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Turin
Torino
—  Comune  —
Comune di Torino
A collage of Turin: in the top left is the Mole Antonelliana, followed by a view of the city under the snow, the Piazza Vittorio Veneto, the Royal Palace of Turin and the Museo del Risorgimento (Palazzo Carignano)

Coat of arms
Turin is located in Italy
Turin
Location of Turin in Italy
Coordinates: 45°04′N 07°42′E / 45.067°N 7.7°E / 45.067; 7.7Coordinates: 45°04′N 07°42′E / 45.067°N 7.7°E / 45.067; 7.7
Country Italy
Region Piedmont
Province Turin (TO)
Government
 - Mayor Sergio Chiamparino (Democratic Party)
Area
 - Total 130.17 km2 (50.3 sq mi)
Elevation 239 m (784 ft)
Population (30 April 2009)[1]
 - Total 910,188
 Density 6,992.3/km2 (18,110/sq mi)
 - Demonym Torinesi
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 10100, 10121-10156
Dialing code 011
Patron saint John the Baptist
Saint day June 24
Website Official website

Turin (Italian: Torino About this sound listen pronounced [toˈri(ː)no]; Piedmontese: Turin; pronounced [tyˈɾiŋ]) is a major city as well as a business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the left bank of the Po River surrounded by the Alpine arch. The population of the city proper is 909,193 (November 2008) while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants; the Turin metropolitan area is estimated by OECD to have a population of 2.2 million.[2]

Turin is a flourishing, industrious and cosmopolitan European city, which enjoys state-of-the-art technology and architectural developments.[3][4] The city boasts a rich culture and history, and is known for its numerous art galleries, restaurants, churches, palaces, operahouses, piazzas, parks, gardens, theatres, libraries, museums and other venues. Turin is well-known for its baroque, rococo and neo-classical architecture. Much of the city's public squares, castles, gardens and elegant palazzi (such as Palazzo Madama), were built by Sicilian architect Filippo Juvarra, who modeled these buildings on the Baroque and classical style of Versailles.[5] Examples of these French-themed edifices include the Royal Palace of Turin, the Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi and the Basilica di Superga. Turin is sometimes called the "cradle of Italian liberty", due to its having been the birthplace and home of notable politicians and people who contributed to the Risorgimento, such as Cavour.[6] The city currently hosts some of Italy's best universities, colleges, academies, lycea and gymnasia, such as the Polytechnic University of Turin. Prestigious and important museums, such as the Museo Egizio[7] and the Mole Antonelliana are also found in the city. Turin's several monuments and sights make it one of the world's top 250 tourist destinations, and the tenth most visited city in Italy in 2008.[8]

Turin used to be a major European political centre, being Italy's first capital city in 1861 and being home to the House of Savoy, Italy's royal family.[9] Even though much of its political significance and importance had been lost by World War II, it became a major European crossroad for industry, commerce and trade, and currently is one of Italy's main industrial centres, being part of the famous "industrial triangle", along with Milan and Genoa. Turin is ranked third, after Rome and Milan, for economic strength.[10] With a GDP of $58 billion, Turin is the world's 78th richest city by purchasing power,[11][12] and even though the city was unable to become a "world city", unlike Milan or Rome, it was ranked by GaWC as "economically efficient", along with Jerusalem, Genoa, Macau, Marseille, Liverpool, Strasbourg, Salt Lake City, Seville and Tijuana, to name a few.[13] Turin is also home to much of the Italian automotive industry.[14][15]

Turin is well known as the home of the Shroud of Turin, the football teams Juventus F.C. and Torino F.C., the headquarters of automobile manufacturers Fiat, Lancia and Alfa Romeo, and as host of the 2006 Winter Olympics. Several International Space Station modules, such as Harmony and Columbus, were also manufactured in Turin. It was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy from 1563, then of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the Royal House of Savoy and finally the first capital of a unified Italy.[16]

It is often referred to as "the Capital of the Alps". Turin is also known as "the Automobile Capital of Italy" or the Detroit of Italy; in Italy it is also called "[La] capitale Sabauda".

Contents

History

Roman times

In the first century BC (probably 28 BC), the Romans created a military camp (Castra Taurinorum), later dedicated to Augustus (Augusta Taurinorum). The typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city. Turin reached about 5,000 inhabitants at the time, all living inside the high walls.

Middle Ages

After the fall of the Roman Empire the town was conquered by the Lombards, then the Franks of Charlemagne (773). The Contea di Torino (or countship) was founded in the 940s, which was held by the Arudinic dynasty until 1050. After the marriage of Adelaide of Susa with Humbert Biancamano's son Ottothe family of the Counts of Savoy gained control. While the dignity of count was held by the Bishop as count of Turin (1092–1130 and 1136–1191) it was ruled as a prince-bishopric by the Bishops. In 1230-1235 it was a lordship under the Marquess of Montferrat, styled Lord of Turin.

At the end of the thirteenth century, when it was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy, the city already had 20,000 inhabitants.

Many of the gardens and palaces were built in the fifteenth century when the city was redesigned. The University of Turin was also founded during this period.

16th-18th century

The Battle of Turin, 1706

Emmanuel Philibert (Iron Head) made Turin the capital of the Duchy of Savoy in 1563. Piazza Reale, today named Piazza San Carlo and Via Nuova, today called Via Roma were added with the first enlargement of the walls, in the first half of the 17th century; in the same period the Royal palace (Palazzo Reale) was built. In the second half of that century, a second enlargement of the walls was planned and executed, with the building of the arcaded Via Po, connecting diagonally, through the regular street grid, Piazza Castello with the bridge on the Po.

In 1706, during the Battle of Turin, the French besieged the city for 117 days without conquering it. After the subsequent Treaty of Utrecht, the Kingdom of Sardinia was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy and the architect Filippo Juvarra began a major redesign of the city. Now the capital of a European kingdom, Turin had about 90,000 inhabitants at the time.

19th century

A view of Turin in the late 19th century. In the background, the Mole Antonelliana under construction.

In the nineteenth century, after brief occupation by Napoleon, the city began to actively pursue the unification of Italy. In 1871, the Fréjus Tunnel was opened, making Turin an important communication node between Italy and France. The city in that period had 250,000 inhabitants. Some of the most iconic landmarks of the city, like the Egyptian Museum, the Mole Antonelliana, the Gran Madre di Dio Church and Piazza Vittorio Veneto were built in this period. In 1861, Turin became the capital of the newly proclaimed United Italy. In 1865 the capital was moved to Florence. (Since 8 July 1871, the capital has been Rome.) Turin reacted to the loss of importance by beginning a rapid industrialisation: in 1899 Fiat was founded and Lancia in 1906. The Universal Exposition held in Turin in 1902 is often considered the pinnacle of Art Nouveau design, and the city hosted the Exposition again in 1911. By this time, Turin had grown to 430,000 inhabitants.

20th century

Turin 1911 Expo poster.

After World War I, conflicts between workers and industrialists began. The first strikes took place and in 1920 the Lingotto factory was occupied. Turin became a major industrial center during the first part of the 20th century thanks mainly to the automotive industry, insomuch that the city gained the nickname of Automobile Capital.

Turin was a target of Allied strategic bombing during World War II and was heavily damaged by the air raids. The city was a target because of its industrial production, including FIAT, which produced aircraft, tanks and automobiles for the Axis war effort. The Allied campaign in Italy had the Allies landing in southern Italy and pushing northward through Italian and German resistance. Turin was not captured by the Allies until the Spring Offensive of 1945, and, after a general insurrection, was liberated by Italian Partisans on April 25, 1945, only days before the German forces in Italy surrendered in May 1945.

After World War II, Turin was rapidly rebuilt and its industrial base saw a huge development throughout the 1950s and 1960s, which attracted hundred of thousands of immigrants from the southern regions of Italy. The population reached 1 million in 1960 and peaked at almost 1.2 million in 1971. In the 1970s and 1980s, the automotive industry crisis severely hit the city and its population began to sharply decline loosing more than one-fourth of its total in 30 years.

21st century

The long population decline of the city has begun to reverse itself in recent years, as the population grew from 865,000 in 2001 to 910,000 in 2009.

In 2006, Turin hosted the Winter Olympic Games.

Geography

Turin is located in northwest Italy. It is surrounded on the western and northern front by the Alps and on the eastern front by a high hill that is the natural prosecution of the hills of Monferrato. Four major rivers pass through the city: the Po and two of its tributaries, the Dora Riparia (later changed to "Duria Minor" by the Romans, from the Celtic duria meaning "water"), the Stura di Lanzo, and the Sangone.

Climate

Turin is located in a Humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen climate classification Cfa),[17] although close proximity to mountainous terrain results in conditions that can be variable with some continental characteristics. This is in contrast to the Mediterranean climate characteristic of the coast of Italy. Winters are cold but dry, summers are mild in the hills and quite hot in the plains. Rain falls mostly during spring and autumn; during the hottest months, otherwise, rains are less usual but more strong (thunderstorms are usual). During the winter and autumn months banks of fog, which are sometimes very thick, form in the plains.[18]

Climate data for Turin
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6
(43)
8
(47)
12
(55)
16
(61)
20
(69)
24
(76)
27
(82)
26
(80)
23
(74)
17
(63)
10
(51)
7
(45)
16
(62)
Average low °C (°F) -2
(28)
0
(31)
2
(37)
6
(43)
10
(51)
14
(58)
17
(63)
16
(62)
13
(56)
8
(47)
1
(35)
-1
(29)
7
(45)
Precipitation cm (inches) 4
(1.6)
4
(1.6)
6
(2.6)
9
(3.8)
11
(4.6)
9
(3.6)
5
(2.3)
6
(2.6)
7
(2.8)
8
(3.4)
7
(2.9)
4
(1.9)
85
(33.7)
Source: Weatherbase[19] 2008

Administration

Turin City Hall

The mayor of Turin is directly elected every four years. Sergio Chiamparino, the current mayor, belongs to the center-left coalition. Turin is divided into 10 boroughs; these do not necessarily correspond to historical districts in the city. The following list numerates the present day boroughs :(named Circoscrizioni) and the today location of the historical districts inside them:

  • Circoscrizione 1 Centro - Crocetta
  • Circoscrizione 2 Santa Rita - Mirafiori Nord
  • Circoscrizione 3 San Paolo - Cenisia - Pozzo Strada - Cit Turin - Borgata Lesna
  • Circoscrizione 4 San Donato - Campidoglio - Parella
  • Circoscrizione 5 Borgo Vittoria - Madonna di Campagna - Lucento - Vallette
  • Circoscrizione 6 Barriera di Milano - Regio Parco - Barca - Bertolla - Falchera - Rebaudengo - Villaretto
  • Circoscrizione 7 Aurora - Vanchiglia - Sassi - Madonna del Pilone
  • Circoscrizione 8 San Salvario - Cavoretto - Borgo Po
  • Circoscrizione 9 Nizza Millefonti - Lingotto - Filadelfia
  • Circoscrizione 10 Mirafiori Sud

Main sights

For a complete list of Turin's landmarks, see: Buildings and structures in Turin
The inside of the Museo Egizio, one of the most important and prestigious museums of Egyptian history and art in Italy and Europe.

Secular edifices

The symbol of Turin is the Mole Antonelliana, which is named after the architect who built it, Alessandro Antonelli. Construction began in 1863 as a Jewish synagogue. Nowadays it houses the National Museum of Cinema, and it is believed to be the tallest museum in the world (167 metres or 548 feet).

The Palatine Towers is an ancient Roman-medieval structure that served as one of four Roman city gates, which allowed access from north to the cardus maximus, the typical second main street of a Roman town. The Palatine Towers are among the best preserved Roman remains in northern Italy.

The Egyptian Museum of Turin specialises in archaeology and anthropology, in particular the Art of Ancient Egypt. It is home to what is regarded as one of the largest collections of Egyptian antiquities outside of Egypt. In 2006 it received more than 500,000 visitors.[20]

The Museum of Oriental Art houses one of the most important Asian art collections in Italy.[21][22]

Religious buildings

The Baroque Basilica di Superga.
The Gran Madre di Dio Church.

Turin Cathedral, dedicated to Saint John the Baptist (Italian San Giovanni Battista), is the major church of the city. It was built during 1491-1498 and it is adjacent to an earlier campanile (1470). The Chapel of the Holy Shroud, the current resting place of the Shroud of Turin, was added to the structure in 1668-1694. Attached to the cathedral is the chapel of the Santissimo Sudario, built by Guarini (1694), where is preserved in a casket a cloth believed to be the shroud in which the Body of Christ was wrapped when it was taken down from the Cross, The Church of Corpus Domini records a miracle which took place during the sack of the city in 1453, when a soldier was carrying off an ostensorium containing the Blessed Sacrament: the ostensorium fell to the ground, while the Host remained suspended in air. The present splendid church, erected in 1610 to replace the original chapel which stood on the spot, is the work of Ascanio Vittozzi. The Consolata, a sanctuary much frequented by pilgrims, stands on the site of the tenth-century monastery of S. Andrea, and is the work of Guarini. It was sumptuously restored in 1903. Outside the city, are: S. Maria Ausiliatrice, erected by Don Bosco; the Gran Madre di Dio, erected in 1818 on occasion of the return of King Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia; S. Maria del Monte (1583) on the Monte dei Cappucini; In the hills overlooking the city is the basilica church of Superga, providing a view of Turin against a backdrop of the snow-capped Alps. The basilica holds the tombs of many of the dukes of Savoy, as well as many of the kings of Sardinia. Superga can be reached by means of the Superga Rack Railway from the suburb of Sassi. The Basilica of Superga, with a dome 244 feet high, the work of Juvara, built by Amedeo II ex voto for the deliverance of Turin (1706), and which has served since 1772 as a royal mausoleum.[23]

Villas, parks and gardens

The Giardini Reali di Torino (Royal Gardens of Turin)
The Palazzina di Caccia di Stupinigi, outside the city.
The baroque Villa la Tesoreria
  • Parco della Pellerina - 837,220 m2 (the biggest urban park in Italy)[24]
  • Parco della Panoramica- 820,000 m2
  • Parco del Meisino - 450,000 m2
  • Parco della Maddalena - 450,000 m2
  • Parco Colletta - 448,000 m2
  • Parco della Rimembranza - 442,000 m2
  • Parco Colonnetti - 385,800 m2
  • Parco del Valentino - 421,000 m2, the main and most visited park in the city
  • Giardini Reali di Torino (Royal Gardens of Turin)
  • Parco naturale della Collina di Superga - 7,458,500 m2
  • Parco Cavour - 186,990 m2
  • Parco Ruffini or "del Valentino nuovo" - 127,860 m2
  • Parco Rignon - 46,200 m2

The largest and most popular parks in the city are: The Parco del Valentino, the Parco delle Pellerina, the Parco del Colletto, the Rignon park and the recent Colonnetti park. Around the city, there are several other parks, such as the Parco della Mandria and the Parco della Palazzina di Caccia di Stupinigi, ancient hunting grounds of the Savoy, and those situated on the hill of Turin. Many parks are smaller, and are present in the various districts: there are also 240 playgrounds present in such parks. The mayor Amedeo Peyron realized in the early 1960s the first garden in Italy with games for children. According to a report of Legambiente 2007, Turin is the first Italian city to impose structures and policies on childcare [25].

Turin, as the former capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia, is home of the Savoy Residences. In addition to the 17th-century Royal Palace, built for Madama Reale Christine Marie of France (the official residence of the Savoys until 1865) there are many palaces, residences and castles in the city centre and in the surrounding towns. Turin is home to Palazzo Chiablese, the Royal Armoury, the Royal Library, Palazzo Madama, Palazzo Carignano, Villa della Regina, and the Valentino Castle. The complex of the Residences of the Royal House of Savoy in Turin and in the nearby cities of Rivoli, Moncalieri, Venaria Reale, Agliè, Racconigi, Stupinigi, Pollenzo and Govone was declared a World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 1997. Turin's gardens include the Orto Botanico dell'Università di Torino, a historic botanical garden.

Demographics

Historical populations
Year Pop.  %±
1861 173,305
1871 210,873 21.7%
1881 250,655 18.9%
1901 329,691 31.5%
1911 415,667 26.1%
1921 499,823 20.2%
1931 590,753 18.2%
1936 629,115 6.5%
1951 719,300 14.3%
1961 1,025,822 42.6%
1971 1,167,968 13.9%
1981 1,117,154 −4.4%
1991 962,507 −13.8%
2001 865,263 −10.1%
2009 910,188 5.2%
Source: ISTAT 2001

In 2009, the city proper had a population of about 910,000, which is a significant increase on the 2001 census figure. This result is due to a growing immigration form Southern Italy and abroad. Approximately a 5.77 percent of the population is composed of foreigners, the largest numbers coming from Romania (44,158), Morocco (22,511), Albania (9,165), Peru (7,044), China (5,483), and Moldova (3,417).[26] Like many Northern Italian cities, there is a large proportion of pensioners in comparison to youth. Around 18 percent of the population is under 20 years of age while, 22 percent is over 65.[27] The population of the Turin urban area totals 1.7 million inhabitants, ranking fourth in Italy, while the Turin metropolitan area has a population of 2.2 million inhabitants. The median age is 43.7.[2]

Economy

Fiat 500 presentation in Turin

Turin is a major industrial center, where the headquarters of the car company FIAT are located. The city has a GDP of $58 billion and is the world's 78th richest city by purchasing power.[11][12] Even though the city was unable to become a "world city", it was ranked by GaWC as "economically efficient".

Turin is home to the Lingotto building, which was at one time the largest car factory in the world, and now houses a convention centre, a concert hall, a multiplex, an art gallery, a shopping centre and a Le Méridien hotel. Other companies founded in Turin are Lancia, Pininfarina, Bertone, Sparco, Italdesign, Ghia, Fioravanti, Stola, Intesa Sanpaolo, Superga, Invicta (1821), Lavazza, Martini & Rossi, Kappa and the chocolate factory Caffarel.

The city is also well known for its aerospace industry (Alenia). The International Space Station modules Harmony, Columbus, Tranquility, as well as the Cupola and all MPLMs were produced in Turin. The future European launcher projects beyond Ariane 5 will also be managed from Turin, by the new NGL company, a subsidiary of EADS (70%) and Finmeccanica (30%).

Turin is also the birthplace of some of the country's main companies, such as Telecom Italia (telecommunications), Rai (television), and cinema. Most of these industries have since moved their headquarters to other parts of Italy, but Turin still retains the National Museum of Cinema (in the Mole Antonelliana building).

On addition to industry, Turin has also established itself as an increasingly popular tourist destination, being the 203rd in the world in 2008, with around 240,000 international arrivals every year, coming after Heidelberg and Alicante, and surpassing Blackpool and Bilbao.[8] It came 10th in Italy, also coming after Rome, Milan, Venice, Florence, Naples, Palermo, Rimini,Verona and Genoa.[8]

Culture

Residences of the Royal House of Savoy*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Palazzo Reale.JPG
The Palazzo Reale di Torino (Royal Palace of Turin), which was once the home of the House of Savoy.
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iv, v
Reference 823
Region** Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1997  (21st Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.

Education

Turin is home to one of Italy's oldest universities, the University of Turin, which still ranks among the best universities in Italy. Another established university in the city is the Polytechnic University of Turin, that ranks among Top 50 universities in the world and # 1 in Italy ( "Academic Ranking of World Universities" published by Institute of Higher Education of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, in engineering, technology and computer science fields). The business school ESCP Europe, ranked among the 10 best business schools in Europe, also has a campus in Turin. In recent years, two small English language higher education institutions have been opened (St. John International University, International University College of Turin).

Political Science

With the Risorgimento, or "Resurgence", the city of Turin becomes the home of the struggle for Italian unification. At first this plan was pursued, according antimazziniana by a group of moderates from Piedmont with a Catholic and loyal to the monarchy: among these were Vincenzo Gioberti, Cesare Balbo and Massimo D'Azeglio, convinced that the unification of Italy were to come across a federation led by the Pope and by the army of Charles Albert. That was the plan of neo-Guelphs, frustrated by a few years from the behavior of Pius IX.

To resume some of their ideas, but clearly in the direction of liberal and progressive, was Camillo Benso Count Cavour who, although rejected the insurgency and democratic vision of Mazzini, was a supporter of a program of economic and social reforms which led first Piedmont and then Italy, through the alliance of the elites of the Peninsula, to the level of advanced nations. The program of neo-Guelph Gioberti, Cavour resisted the phrase "free church in a free state" and passivity towards the European events of Balbo he, once he becomes prime minister, moved towards a system of alliances with Napoleon III and l 'England led by liberal governments. Although not considered to achieve the implementation of its program through the participation of the people, however, Cavour encouraged the freedom of association, mutual aid societies and popular education. In addition, he helped transform the Statute Albert, through the practice, in a Constitution Member. The work of Cavour summoned from other parts of Italy some former Mazzini, disappointed by the failed insurrection, who found refuge in Turin. Between there were these Francesco De Sanctis and Nicholas Tommaseo, which in Turin composed the first Dictionary of Italian.

A renewal of liberal thought came with the new century, due to increased mass participation in political life and growth of the labor movement, by the Piero Gobetti. These, in the twenties, was founded in Turin the magazineThe Liberal Revolutionand thenThe Baretti, in which he also collaborated Eugenio Montale, Gobetti which had been the first editor of the collection Ossi di sepia. In addition to Montale, Gobetti gathered around the magazine a generation of young people in Turin, like Leone Ginzburg, Franco Antonicelli, Lionello Venturi, Felice Casorati, Carlo Levi , Augusto Monti, Giacomo Debenedetti, Natalino Sapegno and Mario Fubini.

Gobetti condemned the liberal ruling class that had led to fascism, while considering the heir of thought is that of Cavour Carlo Cattaneo. However, Gobetti identified in the proletariat and the bourgeoisie in the engine of the moral and political renewal of the nation.

Also in Turin, immediately after the World War, Antonio Gramsci, Palmiro Togliatti, Tasca and Umberto Terracini had given birth to the magazineThe new order, that would constitute the nucleus of what in 1921 would become Italian Communist Party. This online magazine condemned the reformist Socialists, identifying the Councils of Soviet factory and experience the line of political struggle.

Central to the Italian political culture has been the contribution of many intellectuals in Turin after World War II, among others, the group of students and professors who served in the ranks of Justice and Liberty and Party Action, heirs of thought Gobetti (among others, Cesare Pavese, Massimo Mila, Natalia Ginzburg, Alessandro Galante Garrone, Vittorio Foa and Norberto Bobbio).

Among the associations responsible for the study of historical thought and politics, who are based in Turin, are to be mentioned: the Gramsci Foundation, the Piero Gobetti Study Center, the Institute Gaetano Salvemini, the Center Pannunzio, the Rosselli, the Fondazione Luigi Einaudi and Fondazione Luigi Firpo - Center for Studies of Political Thought.

Publishing, journalism and media

After Alexandria, Madrid, New Delhi, Antwerp and Montreal, Turin was chosen by UNESCO as World Book Capital for the year 2006. The International Book Fair is one of the most important fairs of its kind in Europe. Turin is home to one of Italy's principal national newspapers, La Stampa, and the sports daily newspaper Tuttosport. The city is also served by other publications such as the Turin editions of La Repubblica, il Giornale, Leggo, City, Metro and E Polis. RAI has had a production centre in Turin since 1954.

Literature

Cover of the novel Cuore by Edmondo de Amicis.

A literary centre for many centuries, Turin began to attract writers only after the establishment of the court of the Duchy of Savoy.

One of the most famous writers of the 17th century is Giambattista Marino, which in 1608 moved to the court of Charles Emmanuel I; he however suffered an assassination attempt by a rival, Gaspar Murtola, and was later imprisoned for a year because of gossip that he had said and written against the duke, and perhaps for this, in 1615 he left Turin and moved to France.

The main literary figures during the Baroque age in Turin were Emanuele Tesauro and Alessandro Tassoni; in the next century the poet Vittorio Alfieri from Asti livede here for a while. The situation was very different in the 19th century, especially since the city became a point of reference for Italian unification and, subsequently, the capital of the Kingdom of Italy. Indeed, in those years Tommaseo, Settembrini and John Meadows resided in the city. A major literary and cultural woman of that time was Olympia Savio.

In the late 19th century and early 20th century, Turin was home to writers such as Guido Gozzano, Edmondo De Amicis and Emilio Salgari and Dino Segre, known by the pseudonym of Pitigrilli.

Turin has a very important role in Italian literature after World War II: to act as a catalyst is the publishing house founded by Giulio Einaudi, for which worked figures including Cesare Pavese, Italo Calvino, Vitaliano Brancati, Primo Levi, Natalia Ginzburg, Fernanda Pivano, Beppe Fenoglio, Carlo Fruttero and Franco Lucentini. In more recent years, writers active in the city are Giovanni Arpino, Nico Orengo, Giuseppe Culicchia, Margaret Oggero, Laura Mancinelli, Alessandra Montrucchio, Alessandro Perissinotto, Guido Quartz, Piero Soria and Alessandro Baricco.

Alessandro Baricco was also among the founders of the School Holden, dedicated to teaching the techniques of writing.

Art

View of the of the Four Doctors Triptych: St Gregory and St Jerome by Fra Filippo Lippi

Remaining a village for a long time, in 1559 the Duke Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy made the capital of his domains. In the Baroque period Turin became important to a court and the Dukes had the ambition to transform the city into a major artistic and cultural capital. That is why working in a city of artists of great repute, especially architects and planners, like Carlo di Castellamonte and his son Amedeo,which include the route of a Roman castrum the new capital and build beautiful buildings, Guarino Guarini and, in the eighteenth century, Filippo Juvarra and Alfieri.

As for the painting and the visual arts, Turin becomes a point of reference especially in the twentieth century. In the twenties by the painter Felice Casorati, which inspired a number of students, called The group of six of Turin, including Carlo Levi, Henry Paolucci, Gigi Chessa, Francis Menzio, Nicola Galante and Jessie Boswell. In this environment form two important artists: the sculptor Umberto Mastroianni and architect Carlo Mollino.

Between the sixties and seventies became the international center of Turin 'Arte Povera, the presence in the city of artists like Alighiero Boetti, Mario Merz, Giuseppe Penone, Piero Gilardi and Michelangelo Pistoletto. In those years is a strong artistic influence of a famousdesigner, Armando Testa, the founder of advertising agency. Currently operating in the city established artists, like Ugo Nespolo and Carol Rama.

Sport

The Olympic Arch erected for the 2006 Winter Olympics

The city is famous for two football teams: Juventus F.C. (founded in 1897) and Torino F.C. (founded in 1906). These squads play in the oldest derby in Italy: the Derby della Mole or Derby of Torino.[28] Juventus is Italy's most successful team, and one of the most prestigious[28] and successful in the world.[28] It ranks joint sixth in the list of the world's clubs with the most official international titles (third between European clubs),[29] was the first team in football history[30] – and the only one in the world to date (2009) – to have won all official international championships and cups for clubs[31][32] recognized by one of the six continental confederations (UEFA[33] in this case) and by FIFA.[30] Their former stadium Stadio delle Alpi was one of the host stadiums for the 1990 FIFA World Cup and it was demolished in 2006 to make way for Juventus' new stadium, the Juventus Arena. The two sides currently share occupancy of the Stadio Olimpico di Torino.

The FISA (International Rowing Federation) was founded in Turin in 1892.

In 1949, in the Superga air disaster, a plane carrying almost the whole Torino F.C. team (at that time the most important team in Italy and known as the Grande Torino) crashed into the Basilica of Superga in the Turin hills. Valentino Mazzola, father of Ferruccio and Sandro Mazzola (who were later to become football champions), was among those who perished in the crash.

The C.U.S. Torino volleyball team won the domestic league four times and, in the 1979–80 season, the Volleyball European Champion's Cup. It was the first team from western Europe to win this competition. In the 1990s the team was dismantled as a result of financial issues.

Turin hosted the 2006 Winter Olympics from February 10, 2006, through February 26, 2006. Turin, with a metropolitan area of 1.7 million,[34] was the largest city to have ever hosted a Winter Olympics.[35][36] The title fell to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, (2.5 million) when that city hosted the XXI Olympic Winter Games.[37]

Cinema

Turin is the Italian city where film chromatography was first established, because of the historic geographical and cultural proximity with the French cinema and the Lumière brothers. Just in Turin, in March 1896, the inventors performed the first cinema screening of a film ever occurred in Italy and, in November, in Via Po, the first before a paying audience.[38]

Some of the first Italian films first aired in Turin since 1907. Examples include Giovanni Pastrone Cabiria, in 1914, one of the first blockbusters in history.

Productions of the major houses, such as the Ambrosio, Itala film, Aquila and Fert Studios,[39] continue until 1937, the year of inauguration of Cinecitta in Rome.

The cinematic scene in Turin, however, does not cease. In 1956 the National Museum of Cinema opened, first hosted in the Palazzo Chiablese and then, from 2000, the imposing headquarters of the Mole Antonelliana. In the 1980s a group of academics and critics of Turin gave rise, with the support of local authorities, the film festival Film Festival that since 1997 was renamed the Torino Film Festival to get a point of reference at international level especially for experimental cinema and youth, second only to the historical Venice Film Festival in Italy.

Always take place in Turin on Torino GLBT Film Festival, the International Festival of Women's Cinema, the Sottodiciotto Film Festival connected to the themes of adolescence, CinemAmbiente and VIEW Conference (formerlyVirtuosity), an event dedicated to virtual reality.

Today Turin is one of the main of cinematographic and television centres in Italy, thanks to the role of Turin Film Commission that reports the production of many feature films, soap operas and commercials.

In 2002 will be opened as the studies Fert with the new name of Virtual Reality & Multi Media Park and Lumiq Studios begins its work.

They were born in Turin on the first Italian art house (the Roman Empire in the Gallery Subalpina in 1971), the main national film associations (l 'Ajax) and the first multiplex of the country (Elisha in 1983).

Cuisine

The iconic Gianduiotto

Turin chocolate firms produce a typical chocolate, called Gianduiotto, named after Gianduja, a local Commedia dell'arte mask; plus many other kinds of chocolate. Every year the town organizes CioccolaTÒ, a two-week chocolate festival run with the main Piedmontese chocolate producers, such as Caffarel, Streglio, Venchi and others, as well as some big international companies, such as Lindt & Sprüngli.

Other

Shroud of Turin

A recent photograph of the Shroud of Turin.

The city is home to the Shroud of Turin. It is a linen cloth bearing the image of a man who appears to have suffered physical trauma in a manner consistent with crucifixion. It is kept in the royal chapel of the Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist in the city centre. The origins of the shroud and its image are the still subject of intense debate among scientists, theologians, historians and researchers. It is popularly believed to be a depiction of Jesus Christ, however this matter is still controversial, as there seems to be a sufficient amount of historical and scientific evidence supporting the idea that it is, or is not, the Holy Face of Jesus. Nonetheless, it is a symbol of religious devotion and is one of the city's main symbols and tourist attractions.

Transport

Map of Turin Metro
Turin tramcar

The town currently has a large number of rail and road work sites. Although this activity has increased as a result of the 2006 Winter Olympics, parts of it had long been planned. Some of the work sites deal with general roadworks to improve traffic flow, such as underpasses and flyovers, but two projects are of major importance and will change the shape of the town radically.

One is the Spina ("spine") which includes the doubling of a major railroad crossing the town. The railroad previously ran in a trench, which will now be covered by a major boulevard. The Porta Susa on this section will become Turin's main station.

The other major project is the construction of a subway line based on the VAL system, known as Metrotorino. This project is expected to continue for years and to cover a larger part of the city, but its first phase was finished in time for the Olympic Games (inaugurated on 4 February 2006 and opened to the public the day after). The first leg of the subway system linked the nearby town of Collegno with Porta Susa railway station in Turin's town centre; on 4 October 2007 the line was extended to Porta Nuova railway station. This underground transportation project has historical importance for Turin, as the town has dreamed of an underground line for decades, the first project dating as far back as the twenties. In fact, the main street in the town centre (Via Roma) runs atop a tunnel built during the fascist era (when Via Roma was built). The tunnel was supposed to host the underground line but is now used as an underground car park. A project to build an underground system was ready in the seventies, with government funding for it and for similar projects in Milan and Rome; whilst the other two cities went ahead with the projects, Turin local government led by mayor Diego Novelli shelved the proposal as it believed it to be too costly and unnecessary, but that only meant more funding for Rome and Milan.

The city has an international airport known as Caselle International Airport Sandro Pertini (TRN), located north of the city about 13 kilometres from downtown and connected to the city by a railway service (from Dora Station) and a bus service (from Porta Nuova and Porta Susa railway stations).

Notable natives

Notable residents

Vittorio Emanuele II (1820-1878), the king of Italy and a citizen of Turin.

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Turin is twinned with:[43]

Collaboration accords with

Gallery

References

Notes

  1. ^ ‘City’ population (i.e. that of the comune or municipality) from demopgrahic balance: Januray-April 2009, ISTAT.
  2. ^ a b OECD. "Competitive Cities in the Global Economy". http://213.253.134.43/oecd/pdfs/browseit/0406041E.PDF. Retrieved 2009-04-30. 
  3. ^ "In Italy Online - From Ancient Art to Modern Technology in Turin". Initaly.com. http://www.initaly.com/regions/museums/sims.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  4. ^ "Weekend - Turin: Modern". Discoveritalia. http://www.discoveritalia.com/cgwe/cittaOggi.asp?lingua=en&IDcitta=2. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  5. ^ "Slow Travel Italy - Turin: Simple Elegance by Anne Robichaud". Slowtrav.com. http://www.slowtrav.com/italy/piedmont/turin_simple_elegance.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  6. ^ "Cavour, Count Camillo Benso di (1810–1861)". Ohio.edu. 1998-04-22. http://www.ohio.edu/Chastain/ac/cavour.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  7. ^ "ITALIA - Egyptian Museum of Turin". Italiantourism.com. http://www.italiantourism.com/egizio.html. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  8. ^ a b c "Euromonitor Internationals Top City Destinations Ranking > Euromonitor archive". Euromonitor.com. 2008-12-12. http://www.euromonitor.com/_Euromonitor_Internationals_Top_City_Destinations_Ranking. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  9. ^ "Turin - Culture & History". Smh.com.au. http://www.smh.com.au/travel/travel-factsheet/turin--culture-amp-history-20081128-6m77.html. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  10. ^ CENSIS
  11. ^ a b "City Mayors reviews the richest cities in the world in 2005". Citymayors.com. 2007-03-11. http://www.citymayors.com/statistics/richest-cities-2005.html. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  12. ^ a b "Global City GDP Rankings 2005 and by 2020". SkyscraperCity. http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=454910. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  13. ^ "GaWC - The World According to GaWC 2008". Lboro.ac.uk. 2009-06-03. http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2008t.html. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  14. ^ The Economic History of Italy 1860 ... - Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=DJvGpo_CH-UC&pg=PA98&lpg=PA98&dq=turin+automobile+industry&source=bl&ots=u3U72wY0AR&sig=IZNs-eWww1QDmfDrpxFikFWrc1c&hl=en&ei=7MHlSpvUL8Wr4QaV-q2LDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CA4Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=turin%20automobile%20industry&f=false. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
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  17. ^ http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/32/World_Koppen_Map.png
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  19. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Turin, Italy". Weatherbase. 2008. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weatherall.php3?s=95061&refer=. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  20. ^ Dossier Musei 2007 "I Dossier del Touring Club Italiano: Dossier Musei 2007" (in Italian). Touring Club Italiano. http://www.touringclub.it/ricerca/pdf/DOSSIER_MUSEI_2007.pdf Dossier Musei 2007. 
  21. ^ "Quelle meraviglie Mai Viste In Italia" (in Italian). La Repubblica. 2008-12-03. http://ricerca.repubblica.it/repubblica/archivio/repubblica/2008/12/03/quelle-meraviglie-mai-viste-in-italia.html. Retrieved 2009-05-21. 
  22. ^ "Mao Il Tesoro Dell' Arte Orientale" (in Italian). La Repubblica. 2008-12-03. http://ricerca.repubblica.it/repubblica/archivio/repubblica/2008/12/03/mao-il-tesoro-dell-arte-orientale.html. Retrieved 2009-05-21. 
  23. ^ http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Turin
  24. ^ Città di Torino - Verde Pubblico|
  25. ^ 20com% 20St% 20ecosistema% 20bambino% 202007.pdf Ecosystem child. Report Legambiente |
  26. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. http://demo.istat.it/str2006/index.html. Retrieved 2009-04-30. 
  27. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. http://demo.istat.it/pop2007/index.html. Retrieved 2009-04-30. 
  28. ^ a b c "Football Derbies: Derby della Mole". footballderbies.com. http://www.footballderbies.com/honours/index.php?id=39. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  29. ^ Only Milan (with 18 titles), Boca Juniors (18) and other three clubs: Independiente, Real Madrid (both with 15) and Al-Ahly (14) have won more official international titles.
  30. ^ a b "FIFA Classic Clubs: Juventus FC". FIFA Official website. http://www.fifa.com/classicfootball/clubs/club=31085/detail.html. Retrieved 2007-08-31. 
  31. ^ "La primera final italiana" (in Spanish) (PDF). La Vanguardia. 2003-05-15. p. 55. http://hemeroteca.lavanguardia.es/preview/2003/05/15/pagina-55/34004153/pdf.html. Retrieved 2009-11-15. 
  32. ^ "European clubs facts: Juventus FC". UEFA Official website. http://en.uefa.com/footballeurope/club=50139/domestic.html. Retrieved 2007-10-02. 
  33. ^ "UEFA club competitions press kit (.PDF archive, page 23)". UEFA Official website. http://www.uefa.com/printoutfiles/competitions/supercup/2006/e/e_84343_pk.pdf. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  34. ^ "Torino - Turin Italy City Profile". http://www.archaeolink.com/torino_turin_city_profile.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  35. ^ "Olympics by the numbers". USA Today. 2006-01-19. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/olympics/torino/2006-01-19-gns-by-numbers_x.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  36. ^ The 2002 Salt Lake City games also claims this title because at the time of the Olympics its Combined Statistical Area population was 1,516,227 and some events were held in the Provo metropolitan area of 400,209 (tables from the Census). . Accessed 2009-03-06. Archived 2009-05-16.
  37. ^ Judd, Ron C. (2003-07-02). "Vancouver to host 2010 Winter Olympics". The Seattle Times. http://archives.seattletimes.nwsource.com/cgi-bin/texis.cgi/web/vortex/display?slug=webvancouver02&date=2003-07-02. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  38. ^ "Le proiezioni cinematografiche a Torino" - di Pierluigi Capra
  39. ^ Servizio TorinoPlus del Comune di Torino|
  40. ^ http://www.eresie.it/id337.htm eresie.it (Italian) Retrieved on 2007-10-06
  41. ^ http://cronologia.leonardo.it/mondo41e.htm cronologia.leonardo.it (Italian) Retrieved on 2007-10-06
  42. ^ [1] (Italian) Retrieved on 2007-11-03
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Turin City Hall - International Affairs (English) Retrieved on 2008-01-26.
  44. ^ "Lile Facts & Figures". Mairie-Lille.fr. http://www.mairie-lille.fr/sections/site-en/Menu_horizontal_haut/discovering-lille/lille-facts-figures/lille-facts-figures. Retrieved 2007-12-17. 
  45. ^ "Twinning Cities: International Relations (NB Turin is listed as 'Consiglio Comunale di Torino')" (PDF). Municipality of Tirana. www.tirana.gov.al. http://www.tirana.gov.al/common/images/International%20Relations.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-23. 

External links








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