ); however, the Torah came to be considered the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament in its entirety which included oral and written tradition or revelation of God.
  • Torah, Ugartic Bible 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A work of such compass far exceeded the normal size of an individual scroll among the Jews; and the Torah accordingly became a Pentateuch, thus being analogous to the Homeric poems, which originally formed a single epic, but which were later split into twenty-four parts each.^ This part of the Jews went into exile.

^ Called the Universal Torah Registry , the system works like this: A synagogue mails in a form with their contact information and the number of Torahs they want to place in the system, and the registry sends back a computer-coded template for each scroll.
  • Schneier on Security: Torah Security 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ E , for E cstasy, includes those sections seemingly composed under the influence, such as the splitting of Red Skeleton and Aaron's staff turning into a trouser snake .
  • Torah - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

Division into Sections.

.Like them, moreover, the Pentateuch was divided according to the sense and with an admirable knowledge of the subject (Blau, "Althebräisches Buchwesen," pp.^ Like them, moreover, the Pentateuch was divided according to the sense and with an admirable knowledge of the subject (Blau, "Althebräisches Buchwesen," pp.

^ Bible greatly influenced the distribution of copies and led to the foundation of libraries (Blau, "Althebräisches Buchwesen," pp.

^ Blau, "Althebräisches Buchwesen," p.

.47-49), while subdivisions were also made into the so-called open and closed "parashiyyot," whose exact interrelation is not yet clear.^ Another class of parashiyyot divides the weekly lessons, now called "sidrot," into seven parts.

.There are in all 669 sections, 290 open and 379 closed.^ There are in all 669 sections, 290 open and 379 closed.

^ In the first two verses there is no limitation whatever; and hence in these instances all is open indefinitely.
  • Introduction to the Pentateuch. 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC stempublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yes, that is all, but it is enough, for that which begins there is that which is still going on until the close of the whole divine record is reached.
  • Law - The Torah - The Five Books that form the Pentateuch 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.westelcom.com [Source type: Original source]

.Another class of parashiyyot divides the weekly lessons, now called "sidrot," into seven parts.^ Jewish scriptures are sometimes bound in a form that corresponds to the division into weekly readings (called parshiyot in Hebrew).
  • Judaism 101: Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.jewfaq.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At what precise time the first part of the Bible was divided into five books is a question not yet finally settled.

^ Abraham in History and Tradition divides into two parts.
  • "Pentateuchal Studies Today" by Gordon Wenham 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.biblicalstudies.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Torah also falls, on the basis of the lessons for the Sabbath, into 54 sidrot according to the annual cycle, and into 155 according to the triennial cycle.^ The Torah also falls, on the basis of the lessons for the Sabbath, into 54 sidrot according to the annual cycle, and into 155 according to the triennial cycle.

^ And He said to them, "What man is there among you who has a sheep, and if it falls into a pit on the Sabbath, will he not take hold of it and lift it out?

^ The contents of the Torah fall into two main parts: historical and legal.

.The former division, which is now used almost universally, is the Babylonian; and the latter, which has recently been introduced into some Reform congregations, is the Palestinian.^ The former division, which is now used almost universally, is the Babylonian; and the latter, which has recently been introduced into some Reform congregations, is the Palestinian.

^ Click the BUY NOW button below to purchase the Moving into Shabbat Torah Yoga audio cassette using a credit card or PayPal account.
  • Torah Yoga 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC torahyoga.com [Source type: General]

^ But first it is necessary to briefly examine how ethnicity is defined, and how it is used in some of these recent works on the Hebrew Bible.
  • Journal of Religion and Society 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC moses.creighton.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The latter class of sidrot, however, has no external marks of division in the scrolls of the synagogue; while the divisions in the former, like the parashiyyot, are indicated by blank spaces of varying length (see Sidra).^ The latter class of sidrot, however, has no external marks of division in the scrolls of the synagogue; while the divisions in the former, like the parashiyyot, are indicated by blank spaces of varying length ( see Sidra ).

^ The former division, which is now used almost universally, is the Babylonian; and the latter, which has recently been introduced into some Reform congregations, is the Palestinian.

^ This probably implies a greater antiquity for the sections which are thus designated, although the divisions into 5,845 verses, which seem to be still older, have no outward marks.

.This probably implies a greater antiquity for the sections which are thus designated, although the divisions into 5,845 verses, which seem to be still older, have no outward marks.^ Although these divisions seem to indicate subject matter, it is important to note that the Mishnah and the Talmud engage in quite a bit of free-association, thus widely diverse subjects may be discussed in a seder or masekhtah.
  • Judaism 101: Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.jewfaq.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The best-known translation of antiquity is probably the Targum of Onkelos the Proselyte, who based his translation on an oral tradition and is still used as a tool for Torah study.
  • Hebrew Bibles, Torah and Jewish Bibles 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC hebrewbibles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If that latter is the goal, then it would seem that the identifying-mark-added-as-holes method would be legitimate as long as there's no possibility of the identifying mark being confused with part of the text.
  • Schneier on Security: Torah Security 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The system of chapters was introduced into the editions of the Hebrew Bible, and hence into the Torah, from the Vulgate.^ The system of chapters was introduced into the editions of the Hebrew Bible, and hence into the Torah , from the Vulgate.

^ What the Torah and the rest of the Hebrew Bible says .
  • Amazon.com: The Torah Community 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Variant spelling - TORA Hebrew Bible source - My son, hear the instruction [ torah ] of thy father ( Proverbs 1:8).

.This mode of division is not known to the Masorah, though it was incorporated in the final Masoretic notes, for individual books of the Pentateuch.^ As noted above, some Conservative scholars understand Moses wrote the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Bible) sometime in the course of the 16th/15th century B.C. The problem?
  • HebrewDatesPentateuch 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.bibleorigins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even if we suppose that the Massoretic pointing gives the original text, we can hardly prove that the book referred to is the Pentateuch, though this is highly probable (cf.

^ The Pentateuch is also traditionally known as the ‘Five Books of Moses’, since Moses was traditionally believed to have been the author.
  • Introduction to the Pentateuch (Torah) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC blue.butler.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It is given in modern editions of the Hebrew Bible simply on the basis of the stereotyped editions of the English Bible Society, which followed earlier examples.^ It is given in modern editions of the Hebrew Bible simply on the basis of the stereotyped editions of the English Bible Society, which followed earlier examples.

^ The system of chapters was introduced into the editions of the Hebrew Bible, and hence into the Torah , from the Vulgate.

^ English translations of the Bible tend to flatten out such differences by using a uniform “biblical English,” but in the Hebrew they are easily detected.
  • Literary history of the Pentateuch (Documentary Hypothesis) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Jewish Tradition and the Torah.

.The external form of the Torah is discussed in such articles as Manuscripts, Scroll of the Law, and Mantle of the Law; but so numerous are the assertions of tradition concerning its contents and its value that the repetition of even a very small part of them would far exceed the limits of this article.^ The external form of the Torah is discussed in such articles as Manuscripts , Scroll of the Law , and Mantle of the Law ; but so numerous are the assertions of tradition concerning its contents and its value that the repetition of even a very small part of them would far exceed the limits of this article.

^ It would be helpful, perhaps in a future article, to look at issues such as textual and source criticism from a traditional perspective.
  • Writing the Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.aish.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mishnah ("Repetition"): The Mishnah is a six part review of Jewish law compiled in the 2nd century, which served as the focus of Talmudic interpretation; also a single passage of that work.

.Every page of the Talmud and Midrash is filled with citations from the Pentateuch and with the most fulsome praise of it, united with super-human love and divine respect therefor.^ Every page of the Talmud and Midrash is filled with citations from the Pentateuch and with the most fulsome praise of it, united with super-human love and divine respect therefor.

^ Rav Meir Shapiro, the rav of Lublin, Poland, proposed uniting people worldwide through the daily study of a page of Talmud.
  • Judaism 101: Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.jewfaq.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most prominent characteristic of the Pentateuchal law, as compared with the laws of ancient peoples and of medieval Europe, is mildness, a feature which is still further developed in the Talmud.

.In the five volumes of Bacher's work on the Haggadah, the Torah and its study form a special rubric in theaccount of each "sofer," or scholar of the Law.^ In the five volumes of Bacher's work on the Haggadah, the Torah and its study form a special rubric in the account of each "sofer," or scholar of the Law.

^ Similarly, in Judaism, the Sefer Torah [Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy], form the primary written law, with later works like the Talmud and Zohar forming a vast body of thought that is sometimes referred to broadly as "Torah."
  • Torah and Veda 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC torahveda.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to all critics, regardless of the schools to which they belong, the Torah forms a single work, which is represented, even at the present day, by the synagogal Scroll of the Law ; nor does history know of any other Torah scroll.

.In all probability there never was another people, except possibly the Brahmans, that surrounded its holy writings with such respect, transmitted them through the centuries with such self-sacrifice, and preserved them with so little change for more than 2,000 years.^ In all probability there never was another people, except possibly the Brahmans, that surrounded its holy writings with such respect, transmitted them through the centuries with such self-sacrifice, and preserved them with so little change for more than 2,000 years.

^ They don't know Hebrew, the Torah never comes out of the ark except on bar mitzvah, where some poor kid who's had a crash course in their hatorah portion stumbles through the holy language.
  • Torah Spirituality for the Nations - Fair debate...? - Forums - Israel National News 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.israelnationalnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such a change does not deny that additions were made to each in the years before they were combined, but implies that the time of Solomon's reign best fits the period for the accumulation of the core of J, and the early years of the divided kingdom are most appropriate for the writing of E. .
  • Chapter 3: The Analysis of the Pentateuch 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The very letters of the Torah were believed to have come from God Himself (B. B. 15a), and were counted carefully, the word "soferim" denoting, according to the Talmud (Ḳid.^ The authority of the Torah does not come from any miracle, but from God Himself.
  • Writing the Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.aish.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One kabbalistic interpretation is that the Torah constitutes one long name of God, and that it was broken up into words so that human minds can understand it.
  • Hebrew Bibles, Torah and Jewish Bibles 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC hebrewbibles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to classical Judaism , Moses was traditionally regarded as the author of the Torah, receiving it from God either as divine inspiration or as direct dictation together with the Oral Torah .
  • WikiAnswers - Who wrote the Pentateuch 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

30a), "the counters of the letters." .A special class of scholars devoted all their lives to the careful preservation of the text ("Masorah"), the only analogy in the literature of the world being found in India, where the Vedas were accurately preserved by similar means.^ A special class of scholars devoted all their lives to the careful preservation of the text ("Masorah"), the only analogy in the literature of the world being found in India, where the Vedas were accurately preserved by similar means.

^ Take only those four Psalms, the 8th, 18th, 29th, 104th, and learn from them what the old Jews thought of this wonderful world in which we live.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As in the material world Providence had everywhere proportioned the means to the end, the forces being not greater than the occasion requires, so it would seem that in his spiritual communications extraordinary aids are only granted when ordinary influence is insufficient.
  • Introduction to the Pentateuch. 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC stempublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

Preexistence of the Torah.

.The Torah is older than the world, for it existed either 947 generations (Zeb.^ More than that, in the possession of the rulers of the world there are books of even greater merit, and these we could emulate if we wished to compile some such torah.
  • No Jew Has Read The Torah/Law 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC ebionite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jewish dietary laws Lamed-vavnik ([Yiddish]): One of the thirty-six tzadikim in every generation in whose merit the world exists.

^ Of course, the Torah itself is much older than that.
  • Hanefesh: How old is the Bible (The Torah) 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.hanefesh.com [Source type: Original source]

116a, and parallels) or 2,000 years (Gen. .R. viii., and parallels; Weber, "Jüdische Theologie," p.^ R. viii., and parallels; Weber, "Jüdische Theologie," p.

^ Weber , Jüdische Theologie , pp.

15) before the Creation. .The original Pentateuch, therefore, like everything celestial, consisted of fire, being written in black letters of flame upon a white ground of fire (Yer.^ The word “ chomah ” is written without the letter vov , which therefore also spells “ cheimah ” –meaning anger.

^ Since the “Period of Enlightenment,” the Graf-Wellhausen explanation of the origin of the Pentateuch has been thrust consistently into the faces of Christians.
  • Apologetics Press - Mosaic Authorship of the Pentateuch—Tried and True 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.apologeticspress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The way the Hebrew text of the Pentateuch is written today is nothing like it might have appeared in Moses' day.
  • PENTATEUCH - Holman Bible Dictionary on StudyLight.org 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.studylight.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sheḳ. 49a, and parallels; Blau, "Althebräisches Buchwesen," p. 156). .God held counsel with it at the creation of the world, since it was wisdom itself (Tan., Bereshit, passim), and it was God's first revelation, in which He Himself took part.^ God held counsel with it at the creation of the world, since it was wisdom itself (Tan., Bereshit, passim ), and it was God's first revelation, in which He Himself took part.

^ When Solomon took many wives, Deuteronomy threw himself before God and complained that Solomon wished to remove from the Pentateuch the yod of the word (Deut.

^ The essence of Judaism is not realized through religious fervor over the miraculous but through an appreciation of God's wisdom as revealed both in Torah and the natural world.
  • Torah from Sinai 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.mesora.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was given in completeness for all time and for all mankind, so that no further revelation can be expected.^ But it was NOT invented late; for no Jew in these later times would have thought of making Balaam a heathen, to be a prophet of God, or a believer in the true God at all.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Torah is the continuum of YHWH's revelation to mankind from Adam and Eve right through the times in which we now live.
  • Torah Consciousness 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.mashiyach.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Course must be completed in normal quarter time frame (no extensions except in case of emergency).

.It was given in the languages of all peoples; for the voice of the divine revelation was seventyfold (Weber, l.c. pp.^ It was given in the languages of all peoples; for the voice of the divine revelation was seventyfold (Weber, l.c.

^ Rabbis suggest that Torah was given in 70 languages so that all present could understand Torah.
  • Torah Consciousness 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.mashiyach.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For Judaism this inner voice is no different from the subjective inner feelings all people have for their religious and other unwarranted beliefs.
  • Torah from Sinai 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.mesora.org [Source type: Original source]

.16-20; Blau, "Zur Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift," pp.^ Blau, "Zur Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift," pp.

^ Tora and Studium der Lehre ; Baumgartner , Les Etudes Isagogiques chez les Juifs , Geneva, 1886 ; Blau , Zur Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift , Strasburg, 1894 ; idem, Studien zum Althebräischen Buchwesen und zur Biblischen Litteraturgeschichte , Strasburg, 1902 ; Büchler , The Triennial Reading of the Law and Prophets , in J. Q. R. vi.

^ The expression "the five books," which is the origin of the term "Pentateuch," occurs only in Jewish tradition, which has also been the source for "Genesis," etc., as the names of the books of the Pentateuch (see Blau, "Zur Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift," pp.

84-100). .It shines forever, and was transcribed by the scribes of the seventy peoples (Bacher, "Ag.^ It shines forever, and was transcribed by the scribes of the seventy peoples (Bacher, "Ag.

Tan." ii. .203, 416), while everything found in the Prophets and the Hagiographa was already contained in the Torah (Ta'an.^ Balaam was a prophet, and his prophecies are contained in the Torah.
  • Writing the Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.aish.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I believe everything that agrees with the Torah and that is written in the Prophets.

^ For everything that was written in the past [The Torah and the Prophets] was written to teach us.

.9a), so that, if the Israelites had not sinned, only the five books of Moses would have been given them (Ned.^ Israelites had not sinned, only the five books of Moses would have been given them (Ned.

^ Moses is not only the chief actor in most of these books, he is the recipient of all the laws in Exodus to Numbers, and the preacher of Deuteronomy.
  • "Pentateuchal Studies Today" by Gordon Wenham 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.biblicalstudies.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Giving Dennis McKinsey the benefit of the doubt (that the term “gates” refers to the Palestinian cities), Moses could have been referring to the cities that the Israelites would capture in the future.
  • Apologetics Press - Mosaic Authorship of the Pentateuch—Tried and True 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.apologeticspress.org [Source type: Original source]

22b). .As a matter of fact, the Prophets and the Hagiographa will be abrogated; but the Torah will remain forever (Yer.^ As a matter of fact, the Prophets and the Hagiographa will be abrogated; but the Torah will remain forever (Yer.

^ The fact of the matter is that most Jews will not have anything to do with Torah or Religion because of how Rabbis manipulate people with their religious traditions.
  • Torah Consciousness 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.mashiyach.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Prophets and the Hagiographa was already contained in the Torah (Ta'an.

Meg. 70d). .Every letter of it is a living creature.^ Every letter of it is a living creature.

.When Solomon took many wives, Deuteronomy threw himself before God and complained that Solomon wished to remove from the Pentateuch the yod of the word (missing hebrew text) (Deut 17:17), with which the prohibition of polygamy was spoken; and God replied: "Solomon and a thousand like him shall perish, but not one letter of the Torah shall be destroyed" (Lev.^ When Solomon took many wives, Deuteronomy threw himself before God and complained that Solomon wished to remove from the Pentateuch the yod of the word (Deut.

^ God replied: "Solomon and a thousand like him shall perish, but not one letter of the Torah shall be destroyed" (Lev.

^ But he wished to serve himself by serving God, as too many do in all times.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

R. xix.; Yer. Sanh. 20c; Cant. R. 5, 11; comp. Bacher, l.c. ii. 123, note 5). .The single letters were hypostatized, and were active even at the creation of the world (Bacher, l.c. i.^ The single letters were hypostatized, and were active even at the creation of the world (Bacher, l.c.

^ According to Sefer Yetzirah , God created the world by means of these letters.

^ The tent of Sarah and Rivka was itself a Mishkan, not created by the command of Hashem imposed upon them, but created by their own engagement in the world in a way that demonstrated Hashem’s presence even in the mundane.

347), an idea which is probably derived from Gnostic speculation. .The whole world is said to be only 1/3200 of the Torah ('Er.^ The whole world is said to be only 1/3200 of the Torah ('Er.

^ Ish and isha are not two separate parts, but are one united whole, and only with that perspective can they join together to reveal Hashem, “K-ah”, in their world.

^ "Woe to the sinners who look upon the Torah as simply tales pertaining to things of the world, seeing thus only the outer garment.
  • No Jew Has Read The Torah/Law 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC ebionite.com [Source type: Original source]

21a).
.Israel received this treasure only through suffering (Ber.^ Israel received this treasure only through suffering (Ber.

.5a, and parallels), for the book and the sword came together from heaven, and Israel was obliged to choose between them (Sifre, Deut.^ Israel was obliged to choose between them (Sifre, Deut.

^ Yet another interesting parallel between Israel and Ugarit is the yearly ritual known as the sending out of the "scapegoats"; one for god and one for a demon.
  • Torah, Ugartic Bible 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lack of go-between is also a point for the parallel of the relationship between Hashem and Israel.

40, end; Bacher, l.c. ii. .402, note 5); and whosoever denies the heavenly origin of the Torah will lose the future life (Sanh.^ Torah will lose the future life (Sanh.

^ The very existence of the doctrine that the Law was of heavenly origin, and that whosoever denied this dogma had no share in the life to come (Sanh.

^ It is well known that the entire Oral Torah as well as every original contribution that a future Torah scholar will articulate was already presented to Moshe at Mount Sinai.

x. 1). .This high esteem finds its expression in the rule that a copy of the Pentateuch is unlimited in value, and in the ordinance that the inhabitants of a city might oblige one another to procure scrolls of the Law (Tosef., B. M. iii.^ This high esteem finds its expression in the rule that a copy of the Pentateuch is unlimited in value, and in the ordinance that the inhabitants of a city might oblige one another to procure scrolls of the Law (Tosef., B. M. iii.

^ The Rabbinic writers adopted the expression "the five-fifths of the law" or simply "the five-fifths" to denote the five books of the Pentateuch.

^ Since every Torah must be letter perfect, it must be carefully copied from another scroll.
  • Writing the Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.aish.com [Source type: Original source]

24, xi. 23). .The pious bequeathed a copy of the Torah to the synagogue (ib. B. Ḳ.^ The pious bequeathed a copy of the Torah to the synagogue ( ib.

ii. .3); and it was the duty of each one to make one for himself, while the honor paid the Bible greatly influenced the distribution of copies and led to the foundation of libraries (Blau, "Althebräisches Buchwesen," pp.^ Bible greatly influenced the distribution of copies and led to the foundation of libraries (Blau, "Althebräisches Buchwesen," pp.

^ However, if you feel God's leading, I would greatly appreciate your support of this ministry, either by making a donation or by purchasing bound copies of the materials from me.
  • Torah Together - Small Group Study Guides 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC torahtogether.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like them, moreover, the Pentateuch was divided according to the sense and with an admirable knowledge of the subject (Blau, "Althebräisches Buchwesen," pp.

84-97).

Study of the Torah.

.The highest ideal of young and old and of small and great was the study of the Law, thus forming a basis for that indomitable eagerness of the Jewish people for education and that unquenchable thirst for knowledge which still characterize them.^ The highest ideal of young and old and of small and great was the study of the Law, thus forming a basis for that indomitable eagerness of the Jewish people for education and that unquenchable thirst for knowledge which still characterize them.

^ Moreover, as discussed earlier, educators also must nourish the minds, hearts and souls of Jewish women, young and old, by providing advanced opportunities to study Torah.
  • Torah Perspectives on Women's Issues 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.torahweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Obviously, Torah study occurs on a regular basis in private and in small groups; no minyan is required.

."As the child must satisfy its hunger day by day, so must the grown man busy himself with the Torah each hour" (Yer.^ "As the child must satisfy its hunger day by day, so must the grown man busy himself with the Torah each hour" (Yer.

^ The study must be unselfish: "One should study the Torah with self-denial, even at the sacrifice of one's life; and in the very hour before death one should devote himself to this duty" (Soṭah 21b; Ber.

^ That day David's had an important trip for a major business transaction - a 6 hour flight across the country, United flight 175.

Ber. ch. ix.). .The mishnah (Pe'ah i.^ The mishnah (Pe'ah i.

) incorporated in the daily .prayer declares that the study of the Law transcends all things, being greater than the rescue of human life, than the building of the Temple, and than the honor of father and mother (Meg.^ First of all: the important things in life.
  • matthue roth: author, performance poet, orthodox jew at large 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.matthue.com [Source type: General]

^ Transcendence: Being beyond the limits of all human experience and knowledge.
  • Glossary of religious terms starting with the letter T: 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.religioustolerance.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Being a science fiction fan, that last one about technology and magic has followed me all through my life.

16b). .It is of more value than the offering of daily sacrifice ('Er.^ It is of more value than the offering of daily sacrifice ('Er.

^ LORD. I have more than enough of burnt offerings, of rams and the fat of fattened animals; I have no pleasure in the blood of bulls and lambs and goats.
  • No Jew Has Read The Torah/Law 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC ebionite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It might be that we have to contemplate a more complex development of the Pentateuch than the documentary Hypothesis, or any of its past and present competitors, offers.

.63b); a single day devoted to the Torah outweighs 1,000 sacrifices (Shab.^ Torah outweighs 1,000 sacrifices (Shab.

30a; comp. Men. .100a); while the fable of the Fish and the Fox, in which the latter seeks to entice the former to dry land, declares Israel can live only in the Law as fish can live only in the ocean.^ So, during the sixth and fifth century BCE there was the kingdom of Judah, and the Samaritans, both living in the land of Israel, not all that far away from each other.
  • Hanefesh: How old is the Bible (The Torah) 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.hanefesh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For I command you today to love the LORD your God, to walk in his ways, and to keep his commands, decrees and laws; then you will live and increase, and the LORD your God will bless you in the land you are entering to possess.

^ "On the other side Jordan, in the land of Moab, began Moses to declare this law" (Deut.
  • Obvious Questions Concerning Whether Or Not Moses Wrote the Pentateuch 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.edwardtbabinski.us [Source type: Original source]

.Whoever separates himself from the Torah dies forthwith ('Ab.^ Whoever separates himself from the Torah dies forthwith ('Ab.

^ After these citations it becomes readily intelligible that, according to the Talmudic view, "God Himself sits and studies the Torah " ('Ab.

.Zarah 3b); for fire consumes him, and he falls into hell (B. B. 79a); while God weeps over one who might have occupied himself with it but neglected to do so (Ḥag.^ Zarah 3b); for fire consumes him, and he falls into hell (B. B. 79a); while God weeps over one who might have occupied himself with it but neglected to do so (Ḥag.

^ Thus, Peter confirms the first century doctrine that Yeshua was a man -- a man who was approved by God -- and it was God who performed the "miracles and wonders and signs" through him.
  • No Jew Has Read The Torah/Law 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC ebionite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mashiyach addressed this when he referred to the blind leaders of the blind, who both fall into the ditch.
  • Jewish wars against Torah and Mashiyach 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.mashiyach.com [Source type: Original source]

5b). .The study must be unselfish: "One should study the Torah with self-denial, even at the sacrifice of one's life; and in the very hour before death one should devote himself to this duty" (Soṭah 21b; Ber.^ Maimonides says this about the ashes of the sacrifice: "Even though removing the ashes is not formally worship, they should not be carried by a person who is ineligible to serve.

^ If the Torah were written as simply as other literature, it would hardly be the object of intensive study, much less lifelong devotion.
  • Writing the Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.aish.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, as discussed earlier, educators also must nourish the minds, hearts and souls of Jewish women, young and old, by providing advanced opportunities to study Torah.
  • Torah Perspectives on Women's Issues 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.torahweb.org [Source type: Original source]

63b; Shab. 83b). ."Whoever uses the crown of the Torah shall be destroyed" (Ned.^ "Whoever uses the crown of the Torah shall be destroyed" (Ned.

^ God replied: "Solomon and a thousand like him shall perish, but not one letter of the Torah shall be destroyed" (Lev.

62a). .All, even the lepers and the unclean, were required to study the Law (Ber.^ All, even the lepers and the unclean, were required to study the Law (Ber.

^ As mentioned above, another theme of the holiday is rejoicing, beyond the usual requirement of manifesting joy on all festivals – as explicitly stipulated by the Rambam (Laws of Lulav, 8:12).

^ References to the "Law of Moses" or the "Book(s) of Moses" do NOT entail or require that the books referred to by those phrases at the time be the identical originals recorded in 1400-1200BC at all.

.22a), while it was the duty of every one to read the entire weekly lesson twice (Ber.^ Since there is a reason for the Torah's sentence structure, when reading scripture, one should complete an entire sentence, and not just read part of it.
  • Writing the Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.aish.com [Source type: Original source]

8a); and the oldest benediction was the one spoken over the Torah (ib. 11b). .Prophylactic power also is ascribed to it: it gives protection against suffering (ib. 5a), against sickness ('Er.^ Prophylactic power also is ascribed to it: it gives protection against suffering ( ib.

.54b), and against oppression in the Messianic time (Sanh.^ Messianic time (Sanh.

.98b); so that it may be said that "the Torah protects all the world" (Sanh.^ Torah protects all the world" (Sanh.

^ The whole world is said to be only 1/3200 of the Torah ('Er.

^ May 23, 2009 Inspired by all of the Divrei Torah printed each week with the Echod, I started writing one for Shelach about the spies.
  • Lincoln Square Synagogue - Divrei Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.lss.org [Source type: General]

99b; comp. Ber. 31a). .The following sayings may be cited as particularly instructive in this respect: "A Gentile who studies the Torah is as great as the high priest" (B. Ḳ.^ The following sayings may be cited as particularly instructive in this respect: "A Gentile who studies the Torah is as great as the high priest" (B. Ḳ.

^ But may all who seek thee rejoice and be glad in thee; may those who love thy salvation say continually, "Great is the LORD !"
  • Introduction to the Pentateuch (Torah) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC blue.butler.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There may be two or three brief quizzes.  Also study questions will be assigned periodically.  Responses to study questions will be typed and submitted by each student prior to respective class lectures.

38a). ."The practise of all the laws of the Pentateuch is worth less than the study of the scriptures of it" (Yer.^ "The practise of all the laws of the Pentateuch is worth less than the study of the scriptures of it" (Yer.

^ Law transcends all things, being greater than the rescue of human life, than the building of the Temple, and than the honor of father and mother (Meg.

^ Conclusions Not all of the new questions arising in Pentateuchal study are well founded.

Pe'ah i.), a conclusive refutation of the current view of the .Nomism of the Jewish faith.^ Nomism of the Jewish faith.

.After these citations it becomes readily intelligible that, according to the Talmudic view, "God Himself sits and studies the Torah" ('Ab.^ After these citations it becomes readily intelligible that, according to the Talmudic view, "God Himself sits and studies the Torah " ('Ab.

^ The very letters of the Torah were believed to have come from God Himself (B. B. 15a), and were counted carefully, the word "soferim" denoting, according to the Talmud (Ḳid.

^ If the Torah is a map of engagement with creation, and artists turn to it to navigate their own creation, these verses – all aspects of them – become awfully relevant.

Zarah 3b).

Criticism of the Torah Among Jews.

.The spirit of criticism naturally developed from this devotion to the Pentateuch, in spite of faith and reverence.^ The spirit of criticism naturally developed from this devotion to the Pentateuch, in spite of faith and reverence.

^ But this natural inference finds no favour among the critics; for it implies that the historical and legal traditions codified in the Pentateuch, described the beginning, and not the end, of Israel's religious development.

^ Selbst feels convinced that his admission of both textual changes and material additions in the Pentateuch agrees with the law of historical development and with the results of literary criticism.

.The very existence of the doctrine that the Law was of heavenly origin, and that whosoeverdenied this dogma had no share in the life to come (Sanh.^ The very existence of the doctrine that the Law was of heavenly origin, and that whosoever denied this dogma had no share in the life to come (Sanh.

^ However after the giving of the law, no longer was the life of God's people marked by faith.

^ For example, it is very easy to argue that the Pentateuch specifically shows the superiority of faith/inwardness over life under the Law!

x.), shows that there was a school which assumed a critical attitude toward the Torah. .There is much evidence in proof of this; but here only the history of criticism within the orthodox synagogue will be discussed.^ There is much evidence in proof of this; but here only the history of criticism within the orthodox synagogue will be discussed.

^ Whybray, while accepting that there are divergent chronologies in the flood story, argues that the 'contradictions' are no greater than in Gen.2-3, & are not sufficient evidence to introduce source-criticism.
  • Introduction to the Pentateuch (Torah) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC blue.butler.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some would argue that as critics of literature we can only look at the literary shape of a text, not at the history or development of a text or the intention of the author.

.It was a moot point whether the Law was given all at once or in smaller rolls at different times (Giṭ.^ It was a moot point whether the Law was given all at once or in smaller rolls at different times (Giṭ.

^ This understanding of a dynamic to the biblical text over a considerable time period has allowed us to view the text in different ways than in the “absolute law” categories that has been common in the Church.
  • JEDP: "Sources" in the Pentateuch 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC cresourcei.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Declared and implied copyright laws must be observed at all time for all text or graphics in compliance with international and domestic legislation.
  • Torah, Ugartic Bible 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.60a); and the further question was discussed, whether Moses or Joshua wrote the last eight verses of the Pentateuch (B. B. 14b-15a).^ The Pentateuch makes no claim that Moses wrote all of it.
  • PENTATEUCH - Holman Bible Dictionary on StudyLight.org 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.studylight.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the rest, whether Moses wrote the book down, and put it together in the shape in which we now have it, we shall never be able to tell.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Professor Petrie wrote a book that discussed the question of the Pentateuch's accuracy concerning the story of the Exodus.
  • Obvious Questions Concerning Whether Or Not Moses Wrote the Pentateuch 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.edwardtbabinski.us [Source type: Original source]

.It was definitely affirmed, on the other hand (ib.), that Moses composed the sections concerning Balaam (Num.^ On the other hand, the Pentateuch ascribes to Moses the literary authorship of at least four sections, partly historical, partly legal, partly poetical.

^ On the other hand, in the portrayal of Moses in Numbers 20, we have the opposite.

^ If, on the other hand, an editor went in and changed the original arguments--without noting it!--then we might have a legitimate concern over 'adulteration'.

xxii.-xxiv.), thus closing all discussions on that score. .Many tacit doubts are scattered through the Talmud and Midrash, in addition to those which Einstein has collected.^ But if we face crisis collectively as a community, then our individual shortcomings, our doubts, and our worries will be overcome by the positive energy of those around us.

.In the post-Talmudic period, in like manner, there was no lack of critics, some of them recognized as such again only in recent times, although Abraham ibn Ezra, who was joined by Spinoza, has long been recognized as belonging to this class.^ There really is no time.
  • TORAHNEWS.ORG 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC torahnews.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the post-Talmudic period, in like manner, there was no lack of critics, some of them recognized as such again only in recent times, although Abraham ibn Ezra, who was joined by Spinoza, has long been recognized as belonging to this class.

^ There is no possibility of being "moderate" in the face of such evil.
  • The Pentateuch 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC home.epix.net [Source type: Original source]

Composition.

.The composition of the Torah should be discussed on the basis of the old Semitic concepts, which planned a work of literature practically rather than systematically.^ Moreover, as discussed earlier, educators also must nourish the minds, hearts and souls of Jewish women, young and old, by providing advanced opportunities to study Torah.
  • Torah Perspectives on Women's Issues 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.torahweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Likewise, the lowest mountain, Har Sinai, rather than the most majestic, was chosen for Mattan Torah (Tractate Sotah,5a).

^ Textualism: the belief that a biblical passage's ordinary meaning should govern its interpretation, rather than study of the intent of the author, the culture at the time the passage was written, etc.
  • Glossary of religious terms starting with the letter T: 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.religioustolerance.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Repetitions, therefore, should not be eliminated, since things which are good and noble may and should be brought to remembrance many times.^ Since the south Sinai mines were worked over  a long period of time, archaeological evidence can be brought in support of both dates.
  • HebrewDatesPentateuch 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.bibleorigins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Psalmist therefore prayed, "Open my eyes, so that I may behold wondrous things out of Your Torah" (Psalms 119:18).
  • Writing the Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.aish.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since The Torah was dictated by God, there are many instances where it speaks about things that took place after it was written.
  • Writing the Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.aish.com [Source type: Original source]

.From the point of view of effective emphasis, moreover, a change of context may develop a new and independent application of a given doctrine, especially if it be repeated in other words.^ In other words, the very fact of having been given these gifts made us ungrateful for them, and left us only wanting more.

^ This illustrates that even in what seems like a single unified passage, there may be more than one voice speaking with more than one point of concern and emphasis.
  • JEDP: "Sources" in the Pentateuch 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC cresourcei.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Being whole means not just appreciating one’s own viewpoint and excluding all others, but integrating the “other”s point of view into our own understanding with respect and appreciation.

.Thus tradition (The Thirty-two Rules of Eliezer b.^ Thus tradition (The Thirty-two Rules of Eliezer b.

^ The final text of the Pentateuch thus integrates two concurrent and conflicting origin traditions by subordinating one to the other.
  • Journal of Religion and Society 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC moses.creighton.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Jose ha-Gelili) took "the repeated doctrine" as its rule of interpretation, and left large numbers of repetitions (parallel passages) in its collections of oral teachings.^ Jose ha-Gelili) took "the repeated doctrine" as its rule of interpretation, and left large numbers of repetitions (parallel passages) in its collections of oral teachings.

.The framework of the Pentateuch is historical narrative bound together by the thread of chronology.^ But even the legal material is part of a narrative framework, and so the term ‘the Law’ is not really an accurate description of the Pentateuch and its contents.
  • Introduction to the Pentateuch (Torah) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC blue.butler.edu [Source type: Original source]

.There is no rigid adherence to the latter principle, however; and the Talmud itself accordingly postulates the rule: "There is no earlier and no later in the Torah" (Pes.^ Without the adherence to Torah there is no spiritual elevation.
  • Torah Spirituality for the Nations - Fair debate...? - Forums - Israel National News 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.israelnationalnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The concept is "ein mukdam u'm'uchar ba'Torah" -- usually mistranslated as "the Torah [often] is not written in chronological order," or more literally, "there is no before and after in the Torah."

^ Between these two periods, there was a hiatus of 38 years, during which no portion of the Torah was given.
  • Writing the Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.aish.com [Source type: Original source]

6b et passim). .From a Masoretic point of view, the Mosaic code contains the history of a period of about 2,300 years.^ This code, from the period 2000-1700 B.C. , contains advanced laws similar to those in the Mosaic laws....
  • Apologetics Press - Mosaic Authorship of the Pentateuch—Tried and True 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.apologeticspress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The premillenial view of Revelation is very recent, only about 100 years old, the most recent version of it is only as old as Hal Lindsey.
  • Torah Spirituality for the Nations - Fair debate...? - Forums - Israel National News 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.israelnationalnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moberly then goes on to explore some other points of similarity and difference between the patriarchal and Mosaic periods portrayed in the texts.
  • "Pentateuchal Studies Today" by Gordon Wenham 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.biblicalstudies.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As has already been noted in regard to the names of the individual books, the Talmud and the Masorah divided the Torah into smaller units according to its contents, so that Genesis includes the story of Creation and of the Patriarchs, Exodus the account of the departure from Egypt, the revelation, and so on.^ As has already been noted in regard to the names of the individual books, the Talmud and the Masorah divided the Torah into smaller units according to its contents, so that Genesis includes the story of Creation and of the Patriarchs, Exodus the account of the departure from Egypt, the revelation, and so on.

^ The very letters of the Torah were believed to have come from God Himself (B. B. 15a), and were counted carefully, the word "soferim" denoting, according to the Talmud (Ḳid.

^ The contents of the Torah fall into two main parts: historical and legal.

Style.

.The style of the Pentateuch, in keeping with its content, differs widely from the diction of the Prophets and the Psalms.^ But in general, the style of the work is in keeping with its contents.

^ The style of the Pentateuch, in keeping with its content, differs widely from the diction of the Prophets and the Psalms.

^ On the contrary, it holds good wherever similarly required throughout not the Pentateuch only but the Psalms (compare books first and second) and the Prophets (see Jonah especially).
  • Introduction to the Pentateuch. 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC stempublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is less lofty, although it is not lacking in dramatic force, and it is concrete rather than abstract.^ R’ Nosson’s reference to what he terms "lofty Torah" about Rus and Boaz is perhaps no less enigmatic than Megillas Rus itself.

^ In one dramatic declaration “tzadkah mimeni” , she is more righteous than I, Yehudah was forced to admit that for all his attention to the details of the process, the outcome was faulty.

Most of the laws are formulated in the second person as a direct address, the Decalogue being the best example. .In certain cases, however, the nature of the subject requires the third person; but the Torah reverts as quickly as possible to the second as being the more effective form of address (comp., for example, Deut 19:11-21).^ In certain cases, however, the nature of the subject requires the third person; but the Torah reverts as quickly as possible to the second as being the more effective form of address (comp., for example, Deut.

^ And what does it mean to find these personalities hidden in the Torah - does that make the events of Purim more significant, or does that add weight to the stature of Esther, Mordechai, or Haman?

^ Ya’akov, however, wanted shalom in the second sense, of recognizing that the natural beauty of the world was a kli that we have to work at integrating and making shaleim with the world of Torah.

.In the Pentateuch, temporal depiction is the usual method.^ In the Pentateuch, temporal depiction is the usual method.

.The process of creation, rather than the universe as a whole, is described; and the account brings the world visibly into being in six main parts.^ The crux of the battle with Eisav, the battle between the Chashmonaim and Yevanim, is the battle of whether the world is a world of beauty being the totality of truth, or a world where we integrate a spiritual framework into the reality of our senses and see that one vision as a harmonious whole – shalom.

^ While this day in anticipates the fruition of the promise of a new harvest, it seems rather a remote concept in our part of the world where we are more likely to see snow than green trees at this time of year.

^ The earliest inspired account reveals God creating and fashioning the universe in wisdom and goodness no less than omnipotent power, the earth in detail as man's abode to whom the word is given.
  • Introduction to the Pentateuch. 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC stempublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the creation of man, of plants, and of paradise God is seen at work, and the same process of coming into being may be traced in the ark of Noah and similar descriptions.^ He is the living God, in whom this world, as well as the world to come, lives and moves and has its being; and only by obeying his laws can man prosper, he and his children after him, upon this earth of God.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is as if the Hebrew prophets were able to predict every person that would ever exist, as well as every occurrence that would come into being and transpire throughout every age.
  • No Jew Has Read The Torah/Law 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC ebionite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The power of man to create and reveal greater levels of kedusha is captured in the halachic dispute regarding when to start the entire process of sefira.

A remarkable example of word-painting is the account of the consecration of Aaron and his sons to the high-priesthood (Lev. viii.). Here the reader watches while Moses washes the candidates, dresses them, etc. ("Magyar-Zsidó Szemle," ix. 565 et seq.). .Naïve simplicity is a characteristic trait of Pentateuchal style, which understands also the art of silence.^ Naïve simplicity is a characteristic trait of Pentateuchal style, which understands also the art of silence.

.Thus, as in all great products of world-literature, feminine beauty is not described in detail; for Sarah, Rachel, and other heroines are merely said to be beautiful, while the completion of the picture is left to the imagination of the reader.^ Thus, as in all great products of world-literature, feminine beauty is not described in detail; for Sarah, Rachel, and other heroines are merely said to be beautiful, while the completion of the picture is left to the imagination of the reader.

^ All other areas of knowledge are like other lands, and relate as such to the soulful greatness of the nation of Israel.
  • Rav Kook-Torah I 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC ravkook.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Olam Hazeh, says Reb Yaakov in Perek, is merely a prozdor, a passageway, to the great Traklin, the banquet that is The World To Come.
  • Lincoln Square Synagogue - Divrei Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.lss.org [Source type: General]

Laws of the Torah.

.The contents of the Torah fall into two main parts: historical and legal.^ It is composed of two parts: The Mishna, which is a rabbinic commentary on the Torah, and the Gemara, a commentary on the Mishna. It exists in two versions: The more important is the Babylonian Talmud, completed about 500 CE .
  • Glossary of religious terms starting with the letter T: 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.religioustolerance.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The contents of the Pentateuch are partly of an historical, partly of a legal character.

^ But even the legal material is part of a narrative framework, and so the term ‘the Law’ is not really an accurate description of the Pentateuch and its contents.
  • Introduction to the Pentateuch (Torah) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC blue.butler.edu [Source type: Original source]

The latter commences with Ex. xii.; so that the .Tannaim maintained that the Law actually began there, proceeding on the correct principle that the word "Torah" could be applied only to teachings which regulated the life of man, either leading him to perform certain acts (commands = (missing hebrew text) ) or restraining him from them (prohibitions = (missing hebrew text) ).^ We must recognize the words of the Torah as one law and one command.
  • Rav Kook-Torah I 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC ravkook.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Zoo Torah -- Gam "zoo" Latova Presents a Torah weltanschauung of man's place regarding the animal kingdom and the lesson of mussar or hashkafa that each creature teaches us.
  • Spiritual - Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.linklight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, Peter confirms the first century doctrine that Yeshua was a man -- a man who was approved by God -- and it was God who performed the "miracles and wonders and signs" through him.
  • No Jew Has Read The Torah/Law 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC ebionite.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Talmud enumerates a total of 613 rules, 248 being commands and 365 prohibitions (see Jew.^ By offering us 613 commandments, the Torah maximizes the opportunity for each person to master the performance of at least one of them with total devotion, and thereby merit eternal existence.

Encyc. iv. 181, s.v. Commandments, The 613). .In the post-Talmudic period many works were written on these 613 "miẓwot," some even by Maimonides.^ But first it is necessary to briefly examine how ethnicity is defined, and how it is used in some of these recent works on the Hebrew Bible.
  • Journal of Religion and Society 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC moses.creighton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Even after creating her masterpiece The Dinner Table , Chicago has continued work in these areas.

^ There are, however, many cases where even the original meaning and wisdom behind these traditions have been forgotten.
  • Writing the Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.aish.com [Source type: Original source]

.The legal parts of the Pentateuch include all the relations of human life, although these are discussed with greater detail in the Talmud (see Talmudic Laws).^ Mishnah 14 The lev (heart) draws life from the Divine and distributes it to all parts of the personal soul.
  • Universal Torah Network 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC universaltorah.com [Source type: General]

^ Even the Talmud and the older Rabbinic writings call the first part of the Bible the book of the law, while in Aramaic it is simply termed law (cf.

^ They looked for eternal promises which could not pass away, because they were according to the eternal laws of God, which stand good both for this world and for all worlds for this life and for the life everlasting.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Torah recognizes no subdivisions of the commandments; for all alike are the ordinances of God, and a distinction may be drawn only according to modern ideas, as when Driver (in Hastings, "Dict.^ But it was NOT invented late; for no Jew in these later times would have thought of making Balaam a heathen, to be a prophet of God, or a believer in the true God at all.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They looked for eternal promises which could not pass away, because they were according to the eternal laws of God, which stand good both for this world and for all worlds for this life and for the life everlasting.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Correspondence: Essays on Torah Life Essays on Torah and modernity drawn from the archives of an orthodox rabbi.
  • Spiritual - Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.linklight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bible," iii. 66) proposes a triple division, into juridical, ceremonial, and moral "torot."

Penal Law.

.Montefiore was correct when, in laying emphasis on the ethical aspect of the Biblical concept of God, he declared that even the law of the Bible was permeated with morality, propounding his view in the following words ("Hibbert Lectures," p.^ Even the Talmud and the older Rabbinic writings call the first part of the Bible the book of the law, while in Aramaic it is simply termed law (cf.

^ Moreover, why would God -- a Being that cannot be defiled -- consecrate himself as seen in the words: "They are not of the world, even as I am not of the world.
  • No Jew Has Read The Torah/Law 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC ebionite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Lectures which follow were delivered in London, during the month of May, 1870, and corrected from notes taken in shorthand, with additions.
  • Introduction to the Pentateuch. 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC stempublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

64): "Most original and characteristic was the moral influence of Jahveh in the domain of law. Jahveh, to the Israelite, was emphatically the God of the right. . . . From the earliest times onward, Jahveh's sanctuary was the depository of law, and the priest was His spokesman." .The most prominent characteristic of the Pentateuchal law, as compared with the laws of ancient peoples and of medieval Europe, is mildness, a feature which is still further developed in the Talmud.^ In making themselves subject to the Will of God, they therefore brought these Natural and Organic Laws into the most ancient forms of the Hebrew language itself.
  • No Jew Has Read The Torah/Law 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC ebionite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Selbst feels convinced that his admission of both textual changes and material additions in the Pentateuch agrees with the law of historical development and with the results of literary criticism.

^ The contents of the Pentateuch furnish the basis for the history, the law, the worship, and the life of the Chosen People of God.

.The Torah is justly regarded as the source of humane law.^ Torah Ethics Knowledebase Mesora - Sources for Jewish Philosophy & Law Chofetz Chaim Lesson a Day Tzeniut: A Universal Concept, by Dr. Norman Lamm .
  • Cypess: The Electronic Parsha Warehouse 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC eparsha.com [Source type: Academic]

.Although such phrases occur as "that soul shall be cut off from his people" or "so shalt thou put the evil away from the midst of thee," it would be incorrect to take them literally, or to deduce from them certain theories of penal law, as Förster has recently done.^ Concerning such a person, it is written, "Because he has despised God's word… his soul shall be utterly cut off; his sin shall remain upon him" (Numbers 15:31).
  • Writing the Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.aish.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When thou lettest thy breath go forth they shall be made, and thou shalt renew the face of the earth.'
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It must be put down, persecuted down, lest the Romans should come and take away their place and nation.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

On the contrary, these expressions prove that the Mosaiclaw was not a legal code in the strict sense of the term, but an ethical work. .Although the Talmudists made it a penal code, instinctively reading that character into it, the penal law of the Torah is something theoretical which was never put into practise.^ At tonight's Mimaamakim show , I might do something I've never done before, and read a d'var Torah.
  • matthue roth: author, performance poet, orthodox jew at large 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.matthue.com [Source type: General]

^ Similarly, the Torah was never written with punctuation, although its sentence structure was revealed to Moses and transmitted orally.
  • Writing the Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.aish.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No Jew Has Read The Torah/Law .
  • No Jew Has Read The Torah/Law 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC ebionite.com [Source type: Original source]

.This view is supported by the fact that a commandment is stated sometimes without the threat of any penalty whatever for its violation, and sometimes with the assignment even of death as a punishment for its transgression.^ The death of a Torah is sometimes even harder -- if only because we don't really know what to make of it in the first place.
  • matthue roth: author, performance poet, orthodox jew at large 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.matthue.com [Source type: General]

^ Besides, there were, no doubt, many violations of the law, just as the Ten Commandments are violated to-day without detriment to their legal promulgation.

^ You are in fact commanded to give even when it’s unlikely you’ll get anything back.

.In like manner, tradition frequently substitutes such a phrase as "he forfeited his life" for "transgression worthy of death."^ And so Moses' death-song, like his life's wish, ends in disappointment and sadness, and dread of the evils which are coming upon his beloved countrymen.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

Civil Law.

.On the other hand, the civil law of the Torah, which is more developed and bears a practical character, probably accords more closely with ancient Jewish legal procedure.^ On the other hand, the Pentateuch ascribes to Moses the literary authorship of at least four sections, partly historical, partly legal, partly poetical.

^ Here Exodus assumes more the character of a legal code.

^ According to some authorities, laws can even be derived from the ordering of the paragraphs in the Torah.
  • Writing the Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.aish.com [Source type: Original source]

It reflects the conditions of an agricultural state, since most of the laws relate to farming and cognate matters. .There was no Hebrew word for "store," although "just measure" was mentioned.^ There has been no mention of Abraham's having the law or keeping the law previous to this passage.

^ Besides, there were, no doubt, many violations of the law, just as the Ten Commandments are violated to-day without detriment to their legal promulgation.

^ [Although there is no strict reason why Moses could not have foreseen this and done the literary work.

.It must be borne in mind, however, that to satisfy the more advanced conditions of later times, the Talmudists both supplemented the Mosaic law and by means of analogy and similar expedients interpolated into the Torah much which it did not contain originally.^ This code, from the period 2000-1700 B.C. , contains advanced laws similar to those in the Mosaic laws....
  • Apologetics Press - Mosaic Authorship of the Pentateuch—Tried and True 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.apologeticspress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One must keep in mind, however, that “with God all things are possible” (Matthew 19:26)—and God was with Moses (cf.
  • Apologetics Press - Mosaic Authorship of the Pentateuch—Tried and True 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.apologeticspress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But if later writers did not mind such features, why should we suppose that the earlier sources did not contain contradiction and repetition?
  • "Pentateuchal Studies Today" by Gordon Wenham 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.biblicalstudies.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the earliest times the Synagogue has proclaimed the divine origin of the Pentateuch, and has held that Moses wrote it down from dictation, while the religions based on Judaism have until very recently held the same view.^ Indeed, believing Moses wrote the Pentateuch is very important.
  • Apologetics Press - Mosaic Authorship of the Pentateuch—Tried and True 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.apologeticspress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We would not accept these very same ideas from the original simple person.
  • Torah from Sinai 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.mesora.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Origination would be words that Moses 'thought up'; recording would be words someone else 'thought up' and Moses 'wrote down' (with the result somehow being 'inspired').

.Biblical criticism, however, denies the Mosaic authorship and ascribes only a portion of varying extent to so ancient an origin.^ The arbitrary treatment of Scripture on the part of Protestants, and the succession of the various destructive systems advanced by Biblical criticism, caused this change of front in the Catholic camp.

^ What has been said clearly shows that the critics are at variance in many respects, but they are at one in maintaining the post- Mosaic origin of the Pentateuchal documents.

^ It is true that the Pentateuch contains no express declaration of its entire Mosaic authorship; but even the most exacting of critics will hardly require such testimony.

A history of criticism in regard to this point is given by Winer ("B. R." ii. 419 et seq.) and by Driver (in Hastings, "Dict. Bible," iii. 66), while Montefiore expresses himself as follows (l.c.):
."The Torah—or teaching—of the priests, half judicial, half pædagogic, was a deep moral influence; and there was no element in the religion which was at once more genuinely Hebrew and more closely identified with the national God.^ Between these two periods, there was a hiatus of 38 years, during which no portion of the Torah was given.
  • Writing the Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.aish.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no question that Yechezkel haNavi was on a much higher spiritual level and more deserving of prophecy than a maidservant.

^ Once this is higher reality of the scriptures is understood, then we must no longer see either Yeshua or the Apostle Paul as having done away with the the Torah.
  • No Jew Has Read The Torah/Law 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC ebionite.com [Source type: Original source]

.There is good reason to believe that this priestly Torah is the one religious institution which can be correctly attributed to Moses.^ Some believe there WAS one, but that he was NOT an Israelite!

^ Since he will be one that institutes Torah law to the world and Xtian teaching is such that Torah is nullified will they assume he is an 'antichrist'.
  • Torah Spirituality for the Nations - Fair debate...? - Forums - Israel National News 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.israelnationalnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since there is a reason for the Torah's sentence structure, when reading scripture, one should complete an entire sentence, and not just read part of it.
  • Writing the Torah 16 January 2010 20:44 UTC www.aish.com [Source type: Original source]

. . . Though Moses was not the author of the written law, he was unquestionably the founder of that oral teaching, or Torah, which preceded and became the basis of the codes of the Pentateuch."
The legal parts of the Torah are found in Ex. xx.-xxiii., xxv.-xxxi., xxxiv.-xxxv.; Lev. i.-viii., xi.-xxv., xxvii.; Num. v.-x., xviii., xix., xxvii.-xxx., these laws being repeated in Deut. iv. et seq.
Bibliography: Bacher, Ag. Tan.; idem, Ag. Pal. Amor. Index, s.v. .Tora and Studium der Lehre; Baumgartner, Les Etudes Isagogiques chez les Juifs, Geneva, 1886; Blau, Zur Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift, Strasburg, 1894; idem, Studien zum Althebräischen Buchwesen und zur Biblischen Litteraturgeschichte, Strasburg, 1902; Büchler, The Triennial Reading of the Law and Prophets, in J. Q. R. vi.^ Hence Winckler ("Ex Oriente lux", Leipzig, 1905- 6; Idem, "Der Alte Orient", III, 2-3; Idem, "Die babylonische Geisteskultur in ihren Beziehungen zur Kulturentwicklung der Menschheit" in "Wissenschaft und Bildung", Leipzig, 1907; cf.

^ Israels Väter: Untersuchungen zur Väterthematik im Deuteronomium und in der deuteronomistischen Tradition.
  • Journal of Religion and Society 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC moses.creighton.edu [Source type: Academic]

1-73; Eisenstadt, Ueber Bibelkritik in der Talmudischen Litteratur, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1894; Förster, Das Mosaische Strafrecht in Seiner Geschichtlichen Entwickelung, Leipsic, 1900; Hamburger, R. B. T. supplementary vol. iii. 60-75; Hastings, Dict. Bible, iii. 64-73; Jew. Encyc. vii. 633-638; Michaelis-Saalschütz, Mosaisches Recht, Berlin, 1842-46; Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encyc. xiii. 486-502; Weber, Jüdische Theologie, pp. 14-34, and Index, Leipsic, 1897; Winer, B. R. 3d ed., i. 415-422.
.For the criticism of the Torah compare the text-books of the history of Judaism and of Old Testament theology.^ Pentateuch and the historical books of the Old Testament.
  • Introduction to the Pentateuch. 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC stempublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The freest thinker will not complain that, when I cite the testimony of Baron Bunsen, he is likely to give an opinion unfairly to the prejudice of Egyptian records as compared with the Old Testament.
  • Introduction to the Pentateuch. 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC stempublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Here we have the Old Testament, an infinitely good book, giving us infinitely good advice and good news, and news too concerning God-- God's laws, God's providence, God's dealings, such as we get nowhere else.
  • The Gospel of the Pentateuch by Charles Kingsley - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 18 September 2009 10:37 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

See also Pentateuch.
This entry includes text from the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906.

Simple English

Torah (תורה) is a Hebrew word that means "instructions". When most people say the word Torah they are either referring to the whole Jewish Bible, the Tanakh, the first 5 books of the bible or all of the Jewish teaching in general.It is as large as four full length football pitches.

These five books are the beginning of both Jewish and Christian holy writings.

The five books are:

  1. Genesis (in Hebrew Bereishit בראשית),
  2. Exodus (in Hebrew Shemot שמות),
  3. Leviticus (in Hebrew Vayikra ויקרא),
  4. Numbers (in Hebrew Bemidbar במדבר) and
  5. Deuteronomy (in Hebrew Devarim דברים).

Other names for this set of books are the "Five Books of Moses," or "Pentateuch" (a Greek word).

Some people may use the word Torah as a name for all the main Jewish teachings.

Each of the books in the Torah are separated into parts called "Parshiyot." Parsha is a Hebrew word meaning "portion." Every Shabbat one parsha is read in the synagogue, but sometimes two are read. This is so that all the parshiyot are finished every year, on the Jewish holiday of Simchat Torah.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Torah, which are similar to those in the above article.








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