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A tornado near Anadarko, Oklahoma. The tornado itself is the thin tube reaching from the cloud to the ground. The lower part of this tornado is surrounded by a translucent dust cloud, kicked up by the tornado's strong winds at the surface.

A tornado is a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air which is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. The most intense of all atmospheric phenomena, tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes but are typically in the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris and dust. Most tornadoes have wind speeds between 40 mph (64 km/h) and 110 mph (177 km/h), are approximately 250 feet (75 m) across, and travel a few miles (several kilometers) before dissipating. The most extreme can attain wind speeds of more than 300 mph (480 km/h), stretch more than a mile (1.6 km) across, and stay on the ground for dozens of miles (more than 100 km).[1][2][3]

Various types of tornadoes include the landspout, multiple vortex tornado, and waterspout. Waterspouts have similar characteristics to tornadoes, characterized by a spiraling funnel-shaped wind current that form over bodies of water, connecting to large cumulus and thunderstorm clouds. Waterspouts are generally classified as non-supercellular tornadoes that develop over bodies of water.[4] These spiraling columns of air frequently develop in tropical areas close to the equator, and are less common at high latitudes.[5] Other tornado-like phenomena which exist in nature include the gustnado, dust devil, fire whirls, and steam devil.

Tornadoes are detected through the use of Pulse-Doppler radar though the use of velocity data and reflectivity patterns such as a hook echo, as well as by the efforts of storm spotters. Tornadoes have been observed on every continent except Antarctica. However, the vast majority of tornadoes in the world occur in the Tornado Alley region of the United States, although they can occur nearly anywhere in North America.[6] They also occasionally occur in south-central and eastern Asia, the Philippines, east-central South America, Southern Africa, northwestern and southeast Europe, western and southeastern Australia, and New Zealand.[7]

There are several different scales for rating the strength of tornadoes. The Fujita scale rates tornadoes by damage caused, and has been replaced in some countries by the updated Enhanced Fujita Scale. An F0 or EF0 tornado, the weakest category, damages trees but not substantial structures. An F5 or EF5 tornado, the strongest category, rips buildings off their foundations and can deform large skyscrapers. The similar TORRO scale ranges from a T0 for extremely weak tornadoes to T11 for the most powerful known tornadoes.[8] Doppler radar data, photogrammetry, and ground swirl patterns (cycloidal marks) may also be analyzed to determine intensity and assign a rating.[9]

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Etymology

The word tornado is an altered form of the Spanish word tronada, which means "thunderstorm". This in turn was taken from the Latin tonare, meaning "to thunder". It most likely reached its present form through a combination of the Spanish tronada and tornar ("to turn"); however, this may be a folk etymology.[10][11] A tornado is also commonly referred to as a "twister", and is also sometimes referred to by the old-fashioned colloquial term cyclone.[12] The term "cyclone" is used as a synonym for "tornado" in the often-aired 1939 film, The Wizard of Oz. The term "twister" is also used in that film, along with being the title of the 1996 tornado-related film Twister.

Definitions

A tornado near Seymour, Texas

A tornado is "a violently rotating column of air, in contact with the ground, either pendant from a cumuliform cloud or underneath a cumuliform cloud, and often (but not always) visible as a funnel cloud".[13] For a vortex to be classified as a tornado, it must be in contact with both the ground and the cloud base. Scientists have not yet created a complete definition of the word; for example, there is disagreement as to whether separate touchdowns of the same funnel constitute separate tornadoes.[3] Tornado refers to the vortex of wind, not the condensation cloud.[14][15]

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Funnel cloud

This tornado has no funnel cloud; however, the rotating dust cloud indicates that strong winds are occurring at the surface, and thus it is a true tornado.

A tornado is not necessarily visible; however, the intense low pressure which causes the high wind speeds (as described by Bernoulli's principle) and rapid rotation (due to cyclostrophic balance) usually causes water vapor in the air to become visible as a funnel cloud or condensation funnel.[16] When a funnel cloud extends halfway between the cloud base and the ground, it is considered a tornado.[17]

There is some disagreement over the definition of funnel cloud and condensation funnel. According to the Glossary of Meteorology, a funnel cloud is any rotating cloud pendant from a cumulus or cumulonimbus, and thus including most tornadoes under this definition.[18] Among many meteorologists, the funnel cloud term is strictly defined as a rotating cloud which is not associated with strong winds at the surface, and condensation funnel is a broad term for any rotating cloud below a cumuliform cloud.[3]

Tornadoes often begin as funnel clouds with no associated strong winds at the surface, though not all evolve into a tornado. However, many tornadoes are preceded by a funnel cloud. Most tornadoes produce strong winds at the surface while the visible funnel is still above the ground, so it is difficult to discern the difference between a funnel cloud and a tornado from a distance.[3]

Outbreaks and families

Occasionally, a single storm will produce more than one tornado, either simultaneously or in succession. Multiple tornadoes produced by the same storm cell are referred to as a "tornado family".[19] Several tornadoes are sometimes spawned from the same large-scale storm system. If there is no break in activity, this is considered a tornado outbreak, although there are various definitions. A period of several successive days with tornado outbreaks in the same general area (spawned by multiple weather systems) is a tornado outbreak sequence, occasionally called an extended tornado outbreak.[13][20][21]

Characteristics

Size and shape

A wedge tornado, nearly a mile wide. This tornado hit Binger, Oklahoma.

Most tornadoes take on the appearance of a narrow funnel, a few hundred yards (meters) across, with a small cloud of debris near the ground. Tornadoes may be obscured completely by rain or dust. These tornadoes are especially dangerous, as even experienced meteorologists might not spot them.[22] Tornadoes can appear in many shapes and sizes.

Small, relatively weak landspouts may only be visible as a small swirl of dust on the ground. Although the condensation funnel may not extend all the way to the ground, if associated surface winds are greater than 40 mph (64 km/h), the circulation is considered a tornado.[14] A tornado with a nearly cylindrical profile and relative low height is sometimes referred to as a "stovepipe" tornado. Large single-vortex tornadoes can look like large wedges stuck into the ground, and so are known as "wedge tornadoes" or "wedges". The "stovepipe" classification is also used for this type of tornado, if it otherwise fits that profile. A wedge can be so wide that it appears to be a block of dark clouds, wider than the distance from the cloud base to the ground. Even experienced storm observers may not be able to tell the difference between a low-hanging cloud and a wedge tornado from a distance. Many, but not all major tornadoes are wedges.[23]

A rope tornado in its dissipating stage. Tecumseh, OK

Tornadoes in the dissipating stage can resemble narrow tubes or ropes, and often curl or twist into complex shapes. These tornadoes are said to be "roping out", or becoming a "rope tornado". When they rope out, the length of their funnel increases, which forces the winds within the funnel to weaken due to conservation of angular momentum.[24] Multiple-vortex tornadoes can appear as a family of swirls circling a common center, or may be completely obscured by condensation, dust, and debris, appearing to be a single funnel.[25]

In the United States, tornadoes are around 500 feet (150 m) across on average and stay on the ground for 5 miles (8 km).[22] Yet, there is a wide range of tornado sizes. Weak tornadoes, or strong yet dissipating tornadoes, can be exceedingly narrow, sometimes only a few feet or couple meters across. One tornado was reported to have a damage path only 7 feet (2 m) long.[22] On the other end of the spectrum, wedge tornadoes can have a damage path a mile (1.6 km) wide or more. A tornado that affected Hallam, Nebraska on May 22, 2004, was up to 2.5 miles (4 km) wide at the ground.[2]

In terms of path length, the Tri-State Tornado, which affected parts of Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana on March 18, 1925, was on the ground continuously for 219 miles (352 km). Many tornadoes which appear to have path lengths of 100 miles (160 km) or longer are composed of a family of tornadoes which have formed in quick succession; however, there is no substantial evidence that this occurred in the case of the Tri-State Tornado.[20] Modern reanalysis of the path suggests that the tornado may have begun 15 miles (24 km) further west than previously thought, lengthening its track.[26]

Appearance

Tornadoes can have a wide range of colors, depending on the environment in which they form. Those which form in a dry environment can be nearly invisible, marked only by swirling debris at the base of the funnel. Condensation funnels which pick up little or no debris can be gray to white. While traveling over a body of water as a waterspout, they can turn very white or even blue. Funnels which move slowly, ingesting a lot of debris and dirt, are usually darker, taking on the color of debris. Tornadoes in the Great Plains can turn red because of the reddish tint of the soil, and tornadoes in mountainous areas can travel over snow-covered ground, turning white.[22]

Photographs of the Waurika, Oklahoma tornado of May 30, 1976, taken at nearly the same time by two photographers. In the top picture, the tornado is lit with the sunlight focused from behind the camera, thus the funnel appears bluish. In the lower image, where the camera is facing the opposite direction, the sun is behind the tornado, giving it a dark appearance.[27]

Lighting conditions are a major factor in the appearance of a tornado. A tornado which is "back-lit" (viewed with the sun behind it) appears very dark. The same tornado, viewed with the sun at the observer's back, may appear gray or brilliant white. Tornadoes which occur near the time of sunset can be many different colors, appearing in hues of yellow, orange, and pink.[12][28]

Dust kicked up by the winds of the parent thunderstorm, heavy rain and hail, and the darkness of night are all factors which can reduce the visibility of tornadoes. Tornadoes occurring in these conditions are especially dangerous, since only weather radar observations, or possibly the sound of an approaching tornado, serve as any warning to those in the storm's path. Most significant tornadoes form under the storm's updaft base, which is rain-free,[29] making them visible.[30] Also, most tornadoes occur in the late afternoon, when the bright sun can penetrate even the thickest clouds.[20] Night-time tornadoes are often illuminated by frequent lightning.

There is mounting evidence, including Doppler On Wheels mobile radar images and eyewitness accounts, that most tornadoes have a clear, calm center with extremely low pressure, akin to the eye of tropical cyclones. This area would be clear (possibly full of dust), have relatively light winds, and be very dark, since the light would be blocked by swirling debris on the outside of the tornado. Lightning is said to be the source of illumination for those who claim to have seen the interior of a tornado.[31][32][33]

Rotation

Tornadoes normally rotate cyclonically in direction (counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere, clockwise in the southern). While large-scale storms always rotate cyclonically due to the Coriolis effect, thunderstorms and tornadoes are so small that the direct influence of the Coriolis effect is unimportant, as indicated by their large Rossby numbers. Supercells and tornadoes rotate cyclonically in numerical simulations even when the Coriolis effect is neglected.[34][35] Low-level mesocyclones and tornadoes owe their rotation to complex processes within the supercell and ambient environment.[36]

Approximately 1% of tornadoes rotate in an anticyclonic direction. Typically, systems as weak as landspouts and gustnadoes can rotate anticyclonically, and usually only those which form on the anticyclonic shear side of the descending rear flank downdraft in a cyclonic supercell.[37] On rare occasions, anticyclonic tornadoes form in association with the mesoanticyclone of an anticyclonic supercell, in the same manner as the typical cyclonic tornado, or as a companion tornado either as a satellite tornado or associated with anticyclonic eddies within a supercell.[38]

Sound and seismology

Tornadoes emit widely on the acoustics spectrum and the sounds are caused by multiple mechanisms. Various sounds of tornadoes have been reported throughout time, mostly related to familiar sounds for the witness and generally some variation of a whooshing roar. Popularly reported sounds include a freight train, rushing rapids or waterfall, a jet engine from close proximity, or combinations of these. Many tornadoes are not audible from much distance; the nature and propagation distance of the audible sound depends on atmospheric conditions and topography.

The winds of the tornado vortex and of constituent turbulent eddies, as well as airflow interaction with the surface and debris, contribute to the sounds. Funnel clouds also produce sounds. Funnel clouds and small tornadoes are reported as whistling, whining, humming, or the buzzing of innumerable bees or electricity, or more or less harmonic, whereas many tornadoes are reported as a continuous, deep rumbling, or an irregular sound of "noise".[39]

Since many tornadoes are audible only in very close proximity, sound is not reliable warning of a tornado. And, any strong, damaging wind, even a severe hail volley or continuous thunder in a thunderstorm may produce a roaring sound.[40]

An illustration of generation of infrasound in tornadoes by the Earth System Research Laboratory's Infrasound Program

Tornadoes also produce identifiable inaudible infrasonic signatures.[41]

Unlike audible signatures, tornadic signatures have been isolated; due to the long distance propagation of low-frequency sound, efforts are ongoing to develop tornado prediction and detection devices with additional value in understanding tornado morphology, dynamics, and creation.[42] Tornadoes also produce a detectable seismic signature, and research continues on isolating it and understanding the process.[43]

Electromagnetic, lightning, and other effects

Tornadoes emit on the electromagnetic spectrum, with sferics and E-field effects detected.[42][44][45] There are observed correlations between tornadoes and patterns of lightning. Tornadic storms do not contain more lightning than other storms and some tornadic cells never produce lightning. More often than not, overall cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning activity decreases as a tornado reaches the surface and returns to the baseline level when the tornado lifts. In many cases, intense tornadoes and thunderstorms exhibit an increased and anomalous dominance of positive polarity CG discharges.[46] Electromagnetics and lightning have little or nothing to do directly with what drives tornadoes (tornadoes are basically a thermodynamic phenomenon), although there are likely connections with the storm and environment affecting both phenomena.

Luminosity has been reported in the past and is probably due to misidentification of external light sources such as lightning, city lights, and power flashes from broken lines, as internal sources are now uncommonly reported and are not known to ever have been recorded. In addition to winds, tornadoes also exhibit changes in atmospheric variables such as temperature, moisture, and pressure. For example, on June 24, 2003 near Manchester, South Dakota, a probe measured a 100 mbar (hPa) (2.95 inHg) pressure decrease. The pressure dropped gradually as the vortex approached then dropped extremely rapidly to 850 mbar (hPa) (25.10 inHg) in the core of the violent tornado before rising rapidly as the vortex moved away, resulting in a V-shape pressure trace. Temperature tends to decrease and moisture content to increase in the immediate vicinity of a tornado.[47]

Life cycle

A sequence of images showing the birth of a tornado. First, the rotating cloud base lowers. This lowering becomes a funnel, which continues descending while winds build near the surface, kicking up dust and other debris. Finally, the visible funnel extends to the ground, and the tornado begins causing major damage. This tornado, near Dimmitt, Texas, was one of the best-observed violent tornadoes in history.

Supercell relationship

Tornadoes often develop from a class of thunderstorms known as supercells. Supercells contain mesocyclones, an area of organized rotation a few miles up in the atmosphere, usually 1–6 miles (2–10 km) across. Most intense tornadoes (EF3 to EF5 on the Enhanced Fujita Scale) develop from supercells. In addition to tornadoes, very heavy rain, frequent lightning, strong wind gusts, and hail are common in such storms.

Most tornadoes from supercells follow a recognizable life cycle. That begins when increasing rainfall drags with it an area of quickly descending air known as the rear flank downdraft (RFD). This downdraft accelerates as it approaches the ground, and drags the supercell's rotating mesocyclone towards the ground with it.[14]

Formation

As the mesocyclone approaches the ground, a visible condensation funnel appears to descend from the base of the storm, often from a rotating wall cloud. As the funnel descends, the RFD also reaches the ground, creating a gust front that can cause damage a good distance from the tornado. Usually, the funnel cloud becomes a tornado within minutes of the RFD reaching the ground.[14]

Maturity

Initially, the tornado has a good source of warm, moist inflow to power it, so it grows until it reaches the "mature stage". This can last anywhere from a few minutes to more than an hour, and during that time a tornado often causes the most damage, and in rare cases can be more than one mile (1.6 km) across. Meanwhile, the RFD, now an area of cool surface winds, begins to wrap around the tornado, cutting off the inflow of warm air which feeds the tornado.[14]

Demise

As the RFD completely wraps around and chokes off the tornado's air supply, the vortex begins to weaken, and become thin and rope-like. This is the "dissipating stage"; often lasting no more than a few minutes, after which the tornado fizzles. During this stage the shape of the tornado becomes highly influenced by the winds of the parent storm, and can be blown into fantastic patterns.[20][27][28] Even though the tornado is dissipating, the tornado is still capable of causing damage. The storm is contracting into a rope-like tube and, like the ice skater who pulls her arms in to spin faster, winds can increase at this point.[24]

As the tornado enters the dissipating stage, its associated mesocyclone often weakens as well, as the rear flank downdraft cuts off the inflow powering it. In particular, intense supercells tornadoes can develop cyclically. As the first mesocyclone and associated tornado dissipate, the storm's inflow may be concentrated into a new area closer to the center of the storm. If a new mesocyclone develops, the cycle may start again, producing one or more new tornadoes. Occasionally, the old (occluded) mesocyclone and the new mesocyclone produce a tornado at the same time.

Though this is a widely accepted theory for how most tornadoes form, live, and die, it does not explain the formation of smaller tornadoes, such as landspouts, long-lived tornadoes, or tornadoes with multiple vortices. These each have different mechanisms which influence their development—however, most tornadoes follow a pattern similar to this one.[48]

Types

Multiple vortex

A multiple-vortex tornado outside Dallas, Texas on April 2, 1957.

A multiple-vortex tornado is a type of tornado in which two or more columns of spinning air rotate around a common center. Multivortex structure can occur in almost any circulation, but is very often observed in intense tornadoes. These vortices often create small areas of heavier damage along the main tornado path.[3][14] This is a distinct phenomenon from a satellite tornado, which is a weaker tornado which forms very near a large, strong tornado contained within the same mesocyclone. The satellite tornado may appear to "orbit" the larger tornado (hence the name), giving the appearance of one, large multi-vortex tornado. However, a satellite tornado is a distinct circulation, and is much smaller than the main funnel.[3]

Waterspout

A waterspout near the Florida Keys.

A waterspout is defined by the National Weather Service as a tornado over water. However, researchers typically distinguish "fair weather" waterspouts from tornadic waterspouts. Fair weather waterspouts are less severe but far more common, and are similar to dust devils and landspouts. They form at the bases of cumulus congestus clouds over tropical and subtropical waters. They have relatively weak winds, smooth laminar walls, and typically travel very slowly. They occur most commonly in the Florida Keys and in the northern Adriatic Sea.[49][50][51] In contrast, tornadic waterspouts are stronger tornadoes over water. They form over water similarly to mesocyclonic tornadoes, or are stronger tornadoes which cross over water. Since they form from severe thunderstorms and can be far more intense, faster, and longer-lived than fair weather waterspouts, they are more dangerous.[52]

Landspout

A landspout, or dust-tube tornado, is a tornado not associated with a mesocyclone. The name stems from their characterization as a "fair weather waterspout on land". Waterspouts and landspouts share many defining characteristics, including relative weakness, short lifespan, and a small, smooth condensation funnel which often does not reach the surface. Landspouts also create a distinctively laminar cloud of dust when they make contact with the ground, due to their differing mechanics from true mesoform tornadoes. Though usually weaker than classic tornadoes, they can produce strong winds which could cause serious damage.[3][14]

Similar circulations

Gustnado

A dust devil in Nevada

A gustnado, or gust front tornado, is a small, vertical swirl associated with a gust front or downburst. Because they are not connected with a cloud base, there is some debate as to whether or not gustnadoes are tornadoes. They are formed when fast moving cold, dry outflow air from a thunderstorm is blown through a mass of stationary, warm, moist air near the outflow boundary, resulting in a "rolling" effect (often exemplified through a roll cloud). If low level wind shear is strong enough, the rotation can be turned vertically or diagonally and make contact with the ground. The result is a gustnado.[3][53] They usually cause small areas of heavier rotational wind damage among areas of straight-line wind damage.

Dust devil

A dust devil resembles a tornado in that it is a vertical swirling column of air. However, they form under clear skies and are no stronger than the weakest tornadoes. They form when a strong convective updraft is formed near the ground on a hot day. If there is enough low level wind shear, the column of hot, rising air can develop a small cyclonic motion that can be seen near the ground. They are not considered tornadoes because they form during fair weather and are not associated with any clouds. However, they can, on occasion, result in major damage in arid areas.[22][54]

Fire whirls and steam devils

Small-scale, tornado-like circulations can occur near any intense surface heat source. Those that occur near intense wildfires are called fire whirls. They are not considered tornadoes except in the rare case where they connect to a pyrocumulus or other cumuliform cloud above. Fire whirls usually are not as strong as tornadoes associated with thunderstorms. However, they can produce significant damage.[20] A steam devil is a rotating updraft that involves steam or smoke. Steam devils are very rare. They most often form from smoke issuing from a power plant smokestack. Hot springs and deserts may also be suitable locations for a steam devil to form. The phenomenon can occur over water, when cold arctic air passes over relatively warm water.[22]

Intensity and damage

An example of EF1 damage. Here, the roof has been substantially damaged, and the garage door blown outwards, but the walls and supporting structures are still intact.

The Fujita scale and the Enhanced Fujita Scale rate tornadoes by damage caused. The Enhanced Fujita (EF) Scale was an upgrade to the older Fujita scale, by expert elicitation, using engineered wind estimates and better damage descriptions. The EF Scale was designed so that a tornado rated on the Fujita scale would receive the same numerical rating, and was implemented starting in the United States in 2007. An EF0 tornado will probably damage trees but not substantial structures, whereas an EF5 tornado can rip buildings off their foundations leaving them bare and even deform large skyscrapers. The similar TORRO scale ranges from a T0 for extremely weak tornadoes to T11 for the most powerful known tornadoes. Doppler radar data, photogrammetry, and ground swirl patterns (cycloidal marks) may also be analyzed to determine intensity and award a rating.[3][55][56]

The Greensburg High School, heavily damaged after a tornado rated EF-5 (the highest possible rating) struck the city of Greensburg, Kansas during the May 2007 tornado outbreak.

Tornadoes vary in intensity regardless of shape, size, and location, though strong tornadoes are typically larger than weak tornadoes. The association with track length and duration also varies, although longer track tornadoes tend to be stronger.[57] In the case of violent tornadoes, only a small portion of the path is of violent intensity, most of the higher intensity from subvortices.[20]

In the United States, 80% of tornadoes are EF0 and EF1 (T0 through T3) tornadoes. The rate of occurrence drops off quickly with increasing strength—less than 1% are violent tornadoes (EF4, T8 or stronger).[58] Outside Tornado Alley, and North America in general, violent tornadoes are extremely rare. This is apparently mostly due to the lesser number of tornadoes overall, as research shows that tornado intensity distributions are fairly similar worldwide. A few significant tornadoes occur annually in Europe, Asia, southern Africa, and southeastern South America, respectively.[59]

Climatology

Areas worldwide where tornadoes are most likely, indicated by orange shading

The United States has the most tornadoes of any country, nearly four times more than estimated in all of Europe, excluding waterspouts.[60] This is mostly due to the unique geography of the continent. North America is a large continent that extends from the tropics north into arctic areas, and has no major east-west mountain range to block air flow between these two areas. In the middle latitudes, where most tornadoes of the world occur, the Rocky Mountains block moisture and buckle the atmospheric flow, forcing drier air at mid-levels of the troposphere due to downsloped winds, and causing the formation of a low pressure area downwind to the east of the mountains. Increased westerly flow off the Rockies force the formation of a dry line when the flow aloft is strong,[61] while the Gulf of Mexico fuels abundant low-level moisture in the southerly flow to its east. This unique topography allows for frequent collisions of warm and cold air, the conditions that breed strong, long-lived storms throughout the year. A large portion of these tornadoes form in an area of the central United States known as Tornado Alley.[6] This area extends into Canada, particularly Ontario and the Prairie Provinces, although southeast Quebec, interior British Columbia, and western New Brunswick are also tornado-prone.[62] Tornadoes also occur across northeastern Mexico.[3]

The United States averages about 1,200 tornadoes per year. The Netherlands has the highest average number of recorded tornadoes per area of any country (more than 20, or 0.0013 per sq mi (0.00048 per km2), annually), followed by the UK (around 33, or 0.00035 per sq mi (0.00013 per km2), per year),[63][64] but most are small and cause minor damage. In absolute number of events, ignoring area, the UK experiences more tornadoes than any other European country, excluding waterspouts.[60]

Intense tornado activity in the United States. The darker-colored areas denote the area commonly referred to as Tornado Alley.

Tornadoes kill an average of 179 people per year in Bangladesh, the most in the world. This is due to their high population density, poor quality of construction, lack of tornado safety knowledge, as well as other factors.[65][66] Other areas of the world that have frequent tornadoes include South Africa, parts of Argentina, Paraguay, and southern Brazil, as well as portions of Europe, Australia and New Zealand, and far eastern Asia.[7][67]

Tornadoes are most common in spring and least common in winter.[20] Spring and fall experience peaks of activity as those are the seasons when stronger winds, wind shear, and atmospheric instability are present.[68] Tornadoes are focused in the right front quadrant of landfalling tropical cyclones, which tend to occur in the late summer and autumn. Tornadoes can also be spawned as a result of eyewall mesovortices, which persist until landfall.[69] Favorable conditions can occur any time of the year.

Tornado occurrence is highly dependent on the time of day, because of solar heating.[70] Worldwide, most tornadoes occur in the late afternoon, between 3 pm and 7 pm local time, with a peak near 5 pm.[71][72][73][74][75] Destructive tornadoes can occur at any time of day. The Gainesville Tornado of 1936, one of the deadliest tornadoes in history, occurred at 8:30 am local time.[20]

Associations with climate and climate change

Associations to various climate and environmental trends exist. For example, an increase in the sea surface temperature of a source region (e.g. Gulf of Mexico and Mediterranean Sea) increases atmospheric moisture content. Increased moisture can fuel an increase in severe weather and tornado activity, particularly in the cool season.[76]

Some evidence does suggest that the Southern Oscillation is weakly correlated with changes in tornado activity; which vary by season and region as well as whether the ENSO phase is that of El Niño or La Niña.[77]

Climatic shifts may affect tornadoes via teleconnections in shifting the jet stream and the larger weather patterns. The climate-tornado link is confounded by the forces affecting larger patterns and by the local, nuanced nature of tornadoes. Although it is reasonable that global warming may affect trends in tornado activity,[78] any such effect is not yet identifiable due to the complexity, local nature of the storms, and database quality issues. Any effect would vary by region.[79]

Detection

Rigorous attempts to warn of tornadoes began in the United States in the mid-20th century. Before the 1950s, the only method of detecting a tornado was by someone seeing it on the ground. Often, news of a tornado would reach a local weather office after the storm. However, with the advent of weather radar, areas near a local office could get advance warning of severe weather. The first public tornado warnings were issued in 1950 and the first tornado watches and convective outlooks in 1952. In 1953 it was confirmed that hook echoes are associated with tornadoes.[80] By recognizing these radar signatures, meteorologists could detect thunderstorms probably producing tornadoes from dozens of miles away.[81]

Radar

Today, most developed countries have a network of weather radars, which remains the main method of detecting signatures probably associated with tornadoes. In the United States and a few other countries, Doppler weather radar stations are used. These devices measure the velocity and radial direction (towards or away from the radar) of the winds in a storm, and so can spot evidence of rotation in storms from more than a hundred miles (160 km) away. When storms are distant from a radar, only areas high within the storm are observed and the important areas below are not sampled.[82] Data resolution also decreases with distance from the radar. Some meteorological situations leading to tornadogenesis are not readily detectable by radar and on occasion tornado development may occur more quickly than radar can complete a scan and send the batch of data. Also, most populated areas on Earth are now visible from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), which aid in the nowcasting of tornadic storms.[83]

A Doppler on Wheels radar loop of a hook echo and associated mesocyclone in Goshen County, Wyoming on June 5, 2009. Strong mesocyclones show up as adjacent areas of yellow and blue (on other radars, bright red and bright green), and usually indicate an imminent or occurring tornado.

Storm spotting

In the mid-1970s, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) increased its efforts to train storm spotters to spot key features of storms which indicate severe hail, damaging winds, and tornadoes, as well as damage itself and flash flooding. The program was called Skywarn, and the spotters were local sheriff's deputies, state troopers, firefighters, ambulance drivers, amateur radio operators, civil defense (now emergency management) spotters, storm chasers, and ordinary citizens. When severe weather is anticipated, local weather service offices request that these spotters look out for severe weather, and report any tornadoes immediately, so that the office can warn of the hazard.

Usually spotters are trained by the NWS on behalf of their respective organizations, and report to them. The organizations activate public warning systems such as sirens and the Emergency Alert System, and forward the report to the NWS.[84] There are more than 230,000 trained Skywarn weather spotters across the United States.[85]

In Canada, a similar network of volunteer weather watchers, called Canwarn, helps spot severe weather, with more than 1,000 volunteers.[83] In Europe, several nations are organizing spotter networks under the auspices of Skywarn Europe[86] and the Tornado and Storm Research Organisation (TORRO) has maintained a network of spotters in the United Kingdom since 1974.[87]

Storm spotters are needed because radar systems such as NEXRAD do not detect a tornado; merely signatures which hint at the presence of tornadoes.[88] Radar may give a warning before there is any visual evidence of a tornado or imminent tornado, but ground truth from an observer can either verify the threat or determine that a tornado is not imminent.[89] The spotter's ability to see what radar cannot is especially important as distance from the radar site increases, because the radar beam becomes progressively higher in altitude further away from the radar, chiefly due to curvature of Earth, and the beam also spreads out.[82]

Visual evidence

A rotating wall cloud with rear flank downdraft clear slot evident to its left rear

Storm spotters are trained to discern whether a storm seen from a distance is a supercell. They typically look to its rear, the main region of updraft and inflow. Under the updraft is a rain-free base, and the next step of tornadogenesis is the formation of a rotating wall cloud. The vast majority of intense tornadoes occur with a wall cloud on the backside of a supercell.[58]

Evidence of a supercell comes from the storm's shape and structure, and cloud tower features such as a hard and vigorous updraft tower, a persistent, large overshooting top, a hard anvil (especially when backsheared against strong upper level winds), and a corkscrew look or striations. Under the storm and closer to where most tornadoes are found, evidence of a supercell and likelihood of a tornado includes inflow bands (particularly when curved) such as a "beaver tail", and other clues such as strength of inflow, warmth and moistness of inflow air, how outflow- or inflow-dominant a storm appears, and how far is the front flank precipitation core from the wall cloud. Tornadogenesis is most likely at the interface of the updraft and rear flank downdraft, and requires a balance between the outflow and inflow.[14]

Only wall clouds that rotate spawn tornadoes, and usually precede the tornado by five to thirty minutes. Rotating wall clouds are the visual manifestation of a mesocyclone. Barring a low-level boundary, tornadogenesis is highly unlikely unless a rear flank downdraft occurs, which is usually visibly evidenced by evaporation of cloud adjacent to a corner of a wall cloud. A tornado often occurs as this happens or shortly after; first, a funnel cloud dips and in nearly all cases by the time it reaches halfway down, a surface swirl has already developed, signifying a tornado is on the ground before condensation connects the surface circulation to the storm. Tornadoes may also occur without wall clouds, under flanking lines, and on the leading edge. Spotters watch all areas of a storm, and the cloud base and surface.[90]

Extremes

A map of the tornado paths in the Super Outbreak

The most extreme tornado in recorded history was the Tri-State Tornado, which roared through parts of Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana on March 18, 1925. It was likely an F5, though tornadoes were not ranked on any scale in that era. It holds records for longest path length (219 miles, 352 km), longest duration (about 3.5 hours), and fastest forward speed for a significant tornado (73 mph, 117 km/h) anywhere on Earth. In addition, it is the deadliest single tornado in United States history (695 dead).[20] The tornado was also the second costliest tornado in history at the time, but in the years since has been surpassed by several others if population changes over time are not considered. When costs are normalized for wealth and inflation, it ranks third today.[91] The deadliest tornado in world history was the Daultipur-Salturia Tornado in Bangladesh on April 26, 1989, which killed approximately 1300 people.[65] Bangladesh has had at least 19 tornadoes in its history kill more than 100 people, almost half of the total in the rest of the world.

The most extensive tornado outbreak on record was the Super Outbreak, which affected a large area of the central United States and extreme southern Ontario in Canada on April 3 and 4, 1974. Not only did this outbreak feature 148 tornadoes in 18 hours, but many were violent; six were of F5 intensity, and twenty-four peaked at F4 strength. This outbreak had sixteen tornadoes on the ground at the same time during its peak. More than 300 people, possibly as many as 330, were killed by tornadoes during this outbreak.[92]

While it is nearly impossible to directly measure the most violent tornado wind speeds (conventional anemometers would be destroyed by the intense winds), some tornadoes have been scanned by mobile Doppler radar units, which can provide a good estimate of the tornado's winds. The highest wind speed ever measured in a tornado, which is also the highest wind speed ever recorded on the planet, is 301 ± 20 mph (484 ± 32 km/h) in the F5 Bridge Creek-Moore, Oklahoma tornado. Though the reading was taken about 100 feet (30 m) above the ground, this is a testament to the power of the strongest tornadoes.[1]

Storms that produce tornadoes can feature intense updrafts, sometimes exceeding 150 mph (240 km/h). Debris from a tornado can be lofted into the parent storm and carried a very long distance. A tornado which affected Great Bend, Kansas in November 1915, was an extreme case, where a "rain of debris" occurred 80 miles (130 km) from the town, a sack of flour was found 110 miles (177 km) away, and a cancelled check from the Great Bend bank was found in a field outside of Palmyra, Nebraska, 305 miles (491 km) to the northeast.[93] Waterspouts and tornadoes have been advanced as an explanation for instances of raining fish and other animals.[94]

Safety

Though tornadoes can strike in an instant, there are precautions and preventative measures that people can take to increase the chances of surviving a tornado. Authorities such as the Storm Prediction Center advise having a pre-determined plan should a tornado warning be issued. When a warning is issued, going to a basement or an interior first-floor room of a sturdy building greatly increases chances of survival.[95] In tornado-prone areas, many buildings have storm cellars on the property. These underground refuges have saved thousands of lives.[96]

Some countries have meteorological agencies which distribute tornado forecasts and increase levels of alert of a possible tornado (such as tornado watches and warnings in the United States and Canada). Weather radios provide an alarm when a severe weather advisory is issued for the local area, though these are mainly available only in the United States. Unless the tornado is far away and highly visible, meteorologists advise that drivers park their vehicles far to the side of the road (so as not to block emergency traffic), and find a sturdy shelter. If no sturdy shelter is nearby, getting low in a ditch is the next best option. Highway overpasses are one of the worst places to take shelter during tornadoes, as they are believed to create a wind tunnel effect, increasing the danger from the tornado by increasing the wind speed and funneling debris underneath the overpass.[97]

Myths and misconceptions

Salt Lake City Tornado, August 11, 1999. This tornado disproved several misconceptions, including the idea that tornadoes cannot occur in areas like Utah or in cities.

It is often thought that opening windows will lessen the damage caused by the tornado. While there is a large drop in atmospheric pressure inside a strong tornado, it is unlikely that the pressure drop would be enough to cause the house to explode. Some research indicates that opening windows may actually increase the severity of the tornado's damage. A violent tornado can destroy a house whether its windows are open or closed.[98][99]

Another commonly held belief is that highway overpasses provide adequate shelter from tornadoes. On the contrary, a highway overpass is a dangerous place during a tornado. In the 1999 Oklahoma tornado outbreak of May 3, 1999, three highway overpasses were directly struck by tornadoes, and at all three locations there was a fatality, along with many life-threatening injuries. The small area under the overpasses is believed to cause a wind tunnel effect.[100] By comparison, during the same tornado outbreak, more than 2000 homes were completely destroyed, with another 7000 damaged, and yet only a few dozen people died in their homes.[97]

An old belief is that the southwest corner of a basement provides the most protection during a tornado. The safest place is the side or corner of an underground room opposite the tornado's direction of approach (usually the northeast corner), or the central-most room on the lowest floor. Taking shelter under a sturdy table, in a basement, or under a staircase further increases chances of survival.[98][99]

Finally, there are areas which people believe to be protected from tornadoes, whether by being in a city, near a major river, hill, or mountain, or even protected by supernatural forces.[101] Tornadoes have been known to cross major rivers, climb mountains,[102] affect valleys, and have damaged several city centers. As a general rule, no area is "safe" from tornadoes, though some areas are more susceptible than others.[22][98][99]

Ongoing research

A Doppler On Wheels unit observing a tornado near Attica, Kansas

Meteorology is a relatively young science and the study of tornadoes is newer still. Although researched for about 140 years and intensively for around 60 years, there are still aspects of tornadoes which remain a mystery.[103] Scientists have a fairly good understanding of the development of thunderstorms and mesocyclones,[104][105] and the meteorological conditions conducive to their formation. However, the step from supercell (or other respective formative processes) to tornadogenesis and predicting tornadic vs. non-tornadic mesocyclones is not yet well known and is the focus of much research.[68]

Also under study are the low-level mesocyclone and the stretching of low-level vorticity which tightens into a tornado,[68] namely, what are the processes and what is the relationship of the environment and the convective storm. Intense tornadoes have been observed forming simultaneously with a mesocyclone aloft (rather than succeeding mesocyclogenesis) and some intense tornadoes have occurred without a mid-level mesocyclone. In particular, the role of downdrafts, particularly the rear-flank downdraft, and the role of baroclinic boundaries, are intense areas of study.[106]

Reliably predicting tornado intensity and longevity remains a problem, as do details affecting characteristics of a tornado during its life cycle and tornadolysis. Other rich areas of research are tornadoes associated with mesovortices within linear thunderstorm structures and within tropical cyclones.[107]

Scientists still do not know the exact mechanisms by which most tornadoes form, and occasional tornadoes still strike without a tornado warning being issued.[108] Analysis of observations including both stationary and mobile (surface and aerial) in-situ and remote sensing (passive and active) instruments generates new ideas and refines existing notions. Numerical modeling also provides new insights as observations and new discoveries are integrated into our physical understanding and then tested in computer simulations which validate new notions as well as produce entirely new theoretical findings, many of which are otherwise unattainable. Importantly, development of new observation technologies and installation of finer spatial and temporal resolution observation networks have aided increased understanding and better predictions.[109]

Research programs, including field projects such as VORTEX (Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment), deployment of TOTO (the TOtable Tornado Observatory), Doppler On Wheels (DOW), and dozens of other programs, hope to solve many questions that still plague meteorologists.[42] Universities, government agencies such as the National Severe Storms Laboratory, private-sector meteorologists, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research are some of the organizations very active in research; with various sources of funding, both private and public, a chief entity being the National Science Foundation.[88][110]

See also

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  65. ^ a b Bimal Kanti Paul, Rejuan Hossain Bhuiyan (2005-01-18). "The April 2004 Tornado in North-Central Bangladesh: A Case for Introducing Tornado Forecasting and Warning Systems" (PDF). http://www.colorado.edu/hazards/research/qr/qr169/qr169.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  66. ^ Jonathan Finch (2008-04-02). "Bangladesh and East India Tornadoes Background Information". http://bangladeshtornadoes.org/bengaltornadoes.html. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  67. ^ Michael Graf (2008-06-28). "Synoptical and mesoscale weather situations associated with tornadoes in Europe" (PDF). http://www.extremwetter.ch/thesis.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  68. ^ a b c "Structure and Dynamics of Supercell Thunderstorms". National Weather Service. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2008-08-28. http://www.crh.noaa.gov/lmk/?n=supercell/dynamics. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  69. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions: Are TC tornadoes weaker than midlatitude tornadoes?". Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2006-10-04. http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/L6.html. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  70. ^ Kelly, Schaefer, McNulty, et al. (1978-04-10). "An Augmented Tornado Climatology" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. American Meteorological Society. pp. 12. http://ams.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1175%2F1520-0493(1978)106%3C1172%3AAATC%3E2.0.CO%3B2. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  71. ^ "Tornado: Diurnal patterns". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2007. p. G.6. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-218362/tornado. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  72. ^ A.M. Holzer (2000). "Tornado Climatology of Austria". Atmospheric Research (56): 203–211. http://tordach.org/at/Tornado_climatology_of_Austria.html. Retrieved 2007-02-27. 
  73. ^ Nikolai Dotzek (2000-05-16). "Tornadoes in Germany" (PDF). Atmospheric Research. http://essl.org/people/dotzek/pdf/etss_1p.pdf. Retrieved 2007-02-27. 
  74. ^ "South African Tornadoes". South African Weather Service. 2003. http://web.archive.org/web/20070526105238/http://www.weathersa.co.za/References/Tornado.jsp. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  75. ^ Jonathan D. Finch, Ashraf M. Dewan (2007-05-23). "Bangladesh Tornado Climatology". http://bangladeshtornadoes.org/climo/btorcli0.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  76. ^ Roger Edwards, Steven J. Weiss (1996-02-23). "Comparisons between Gulf of Mexico Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies and Southern U.S. Severe Thunderstorm Frequency in the Cool Season". 18th Conference on Severe Local Storms. American Meteorological Society. http://www.spc.noaa.gov/publications/edwards/sstsvr.htm. 
  77. ^ Ashton Robinson Cook, Joseph T. Schaefer (2008-01-22). "The Relation of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) to Winter Tornado Outbreaks". 19th Conference on Probability and Statistics. American Meteorological Society. http://ams.confex.com/ams/88Annual/techprogram/paper_134378.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  78. ^ Robert J Trapp, NS Diffenbaugh, HE Brooks, ME Baldwin, ED Robinson, and JS Pal (2007-12-12). "Changes in severe thunderstorm environment frequency during the 21st century caused by anthropogenically enhanced global radiative forcing". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (50): 19719–23. doi:10.1073/pnas.0705494104. http://www.pnas.org/content/104/50/19719.abstract. 
  79. ^ Susan Solomon et al. (2007). Climate Change 2007 - The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK and New York, USA: Cambridge University Press for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. ISBN 9780521880091. http://ipcc-wg1.ucar.edu/wg1/wg1-report.html. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  80. ^ "The First Tornadic Hook Echo Weather Radar Observations". Colorado State University. 2008. http://www.chill.colostate.edu/w/CHILL_history#The_First_Tornadic_Hook_Echo_Weather_Radar_Observations. Retrieved 2008-01-30. 
  81. ^ Paul M. Markowski (April 2002). "Hook Echoes and Rear-Flank Downdrafts: A Review". Monthly Weather Review 130 (4): 852–876. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(2002)130<0852:HEARFD>2.0.CO;2. http://ams.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1175%2F1520-0493(2002)130%3C0852:HEARFD%3E2.0.CO%3B2. 
  82. ^ a b Airbus (2007-03-14). "Flight Briefing Notes: Adverse Weather Operations Optimum Use of Weather Radar" (PDF). SKYbrary. pp. 2. http://www.skybrary.aero/bookshelf/books/163.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-19. 
  83. ^ a b "Tornado Detection at Environment Canada". Environment Canada. 2004-06-02. http://www.mb.ec.gc.ca/air/summersevere/ae00s10.en.html. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  84. ^ Charles A. Doswell, III, Alan R. Moller, Harold E. Brooks (1999-08-02). "Storm Spotting and Public Awareness since the First Tornado Forecasts of 1948". Weather and Forecasting 14 (4): 544–557. doi:10.1175/1520-0434(1999)014<0544:SSAPAS>2.0.CO;2. http://ams.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1175%2F1520-0434%281999%29014%3C0544%3ASSAPAS%3E2.0.CO%3B2. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  85. ^ National Weather Service (2009-02-06). "What is SKYWARN?". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://www.weather.gov/skywarn/. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  86. ^ European Union (2009-05-31). "Skywarn Europe". http://www.skywarn.eu/. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  87. ^ Terence Meaden (1985). "A Brief History". Tornado and Storm Research Organisation. http://www.torro.org.uk/site/history.php. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  88. ^ a b National Severe Storms Laboratory (2006-11-15). "Detecting Tornadoes: What Does a Tornado Look Like?". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/primer/tornado/tor_detecting.html. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  89. ^ "Proposals For Changes in Severe Local Storm Warnings, Warning Criteria and Verification". Roger and Elke Edwards. 2003. http://www.stormeyes.org/tornado/verf/. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  90. ^ "Questions and Answers about Tornadoes". A Severe Weather Primer. National Severe Storms Laboratory. 2006-11-15. http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/primer/tornado/tor_basics.html. Retrieved 2007-07-05. 
  91. ^ Harold E Brooks, Charles A. Doswell III (2000-10-01). "Normalized Damage from Major Tornadoes in the United States: 1890–1999". http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/users/brooks/public_html/damage/tdam1.html. Retrieved 2007-02-28. 
  92. ^ Lee R Hoxit, Charles F Chappell (1975-11-01). "Tornado Outbreak of April 3–4, 1974; Synoptic Analysis" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/extremes/1999/april/TornOut.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  93. ^ Thomas P Grazulis (2005-09-20). "Tornado Oddities". http://www.tornadoproject.com/oddities/oddities.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  94. ^ Emily Yahr (2006-02-21). "Q: You've probably heard the expression, "it's raining cats and dogs." Has it ever rained animals?". Answers archive: Tornado history, climatology. USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/weather/resources/askjack/archives-tornado-history.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  95. ^ Roger Edwards (2008-07-16). "Tornado Safety". National Weather Service. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://www.spc.noaa.gov/faq/tornado/safety.html. Retrieved 2009-11-17. 
  96. ^ "Storm Shelters" (PDF). National Weather Service. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2002-08-26. http://web.archive.org/web/20060223072127/http://www.srh.noaa.gov/hun/preparedness/brochures/storm_shelter.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  97. ^ a b "Highway Overpasses as Tornado Shelters". National Weather Service. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2000-03-01. http://web.archive.org/web/20000616093920/http://www.srh.noaa.gov/oun/papers/overpass.html. Retrieved 2007-02-28. 
  98. ^ a b c Thomas P Grazulis (2001). "Tornado Myths". The Tornado: Nature's Ultimate Windstorm. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3258-2. 
  99. ^ a b c Tim Marshall (2005-03-15). "Myths and Misconceptions about Tornadoes". The Tornado Project. http://www.tornadoproject.com/myths/myths.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-28. 
  100. ^ Chris Cappella (2005-05-17). "Overpasses are tornado death traps". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/weather/resources/basics/tornado-underpass.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-28. 
  101. ^ Kenneth F Dewey (2002-07-11). "Tornado Myths & Tornado Reality". High Plains Regional Climate Center and University of Nebraska–Lincoln. http://www.hprcc.unl.edu/nebraska/tornado-myths.html. Retrieved 2009-11-17. 
  102. ^ John Monteverdi, Roger Edwards, Greg Stumpf, Daniel Gudgel (2006-09-13). "Tornado, Rockwell Pass, Sequoia National Park, 2004-07-07". http://tornado.sfsu.edu/RockwellPassTornado/index.html. Retrieved 2009-11-19. 
  103. ^ National Severe Storms Laboratory (2006-10-30). "VORTEX: Unraveling the Secrets". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/noaastory/book.html. Retrieved 2007-02-28. 
  104. ^ Micheal H Mogil (2007). Extreme Weather. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal Publisher. p. 210–211. ISBN 978-1-57912-743-5. 
  105. ^ Kevin McGrath (1998-11-05). "Mesocyclone Climatology Project". University of Oklahoma. http://mesocyclone.ou.edu/. Retrieved 2009-11-19. 
  106. ^ Thomas P Grazulis (2001). The tornado: nature's ultimate windstorm. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 63–65. ISBN 9780806132587. http://books.google.com/books?id=N6Tiz_7VmJoC&pg=PA64&lpg=PA64&dq=intense+tornadoes+without+a+mesocyclone&source=bl&ots=YGC2XX0ISy&sig=1Lfr2p8kNY5-2b0f0l1kr3Yb-ts&hl=en&ei=15YGS93ENIf9nQeJu8jDCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=intense%20tornadoes%20without%20a%20mesocyclone&f=false. Retrieved 2009-11-20. 
  107. ^ Erik Rasmussen (2000-12-31). "Severe Storms Research: Tornado Forecasting". The Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies. http://cimms.ou.edu/~erik/Tornadoes/Forecasting/Detailed/Detailed.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-27. 
  108. ^ United States Environmental Protection Agency (2009-09-30). "Tornadoes". http://www.epa.gov/naturalevents/tornadoes.html. Retrieved 2009-11-20. 
  109. ^ Grazulis, Thomas P. (2001). The tornado: nature's ultimate windstorm. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 65–69. ISBN 9780806132587. http://books.google.com/books?id=N6Tiz_7VmJoC&pg=PA64&lpg=PA64&dq=intense+tornadoes+without+a+mesocyclone&source=bl&ots=YGC2XX0ISy&sig=1Lfr2p8kNY5-2b0f0l1kr3Yb-ts&hl=en&ei=15YGS93ENIf9nQeJu8jDCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=intense%20tornadoes%20without%20a%20mesocyclone&f=false. Retrieved 2009-11-20. 
  110. ^ National Center for Atmospheric Research (2008). "Tornadoes". University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. http://www.ncar.ucar.edu/research/meteorology/storms/tornadoes.php. Retrieved 2009-11-20. 

Further reading

  • Howard B Bluestein (1999). Tornado Alley: Monster Storms of the Great Plains. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-510552-4. 
  • Marlene Bradford (2001). Scanning the Skies: a History of Tornado Forecasting. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3302-3. 
  • Thomas P Grazulis (January 1997). Significant Tornadoes Update, 1992–1995. St. Johnsbury, VT: Environmental Films. ISBN 1-879362-04-X. 

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

A tornado is a violently rotating column of air, in contact with the ground, either pendant from a cumuliform cloud or underneath a cumuliform cloud, and often (but not always) visible as a funnel cloud.

Sourced

  • A single experience of this awful convulsion of the elements suffices to fasten the memory of its occurrence upon the mind with such a dreadful force that no effort can efface the remembrance of it. The destructive violence of this storm exceeds in its power, fierceness, and grandeur all other phenomena of the atmosphere.
  • All morning, before the tornado, it had rained. The day was dark and gloomy. The air was heavy. There was no wind. Then the drizzle increased. The heavens seemed to open, pouring down a flood. The day grew black…

    Then the air was filled with 10,000 things. Boards, poles, cans, garments, stoves, whole sides of the little frame houses, in some cases the houses themselves, were picked up and smashed to earth. And living beings, too. A baby was blown from its mother’s arms. A cow, picked up by the wind, was hurled into the village restaurant.

  • Then the wind struck the school. The walls seemed to fall in, all around us. Then the floor at one end of the building gave way. We all slipped or slid in that direction. If it hadn’t been for the seats it would have been like sliding down a cellar door.

    I can’t tell you what happened then. I can’t describe it. I can’t bear to think about it. Children all around me were cut and bleeding. They cried and screamed. It was something awful. I had to close my eyes…

    • Gorham school student, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, March 20, 1925
  • Scenes of suffering and horror marked the storm and fire. Throughout the night relief workers and ambulances endeavored to make their way through the streets strewn with wreckage, fallen telegraph poles and wires and burning embers. The only light afforded was that of the burning area…
  • When the cloud, bloated with debris and tons of river mud, had passed over a slight rise of land to the east of the village, it left behind a landscape that passed beyond the bounds of despair into unreality. The handful of unscathed citizens from Griffin and surrounding districts were confronted with destruction so complete that some could only guess where they had once lived. The search for family and friends had a special hellishness, as fires flickered over the ruins and the injured wandered about in a daze, mud so thoroughly embedded in their skin that identification was all but impossible.
    • Peter Felknor, The Tri-State Tornado: The Story of America's Greatest Tornado Disaster (1992)
  • It is the public’s perception that their children are safe from tornadic wind events while at school because their school has an established tornado shelter. However, it may be a tornado shelter in name only; in fact, the only reason that area may be a “shelter” is because someone called it one. A tornado safer area designed by an experienced architectural and engineering team is essential in providing what FEMA has labeled “near-absolute” protection from tornadoes.
    • Corey Schultz, PBA Architects, Wichita, Kansas; John Metz, Building Data Services, Wichita, Kansas
  • Afterward, there was a lot of discussion about what people had thought it was. The noise had seemed to come from all corners of the sky at once. Journalists, armed with the thesaurus and apocalyptic scriptures, fumbled and were defeated by it. "A gulfy gulfy deliquescence of deranged and harnassed air"..."A volcano of the invisible, darkly contrued"... To the pleasure faithers with tiktok affections, it was the sound of clockworks uncoilding their springs and running down at a terrible speed. It was the release of vengeful energy. To the essentialists, it seemed as if the world had suddenely found itself too crammed with life, with cells splitting by the billions, molecules uncouplng to annihilation, atoms shuddering and juggernauting in their casings. To he superstitious it was the collapsing of time. It was the oozing of the ills of the world into one crepuscular muscle, intent on stabbing the world to its core for once and for all. To the more traditionally religious it was the blitzkrieg of vengeful angel armies, the awful name of the Unnamed God sounding itself at last—surprise—and the evaporation of all hopes for mercy. One or two pretended to think it was squadrons of flying dragons overhead, trained for attack, breaking the sky from its moorings by the thrash of tripartite wings. In the wake of the destruction it caused, no one had the hubris or courage (or the prior experience) to lie and claim to have known the act of terror for what it was: a wind twisted up in a vortical braid. In short: a tornado.
    • Gregory Maguire, "Wicked: the Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West"

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

TORNADO (Span., tornada, a turning about, cf. "turn"), a local whirlwind of extreme violence, usually formed within a thunderstorm. In appearance it consists of a funnel-shaped cloud, depending from the mass of storm-cloud above, and when fully developed tapering downwards to the earth. Besides its whirling motion, a tornado has an advancing movement of from 20 to 40 m. an hour - and along its own narrow path it carries destruction. Its duration is usually from half an hour to an hour. Tornadoes are most common in America, especially in the Mississippi Valley and the Southern states; in Europe and elsewhere they are comparatively rare. Owing to their association with thunderstorms they generally occur in warm weather. A tornado is the result of a condition of local instability in the atmosphere, originating high above the earth. A current of air is induced to ascend with a rapid spiral motion round a central core of low pressure. The moisture in the ascending air is condensed by cooling both as it ascends and as it expands into the low-pressure core. The cloud-funnel appears to grow downwards because the moisture in the air is condensed more rapidly than the air itself, following a spiral course, ascends.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also tornado

German

Noun

Tornado m. (genitive Tornados, plural Tornados)

  1. tornado

See also


Strategy wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Defender article)

From StrategyWiki, the free strategy guide and walkthrough wiki

Defender
Box artwork for Defender.
Developer(s) Williams
Publisher(s) Williams
Designer(s) Eugene Jarvis
Release date(s)
Genre(s) Shooter
System(s) Arcade, Apple II, Atari 8-bit, Atari 2600, Atari 5200, Intellivision, ColecoVision, Commodore 64/128, Commodore VIC-20, MS-DOS, TI-99/4A, Xbox Live Arcade, Entex Adventure Vision, GameTap
Players 1-2
"Zero" redirects here. For other uses, see Zero (disambiguation).
Defender marquee

Defender is considered one of the most challenging arcade games ever made. One look at the controls was enough to send many players in search of a simpler game. But those who were brave enough to attempt it found a compelling and addictive game, with an incredibly rich level of strategy. Defender was the brain child of early (and continuing) game developer Eugene Jarvis. Eugene wished to make a video game that immersed the player more than the myriad of Space Invader clones that flooded the markets, and by many experts' accounts, he succeeded.

Defender featured a beautifully horizontal scrolling world, something that was a rarity in its day, and made Defender unique among space shooters. Because the "world" was larger than the screen, Defender also featured a scanner at the top of the screen to give players indications of what was taking place off screen. In addition to the space craft's primary laser weapon, it had a limited supply of smart bombs that could wipe out everything on the screen, and a hyperspace ability. The control scheme for the game matched the complexity of the abilities available to the ship.

The Defender's job is to protect the remnants of humanity from a marauding band of alien invaders who wish to abduct the human race. Landers swoop down to the planet terrain and tractor beam a human to them, and then rise in to the sky with it. A cry for help alerts the player to fly to its rescue as quickly as possible. Either the player shoots the Lander and rescues the human, or the Lander merges with the human at the top of the screen and becomes a deadly mutant. A grim fate awaits the player who fails to keep humanity safe.

The break-neck pace of the action made the game an easy choice for Atari to buy the home licensing rights. They brought a conversion to the 2600 that was generally well received, despite it's short comings. But the version created for the 8-bit family of Atari computers was lauded as one of the best. Defender was also one of four games produced for the Entex Adventure Vision, a stand alone system that accepted cartridges. In fact, it was the system's pack-in game. Atarisoft handled the conversion of the game to several other home console and computer platforms. A few years later, the sequel Stargate would be released, but due to licensing issues, it was commonly known as Defender II. Defender was also released for download on the Xbox Live Arcade in 2006.

Story

The story is simple: You are the last line of defense against an invading legion of aliens who are determined to abduct all of the remaining humans to create an unstoppable army of hyrbid mutants. You pilot the only space craft capable of undoing their plans and protecting the fate of human life.

Table of Contents

Gameplay summary

  • You pilot the spaceship Defender with the controls. The joystick controls your height. Use Thrust and Reverse to control your position over the world.
  • You must destroy every enemy to advance to the next stage.
  • You must defend the Humanoid population from being abducted by Landers.
  • Your ship can fire a laser, launch a smart bomb that eliminates every visible enemy, or hyperspace.
  • If a Lander abducts a Humanoid, fly over as quickly as possible, destroy the Lander, capture the Humanoid before it hits the ground, and safely return it.
  • If a Lander makes it to the top of the screen with a Humanoid, it becomes a Mutant.
  • If all of the Humanoids are capture, the world explodes and every stage is a Mutant stage until after the next fifth round.
  • All Humanoids are restored after every fifth round.

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|200px|right|A F1 tornado in central Oklahoma. The tornado itself is the thin tube reaching from the cloud to the ground. The lower part of this tornado is surrounded by a translucent dust cloud, kicked up by the tornado's strong winds at the surface.]]

A tornado is a tube of spinning air that touches the ground. Wind inside the tornado spins very fast. This makes tornadoes very dangerous.

Tornadoes mostly happen during very strong thunderstorms called supercell storms. They cause a lot of damage to anything they touch. In the last 3 years 273 people have been killed by tornadoes.[1]

Tornadoes are ranked on the Fujita scale, from F0 to F5. F0 has the lowest wind speed, and F5 has the highest wind speed.

The United States of America has more tornadoes than any other country, but tornadoes can happen in any country. If a tornado is coming, the safest thing to do is go to a basement or a bathroom with no windows. People should never be in a car or a mobile home when there is a tornado near.

In the United States, the middle part of the country receives the most tornadoes, especially states like Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska. This part of the country is sometimes called "Tornado Alley".

Contents

Classifications

Tornado

A tornado is defined by the Glossary of Meteorology as "a violently rotating column of air, in contact with the ground, either pendant from a cumuliform cloud or underneath a cumuliform cloud, and often (but not always) visible as a funnel cloud..."[2]

Condensation funnel

A tornado is not necessarily visible; however, the intense low pressure caused by the high wind speeds (see Bernoulli's principle) and rapid rotation (due to cyclostrophic balance) usually causes water vapor in the air to condense into a visible condensation funnel. The tornado is the vortex of wind, not the condensation cloud. A funnel cloud is a visible condensation funnel with no associated strong winds at the surface. Not all funnel clouds evolve into a tornado. However, many tornadoes are preceded by a funnel cloud as the mesocyclonic rotation descends toward the ground. Most tornadoes produce strong winds at the surface while the visible funnel is still above the ground, so it is difficult to tell the difference between a funnel cloud and a tornado from a distance.

Tornado family

Occasionally, a single storm produces multiple tornadoes and mesocyclones. This process is known as cyclic tornadogenesis. Tornadoes produced from the same storm are referred to as a tornado family. Sometimes multiple tornadoes from distinct mesocyclones occur simultaneously.[3]

Tornado outbreak

Occasionally, several tornadoes are spawned from the same large-scale storm system. If there is no break in activity, this is considered a tornado outbreak, although there are various definitions. A period of several successive days with tornado outbreaks in the same general area (spawned by multiple weather systems) is a tornado outbreak sequence, occasionally called an extended tornado outbreak.[2][4]

Tornado attack

Sometimes, tornadoes attack in groups.[5] 148 tornadoes struck on the same day in April 1974.[5] Many towns in midwestern America and Canada were destroyed. More than 300 people died.[5] They were hit by flying wrecks, buried under houses, and thrown by powerful winds.

That day, students in Ohio were practicing for a play in the auditorium stage.[5] One girl looked out the window and saw the tornado.[5] The students ran into the hall, covering their heads. A few seconds later, all the school buses flew right onto the stage.[5]

A man in another town hid under the couch in his living room.[5] He held onto one couch leg. The tornado struck his house, and winds blew around him. When the tornado left, he was outside. There was no house. The couch had disappeared, and he was only holding onto one couch leg.[5]

Tornado watches and tornado warnings

A "tornado watch" is when the weather conditions look like a tornado could form. However, if there is a tornado watch, no tornadoes have been seen yet. A "tornado warning" is issued if someobdy has actually seen a tornado or if a tornado has shown up on radar.[6]

Safety tips

To keep safe in a tornado, here are some tips you can follow:[7]

  • Go to the lowest floor of a house or building. Huddle close to the center of the house or building. Stay away from windows.
  • Find a piece of strong furniture or a mattress to go under or hide in a closet and wait until it is over. Once a tornado blew away a whole house and left only the closet.
  • If you are in school when there is a tornado, do not go to the gymnasium or any other place that has a high ceiling. Squat near the wall, placing your hands on the back of your head.
  • If you are in a car, get out and look for somewhere else for shelter.
  • If you cannot find shelter, find the lowest, most protected ground and cover your head with your hands.

Other pages

References

  1. www.spc.noaa.gov/climo/online/monthly/newm.html
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Glossary of Meteorology, Second Edition". American Meteorological Society. 2000. http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/browse?s=t&p=34. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  3. Branick, Michael (2006). "A Comprehensive Glossary of Weather Terms for Storm Spotters". NOAA. http://www.srh.noaa.gov/oun/severewx/glossary4.php#t. Retrieved 2007-02-27. 
  4. Dylan J. Livengood; Harold E. Brooks, and Joseph T. Schaefer (2004). "Tornado Outbreak Day Sequences: Historic Events and Climatology (1875–2003)" (PDF). http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/81933.pdf. Retrieved 2007-03-20. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Herman, Gail (15 May 2010). Storm Chasers. New York: Penguin Group. ISBN 0-448-43337-0. 
  6. http://www.weather.com/ready/tornado/risk.html
  7. Oard, Michael (1997). The Weather Book. P.O. Box 126, Green Forest, AR 72638: Master Books. ISBN 0-89051-211-6. 

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