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Turin
Torino
—  Comune  —
Comune di Torino
A collage of Turin: in the top left is the Mole Antonelliana, followed by a view of the city under the snow, the Piazza Vittorio Veneto, the Royal Palace of Turin and the Museo del Risorgimento (Palazzo Carignano)

Coat of arms
Turin is located in Italy
Turin
Location of Turin in Italy
Coordinates: 45°04′N 07°42′E / 45.067°N 7.7°E / 45.067; 7.7Coordinates: 45°04′N 07°42′E / 45.067°N 7.7°E / 45.067; 7.7
Country Italy
Region Piedmont
Province Turin (TO)
Government
 - Mayor Sergio Chiamparino (Democratic Party)
Area
 - Total 130.17 km2 (50.3 sq mi)
Elevation 239 m (784 ft)
Population (30 April 2009)[1]
 - Total 910,188
 Density 6,992.3/km2 (18,110/sq mi)
 - Demonym Torinesi
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 10100, 10121-10156
Dialing code 011
Patron saint John the Baptist
Saint day June 24
Website Official website

Turin (Italian: Torino About this sound listen pronounced [toˈri(ː)no]; Piedmontese: Turin; pronounced [tyˈɾiŋ]) is a major city as well as a business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the left bank of the Po River surrounded by the Alpine arch. The population of the city proper is 909,193 (November 2008) while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants; the Turin metropolitan area is estimated by OECD to have a population of 2.2 million.[2]

Turin is a flourishing, industrious and cosmopolitan European city, which enjoys state-of-the-art technology and architectural developments.[3][4] The city boasts a rich culture and history, and is known for its numerous art galleries, restaurants, churches, palaces, operahouses, piazzas, parks, gardens, theatres, libraries, museums and other venues. Turin is well-known for its baroque, rococo and neo-classical architecture. Much of the city's public squares, castles, gardens and elegant palazzi (such as Palazzo Madama), were built by Sicilian architect Filippo Juvarra, who modeled these buildings on the Baroque and classical style of Versailles.[5] Examples of these French-themed edifices include the Royal Palace of Turin, the Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi and the Basilica di Superga. Turin is sometimes called the "cradle of Italian liberty", due to its having been the birthplace and home of notable politicians and people who contributed to the Risorgimento, such as Cavour.[6] The city currently hosts some of Italy's best universities, colleges, academies, lycea and gymnasia, such as the Polytechnic University of Turin. Prestigious and important museums, such as the Museo Egizio[7] and the Mole Antonelliana are also found in the city. Turin's several monuments and sights make it one of the world's top 250 tourist destinations, and the tenth most visited city in Italy in 2008.[8]

Turin used to be a major European political centre, being Italy's first capital city in 1861 and being home to the House of Savoy, Italy's royal family.[9] Even though much of its political significance and importance had been lost by World War II, it became a major European crossroad for industry, commerce and trade, and currently is one of Italy's main industrial centres, being part of the famous "industrial triangle", along with Milan and Genoa. Turin is ranked third, after Rome and Milan, for economic strength.[10] With a GDP of $58 billion, Turin is the world's 78th richest city by purchasing power,[11][12] and even though the city was unable to become a "world city", unlike Milan or Rome, it was ranked by GaWC as "economically efficient", along with Jerusalem, Genoa, Macau, Marseille, Liverpool, Strasbourg, Salt Lake City, Seville and Tijuana, to name a few.[13] Turin is also home to much of the Italian automotive industry.[14][15]

Turin is well known as the home of the Shroud of Turin, the football teams Juventus F.C. and Torino F.C., the headquarters of automobile manufacturers Fiat, Lancia and Alfa Romeo, and as host of the 2006 Winter Olympics. Several International Space Station modules, such as Harmony and Columbus, were also manufactured in Turin. It was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy from 1563, then of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the Royal House of Savoy and finally the first capital of a unified Italy.[16]

It is often referred to as "the Capital of the Alps". Turin is also known as "the Automobile Capital of Italy" or the Detroit of Italy; in Italy it is also called "[La] capitale Sabauda".

Contents

History

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Roman times

In the first century BC (probably 28 BC), the Romans created a military camp (Castra Taurinorum), later dedicated to Augustus (Augusta Taurinorum). The typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city. Turin reached about 5,000 inhabitants at the time, all living inside the high walls.

Middle Ages

After the fall of the Roman Empire the town was conquered by the Lombards, then the Franks of Charlemagne (773). The Contea di Torino (or countship) was founded in the 940s, which was held by the Arudinic dynasty until 1050. After the marriage of Adelaide of Susa with Humbert Biancamano's son Ottothe family of the Counts of Savoy gained control. While the dignity of count was held by the Bishop as count of Turin (1092–1130 and 1136–1191) it was ruled as a prince-bishopric by the Bishops. In 1230-1235 it was a lordship under the Marquess of Montferrat, styled Lord of Turin.

At the end of the thirteenth century, when it was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy, the city already had 20,000 inhabitants.

Many of the gardens and palaces were built in the fifteenth century when the city was redesigned. The University of Turin was also founded during this period.

16th-18th century

The Battle of Turin, 1706

Emmanuel Philibert (Iron Head) made Turin the capital of the Duchy of Savoy in 1563. Piazza Reale, today named Piazza San Carlo and Via Nuova, today called Via Roma were added with the first enlargement of the walls, in the first half of the 17th century; in the same period the Royal palace (Palazzo Reale) was built. In the second half of that century, a second enlargement of the walls was planned and executed, with the building of the arcaded Via Po, connecting diagonally, through the regular street grid, Piazza Castello with the bridge on the Po.

In 1706, during the Battle of Turin, the French besieged the city for 117 days without conquering it. After the subsequent Treaty of Utrecht, the Kingdom of Sardinia was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy and the architect Filippo Juvarra began a major redesign of the city. Now the capital of a European kingdom, Turin had about 90,000 inhabitants at the time.

19th century

A view of Turin in the late 19th century. In the background, the Mole Antonelliana under construction.

In the nineteenth century, after brief occupation by Napoleon, the city began to actively pursue the unification of Italy. In 1871, the Fréjus Tunnel was opened, making Turin an important communication node between Italy and France. The city in that period had 250,000 inhabitants. Some of the most iconic landmarks of the city, like the Egyptian Museum, the Mole Antonelliana, the Gran Madre di Dio Church and Piazza Vittorio Veneto were built in this period. In 1861, Turin became the capital of the newly proclaimed United Italy. In 1865 the capital was moved to Florence. (Since 8 July 1871, the capital has been Rome.) Turin reacted to the loss of importance by beginning a rapid industrialisation: in 1899 Fiat was founded and Lancia in 1906. The Universal Exposition held in Turin in 1902 is often considered the pinnacle of Art Nouveau design, and the city hosted the Exposition again in 1911. By this time, Turin had grown to 430,000 inhabitants.

20th century

Turin 1911 Expo poster.

After World War I, conflicts between workers and industrialists began. The first strikes took place and in 1920 the Lingotto factory was occupied. Turin became a major industrial center during the first part of the 20th century thanks mainly to the automotive industry, insomuch that the city gained the nickname of Automobile Capital.

Turin was a target of Allied strategic bombing during World War II and was heavily damaged by the air raids. The city was a target because of its industrial production, including FIAT, which produced aircraft, tanks and automobiles for the Axis war effort. The Allied campaign in Italy had the Allies landing in southern Italy and pushing northward through Italian and German resistance. Turin was not captured by the Allies until the Spring Offensive of 1945, and, after a general insurrection, was liberated by Italian Partisans on April 25, 1945, only days before the German forces in Italy surrendered in May 1945.

After World War II, Turin was rapidly rebuilt and its industrial base saw a huge development throughout the 1950s and 1960s, which attracted hundred of thousands of immigrants from the southern regions of Italy. The population reached 1 million in 1960 and peaked at almost 1.2 million in 1971. In the 1970s and 1980s, the automotive industry crisis severely hit the city and its population began to sharply decline loosing more than one-fourth of its total in 30 years.

21st century

The long population decline of the city has begun to reverse itself in recent years, as the population grew from 865,000 in 2001 to 910,000 in 2009.

In 2006, Turin hosted the Winter Olympic Games.

Geography

Turin is located in northwest Italy. It is surrounded on the western and northern front by the Alps and on the eastern front by a high hill that is the natural prosecution of the hills of Monferrato. Four major rivers pass through the city: the Po and two of its tributaries, the Dora Riparia (later changed to "Duria Minor" by the Romans, from the Celtic duria meaning "water"), the Stura di Lanzo, and the Sangone.

Climate

Turin is located in a Humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen climate classification Cfa),[17] although close proximity to mountainous terrain results in conditions that can be variable with some continental characteristics. This is in contrast to the Mediterranean climate characteristic of the coast of Italy. Winters are cold but dry, summers are mild in the hills and quite hot in the plains. Rain falls mostly during spring and autumn; during the hottest months, otherwise, rains are less usual but more strong (thunderstorms are usual). During the winter and autumn months banks of fog, which are sometimes very thick, form in the plains.[18]

Climate data for Turin
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6
(43)
8
(47)
12
(55)
16
(61)
20
(69)
24
(76)
27
(82)
26
(80)
23
(74)
17
(63)
10
(51)
7
(45)
16
(62)
Average low °C (°F) -2
(28)
0
(31)
2
(37)
6
(43)
10
(51)
14
(58)
17
(63)
16
(62)
13
(56)
8
(47)
1
(35)
-1
(29)
7
(45)
Precipitation cm (inches) 4
(1.6)
4
(1.6)
6
(2.6)
9
(3.8)
11
(4.6)
9
(3.6)
5
(2.3)
6
(2.6)
7
(2.8)
8
(3.4)
7
(2.9)
4
(1.9)
85
(33.7)
Source: Weatherbase[19] 2008

Administration

Turin City Hall

The mayor of Turin is directly elected every four years. Sergio Chiamparino, the current mayor, belongs to the center-left coalition. Turin is divided into 10 boroughs; these do not necessarily correspond to historical districts in the city. The following list numerates the present day boroughs :(named Circoscrizioni) and the today location of the historical districts inside them:

  • Circoscrizione 1 Centro - Crocetta
  • Circoscrizione 2 Santa Rita - Mirafiori Nord
  • Circoscrizione 3 San Paolo - Cenisia - Pozzo Strada - Cit Turin - Borgata Lesna
  • Circoscrizione 4 San Donato - Campidoglio - Parella
  • Circoscrizione 5 Borgo Vittoria - Madonna di Campagna - Lucento - Vallette
  • Circoscrizione 6 Barriera di Milano - Regio Parco - Barca - Bertolla - Falchera - Rebaudengo - Villaretto
  • Circoscrizione 7 Aurora - Vanchiglia - Sassi - Madonna del Pilone
  • Circoscrizione 8 San Salvario - Cavoretto - Borgo Po
  • Circoscrizione 9 Nizza Millefonti - Lingotto - Filadelfia
  • Circoscrizione 10 Mirafiori Sud

Main sights

For a complete list of Turin's landmarks, see: Buildings and structures in Turin
The inside of the Museo Egizio, one of the most important and prestigious museums of Egyptian history and art in Italy and Europe.

Secular edifices

The symbol of Turin is the Mole Antonelliana, which is named after the architect who built it, Alessandro Antonelli. Construction began in 1863 as a Jewish synagogue. Nowadays it houses the National Museum of Cinema, and it is believed to be the tallest museum in the world (167 metres or 548 feet).

The Palatine Towers is an ancient Roman-medieval structure that served as one of four Roman city gates, which allowed access from north to the cardus maximus, the typical second main street of a Roman town. The Palatine Towers are among the best preserved Roman remains in northern Italy.

The Egyptian Museum of Turin specialises in archaeology and anthropology, in particular the Art of Ancient Egypt. It is home to what is regarded as one of the largest collections of Egyptian antiquities outside of Egypt. In 2006 it received more than 500,000 visitors.[20]

The Museum of Oriental Art houses one of the most important Asian art collections in Italy.[21][22]

Religious buildings

The Baroque Basilica di Superga.
The Gran Madre di Dio Church.

Turin Cathedral, dedicated to Saint John the Baptist (Italian San Giovanni Battista), is the major church of the city. It was built during 1491-1498 and it is adjacent to an earlier campanile (1470). The Chapel of the Holy Shroud, the current resting place of the Shroud of Turin, was added to the structure in 1668-1694. Attached to the cathedral is the chapel of the Santissimo Sudario, built by Guarini (1694), where is preserved in a casket a cloth believed to be the shroud in which the Body of Christ was wrapped when it was taken down from the Cross, The Church of Corpus Domini records a miracle which took place during the sack of the city in 1453, when a soldier was carrying off an ostensorium containing the Blessed Sacrament: the ostensorium fell to the ground, while the Host remained suspended in air. The present splendid church, erected in 1610 to replace the original chapel which stood on the spot, is the work of Ascanio Vittozzi. The Consolata, a sanctuary much frequented by pilgrims, stands on the site of the tenth-century monastery of S. Andrea, and is the work of Guarini. It was sumptuously restored in 1903. Outside the city, are: S. Maria Ausiliatrice, erected by Don Bosco; the Gran Madre di Dio, erected in 1818 on occasion of the return of King Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia; S. Maria del Monte (1583) on the Monte dei Cappucini; In the hills overlooking the city is the basilica church of Superga, providing a view of Turin against a backdrop of the snow-capped Alps. The basilica holds the tombs of many of the dukes of Savoy, as well as many of the kings of Sardinia. Superga can be reached by means of the Superga Rack Railway from the suburb of Sassi. The Basilica of Superga, with a dome 244 feet high, the work of Juvara, built by Amedeo II ex voto for the deliverance of Turin (1706), and which has served since 1772 as a royal mausoleum.[23]

Villas, parks and gardens

The Giardini Reali di Torino (Royal Gardens of Turin)
The Palazzina di Caccia di Stupinigi, outside the city.
The baroque Villa la Tesoreria
  • Parco della Pellerina - 837,220 m2 (the biggest urban park in Italy)[24]
  • Parco della Panoramica- 820,000 m2
  • Parco del Meisino - 450,000 m2
  • Parco della Maddalena - 450,000 m2
  • Parco Colletta - 448,000 m2
  • Parco della Rimembranza - 442,000 m2
  • Parco Colonnetti - 385,800 m2
  • Parco del Valentino - 421,000 m2, the main and most visited park in the city
  • Giardini Reali di Torino (Royal Gardens of Turin)
  • Parco naturale della Collina di Superga - 7,458,500 m2
  • Parco Cavour - 186,990 m2
  • Parco Ruffini or "del Valentino nuovo" - 127,860 m2
  • Parco Rignon - 46,200 m2

The largest and most popular parks in the city are: The Parco del Valentino, the Parco delle Pellerina, the Parco del Colletto, the Rignon park and the recent Colonnetti park. Around the city, there are several other parks, such as the Parco della Mandria and the Parco della Palazzina di Caccia di Stupinigi, ancient hunting grounds of the Savoy, and those situated on the hill of Turin. Many parks are smaller, and are present in the various districts: there are also 240 playgrounds present in such parks. The mayor Amedeo Peyron realized in the early 1960s the first garden in Italy with games for children. According to a report of Legambiente 2007, Turin is the first Italian city to impose structures and policies on childcare [25].

Turin, as the former capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia, is home of the Savoy Residences. In addition to the 17th-century Royal Palace, built for Madama Reale Christine Marie of France (the official residence of the Savoys until 1865) there are many palaces, residences and castles in the city centre and in the surrounding towns. Turin is home to Palazzo Chiablese, the Royal Armoury, the Royal Library, Palazzo Madama, Palazzo Carignano, Villa della Regina, and the Valentino Castle. The complex of the Residences of the Royal House of Savoy in Turin and in the nearby cities of Rivoli, Moncalieri, Venaria Reale, Agliè, Racconigi, Stupinigi, Pollenzo and Govone was declared a World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 1997. Turin's gardens include the Orto Botanico dell'Università di Torino, a historic botanical garden.

Demographics

Historical populations
Year Pop.  %±
1861 173,305
1871 210,873 21.7%
1881 250,655 18.9%
1901 329,691 31.5%
1911 415,667 26.1%
1921 499,823 20.2%
1931 590,753 18.2%
1936 629,115 6.5%
1951 719,300 14.3%
1961 1,025,822 42.6%
1971 1,167,968 13.9%
1981 1,117,154 −4.4%
1991 962,507 −13.8%
2001 865,263 −10.1%
2009 910,188 5.2%
Source: ISTAT 2001

In 2009, the city proper had a population of about 910,000, which is a significant increase on the 2001 census figure. This result is due to a growing immigration form Southern Italy and abroad. Approximately a 5.77 percent of the population is composed of foreigners, the largest numbers coming from Romania (44,158), Morocco (22,511), Albania (9,165), Peru (7,044), China (5,483), and Moldova (3,417).[26] Like many Northern Italian cities, there is a large proportion of pensioners in comparison to youth. Around 18 percent of the population is under 20 years of age while, 22 percent is over 65.[27] The population of the Turin urban area totals 1.7 million inhabitants, ranking fourth in Italy, while the Turin metropolitan area has a population of 2.2 million inhabitants. The median age is 43.7.[2]

Economy

Fiat 500 presentation in Turin

Turin is a major industrial center, where the headquarters of the car company FIAT are located. The city has a GDP of $58 billion and is the world's 78th richest city by purchasing power.[11][12] Even though the city was unable to become a "world city", it was ranked by GaWC as "economically efficient".

Turin is home to the Lingotto building, which was at one time the largest car factory in the world, and now houses a convention centre, a concert hall, a multiplex, an art gallery, a shopping centre and a Le Méridien hotel. Other companies founded in Turin are Lancia, Pininfarina, Bertone, Sparco, Italdesign, Ghia, Fioravanti, Stola, Intesa Sanpaolo, Superga, Invicta (1821), Lavazza, Martini & Rossi, Kappa and the chocolate factory Caffarel.

The city is also well known for its aerospace industry (Alenia). The International Space Station modules Harmony, Columbus, Tranquility, as well as the Cupola and all MPLMs were produced in Turin. The future European launcher projects beyond Ariane 5 will also be managed from Turin, by the new NGL company, a subsidiary of EADS (70%) and Finmeccanica (30%).

Turin is also the birthplace of some of the country's main companies, such as Telecom Italia (telecommunications), Rai (television), and cinema. Most of these industries have since moved their headquarters to other parts of Italy, but Turin still retains the National Museum of Cinema (in the Mole Antonelliana building).

On addition to industry, Turin has also established itself as an increasingly popular tourist destination, being the 203rd in the world in 2008, with around 240,000 international arrivals every year, coming after Heidelberg and Alicante, and surpassing Blackpool and Bilbao.[8] It came 10th in Italy, also coming after Rome, Milan, Venice, Florence, Naples, Palermo, Rimini,Verona and Genoa.[8]

Culture

Residences of the Royal House of Savoy*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Palazzo Reale.JPG
The Palazzo Reale di Torino (Royal Palace of Turin), which was once the home of the House of Savoy.
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iv, v
Reference 823
Region** Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1997  (21st Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.

Education

Turin is home to one of Italy's oldest universities, the University of Turin, which still ranks among the best universities in Italy. Another established university in the city is the Polytechnic University of Turin, that ranks among Top 50 universities in the world and # 1 in Italy ( "Academic Ranking of World Universities" published by Institute of Higher Education of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, in engineering, technology and computer science fields). The business school ESCP Europe, ranked among the 10 best business schools in Europe, also has a campus in Turin. In recent years, two small English language higher education institutions have been opened (St. John International University, International University College of Turin).

Political Science

With the Risorgimento, or "Resurgence", the city of Turin becomes the home of the struggle for Italian unification. At first this plan was pursued, according antimazziniana by a group of moderates from Piedmont with a Catholic and loyal to the monarchy: among these were Vincenzo Gioberti, Cesare Balbo and Massimo D'Azeglio, convinced that the unification of Italy were to come across a federation led by the Pope and by the army of Charles Albert. That was the plan of neo-Guelphs, frustrated by a few years from the behavior of Pius IX.

To resume some of their ideas, but clearly in the direction of liberal and progressive, was Camillo Benso Count Cavour who, although rejected the insurgency and democratic vision of Mazzini, was a supporter of a program of economic and social reforms which led first Piedmont and then Italy, through the alliance of the elites of the Peninsula, to the level of advanced nations. The program of neo-Guelph Gioberti, Cavour resisted the phrase "free church in a free state" and passivity towards the European events of Balbo he, once he becomes prime minister, moved towards a system of alliances with Napoleon III and l 'England led by liberal governments. Although not considered to achieve the implementation of its program through the participation of the people, however, Cavour encouraged the freedom of association, mutual aid societies and popular education. In addition, he helped transform the Statute Albert, through the practice, in a Constitution Member. The work of Cavour summoned from other parts of Italy some former Mazzini, disappointed by the failed insurrection, who found refuge in Turin. Between there were these Francesco De Sanctis and Nicholas Tommaseo, which in Turin composed the first Dictionary of Italian.

A renewal of liberal thought came with the new century, due to increased mass participation in political life and growth of the labor movement, by the Piero Gobetti. These, in the twenties, was founded in Turin the magazineThe Liberal Revolutionand thenThe Baretti, in which he also collaborated Eugenio Montale, Gobetti which had been the first editor of the collection Ossi di sepia. In addition to Montale, Gobetti gathered around the magazine a generation of young people in Turin, like Leone Ginzburg, Franco Antonicelli, Lionello Venturi, Felice Casorati, Carlo Levi , Augusto Monti, Giacomo Debenedetti, Natalino Sapegno and Mario Fubini.

Gobetti condemned the liberal ruling class that had led to fascism, while considering the heir of thought is that of Cavour Carlo Cattaneo. However, Gobetti identified in the proletariat and the bourgeoisie in the engine of the moral and political renewal of the nation.

Also in Turin, immediately after the World War, Antonio Gramsci, Palmiro Togliatti, Tasca and Umberto Terracini had given birth to the magazineThe new order, that would constitute the nucleus of what in 1921 would become Italian Communist Party. This online magazine condemned the reformist Socialists, identifying the Councils of Soviet factory and experience the line of political struggle.

Central to the Italian political culture has been the contribution of many intellectuals in Turin after World War II, among others, the group of students and professors who served in the ranks of Justice and Liberty and Party Action, heirs of thought Gobetti (among others, Cesare Pavese, Massimo Mila, Natalia Ginzburg, Alessandro Galante Garrone, Vittorio Foa and Norberto Bobbio).

Among the associations responsible for the study of historical thought and politics, who are based in Turin, are to be mentioned: the Gramsci Foundation, the Piero Gobetti Study Center, the Institute Gaetano Salvemini, the Center Pannunzio, the Rosselli, the Fondazione Luigi Einaudi and Fondazione Luigi Firpo - Center for Studies of Political Thought.

Publishing, journalism and media

After Alexandria, Madrid, New Delhi, Antwerp and Montreal, Turin was chosen by UNESCO as World Book Capital for the year 2006. The International Book Fair is one of the most important fairs of its kind in Europe. Turin is home to one of Italy's principal national newspapers, La Stampa, and the sports daily newspaper Tuttosport. The city is also served by other publications such as the Turin editions of La Repubblica, il Giornale, Leggo, City, Metro and E Polis. RAI has had a production centre in Turin since 1954.

Literature

Cover of the novel Cuore by Edmondo de Amicis.

A literary centre for many centuries, Turin began to attract writers only after the establishment of the court of the Duchy of Savoy.

One of the most famous writers of the 17th century is Giambattista Marino, which in 1608 moved to the court of Charles Emmanuel I; he however suffered an assassination attempt by a rival, Gaspar Murtola, and was later imprisoned for a year because of gossip that he had said and written against the duke, and perhaps for this, in 1615 he left Turin and moved to France.

The main literary figures during the Baroque age in Turin were Emanuele Tesauro and Alessandro Tassoni; in the next century the poet Vittorio Alfieri from Asti livede here for a while. The situation was very different in the 19th century, especially since the city became a point of reference for Italian unification and, subsequently, the capital of the Kingdom of Italy. Indeed, in those years Tommaseo, Settembrini and John Meadows resided in the city. A major literary and cultural woman of that time was Olympia Savio.

In the late 19th century and early 20th century, Turin was home to writers such as Guido Gozzano, Edmondo De Amicis and Emilio Salgari and Dino Segre, known by the pseudonym of Pitigrilli.

Turin has a very important role in Italian literature after World War II: to act as a catalyst is the publishing house founded by Giulio Einaudi, for which worked figures including Cesare Pavese, Italo Calvino, Vitaliano Brancati, Primo Levi, Natalia Ginzburg, Fernanda Pivano, Beppe Fenoglio, Carlo Fruttero and Franco Lucentini. In more recent years, writers active in the city are Giovanni Arpino, Nico Orengo, Giuseppe Culicchia, Margaret Oggero, Laura Mancinelli, Alessandra Montrucchio, Alessandro Perissinotto, Guido Quartz, Piero Soria and Alessandro Baricco.

Alessandro Baricco was also among the founders of the School Holden, dedicated to teaching the techniques of writing.

Art

View of the of the Four Doctors Triptych: St Gregory and St Jerome by Fra Filippo Lippi

Remaining a village for a long time, in 1559 the Duke Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy made the capital of his domains. In the Baroque period Turin became important to a court and the Dukes had the ambition to transform the city into a major artistic and cultural capital. That is why working in a city of artists of great repute, especially architects and planners, like Carlo di Castellamonte and his son Amedeo,which include the route of a Roman castrum the new capital and build beautiful buildings, Guarino Guarini and, in the eighteenth century, Filippo Juvarra and Alfieri.

As for the painting and the visual arts, Turin becomes a point of reference especially in the twentieth century. In the twenties by the painter Felice Casorati, which inspired a number of students, called The group of six of Turin, including Carlo Levi, Henry Paolucci, Gigi Chessa, Francis Menzio, Nicola Galante and Jessie Boswell. In this environment form two important artists: the sculptor Umberto Mastroianni and architect Carlo Mollino.

Between the sixties and seventies became the international center of Turin 'Arte Povera, the presence in the city of artists like Alighiero Boetti, Mario Merz, Giuseppe Penone, Piero Gilardi and Michelangelo Pistoletto. In those years is a strong artistic influence of a famousdesigner, Armando Testa, the founder of advertising agency. Currently operating in the city established artists, like Ugo Nespolo and Carol Rama.

Sport

The Olympic Arch erected for the 2006 Winter Olympics

The city is famous for two football teams: Juventus F.C. (founded in 1897) and Torino F.C. (founded in 1906). These squads play in the oldest derby in Italy: the Derby della Mole or Derby of Torino.[28] Juventus is Italy's most successful team, and one of the most prestigious[28] and successful in the world.[28] It ranks joint sixth in the list of the world's clubs with the most official international titles (third between European clubs),[29] was the first team in football history[30] – and the only one in the world to date (2009) – to have won all official international championships and cups for clubs[31][32] recognized by one of the six continental confederations (UEFA[33] in this case) and by FIFA.[30] Their former stadium Stadio delle Alpi was one of the host stadiums for the 1990 FIFA World Cup and it was demolished in 2006 to make way for Juventus' new stadium, the Juventus Arena. The two sides currently share occupancy of the Stadio Olimpico di Torino.

The FISA (International Rowing Federation) was founded in Turin in 1892.

In 1949, in the Superga air disaster, a plane carrying almost the whole Torino F.C. team (at that time the most important team in Italy and known as the Grande Torino) crashed into the Basilica of Superga in the Turin hills. Valentino Mazzola, father of Ferruccio and Sandro Mazzola (who were later to become football champions), was among those who perished in the crash.

The C.U.S. Torino volleyball team won the domestic league four times and, in the 1979–80 season, the Volleyball European Champion's Cup. It was the first team from western Europe to win this competition. In the 1990s the team was dismantled as a result of financial issues.

Turin hosted the 2006 Winter Olympics from February 10, 2006, through February 26, 2006. Turin, with a metropolitan area of 1.7 million,[34] was the largest city to have ever hosted a Winter Olympics.[35][36] The title fell to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, (2.5 million) when that city hosted the XXI Olympic Winter Games.[37]

Cinema

Turin is the Italian city where film chromatography was first established, because of the historic geographical and cultural proximity with the French cinema and the Lumière brothers. Just in Turin, in March 1896, the inventors performed the first cinema screening of a film ever occurred in Italy and, in November, in Via Po, the first before a paying audience.[38]

Some of the first Italian films first aired in Turin since 1907. Examples include Giovanni Pastrone Cabiria, in 1914, one of the first blockbusters in history.

Productions of the major houses, such as the Ambrosio, Itala film, Aquila and Fert Studios,[39] continue until 1937, the year of inauguration of Cinecitta in Rome.

The cinematic scene in Turin, however, does not cease. In 1956 the National Museum of Cinema opened, first hosted in the Palazzo Chiablese and then, from 2000, the imposing headquarters of the Mole Antonelliana. In the 1980s a group of academics and critics of Turin gave rise, with the support of local authorities, the film festival Film Festival that since 1997 was renamed the Torino Film Festival to get a point of reference at international level especially for experimental cinema and youth, second only to the historical Venice Film Festival in Italy.

Always take place in Turin on Torino GLBT Film Festival, the International Festival of Women's Cinema, the Sottodiciotto Film Festival connected to the themes of adolescence, CinemAmbiente and VIEW Conference (formerlyVirtuosity), an event dedicated to virtual reality.

Today Turin is one of the main of cinematographic and television centres in Italy, thanks to the role of Turin Film Commission that reports the production of many feature films, soap operas and commercials.

In 2002 will be opened as the studies Fert with the new name of Virtual Reality & Multi Media Park and Lumiq Studios begins its work.

They were born in Turin on the first Italian art house (the Roman Empire in the Gallery Subalpina in 1971), the main national film associations (l 'Ajax) and the first multiplex of the country (Elisha in 1983).

Cuisine

The iconic Gianduiotto

Turin chocolate firms produce a typical chocolate, called Gianduiotto, named after Gianduja, a local Commedia dell'arte mask; plus many other kinds of chocolate. Every year the town organizes CioccolaTÒ, a two-week chocolate festival run with the main Piedmontese chocolate producers, such as Caffarel, Streglio, Venchi and others, as well as some big international companies, such as Lindt & Sprüngli.

Other

Shroud of Turin

A recent photograph of the Shroud of Turin.

The city is home to the Shroud of Turin. It is a linen cloth bearing the image of a man who appears to have suffered physical trauma in a manner consistent with crucifixion. It is kept in the royal chapel of the Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist in the city centre. The origins of the shroud and its image are the still subject of intense debate among scientists, theologians, historians and researchers. It is popularly believed to be a depiction of Jesus Christ, however this matter is still controversial, as there seems to be a sufficient amount of historical and scientific evidence supporting the idea that it is, or is not, the Holy Face of Jesus. Nonetheless, it is a symbol of religious devotion and is one of the city's main symbols and tourist attractions.

Transport

Map of Turin Metro
Turin tramcar

The town currently has a large number of rail and road work sites. Although this activity has increased as a result of the 2006 Winter Olympics, parts of it had long been planned. Some of the work sites deal with general roadworks to improve traffic flow, such as underpasses and flyovers, but two projects are of major importance and will change the shape of the town radically.

One is the Spina ("spine") which includes the doubling of a major railroad crossing the town. The railroad previously ran in a trench, which will now be covered by a major boulevard. The Porta Susa on this section will become Turin's main station.

The other major project is the construction of a subway line based on the VAL system, known as Metrotorino. This project is expected to continue for years and to cover a larger part of the city, but its first phase was finished in time for the Olympic Games (inaugurated on 4 February 2006 and opened to the public the day after). The first leg of the subway system linked the nearby town of Collegno with Porta Susa railway station in Turin's town centre; on 4 October 2007 the line was extended to Porta Nuova railway station. This underground transportation project has historical importance for Turin, as the town has dreamed of an underground line for decades, the first project dating as far back as the twenties. In fact, the main street in the town centre (Via Roma) runs atop a tunnel built during the fascist era (when Via Roma was built). The tunnel was supposed to host the underground line but is now used as an underground car park. A project to build an underground system was ready in the seventies, with government funding for it and for similar projects in Milan and Rome; whilst the other two cities went ahead with the projects, Turin local government led by mayor Diego Novelli shelved the proposal as it believed it to be too costly and unnecessary, but that only meant more funding for Rome and Milan.

The city has an international airport known as Caselle International Airport Sandro Pertini (TRN), located north of the city about 13 kilometres from downtown and connected to the city by a railway service (from Dora Station) and a bus service (from Porta Nuova and Porta Susa railway stations).

Notable natives

Notable residents

Vittorio Emanuele II (1820-1878), the king of Italy and a citizen of Turin.

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Turin is twinned with:[43]

Collaboration accords with

Gallery

References

Notes

  1. ^ ‘City’ population (i.e. that of the comune or municipality) from demopgrahic balance: Januray-April 2009, ISTAT.
  2. ^ a b OECD. "Competitive Cities in the Global Economy". http://213.253.134.43/oecd/pdfs/browseit/0406041E.PDF. Retrieved 2009-04-30. 
  3. ^ "In Italy Online - From Ancient Art to Modern Technology in Turin". Initaly.com. http://www.initaly.com/regions/museums/sims.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  4. ^ "Weekend - Turin: Modern". Discoveritalia. http://www.discoveritalia.com/cgwe/cittaOggi.asp?lingua=en&IDcitta=2. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  5. ^ "Slow Travel Italy - Turin: Simple Elegance by Anne Robichaud". Slowtrav.com. http://www.slowtrav.com/italy/piedmont/turin_simple_elegance.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  6. ^ "Cavour, Count Camillo Benso di (1810–1861)". Ohio.edu. 1998-04-22. http://www.ohio.edu/Chastain/ac/cavour.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  7. ^ "ITALIA - Egyptian Museum of Turin". Italiantourism.com. http://www.italiantourism.com/egizio.html. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  8. ^ a b c "Euromonitor Internationals Top City Destinations Ranking > Euromonitor archive". Euromonitor.com. 2008-12-12. http://www.euromonitor.com/_Euromonitor_Internationals_Top_City_Destinations_Ranking. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  9. ^ "Turin - Culture & History". Smh.com.au. http://www.smh.com.au/travel/travel-factsheet/turin--culture-amp-history-20081128-6m77.html. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  10. ^ CENSIS
  11. ^ a b "City Mayors reviews the richest cities in the world in 2005". Citymayors.com. 2007-03-11. http://www.citymayors.com/statistics/richest-cities-2005.html. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  12. ^ a b "Global City GDP Rankings 2005 and by 2020". SkyscraperCity. http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=454910. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  13. ^ "GaWC - The World According to GaWC 2008". Lboro.ac.uk. 2009-06-03. http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2008t.html. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  14. ^ The Economic History of Italy 1860 ... - Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=DJvGpo_CH-UC&pg=PA98&lpg=PA98&dq=turin+automobile+industry&source=bl&ots=u3U72wY0AR&sig=IZNs-eWww1QDmfDrpxFikFWrc1c&hl=en&ei=7MHlSpvUL8Wr4QaV-q2LDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CA4Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=turin%20automobile%20industry&f=false. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  15. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Turin (Italy) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/609705/Turin. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  16. ^ "The city's history". Turismo e promozione. Città di Torino. http://www.comune.torino.it/canaleturismo/en/history.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-31. 
  17. ^ http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/32/World_Koppen_Map.png
  18. ^ "Torino Turistica - Servizio Telematico Pubblico - Città di Torino". Comune.torino.it. http://www.comune.torino.it/canaleturismo/en/clima.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  19. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Turin, Italy". Weatherbase. 2008. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weatherall.php3?s=95061&refer=. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  20. ^ Dossier Musei 2007 "I Dossier del Touring Club Italiano: Dossier Musei 2007" (in Italian). Touring Club Italiano. http://www.touringclub.it/ricerca/pdf/DOSSIER_MUSEI_2007.pdf Dossier Musei 2007. 
  21. ^ "Quelle meraviglie Mai Viste In Italia" (in Italian). La Repubblica. 2008-12-03. http://ricerca.repubblica.it/repubblica/archivio/repubblica/2008/12/03/quelle-meraviglie-mai-viste-in-italia.html. Retrieved 2009-05-21. 
  22. ^ "Mao Il Tesoro Dell' Arte Orientale" (in Italian). La Repubblica. 2008-12-03. http://ricerca.repubblica.it/repubblica/archivio/repubblica/2008/12/03/mao-il-tesoro-dell-arte-orientale.html. Retrieved 2009-05-21. 
  23. ^ http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Turin
  24. ^ Città di Torino - Verde Pubblico|
  25. ^ 20com% 20St% 20ecosistema% 20bambino% 202007.pdf Ecosystem child. Report Legambiente |
  26. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. http://demo.istat.it/str2006/index.html. Retrieved 2009-04-30. 
  27. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. http://demo.istat.it/pop2007/index.html. Retrieved 2009-04-30. 
  28. ^ a b c "Football Derbies: Derby della Mole". footballderbies.com. http://www.footballderbies.com/honours/index.php?id=39. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  29. ^ Only Milan (with 18 titles), Boca Juniors (18) and other three clubs: Independiente, Real Madrid (both with 15) and Al-Ahly (14) have won more official international titles.
  30. ^ a b "FIFA Classic Clubs: Juventus FC". FIFA Official website. http://www.fifa.com/classicfootball/clubs/club=31085/detail.html. Retrieved 2007-08-31. 
  31. ^ "La primera final italiana" (in Spanish) (PDF). La Vanguardia. 2003-05-15. p. 55. http://hemeroteca.lavanguardia.es/preview/2003/05/15/pagina-55/34004153/pdf.html. Retrieved 2009-11-15. 
  32. ^ "European clubs facts: Juventus FC". UEFA Official website. http://en.uefa.com/footballeurope/club=50139/domestic.html. Retrieved 2007-10-02. 
  33. ^ "UEFA club competitions press kit (.PDF archive, page 23)". UEFA Official website. http://www.uefa.com/printoutfiles/competitions/supercup/2006/e/e_84343_pk.pdf. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  34. ^ "Torino - Turin Italy City Profile". http://www.archaeolink.com/torino_turin_city_profile.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  35. ^ "Olympics by the numbers". USA Today. 2006-01-19. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/olympics/torino/2006-01-19-gns-by-numbers_x.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  36. ^ The 2002 Salt Lake City games also claims this title because at the time of the Olympics its Combined Statistical Area population was 1,516,227 and some events were held in the Provo metropolitan area of 400,209 (tables from the Census). . Accessed 2009-03-06. Archived 2009-05-16.
  37. ^ Judd, Ron C. (2003-07-02). "Vancouver to host 2010 Winter Olympics". The Seattle Times. http://archives.seattletimes.nwsource.com/cgi-bin/texis.cgi/web/vortex/display?slug=webvancouver02&date=2003-07-02. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  38. ^ "Le proiezioni cinematografiche a Torino" - di Pierluigi Capra
  39. ^ Servizio TorinoPlus del Comune di Torino|
  40. ^ http://www.eresie.it/id337.htm eresie.it (Italian) Retrieved on 2007-10-06
  41. ^ http://cronologia.leonardo.it/mondo41e.htm cronologia.leonardo.it (Italian) Retrieved on 2007-10-06
  42. ^ [1] (Italian) Retrieved on 2007-11-03
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Turin City Hall - International Affairs (English) Retrieved on 2008-01-26.
  44. ^ "Lile Facts & Figures". Mairie-Lille.fr. http://www.mairie-lille.fr/sections/site-en/Menu_horizontal_haut/discovering-lille/lille-facts-figures/lille-facts-figures. Retrieved 2007-12-17. 
  45. ^ "Twinning Cities: International Relations (NB Turin is listed as 'Consiglio Comunale di Torino')" (PDF). Municipality of Tirana. www.tirana.gov.al. http://www.tirana.gov.al/common/images/International%20Relations.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-23. 

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Turin article)

From Wikitravel

Turin[1] (Italian: Torino), a large city of about one million inhabitants, is set in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy, a one-hour drive from the French border and slightly more than that from the Mediterranean sea.

Piazza Savoia's obelisk and Mole Antonelliana
Piazza Savoia's obelisk and Mole Antonelliana

Understand

Turin was the first capital of modern Italy, and was the host of the 2006 Winter Olympic Games. While it's not a famous tourist destination like Florence or Rome, the setting is pleasant, with the Po River flowing through the city, the genteel hills overlooking the city and scattered with pleasant villas and the Italian Alps off in the distance. This is why the famous architect Le Corbusier defined Turin as "the city with the most beautiful natural location in the world".

Turin is an important city of technology and industry, and the FIAT automobile company is based here. (The 'T' in the name stands for Torino). It was also the birthplace to many important cultural and political movements in Italy.

Turin inhabitants are well known across Italy for their understatement and confidentiality and the city reflects this attitude.

Somebody says it's the European capital of Baroque: many palaces and churches were built in this style during the kingdom of the Savoia. It isn't the typical Italian city, with red and yellow buildings: is a bit more French; wide boulevards with white buildings make the city centre more similar to Paris. Around the city, a crown of churches and castles, some up on a hilltop, some lost in a park, provide plenty of interesting views.

Turin is trying to attract more tourists, and so there are many events that worth a visit.

Get in

By plane

Turin's international airport is placed 15 km north of the city and is named after Italy's former President Sandro Pertini. It is located in the town of Caselle, connected to Turin city by a convenient motorway. The main carrier is Alitalia [2], Italy's flagship airline, which operates flight from some European and Italian cities. Caselle is also a destination for some low fares airlines, for example Ryanair and Easyjet. The airport is connected to the city by train (to the station of Porta Dora, which is useless), bus (with a regional bus service, which is long) and taxi (which is expensive, and the reason that the connections by public transport are so bad).

Turin is also reached from Malpensa airport, which may be cheaper to fly to. There is a bus service running five times daily between the city and the airport [3]. The ride lasts 2 hours and costs 18 Euros (as of April 13th, 2007).

By train

Turin has three main railway stations, Porta Nuova, Porta Susa and Lingotto FS.

Generally speaking, Porta Nuova is a station dedicated to mid-range and long-range trains. Porta Susa (under renovation) serves some local trains, but the trains for Milan - leaving from Porta Nuova - also transit there. You'd better check in advance where you need to go. Many trains also stops in both stations. no Trains coming from/going to the south of Turin, for example, Genoa, Cinque Terre, Bologna, depart from Porta Nuova via Lingotto FS, to those cities.

All stations are managed by Trenitalia [4], the Italian state railways.

Get around

By public transportation

Turin has an efficient system of city connections with buses and trams managed by GTT [5]. Currently, the first driverless, ultra-modern underground line was opened for the Olympics in 2006. Both urban and suburban areas are served by an efficient network. Buses and trams cross the city from morning to late at night.

You may run into ticket inspectors any time, everywhere, even on night buses. Most of them do not speak English and some of them may behave rude. Be sure take your ticket/pass on you and validate it immidiately getting on the bus. Once you are caught, you may pay a certian amount of fee about 25euro right on the bus. If you pay latter, this amout may increase to 36 euro. If you forgot to take your pass/valid ticket with you, you may tell the inspectors your situation and get a fine ticket of 10 euro. Then you go the GTT office with your fine ticket and your pass/valid ticket and pay.

  • Torino Pass

By bicycle

The City of Turin has recently completed a network of bicycle paths throughout the city. However, a lot still has to be done, and cycling outside the paths (and sometimes even on them) can be quite tricky.

By car

Car Rentals If you would like to rent a car, you can find all the main car hire companies at Turin Airport. Car rentals companies are grouped together immediately in front of the Domestic Arrivals, Ground Floor-Level Zero.

By taxi

Taxis in Torino start the meter the moment your call is received. It is not customary to hail a taxi on the street.

  • Pronto Taxi Tel: +39-011-5737
  • Radio Taxi Tel: +39-011-5730
  • Turin Airport Tel: +39-011-9914419
  • Main Railway station - Torino Porta Nuova Tel. +39-011-547331
  • Via Sacchi ang. C.so Vittorio Emanuele II Tel: +39-011-657139
Mole Antonelliana
Mole Antonelliana

Turin's main attractions include important baroque palaces and churches, a regular and attractive street grid, an extensive network of arcades, famous coffeeshops and a number of world-renowned museums.

  • Mole Antonelliana. Turin's landmark building was completed in 1888 as a synagogue. The 167.5-meter tower is the highest work of masonry in Europe and it now contain one of the finest cinema museum of Europe.
    • The National Cinema Museum, [6]. The museum opened in July 2000 in the building that has come to symbolize Turin. The exhibition space covers 3,200 square meters and spans five floors. The themes of the floors are the Archaeology of Cinema, the Video Camera, a collection of cinema posters, video installations (including a number of small rooms screening clips on themes such as Turin in the movies, love stories and experimental film), and The Great Temple (where you recline in comfortable red chairs and watch classic Italian films projected on giant screens overhead). In a spectacular setting the museum offers artifacts from the collection of the Maria Adrianna Prolo Foundation including magic lanterns, optical illusions, photographs, drawings, models and other curious items. Amongst a fascinating array of other movie memorabilia, be sure to check out the original cape worn by Christopher Reeve in Superman. If you're a certain age, that's incredibly exciting!
  • Museo dell'Automobile (Also Carlo Biscaretti di Ruffia, Biscaretti for short.), Corso Unità d’Italia 40, [7]. Some may place this above the Uffizi as a showcase of Italian art. The collection houses over 170 vehicles, from 18th-century carriages to Formula 1 racers, and lots of gorgeous red sports cars. The museum is under restructuring and the re-opening is scheduled for 2011. Part of the collection is currently shown at Torino Esposizioni venue (two kilometres from Museo dell'automobile).
  • The Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist, Duomo di San Giovanni. The Cathedral's Chapel of the Shroud houses the controversial Shroud of Turin, which is stored in a vault below the Duomo. It is only displayed by papal decree, and the last time it was shown was during the Jubilee Year of 2000. The next time it is slated to be shown is between 10 April - 23 May 2010. Information about the shroud, viewings, and reservations can be made at the official site [8].
  • Egyptian Museum, Via Accademia delle Scienze, 6, 011 561 7776, [9]. Houses the most important collection of ancient Egyptian artifacts outside Cairo. Founded in 1824 by King Carlo Felice after acquiring archeologist Drovetti's collection, the museum contains 30,000 exhibits. It documents the history and civilization of Egypt from the paleolithic to the Coptic era through unique exhibits and collections of objects d'art, articles of daily use and funeral furnishings (including the Altar of Isis, the canvas painted by Gebelein, the intact tombs of Kha and Merit, and the exceptional cliff temple to Ellesjia). It is also intelligently laid out and the exhibits are lovingly preserved. €7.50.  edit
  • Palazzo Madama, Piazza Castello. Recently re-opened after a long refurbishment, it is attracting many tourists. It was home of the Queen, and is a mix of medieval and baroque rooms. There's a room with red sofas to take a rest after the visit, with a magnificient chandelier, and a cafeteria in one of the rooms. Contains plenty of art depicting Christ in various stages of life (and death) and some fascinating scenes of life in Torino in times gone by.
  • Palazzo Carignano, Via Accademia delle Scienze 5 (close to Piazza Castello).
  • Quadrilatero Romano. Full of restaurants, it is the old Roman town, northwest of Piazza Castello.
  • Via Garibaldi. Pedestrian-only shopping zone between Piazza Castello and Piazza Statuto.
  • Galleria Subalpina. A pedestrian passage from Piazza Castello and Piazza Carlo Alberto. One of the most elegant place of the city.
  • Valentino Park, the biggest park in Turin central area. This park is situated along the Po river and in its area you can find the Valentino Castle, and the Medieval Village (Borgo Medievale).
  • Cathedral of Superga. On top of the hill near Turin, this cathedral was built in thanksgiving for a victorious battle against French. Today, it houses the tombs of the House of Savoy. In 1949 a plane carrying the entire Turin FC team crashed near the cathedral, killing one of the greatest football teams ever. At the crash site a plate memorializes the dead. The top of the hill offers the best view of Turin, with the magnificent Alps in the background. You can reach the top by car but also by a little chain-train. Ask for the Trenino per Superga.
  • Castello di Rivoli, [10]. In the small town of Rivoli, east of Turin. Houses one of Europe's most important Contemporary Art Museums. The Castle of Rivoli is a unfinished XVIII castle that stands on top of Rivoli hills. Corso Francia (France Road) is one of the world's longest streets and was built because of the desire of the House of Savoy to connect Royal Palace in the center of Turin with Rivoli Castle. You can reach it by bus or taxi.
  • La Venaria Reale [11]outside the town of Venaria, 10 kilometres north east of Turin. Restored to the baroque magnificence that inspired it when it was built in the mid 17th century for duke Carlo Emanuele II di Savoia, the Reggia of Venaria Reale was inaugurated in October 2007, after two centuries of abandon and decay, and eight years of intense restoration. In the first year since it opened to the public, Venaria Reale has welcomed approximately 1.000.000 visitors becoming one of the most popular spot in Italy. The enormous palace, which has a surface area of over 80,000 square metres, contains some of the most outstanding examples of European baroque architecture: the enchanting Salone di Diana, designed by Amedeo di Castellamonte, the solemnity of the Galleria Grande and the chapel of Sant’Uberto, and the immense complex of the Scuderie, designed by the 17th century genius, Filippo Juvarra. The Gardens now represent a close combination of ancient and modern. Venaria Reale, which was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, is at the centre of the circuit of Royal Residences in Piedmont. To get there: Venaria Express” shuttle bus operated by GTT (freephone number: 800 019152 www.comune.torino.it/gtt Bus: routes 72, 11 (freephone number: 800 019152 - www.comune.torino.it/gtt) Train: Turin-Ceres line (freephone number: 800 019152 - www.comune.torino.it/gtt) Car: Torino Nord orbital road, Venaria or Savonera/Venaria exit
  • River Po Park [12]The Piedmontese part of the longest river of Italy is protected as a natural park. Its benches ar full of interesting and unexpected views onwards the town and the hill and are enriched by the Castle of Valentino, Medieval Burgh and Gran Madre church, which mirror on river Po.
  • A trip to Superga by chain train from Sassi to see the magnificant view of Turin from there. Sassi is reached by tram 15.
  • A walk on Via Roma from Porta Nuova Station to Piazza Castello through Piazza San Carlo to see how elegant this city can be.
  • A walk on Via Po from Piazza Castello to Piazza Vittorio and further to the Gran Madre Church. Stop on the bridge and enjoy the beautiful view of the Po river.
  • Have a break in one of the historic cafes located around Piazza Castello, such as Mulassano or Baratti & Milano (established in 1873).

Learn

The University of Turin (Università degli Studi di Torino), main campus is located just off Via Po, [13]. Is a public university with all the main faculties, located in Turin that was founded in the 16th Century. Also well known is the Politecnico di Torino, a university of engineering and architecture. The Politecnico has multiple campuses, including one in Castello di Valentino (in Parco Valentino) and two outside the city center, one on Corso Francia,the other is in the Ligotto for automotive engineering where once a Fiat factory lied; their main campus is on Corso Duca degli Abruzzi.

Buy

Turin is not the best Italian city for shopping fashion brand, although there are plenty of small and expensive brand shops. It's a great spot for buying food and wines.

  • Via Roma, from Piazza Castello to the main railway station. Here you can find upscale brands like Hermes and Dolce & Gabbana, as well as cheap chains like H&M, United Colours of Benetton and Zara. In Piazza CLN, behind Piazza San Carlo, there's a good branch of La Feltrinelli, a bookstore chain with shops all over the country. On the Via Roma there is also a branch of FNAC, the French book and multimedia chain.
  • Via Garibaldi- People in Turin say it's the longest pedestrian shopping street in Europe. There are clothes shops, bars, a Nike store and a new branch of the Japanese store Muji at the beginning of the street near Piazza Castello.
  • Via Po is more alternative, with record shops and strange clothing stores under the arcades. This street goes from Piazza Castello to the Po River (Piazza Vittorio Veneto).
  • Via Pietro Micca also houses upscale shops, but also one of the three shops of Frav. This 2-storey shop sells trendy clothes and is very popular in the city.
  • Via Lagrange, near Via Roma, is a pedestrian street and houses the Lagrange 15 shopping centre, with La Rinascente department store.
  • Le Gru is a shopping center in Grugliasco, just outside Turin. Easy access TO the center on the #17 bus. Consider timing your return trip to one of the infrequent #66 busses, or take a taxi back. Ikea store was in this area but now it has moved to Collegno.
  • Bookstores are very popular in Turin, and there are many in the Via Po area. An innovative bookshop is in Via Cesare Battisti, near a lovely square, Piazza Carignano. Together with books you can also sit down and have a cup of coffee, or the famous aperitivo. The Luxembourg International Bookshop is at V. Accademia delle Scienze, 3 (just off Piazza Castello) and it's your best destination for English-language novels, EFL teaching materials and foreign magazines and newspapers.
  • The Quadrilatero Romano is a trendy neighborhood north of Piazza Castello. It is the most ancient part of the city, and once was an unsafe area. But now there are many design shops (Marcopolo, via Sant' Agostino) and indepent shops like Autopsie Vestimentaire or Born In Berlin in its pedestrian cobbled streets. Lots of cozy restaurants and outddoor trendy cafes and bars.
  • Porta Palazzo in Piazza della Republica (north of the Quadrilatero) is the largest open air market in Europe, and a spectacle that is well worth the visit (from 6 am to 13 pm working days, from 6 am to 19 pm saturdays). A newly built building by the famous architect Massimiliano Fuksas remains unused.
  • 8 Gallery and Eataly 8 Gallery is a long corridor with various shops, located in Lingotto area, sharing the same building with Politecnico di Torino Automotive department and Turin University. Created by the famous architect Renzo Piano, it can be reached by autobus No.1, 35, 18, 17. Or if you are near the Lingotto FS station, you can pass a bridge which directly connect to the 8 Gallery. It is one of the few shopping centers which still open at Sunday. Next to 8 Gallery, Eataly is the greatest gourmet grocery in Europe: here you can buy, or eat, the best Italian food (guaranteed by Slow movement).
  • Il Frutto Permesso [14]
  • Locanda Belfiore [15]
  • Obelix, Piazza Savoia. This bar served a nightly aperitivo- meaning with the purchase of a beverage you receive unlimited access to a food buffet. During the aperitivo, all drinks (from water to cocktails) cost the same price, which is about EUR 8. The aperitivo starts around 18:00 and ends when the food runs out, usually around 21:00.
  • Gennaro Esposito, Via Passalacqua 1/g (near Piazza Statuto). 011 535 905. For about 15 euros, sit at one of the few tables and one of the best pizzas in Turin.
  • Fratelli La Cozza, Corso Regio Parco 39. 011 859 900. Outside the city center, this large pizzeria is brightly decorated and popular with large groups. If you're a couple, ask for a balcony seat for the best view!
  • Exki, Two locations in the center of Turin: Via XX Settembre 12 and Via Pietro Micca near Piazza Castello. 011 560 4108. The healthiest fast-food you'll find in Turin, Exki serves up fresh salads, soups, quiches and health-minded entrees at low prices. You'll also find a selection of fresh juices, organic beers and organic coffees.
  • Tre Galli, Via Sant'Agostino 25. 0115216027. Nice "Vineria" in the quadrilatero perfect for the aperitivo. Service is good and the ambiance is young and relaxed, not too trendy. Here you can eat or just drink. Typical dishes of Torino reinvented.
  • Sfashion Cafè, Via Cesare Battisti 13. 011 5160085. The owner and the decorations are the same of Fratelli La Cozza: kitsch an funny. Infact the owner is Piero Chiambretti, an Italian actor. Good pizza and southern italy dishes. Perfectly located on the lovely Piazza Carlo Alberto, pedestrianized.
  • L Birichin, Via Vincenzo Monti 16/a, 011 65 74 57, [16]]. $35-$45.
  • Arcadia, Galleria Subalpina (Piazza Castello), 011 56 13 898 beautiful place, sushi bar.
  • Trattoria Ala, Via Santa Giulia 24, 011 81 74 778. For about 35$ you will get delicious food and wine. Definitely to try Cantucci con vinsanto dessert. Beware that they cook Tuscan food, so if you are looking for local food, you may not be in the very right place.
  • Spada Reale, Via Principe Amedeo 53 (near Piazza Vittorio Veneto), 011 8171363. A classic restaurant with local Piedmontese as well as Tuscan offerings.  edit
  • Trattoria Decoratori & Imbianchini, via Lanfranchi 28, 10131, Torino, Tel. +39 011.819.06.72, fixed menu 24 euros, beverages excluded. Near the Gran Madre Church.
  • A Livella, Corso so Belgio 50/A, 011 86 00 173. Stylish restaurant with moderate prices.

Drink

Where before there were boatsheds, you will find many modern bars by the river Po at the Murazzi close to the bridge Ponte Vittorio Emanuele.

  • Vinicola Al Sorij Via Matteo Pescatore 10c (close to Piazza Vittorio), 011 835667, wine and entries.
  • Zonk Via Bellezia 20. 011 521 7568. In the heart of the Quadrilatero Romano, Zonk features an expansive cocktail list (from Mojitos to Manhattans to cocktails with dried, powdered scorpions!), long wine list and nightly aperitivo buffet in a funky environment. When the food is cleared away a live DJ starts spinning.
  • caffe rossini, Corso Regina Margherita (at the corner to Via Gioacchino). Caffe Rossini is a nice Caffe/Pub with music and young local people.  edit
  • lab, Piazza Vittorio Veneto, 13/E, +39 011 8170669‎. modern bar with lots of young people and nice music. some place to go out during the week when the city is sleeping.  edit
  • Hotel Due Mondi [17] Via Saluzzo, 3. (Savoyard City) Singles, doubles, and suites. Breakfast included.
  • Bed & Breakfast Casa Romar [18]
  • Hotel Nizza-Turin [19]
  • Hotel Conte Biancamano [20]
  • Hotel San Carlo [21]
  • Hotel Bologna [22] is right across the street from Porta Nuova station. Single rooms are EUR 50 per night and the staff are sweethearts.
  • Doria, Via Academia Albertina, 42 (near to Porta Nuova Train Station, Center) +39 011 889300. Single rooms are EUR 30, doubles EUR 40. TVs and bathrooms in the room, with very friendly staff.
  • Hosteling International Torino [23] Via Alby 1 (across the river from the city center in the area called La Collina) +39 011 6602939. Just outside the city center and up a fairly steep hill, Torino's main youth hostel is services by Bus #52 (get off across the river, after the obelisk). It's clean, quiet and includes breakfast, but there is an afternoon lockout. EUR 14.50 for dorm-room accommodation.
  • Serenella [24] Via conte Luigi Tarino, 4 (Center) +39 011 837031 Double from EUR 42. Clean and nice. Good prices for Turin.
  • Hotel Artua'&Solferino via Brofferio, 3. (Piazza Solferino). Rooms for 1-4 people. Internet access and parking available. $80-$200
  • Hotel Interporto, Sesta Strada Interporto Sud Sito, 10040, Tel. +39 011.3981600 | Fax. +39 011.3981750, [25]. Easily accessible from the Caselle highways and the nearby Caselle international airport, the three star Hotel Interporto is located in the Turin area.
  • Hotel Savoy Sestriere – Via Fralteve 7 - Cap: 10058, Sestriere, Italy. [26]. Telephone +39 0122 77040 • Fax +39 0122 76326. The Savoy Sestriere is three star hotel located in the city centre. A comfortable position to reach the ski slopes and lifts and the swimming centre. This three star hotel of Sestriere offers a large selection of bedrooms divided in single, double, triple, quadruple and suite. All rooms include modern service, as the internet access, and the private bath. The junior suite also boast a small living room and the Jacuzzi bathtub. Euros 65 for a single, and 90 for a double.
  • Relais Villa Matilde, Via Marconi 29, 10090 Romano Canavese (Torino). The Relais Villa Matilde Hotel is located in Romano Canavese, only 35 km away from Turin. Romano Canavese is a peaceful ancient town, dominated by a high bell tower and, situated near the boundaries of Valle d'Aosta.
  • Le Petit Hotel [27] Via San Francesco d'Assisi, 21.
  • Le Meridien Lingotto Via Nizza 262. Four-star business hotel in a former Fiat Lingotto factory located just outside city center. $200 and up.
  • Le Meridien Art + Tech Also at Lingotto, this hotel has 5 stars and features the architecture of Renzo Piano.
  • Hotel Diplomatic Via Cernaia 42.
  • Hotel Victoria Via Nino Costa, 4. Three-star. Junior Suites feature two-person jacuzzi bathtubs. Free wireless Internet in most rooms and lobby.
  • NH Santo Stefano[28] Located in the heart of the historical Torino, this hotel has also a beautiful spa. Few steps away from the nightlife of Quadrilatero Romano.
  • Golden Palace [29] A 5 star luxury hotel with charming rooms and impressive halls. Close to Via Roma and Piazza Castello.
  • AC10 [30] Next to Eataly and Lingotto center this 5 star hotel offer good prices for a quality accomodation.
  • Boston Art Hotel Exclusive 4 star design hotel in Turin historical center, near train station.

Stay safe

Generally Turin can be considered a safe city. Be aware that the Porta Nuova area (train station) can be pretty dangerous in its east side, not only at night (watch out for pickpockets). This especially applies to the San Salvario neighbourhoods, which lies between the station and Parco Valentino. Be very careful especially with your luggage and backpacks.

Also the areas near Porta Palazzo can be dangerous, especially in the smaller streets.

  • House of Savoy residences and hunting reserves. The city of Turin is surrounded by magnificent XVI, XVII and XVIII residences, like Royal Palace and Carignano Palace (in the centre of the city), Valentino Castle (inside the city, near the Po river, within Valentino Park), Rivoli Castle (10 km west of the city), Stupinigi Hunting Pavillion (between the town of Orbassano and Nichelino, south of the city), the Racconigi Castle (near border with Cuneo province).The two main Savoy's hunting reserves, La Mandria Park and Stupinigi Park, are now natural reserves.
  • The Alps. Turin is a city that feels its mountain legacy and their proximity is why so many inhabitants have second homes in the thousands of little valley villages. During Summer, if you have a day and want to relax, take a trip to Gran Paradiso National Park, or Orsiera Rocciavrè Park, or Val Varaita Park. During Winter, the Alps offer a wide range of ski resorts, from one of the world's greatest, Via Lattea, to a number of small ski areas which are less crowded and cheaper.
  • Saint Michael’s Abbey (Sacra di San Michele) [31] a fascinating ancient abbey built on top of a rock at the beginning of Susa Valley.

Turin is home to two football clubs , Juventus and Torino , playing in Serie A and B respectively. Juventus are the most successful club side in Italian domestic football and have won the UEFA Champions Leagye twice in their history , while Torino also have a proud history. They both play at the Olympic stadium constructed for the 2006 winter games.

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

Finnish

Proper noun

Torino

  1. Turin (town)

Declension


Italian

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Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Torino

Wikipedia it

Proper noun

Torino f.

  1. Turin (province)
  2. Turin (town)

Derived terms

Anagrams


Turkish

Proper noun

Torino

  1. Turin (province)

This Turkish entry was created from the translations listed at Turin. It may be less reliable than other entries, and may be missing parts of speech or additional senses. Please also see Torino in the Turkish Wiktionary. This notice will be removed when the entry is checked. (more information) August 2009


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