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Torture, according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture, is:
...any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him, or a third person, information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity. It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in, or incidental to, lawful sanctions.
—UN Convention Against Torture[1]
In addition to state-sponsored torture, individuals or groups may be motivated to inflict torture on others for similar reasons to those of a state; however, the motive for torture can also be for the sadistic gratification of the torturer, as was the case in the Moors murders.
.Torture is prohibited under international law and the domestic laws of most countries.^ United States against the torture bill, the war on Iraq, and the whole rotten turn that this country has taken under the Bush regime.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Amnesty International estimates that at least 81 world governments currently practice torture, some openly.^ For two basic reasons: Precedent that any President around the world could sign a piece of paper that unilaterally changed some element of an international treaty (not a bad reason); and that all of the military lawyers testified against the Torture Act.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Leaving the current Torture bill in place for at least another 2 years?
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[2]
Throughout history, torture has often been used as a method of effecting political re-education and coercion. In the 21st century, torture is considered to be a violation of human rights, and is declared to be unacceptable by Article 5 of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Signatories of the Third Geneva Convention and Fourth Geneva Convention officially agree not to torture prisoners in armed conflicts. Torture is also prohibited by the United Nations Convention Against Torture, which has been ratified by 145 states.
National and international legal prohibitions on torture derive from a consensus that torture and ill-treatment are immoral, as well as being impractical.[3] Despite these international conventions, however, many organizations (e.g. .Amnesty International) that monitor abuses of human rights report a widespread use of torture condoned by states in many regions of the world.^ If the condoning of torture is what this state can expect of Mr. Brown, don't expect my campaign dollars.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[4]

Contents

Etymology

The word 'torture' comes from the French torture, originating in the Late Latin tortura and ultimately deriving the past participle of torquere meaning 'to twist'.[5]
The word may be used loosely for more ordinary or daily discomforts which would be described as tedious rather than painful. For example: "The making of this web site was torture!"

Religious prohibitions of torture

Roman Catholic Church

The Catechism of the Catholic Church condemns the use of torture for certain motives as a grave violation of the Commandment "You shall not kill." In No. 2297-2298 it states:
Torture which uses physical or moral violence to extract confessions, punish the guilty, frighten opponents, or satisfy hatred is contrary to respect for the person and for human dignity.

Laws against torture

.On December 10, 1948 the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).^ This compromise is supported by Senator John McCain, a former POW who fought to ensure that this tribunal lives up to our national standards on human rights.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who could blame other nations for ignoring Habeas Corpus for detained Americans when the Republican Congress of the United States--aided and abetted by "Democrat" Mike McIntyre--now asserts that Habeas Corpus is not a universal right.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Article 5 states, "No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment."^ The bill prohibits the use of cruel, inhumane, and degrading treatment of detainees.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What it does is facily state that torture is a no-no but then leaves the judgement up to Bush...entirely.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[6] Since that time a number of other international treaties have been adopted to prevent the use of torture. .Two of these are the United Nations Convention Against Torture and for international conflicts the Geneva Conventions III and IV.^ For two basic reasons: Precedent that any President around the world could sign a piece of paper that unilaterally changed some element of an international treaty (not a bad reason); and that all of the military lawyers testified against the Torture Act.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States against the torture bill, the war on Iraq, and the whole rotten turn that this country has taken under the Bush regime.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ GWB gets to "interpret" the Geneva conventions GWB can call you an "enemy combatant" and lock you up FOREVER with a) No Charge b) No access to a lawyer c) no access to the evidence against you.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

United Nations Convention Against Torture

The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT) came into force in June 1987. The most relevant articles are Articles 1, 2, 3, and the first paragraph of Article 16.
.Article 1
1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term "torture" means any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity.
^ Bush's so-called "judgement" is OK with torture because HIS definition of torture is in line with the early memos: pain equivalent to that of suffering organ failure or death.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to lawful sanctions.
2. This article is without prejudice to any international instrument or national legislation which does or may contain provisions of wider application.
.Article 2
1. Each State Party shall take effective legislative, administrative, judicial or other measures to prevent acts of torture in any territory under its jurisdiction.
^ United States against the torture bill, the war on Iraq, and the whole rotten turn that this country has taken under the Bush regime.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]


.2. No exceptional circumstances whatsoever, whether a state of war or a threat of war, internal political instability or any other public emergency, may be invoked as a justification of torture.^ United States against the torture bill, the war on Iraq, and the whole rotten turn that this country has taken under the Bush regime.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]


3. An order from a superior officer or a public authority may not be invoked as a justification of torture.
.Article 3
1. No State Party shall expel, return ("refouler") or extradite a person to another State where there are substantial grounds for believing that he would be in danger of being subjected to torture.
^ What it does is facily state that torture is a no-no but then leaves the judgement up to Bush...entirely.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no bench in his state, and we need a governor to run next year while the GOP is disunited.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]


2. For the purpose of determining whether there are such grounds, the competent authorities shall take into account all relevant considerations including, where applicable, the existence in the State concerned of a consistent pattern of gross, flagrant or mass violations of human rights.
Article 16
.1. Each State Party shall undertake to prevent in any territory under its jurisdiction other acts of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment which do not amount to torture as defined in article I, when such acts are committed by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity.^ The bill prohibits the use of cruel, inhumane, and degrading treatment of detainees.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In acceding to the treaty, the United States opted to reserve under the Vienna Convention the right to interpret “cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment” differently than the rest of the international community.

^ International conventions prohibiting torture include prohibitions on cruel, inhumane, and degrading treatment of prisoners, and define those terms.

.In particular, the obligations contained in articles 10, 11, 12 and 13 shall apply with the substitution for references to torture of references to other forms of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.^ The bill prohibits the use of cruel, inhumane, and degrading treatment of detainees.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Map of the world with parties to the Convention against Torture shaded dark green, states that have signed but not ratified the treaty in light green, and non-parties in gray
Note several points:
  • Article 1: Torture is "severe pain or suffering".[7] The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) influences discussions on this area of international law. See the section Other conventions for more details on the ECHR ruling.
  • Article 2: There are "no exceptional circumstances whatsoever" where a state can use torture and not break its treaty obligations".[8]
  • Article 16: Obliges signatories to prevent "acts of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment", in "any territory under its jurisdiction".[nb 1][nb 2]
.As of June 2008, 145 states are parties to the Convention against Torture, and another nine states have signed but not ratified the treaty.^ For two basic reasons: Precedent that any President around the world could sign a piece of paper that unilaterally changed some element of an international treaty (not a bad reason); and that all of the military lawyers testified against the Torture Act.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States against the torture bill, the war on Iraq, and the whole rotten turn that this country has taken under the Bush regime.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[9]

Optional Protocol to the UN Convention Against Torture

The Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture (OPCAT) entered into force on 22 June 2006 as an important addition to the UNCAT. As stated in Article 1, the purpose of the protocol is to "establish a system of regular visits undertaken by independent international and national bodies to places where people are deprived of their liberty, in order to prevent torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment."[10] Each state ratifying the OPCAT, according to Article 17, is responsible for creating or maintaining at least one independent national preventive mechanism for torture prevention at the domestic level.

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court

Map of the world with the states parties to the International Criminal Court (as of June 2008) shown in green
The Rome Statute, which established the International Criminal Court (ICC), provides for criminal prosecution of individuals responsible for genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. .The statute defines torture as "intentional infliction of severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, upon a person in the custody or under the control of the accused; except that torture shall not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to, lawful sanctions". Under Article 7 of the statute, torture may be considered a crime against humanity "when committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, with knowledge of the attack".[11] Article 8 of the statute provides that torture may also, under certain circumstances, be prosecuted as a war crime.^ There was an excellent diary on this a couple of weeks ago persuasively arguing that a vote for the Torture Bill is itself a war crime.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Recommended by: grndrush , redglare , DrWolfy If torture is a war crime, then aren't those congresscritters who vote to authorize torture also guilty of war crimes?
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bush's so-called "judgement" is OK with torture because HIS definition of torture is in line with the early memos: pain equivalent to that of suffering organ failure or death.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[12]
The ICC came into existence on 1 July 2002[13] and can only prosecute crimes committed on or after that date.[14] The court can generally exercise jurisdiction only in cases where the accused is a national of a state party to the Rome Statute, the alleged crime took place on the territory of a state party, or a situation is referred to the court by the United Nations Security Council.[15] The court is designed to complement existing national judicial systems: it can exercise its jurisdiction only when national courts are unwilling or unable to investigate or prosecute such crimes.[16] Primary responsibility to investigate and punish crimes is therefore reserved to individual states.[17]

Geneva Conventions

.The four Geneva Conventions provide protection for people who fall into enemy hands.^ We elected people who are supposed to protect us from violations of the Constitution and human decency.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ GWB gets to "interpret" the Geneva conventions GWB can call you an "enemy combatant" and lock you up FOREVER with a) No Charge b) No access to a lawyer c) no access to the evidence against you.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyone who voted for this un-American bill is an enemy of the people .
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

The conventions do not clearly divide people into combatant and non-combatant roles. The conventions refer to "wounded and sick combatants or non-combatants" separately from "civilian persons who take no part in hostilities, and who, while they reside in the zones, perform no work of a military character"[18] as well as "Members of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict as well as members of militias or volunteer corps forming part of such armed forces", "Members of other militias and members of other volunteer corps, including those of organized resistance movements", "Members of regular armed forces who profess allegiance to a government or an authority not recognized by the Detaining Power", "Persons who accompany the armed forces without actually being members thereof, such as civilian members of military aircraft crews, war correspondents, supply contractors, members of labour units or of services responsible for the welfare of the armed forces", "Inhabitants of a non-occupied territory"[19]
.The third (GCIII) and fourth (GCIV) Geneva Conventions are the two most relevant for the treatment of the victims of conflicts.^ The Washington Post wrote about the legislation, "The compromise legislation does not seek to narrow U.S. obligations under the Geneva Conventions in the treatment of prisoners, as Bush had hoped."
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike President Bush's plan, this compromise measure prohibits the degrading treatment of detainees and specifically lists the types of behaviors that are banned in accordance with the Geneva Conventions.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Both treaties state in Article 3, in similar wording, that in a non-international armed conflict, "Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces who have laid down their arms...^ We must begin an active search for members of the state legislature who have morals and a tolerable agenda.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

shall in all circumstances be treated humanely." The treaty also states that there must not be any "violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture" or "outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment".[20][21]
.GCIV covers most civilians in an international armed conflict, and says they are usually "Protected Persons" (see exemptions section immediately after this for those who are not).^ Recommended by: DrWolfy If the Dems who voted for this bill had instead abstained, then you could say they "failed to protect" us from the neighbor's dog.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Under Article 32, protected persons have the right to protection from "murder, torture, corporal punishments, mutilation and medical or scientific experiments...but also to any other measures of brutality whether applied by non-combatant or military agents".
GCIII covers the treatment of prisoners of war (POWs) in an international armed conflict. .In particular, Article 17 says that "No physical or mental torture, nor any other form of coercion, may be inflicted on prisoners of war to secure from them information of any kind whatever.^ That is the same kind of logic that led people to say there was no difference between Gore and Bush.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Prisoners of war who refuse to answer may not be threatened, insulted or exposed to unpleasant or disadvantageous treatment of any kind." POW status under GCIII has far fewer exemptions than "Protected Person" status under GCIV. Captured enemy combatants in an international armed conflict automatically have the protection of GCIII and are POWs under GCIII unless they are determined by a competent tribunal to not be a POW (GCIII Article 5).

Geneva Convention IV exemptions

GCIV provides an important exemption:
Where in the territory of a Party to the conflict, the latter is satisfied that an individual protected person is definitely suspected of or engaged in activities hostile to the security of the State, such individual person shall not be entitled to claim such rights and privileges under the present Convention [ie GCIV] as would ... be prejudicial to the security of such State ... In each case, such persons shall nevertheless be treated with humanity (GCIV Article 5)
Also nationals of a State which is not bound by the Convention are not protected by it, and nationals of a neutral State in the territory of a combatant State, and nationals of a co-belligerent State, cannot claim the protection of GCIV if their home state has normal diplomatic representation in the State that holds them (Article 4), as their diplomatic representatives can take steps to protect them. The requirement to treat persons with "humanity" implies that it is still prohibited to torture individuals not protected by the Convention.
.The George W. Bush administration afforded fewer protections, under GCIII, to detainees in the "War on Terror" by codifying the legal status of an "unlawful combatant". If there is a question of whether a person is a lawful combatant, he (or she) must be treated as a POW "until their status has been determined by a competent tribunal" (GCIII Article 5).^ Detainees will be entitled to Combatant Status Review, where they may challenge their detention within the confines of the military tribunal system.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Very outspoken against the Bush administration and the Iraq war [for which the WAPO gave him endless amounts of shit].
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States against the torture bill, the war on Iraq, and the whole rotten turn that this country has taken under the Bush regime.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

If the tribunal decides that he is an unlawful combatant, he is not considered a protected person under GCIII. However, if he is a protected person under GCIV he still has some protection under GCIV, and must be "treated with humanity and, in case of trial, shall not be deprived of the rights of fair and regular trial prescribed by the present Convention" (GCIV Article 5).[nb 3]

Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions

There are two additional protocols to the Geneva Convention: Protocol I (1977), relating to the protection of victims of international armed conflicts and Protocol II (1977), relating to the protection of victims of non-international armed conflicts. .These clarify and extend the definitions in some areas, but to date many countries, including the United States, have either not signed them or have not ratified them.^ United States against the torture bill, the war on Iraq, and the whole rotten turn that this country has taken under the Bush regime.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Protocol I does not mention torture but it does affect the treatment of POWs and Protected Persons. In Article 5, the protocol explicitly involves "the appointment of Protecting Powers and of their substitute" to monitor that the Parties to the conflict are enforcing the Conventions.[22] .The protocol also broadens the definition of a lawful combatant in wars against "alien occupation, colonial domination and racist regimes" to include those who carry arms openly but are not wearing uniforms, so that they are now lawful combatants and protected by the Geneva Conventions—although only if the Occupying Power has ratified Protocol I. Under the original conventions combatants without a recognisable insignia could be treated as criminals, and potentially be executed.^ Recommended by: grndrush , redglare , DrWolfy If torture is a war crime, then aren't those congresscritters who vote to authorize torture also guilty of war crimes?
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton was the first to defend those who made POLITICAL mistakes, but he did not tolerate offenses against the United States (which he kinda built from the ground up).
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Washington Post wrote about the legislation, "The compromise legislation does not seek to narrow U.S. obligations under the Geneva Conventions in the treatment of prisoners, as Bush had hoped."
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

It also mentions spies, and defines who is a mercenary. Mercenaries and spies are considered an unlawful combatant, and not protected by the same conventions.
Protocol II "develops and supplements Article 3 [relating to the protection of victims of non-international armed conflicts] common to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 without modifying its existing conditions of application" (Article 1). Any person who does not take part in or ceased to take part in hostilities is entitled to humane treatment. .Among the acts prohibited against these persons are, "Violence to the life, health and physical or mental well-being of persons, in particular murder as well as cruel treatment such as torture, mutilation or any form of corporal punishment" (Article 4.a), "Outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment, rape, enforced prostitution and any form of indecent assault" (Article 4.e), and "Threats to commit any of the foregoing acts" (Article 4.h).^ The bill prohibits the use of cruel, inhumane, and degrading treatment of detainees.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike President Bush's plan, this compromise measure prohibits the degrading treatment of detainees and specifically lists the types of behaviors that are banned in accordance with the Geneva Conventions.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[23] There are clauses in other articles which implore humane treatment of enemy personnel in an internal conflict, which have a bearing on the use of torture, but there are no other clauses which explicitly mention torture.

Other conventions

.In accordance with the optional UN Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (1955), "corporal punishment, punishment by placing in a dark cell, and all cruel, inhuman or degrading punishments shall be completely prohibited as punishments for disciplinary offences."[24] The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, (16 December 1966), explicitly prohibits torture and "cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment" by signatories.^ The bill prohibits the use of cruel, inhumane, and degrading treatment of detainees.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike President Bush's plan, this compromise measure prohibits the degrading treatment of detainees and specifically lists the types of behaviors that are banned in accordance with the Geneva Conventions.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[25]

European agreements

Article 4 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union prohibits torture.
In 1950 during the Cold War, the participating member states of the Council of Europe signed the European Convention on Human Rights. The treaty was based on the UDHR. It included the provision for a court to interpret the treaty, and Article 3 "Prohibition of torture" stated; "No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment."[26]
In 1978, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the five techniques of "sensory deprivation" were not torture as laid out in Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights, but were "inhuman or degrading treatment"[27] (see Accusations of use of torture by United Kingdom for details). This case occurred nine years before the United Nations Convention Against Torture came into force and had an influence on thinking about what constitutes torture ever since.[28]
On 26 November 1987 the member states of the Council of Europe, meeting at Strasbourg, adopted the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (ECPT). Two additional Protocols amended the Convention, which entered into force on 1 March 2002. The Convention set up the Committee for the Prevention of Torture to oversee compliance with its provisions.

Inter-American Convention

.The Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture, currently ratified by 17 nations of the Americas and in force since 28 February 1987, defines torture more expansively than the United Nations Convention Against Torture.^ Oppose torture by Americans to prevent torture of Americans!
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even more important, if you live in these districts, initiate conversations with people about the torture issue, since so many people are blissfully unaware.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Recommended by: grndrush To the fact that they all decided that torture and gulags, sacrificing habeas, were all more important than the actual Constitution and their oath to the same.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.For the purposes of this Convention, torture shall be understood to be any act intentionally performed whereby physical or mental pain or suffering is inflicted on a person for purposes of criminal investigation, as a means of intimidation, as personal punishment, as a preventive measure, as a penalty, or for any other purpose.^ Bush's so-called "judgement" is OK with torture because HIS definition of torture is in line with the early memos: pain equivalent to that of suffering organ failure or death.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The problem with the bill is lack of enforcement if torture does occur (actually, mechanisms to prevent and/or punish it are left totally up to the President), but that doesn't mean that the torture itself is legal.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Torture shall also be understood to be the use of methods upon a person intended to obliterate the personality of the victim or to diminish his physical or mental capacities, even if they do not cause physical pain or mental anguish.
.The concept of torture shall not include physical or mental pain or suffering that is inherent in or solely the consequence of lawful measures, provided that they do not include the performance of the acts or use of the methods referred to in this article.^ Bush's so-called "judgement" is OK with torture because HIS definition of torture is in line with the early memos: pain equivalent to that of suffering organ failure or death.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[29]

Supervision of anti-torture treaties

The Istanbul Protocol, an official UN document, is the first set of international guidelines for documentation of torture and its consequences. It became a United Nations official document in 1999.
.Under the provisions of OPCAT that entered into force on 22 June 2006 independent international and national bodies will regularly visit places where people are deprived of their liberty, in order to prevent torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.^ The bill prohibits the use of cruel, inhumane, and degrading treatment of detainees.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Each state that ratified the OPCAT, according to Article 17, is responsible for creating or maintaining at least one independent national preventative mechanism for torture prevention at the domestic level.
The European Committee for the Prevention of Torture, citing Article 1 of the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture, stipulates, "visits, [countries to] examine the treatment of persons deprived of their liberty with a view to strengthening, if necessary, the protection of such persons from torture and from inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment".[30]
In times of armed conflict between a signatory of the Geneva conventions and another party, delegates of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) monitor the compliance of signatories to the Geneva Conventions, which includes monitoring the use of torture. .Human rights organizations, such as Amnesty International, the World Organization Against Torture, and Association for the Prevention of Torture work actively to stop the use of torture throughout the world and publish reports on any activities they consider to be torture.^ For two basic reasons: Precedent that any President around the world could sign a piece of paper that unilaterally changed some element of an international treaty (not a bad reason); and that all of the military lawyers testified against the Torture Act.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Following Democrats voted for the Torture--"Terrorist" Tribunal bill and against the US Constitution and the Bill of Rights: .
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[31]

Municipal law

.States that ratified the United Nations Convention Against Torture have a treaty obligation to include the provisions into municipal law.^ Hamilton was the first to defend those who made POLITICAL mistakes, but he did not tolerate offenses against the United States (which he kinda built from the ground up).
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States against the torture bill, the war on Iraq, and the whole rotten turn that this country has taken under the Bush regime.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

The laws of many states therefore formally prohibit torture. .However, such de jure legal provisions are by no means a proof that, de facto, the signatory country does not use torture.^ What it does is facily state that torture is a no-no but then leaves the judgement up to Bush...entirely.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The problem with the bill is lack of enforcement if torture does occur (actually, mechanisms to prevent and/or punish it are left totally up to the President), but that doesn't mean that the torture itself is legal.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.To prevent torture, many legal systems have a right against self-incrimination or explicitly prohibit undue force when dealing with suspects.^ The Following Democrats voted for the Torture--"Terrorist" Tribunal bill and against the US Constitution and the Bill of Rights: .
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

England abolished torture in about 1640 (except peine forte et dure, which England only abolished in 1772), Scotland in 1708, Prussia in 1740, Denmark around 1770, Austria and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1776, Italy in 1786, Russia in 1801, France in 1789, Baden in 1831, Japan in 1873.[32][33][34]
The last European jurisdictions to abolish legal torture were Portugal (1828) and the canton of Glarus in Switzerland (1851).
The French 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, of constitutional value, prohibits submitting suspects to any hardship not necessary to secure his or her person. Statute law explicitly makes torture a crime. In addition, statute law prohibits the police or justice from interrogating suspects under oath.
.The United States includes protection against self-incrimination in the fifth amendment to its federal constitution, which in turn serves as the basis of the Miranda warning, which law enforcement officers issue to individuals upon their arrest.^ Habeas Corpus is enshrined in the Constitution of the United States.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ History will not be kind, and future historians may well view this vote as a major turning point for the United States as it fell from freedom to facism.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton was the first to defend those who made POLITICAL mistakes, but he did not tolerate offenses against the United States (which he kinda built from the ground up).
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Additionally, the US Constitution's eighth amendment forbids the use of "cruel and unusual punishments", which is widely interpreted as a prohibition of the use of torture. .Finally, 18 U.S.C. § 2340[35] et seq. define and forbid torture outside the United States.^ United States against the torture bill, the war on Iraq, and the whole rotten turn that this country has taken under the Bush regime.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

As the United States Constitution recognizes customary international law, or the law of nations, the U.S. Alien Tort Claims Act also provides legal remedies for victims of torture in the United States. Specifically, the status of torturers under the law of the United States, as determined by a famous legal decision in 1980, Filártiga v. Peña-Irala, 630 F.2d 876 (1980), is that, "the torturer has become, like the pirate and the slave trader before him, hostis humani generis, an enemy of all mankind."[36]

Use of torture

."Recent times" in the context of this article is from 10 December 1948, when the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.^ This compromise is supported by Senator John McCain, a former POW who fought to ensure that this tribunal lives up to our national standards on human rights.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who could blame other nations for ignoring Habeas Corpus for detained Americans when the Republican Congress of the United States--aided and abetted by "Democrat" Mike McIntyre--now asserts that Habeas Corpus is not a universal right.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Torture in the past

A variety of torture instruments including, at right, the iron maiden of Nuremberg.
The ancient Greeks and Romans used torture for interrogation. Until the second century AD, torture was used only on slaves (with a few exceptions). After this point it began to be extended to all members of the lower classes. A slave's testimony was admissible only if extracted by torture, on the assumption that slaves could not be trusted to reveal the truth voluntarily.[37] Crucifixion was not regarded torture but rather as a form of execution which, due to its extreme unplesantness, was reserved for indivduals of whom it was desired to make an example of. Contrary to popular belief, crucifixion was not invented by the Romans, and was popular in Carthage and the Holy Land.[citation needed] Prior to crucifixion, victims were often savagely whipped with barbed metal lashes, to induce exsanguination. This had the effect of weakening the condemned and thus sped up what could be an inconveniently long execution process.
.Over time the conceptual definition of torture has been expanded and remains a major question for ethics, philosophy, and law, but clearly includes the practices of many subsequent cultures.^ The "blue team gets a pass" philosophy of so many contributors here is highly destructive and anti democratic, badly weakening the liberal majority and the party.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Modern scholars find the concept of torture to be compatible with society's concept of Justice during the time of Jesus Christ. Romans, Jews, Egyptians and many others cultures during that time included torture as part of their justice system. Romans had crucifixion, Jews had stoning and Egyptians had desert sun death..February 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] All these acts of torture were considered necessary (as to deter others) or good (as to punish the immoral).^ I'm tired of this whinny 'I'm going to quit the Democrats' crap on all these other posts.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[38]
Medieval and early modern European courts used torture, depending on the accused's crime and social status. .Torture was deemed a legitimate means to extract confessions or to obtain the names of accomplices or other information about a crime.^ I don't know what his fundamental beliefs are about the torture, but he did vote (even if meaningless) the right way for legitimate (even good) reasons.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

It was permitted by law only if there was already half-proof against the accused.[39] Often, defendants already sentenced to death would be tortured to force them to disclose the names of accomplices. Torture in the Medieval Inquisition began in 1252 and ended in 1816 when a papal bull forbade its use.
.While secular courts often treated suspects ferociously, Will and Ariel Durant argued in The Age of Faith that many of the most vicious procedures were inflicted upon pious heretics by even more pious friars.^ Even more important, if you live in these districts, initiate conversations with people about the torture issue, since so many people are blissfully unaware.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

The Dominicans gained a reputation as some of the most fearsomely innovative torturers in medieval Spain.[citation needed]
Torture was usually conducted in secret, in underground dungeons. By contrast, torturous executions were typically public, and woodcuts of English prisoners being hanged, drawn and quartered show large crowds of spectators, as do paintings of Spanish auto-da-fé executions, in which heretics were burned at the stake.
Throughout the early modern period, the torture of witches became commonplace. Countless people were targeted and tortured for their supposed relationship with the devil.
In 1613 Anton Praetorius described the situation of the prisoners in the dungeons in his book Gründlicher Bericht Von Zauberey und Zauberern (Thorough Report about Sorcery and Sorcerers). .He was one of the first to protest against all means of torture.^ They are actually more vulnerable than men, as the authorities use sexual torture as a means of punishment and interrogation against female prisoners, particularly nuns.
  • Tales of Terror: Torture in Tibet (1999)- TCHRD - Publications 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recommended by: Lashe , chicago jeff First of all, I'm tired of hearing this nonsense about it being a vote for torture.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The worst torture I had to endure was being forced to stand upside down against a wall for more than one hour.
  • Tales of Terror: Torture in Tibet (1999)- TCHRD - Publications 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Torture was in theory not permitted under English law, but in Tudor and early Stuart times, under certain conditions, torture was used in England. For example the confession of Marc Smeaton at the trial of Anne Boleyn was presented in written form only, either to hide from the court that Smeaton had been tortured on the rack for four hours, or because Thomas Cromwell was worried that he would recant his confession if cross examined. When Guy Fawkes was arrested for his role in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605 he was tortured until he revealed all he knew about the plot. This was not so much to extract a confession, which was not needed to prove his guilt, but to extract from him the names of his fellow conspirators. By this time torture was not routine in England and a special warrant from King James I was needed before he could be tortured. The wording of the warrant shows some concerns for humanitarian considerations, the severity of the methods of interrogation were to be increased gradually until the interrogators were sure that Fawkes had told all he knew. In the end this did not help Fawkes much as he was broken on the only rack in England, which was in the Tower of London. Torture was abolished in England around 1640 (except peine forte et dure which was abolished in 1772).
In Colonial America women were sentenced to the stocks with wooden clips on their tongues or subjected to the "dunking stool" for the gender-specific crime of talking too much.[40] .Certain Native American peoples,especially in the area of what would become the the eastern one-half of the United States, engaged in the sacrificial torture of war captives.^ United States against the torture bill, the war on Iraq, and the whole rotten turn that this country has taken under the Bush regime.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[41]
While in Egypt in 1798, Napoleon Bonaparte wrote to Major-General Berthier that the
barbarous custom of whipping men suspected of having important secrets to reveal must be abolished. It has always been recognized that this method of interrogation, by putting men to the torture, is useless. .The wretches say whatever comes into their heads and whatever they think one wants to believe.^ It is their idea, they are the ones who began this descent into hell and this nightmare!
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I remember thinking it was like they thought they had some divine right -- because their families were wealthy, no one should expect them to serve.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Consequently, the Commander-in-Chief forbids the use of a method which is contrary to reason and humanity.[42]
Johann Graefe in 1624 published Tribunal Reformation, a case against torture. Cesare Beccaria, and Italian lawyer, published in 1764 "An Essay on Crimes and Punishments", in which he argued that torture unjustly punished the innocent and should be unnecessary in proving guilt

Torture in recent times

Modern sensibilities have been shaped by a profound reaction to the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by the Axis Powers in the Second World War, which have led to a sweeping international rejection of most if not all aspects of the practice.[43] Even so, many states engage in torture; however, few wish to be described as doing so, either to their own citizens or to international bodies. A variety of devices bridge this gap, including state denial, "secret police", "need to know", denial that given treatments are torturous in nature, appeal to various laws (national or international), use of jurisdictional argument, claim of "overriding need", and so on. Many states throughout history, and many states today, have engaged in torture (unofficially). Despite worldwide condemnation and the existence of treaty provisions that forbid it, torture still occurs in two thirds of the world's nations.[44]

Torture by proxy

.In 2003, Britain's Ambassador to Uzbekistan, Craig Murray, made accusations that information was being extracted under extreme torture from dissidents in that country, and that the information was subsequently being used by Western, democratic countries that officially disapproved of torture.^ United States against the torture bill, the war on Iraq, and the whole rotten turn that this country has taken under the Bush regime.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[45]
The accusations did not lead to any investigation by his employer, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, and he resigned after disciplinary action was taken against him in 2004. No misconduct by him was proven. The National Audit Office is investigating the Foreign and Commonwealth Office because of accusations of victimisation, bullying, and intimidating its own staff.[46]
.Murray later stated that he felt that he had unwittingly stumbled upon what others called "torture by proxy"[47] and with the euphemism of "extraordinary rendition". He thought that Western countries moved people to regimes and nations knowing that torturers would extract and disclose information.^ United States against the torture bill, the war on Iraq, and the whole rotten turn that this country has taken under the Bush regime.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I haven't read the bill and don't really know what's in it other than the torture stuff.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I do understand the bind he was in, he would have faced millions upon millions of dollars worth of TV ads calling him a friend of Osama had he voted otherwise.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Murray alleged that this practice circumvented and violated international treaties against torture.^ For two basic reasons: Precedent that any President around the world could sign a piece of paper that unilaterally changed some element of an international treaty (not a bad reason); and that all of the military lawyers testified against the Torture Act.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.If it was true that a country participated in torture by proxy and it had signed the UN Convention Against Torture then that country would be in specific breach of Article 3 of that convention.^ United States against the torture bill, the war on Iraq, and the whole rotten turn that this country has taken under the Bush regime.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Aspects of torture

Ethical arguments regarding torture

.Torture has been criticized on humanitarian and moral grounds, also on the grounds that evidence extracted by torture can be unreliable and that the use of torture corrupts institutions which tolerate it.^ Because that evidence is often unreliable, it will not admit evidence obtained through torture .
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[48]
Organizations like Amnesty International argue that the universal legal prohibition is based on a universal philosophical consensus that torture and ill-treatment are repugnant, abhorrent, and immoral.[49] .But since shortly after the September 11, 2001 attacks there has been a debate in the United States about whether torture is justified in some circumstances.^ Even more important, if you live in these districts, initiate conversations with people about the torture issue, since so many people are blissfully unaware.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I'm not sure that that would fix it entirely, but it would help if the emphasis was on debates and there was some cap on the number of ads with perhaps a few days ad silence before the vote.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, unlike our opponents there are just some compromises I cannot justify in pusuit of power.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Some people, such as Alan M. Dershowitz and Mirko Bagaric, have argued the need for information outweighs the moral and ethical arguments against torture.[50][51] However, after coercive practices were banned, interrogators in Iraq saw an increase of 50 percent more high-value intelligence. Maj. Gen. .Geoffrey D. Miller, the American commander in charge of detentions and interrogations, stated "a rapport-based interrogation that recognizes respect and dignity, and having very well-trained interrogators, is the basis by which you develop intelligence rapidly and increase the validity of that intelligence."[52] Others including Robert Mueller, FBI Director since July 5, 2001, have pointed out that despite former Bush Administration claims that waterboarding has "disrupted a number of attacks, maybe dozens of attacks", they do not believe that evidence gained by the U.S. government through enhanced interrogation techniques has disrupted a single attack and no one has come up with a documented example of lives saved thanks to these techniques.^ Very well stated.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even more important, if you live in these districts, initiate conversations with people about the torture issue, since so many people are blissfully unaware.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This compromise is supported by Senator John McCain, a former POW who fought to ensure that this tribunal lives up to our national standards on human rights.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[53][54] On June 19, 2009, the US government announced that it was delaying the scheduled release of declassified portions of a report by the CIA Inspector General which reportedly cast doubt on the effectiveness of the "enhanced" interrogation techniques employed by CIA interrogators, according to references to the report contained in several Bush-era Justice Department memos declassified in the Spring of 2009 by the US Justice Department.[55][56][57]
.The ticking time bomb scenario, a thought experiment, asks what to do to a captured terrorist who has placed a nuclear time bomb in a populated area.^ But we can't forget that it was Lex Chaney and Darth Bush who planted this bomb in the first place.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The hottest places in hell are reserved for those who, in times of great moral crisis, maintain their neutrality."
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

If the terrorist is tortured, he may explain how to defuse the bomb. The scenario asks if it is ethical to torture the terrorist. A 2006 BBC poll held in 25 nations gauged support for each of the following positions:[58]
  • Terrorists pose such an extreme threat that governments should be allowed to use some degree of torture if it may gain information that saves innocent lives.
  • Clear rules against torture should be maintained because any use of torture is immoral and will weaken international human rights.
An average of 59% of people worldwide rejected torture. .However there was a clear divide between those countries with strong rejection of torture (such as Italy, where only 14% supported torture) and nations where rejection was less strong (Israel showed 43% supporting torture, but 48% opposing, India showed 37% supporting torture and only 23% opposing).^ Those who don't support torture.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[59]
.Within nations there is a clear divide between the positions of members of different ethnic groups, religions, and political affiliations.^ That is the same kind of logic that led people to say there was no difference between Gore and Bush.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yes, there is a big difference between Sherrod and Dewine but if Sherrod is going to be making votes that have the potential to tear our very democracy apart, there is no big difference.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

The study found that among Jewish persons in Israel 53% favored some degree of torture and only 39% wanted strong rules against torture while Muslims in Israel were overwhelmingly against any use of torture. .In one 2006 survey by the Scripps Center at Ohio University, 66% of Americans who identified themselves as strongly Republican supported torture, whereas 24% of those who identified themselves as strongly Democratic.^ Those who don't support torture.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Recommended by: grndrush , redglare , DrWolfy If torture is a war crime, then aren't those congresscritters who vote to authorize torture also guilty of war crimes?
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You're strongly advocating the removal of all republicans who voted for the bill, but giving the democrats a pass.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[60] In a 2005 U.S. survey 72% of American Catholics supported the use of torture in some circumstances compared to 51% of American secularists.[61] .A Pew survey in 2009 similarly found that the religiously unaffiliated are the least likely (40 percent) to support torture, and that the more a person attends church, the more likely he or she is to condone it; among racial/religious groups, white evangelical Protestants were far and away the most likely (62 percent) to support inflicting pain as a tool of interrogation.^ You could all be like me in a state where all elected officials and most fricking candidates support torture, the great State of Tennessee.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[62]
A CNN/USA Today/Gallup poll "found that sizable majorities of Americans disagree with tactics ranging from leaving prisoners naked and chained in uncomfortable positions for hours, to trying to make a prisoner think he was being drowned".[63]
.There are also different attitudes as to what constitutes torture, as revealed in an ABC News/Washington Post poll, where more than half of the Americans polled thought that techniques such as sleep deprivation were not torture.^ Recommended by: grndrush To the fact that they all decided that torture and gulags, sacrificing habeas, were all more important than the actual Constitution and their oath to the same.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Second, I hope you realize there are more issues than just this single bill.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, in the mind of the voter, the less difference there is among candidates, the less of a reason to vote for someone new.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[64]
In practice, "enhanced" interrogation techniques were employed by the CIA in situations that did not involve the "ticking time bomb" scenario that has been the subject of opinion polls and public debate. .In April 2009 a former senior U.S. intelligence official and a former Army psychiatrist stated that the Bush administration applied pressure on interrogators to use the "enhanced" interrogation techniques on detainees to find evidence of cooperation between al Qaida and the late Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein's regime.^ United States against the torture bill, the war on Iraq, and the whole rotten turn that this country has taken under the Bush regime.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[65] The purported link between al Qaida and Hussein's regime, which has been disproven[66], was a key political justification for the Iraq War. On May 13, 2009, former NBC News investigative producer Robert Windrem reported, as confirmed by former Iraq Survey Group leader Charles Duelfer, that the Vice President's Office suggested that an interrogation team led by Duelfer waterboard an Iraqi prisoner suspected of knowing about a relationship between al Qaeda and Saddam.[67][68]

Utilitarian arguments against torture

.There is a strong utilitarian argument against torture; namely, that there is simply no scientific evidence supporting its effectiveness.^ GWB gets to "interpret" the Geneva conventions GWB can call you an "enemy combatant" and lock you up FOREVER with a) No Charge b) No access to a lawyer c) no access to the evidence against you.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Again, there are, as you point out, many challengers to support against reprehensible Republicans, and I have no problem doing so.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There's no justification for supporting this...
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[69]
The lack of scientific basis for the effectiveness of torture as an interrogation techniques is summarized in a 2006 Intelligence Science Board report titled "EDUCING INFORMATION, Interrogation: Science and Art, Foundations for the Future".[70]
Those favoring torture have however pointed to some specific cases where torture has elicited true information.[71]

Rejection of torture

A famous example in which the use of torture was rejected was cited by the Argentine National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons in whose report, Italian general Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa was reputed to have said in connection with the investigation of the disappearance of prime minister Aldo Moro, "Italy can survive the loss of Aldo Moro. It would not survive the introduction of torture."[72]

Incrimination of innocent people

.One well documented effect of torture is that, with rare exceptions, its victims will say or do anything to escape the situation, including untrue "confessions" and implication of others without genuine knowledge, who may well then be tortured in turn.^ History will not be kind, and future historians may well view this vote as a major turning point for the United States as it fell from freedom to facism.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

That information may have been extracted from the Birmingham Six through the use of police beatings was counterproductive because it made the convictions unsound as the confessions were worthless. There are rare exceptions, such as Admiral James Stockdale, Medal of Honor recipient, who refused to provide information under torture.

Secrecy

Before the emergence of modern policing, torture was an important aspect of policing and the use of it was openly sanctioned and acknowledged by the authority. .The Economist magazine proposed that one of the reasons torture endures is that torture does indeed work in some instances to extract information/confession, if those who are being tortured are indeed guilty.^ Those who don't support torture.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Recommended by: grndrush , redglare , DrWolfy If torture is a war crime, then aren't those congresscritters who vote to authorize torture also guilty of war crimes?
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who are too smart to engage in politics are punished by being governed by those who are dumber.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[1] .Depending on the culture, torture has at times been carried on in silence (official denial), semi-silence (known but not spoken about), or openly acknowledged in public (in order to instill fear and obedience).^ My father had two words for those who order torture, who carry out torture, who condone torture: "beneath contempt".
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

In the 21st century, even when states sanction their interrogation methods, torturers often work outside the law. For this reason, some prefer methods that, while unpleasant, leave victims alive and unmarked. .A victim with no visible damage may lack credibility when telling tales of torture, whereas a person missing fingernails or eyes can easily prove claims of torture.^ McIntyre claims to be a friend of the military, but in casting this vote, he has proved himself to be no friend of any American who goes abroad, military or otherwise.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Mental torture, however can leave scars just as deep and long-lasting as physical torture.[73] Professional torturers in some countries have used techniques such as electrical shock, asphyxiation, heat, cold, noise, and sleep deprivation which leave little evidence, although in other contexts torture frequently results in horrific mutilation or death. .However the most common and prevalent form of torture worldwide in both developed and under-developed countries is beating.^ United States against the torture bill, the war on Iraq, and the whole rotten turn that this country has taken under the Bush regime.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[2]

Torture methods and devices

The contrast shown between Guy Fawkes's signatures: the one above (a faint, shaky 'Guido') was done immediately after torture; the one below eight days later.[74]
.Physical torture methods have been used throughout recorded history and can range from a beating with nothing more than fist and boot, through to the use of sophisticated custom designed devices such as the rack.^ Recommended by: grndrush To the fact that they all decided that torture and gulags, sacrificing habeas, were all more important than the actual Constitution and their oath to the same.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Other types of torture can include sensory or sleep deprivation, restraint or being held in awkward or damaging positions, uncomfortable extremes of heat and cold, loud noises or any other means that inflicts severe physical or mental pain. The boundary between torture and legitimate interrogation techniques is not universally agreed. In a separate opinion, at the end of the 1978 in the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) trial "Ireland v. the United Kingdom" (Case No. 5310/71), Judge Zekia stated that "It seems to me permissible, in ascertaining whether torture or inhuman treatment has been committed or not, to apply not only the objective test but also the subjective test. As an example I can refer to the case of an elderly sick man who is exposed to a harsh treatment—after being given several blows and beaten to the floor, he is dragged and kicked on the floor for several hours. I would say without hesitation that the poor man has been tortured. If such treatment is applied on a wrestler or even a young athlete, I would hesitate a lot to describe it as an inhuman treatment and I might regard it as a mere rough handling".[75]
Psychological torture uses non-physical methods which are used to cause psychological suffering. Its effects are not immediately apparent unless they alter the behavior of the tortured person. .Since there is no international political consensus on what constitutes psychological torture, it is often overlooked, denied, and referred to in different names.^ That is the same kind of logic that led people to say there was no difference between Gore and Bush.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyone who thinks there's no difference is suffering a naive lack of imagination on what these republicans are capable of.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yes, there is a big difference between Sherrod and Dewine but if Sherrod is going to be making votes that have the potential to tear our very democracy apart, there is no big difference.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.Psychological torture is less well known than physical torture and tends to be subtle and much easier to conceal.^ That's marginally less morally bankrupt than voting for torture and rendition because you think it's an all around swell idea.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

In practice the distinctions between physical and psychological torture are often blurred..November 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Physical torture is the inflicting of severe pain or suffering on a person.^ Bush's so-called "judgement" is OK with torture because HIS definition of torture is in line with the early memos: pain equivalent to that of suffering organ failure or death.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

In contrast, psychological torture is directed at the psyche with calculated violations of psychological needs, along with deep damage to psychological structures and the breakage of beliefs underpinning normal sanity. Torturers often inflict both types of torture in combination to compound the associated effects.[citation needed]
Psychological torture also includes deliberate use of extreme stressors and situations such as mock execution, shunning, violation of deep-seated social or sexual norms and taboos, or extended solitary confinement. .Because psychological torture needs no physical violence to be effective, it is possible to induce severe psychological pain, suffering, and trauma with no externally visible effects.^ No stick for the R, BUT the R doesn't need one because the Dem base is furious with the Dem congresscritter.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bush's so-called "judgement" is OK with torture because HIS definition of torture is in line with the early memos: pain equivalent to that of suffering organ failure or death.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
Rape and other forms of sexual abuse are often used as methods of torture for interrogative or punitive purposes.[76]
Medical torture is a practice in which medical practitioners use torture to judge what victims can endure, to apply treatments which will enhance torture, or as torturers in their own right. Josef Mengele and Shirō Ishii were infamous during and after World War II for their involvement in medical torture and murder.

Torture murder

Torture murder involves torture to the point of murder as for punishment in law enforcement agencies of countries that allow torture. Murderers might also torture their victims to death for sadistic reasons.

Effects of torture

.Organizations like the Medical Foundation for Care of Victims of Torture try to help survivors of torture obtain medical treatment and to gain forensic medical evidence to obtain political asylum in a safe country and/or to prosecute the perpetrators.^ Because that evidence is often unreliable, it will not admit evidence obtained through torture .
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sometimes that is hard, but it is not OK to sell out the country for percieved political gain.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Torture is often difficult to prove, particularly when some time has passed between the event and a medical examination, or when the torturers are immune from prosecution. Many torturers around the world use methods designed to have a maximum psychological impact while leaving only minimal physical traces. Medical and Human Rights Organizations worldwide have collaborated to produce the Istanbul Protocol, a document designed to outline common torture methods, consequences of torture, and medico-legal examination techniques. Typically deaths due to torture are shown in an autopsy as being due to "natural causes" like heart attack, inflammation, or embolism due to extreme stress.[77]
For survivors, torture often leads to lasting mental and physical health problems.
Physical problems can be wide-ranging, e.g. sexually transmitted diseases, musculo-skeletal problems, brain injury, post-traumatic epilepsy and dementia or chronic pain syndromes.
Mental health problems are equally wide-ranging; common are post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety disorder. Psychic deadness, erasure of intersubjectivity, refusal of meaning-making, perversion of agency, and an inability to bear desire constitute the core features of the post-traumatic psychic landscape of torture.[78]
The most terrible, intractable, legacy of torture is the killing of desire - that is , of curiosity, of the impulse for connection and meaning-making, of the capacity for mutuality, of the tolerance for ambiguity and ambivalence. For these patients, to know another mind is unbearable. To connect with another is irrelevant. .They are entrapped in what was born(e) during their trauma, as they perpetuate the erasure of meaning, re-enact the dynamics of annihilation through sadomasochistic, narcissistic, paranoid, or self-deadening modes of relating, and mobilize their agency toward warding off mutuality, goodness, hope and connection.^ I know we didn't expect anything better from the villains of this story, but that doesn't mean they're not still the bad guys.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

In brief, they live to prove death. .And it is this perversion of agency and desire that constitutes the deepest post-traumatic injury, and the most invisible and pernicious of human-rights violations.^ We elected people who are supposed to protect us from violations of the Constitution and human decency.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[78]
On August 19, 2007, the American Psychological Association (APA) voted to bar participation, to intervene to stop, and to report involvement in a wide variety of interrogation techniques as torture, including "using mock executions, simulated drowning, sexual and religious humiliation, stress positions or sleep deprivation", as well as "the exploitation of prisoners' phobias, the use of mind-altering drugs, hooding, forced nakedness, the use of dogs to frighten detainees, exposing prisoners to extreme heat and cold, physical assault and threatening the use of such techniques against a prisoner or a prisoner's family."[79]
However, the APA rejected a stronger resolution that sought to prohibit “all psychologist involvement, either direct or indirect, in any interrogations at U.S. detention centers for foreign detainees or citizens detained outside normal legal channels.” That resolution would have placed the APA alongside the American Medical Association and the American Psychiatric Association in limiting professional involvement in such settings to direct patient care. The APA echoed the Bush administration by condemning isolation, sleep deprivation, and sensory deprivation or over-stimulation only when they are likely to cause lasting harm.
.Treatment of torture-related medical problems might require a wide range of expertise and often specialized experience.^ He was released in September 1994 on medical grounds because his health was deteriorating due to torture in prison but died after unsuccessfully responding to medical treatment.
  • Tales of Terror: Torture in Tibet (1999)- TCHRD - Publications 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Drapchi Prison he required medical treatment after being beaten.
  • Tales of Terror: Torture in Tibet (1999)- TCHRD - Publications 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even after injuries are inflicted from torture, many prisoners are denied sufficient medical treatment or treated too late.
  • Tales of Terror: Torture in Tibet (1999)- TCHRD - Publications 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Common treatments are psychotropic medication, e.g. SSRI antidepressants, counseling, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, family systems therapy and physiotherapy.
See Psychology of torture for psychological impact, and aftermath, of torture.

Methods of execution and capital punishment

For most of recorded history, capital punishments were often cruel and inhumane. Severe historical penalties include breaking wheel, boiling to death, flaying, slow slicing, disembowelment, crucifixion, impalement, crushing, stoning, execution by burning, dismemberment, sawing, decapitation, scaphism, or necklacing.[80]
An 1858 illustration from the French newspaper, Le Monde Illustré, of the torture and execution of a French missionary in China by slow slicing.
Slow slicing, or death by/of a thousand cuts, was a form of execution used in China from roughly 900 AD to its abolition in 1905. According to apocryphal lore, língchí began when the torturer, wielding an extremely sharp knife, began by putting out the eyes, rendering the condemned incapable of seeing the remainder of the torture and, presumably, adding considerably to the psychological terror of the procedure. .Successive rather minor cuts chopped off ears, nose, tongue, fingers, toes, and such before proceeding to grosser cuts that removed large collops of flesh from more sizable parts, e.g., thighs and shoulders.^ For right now, let's not cut off our nose to spite our face.
  • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

The entire process was said to last three days, and to total 3,600 cuts. The heavily carved bodies of the deceased were then put on a parade for a show in the public.[81]
Impalement was a method of torture and execution whereby a person is pierced with a long stake. The penetration can be through the sides, from the rectum, or through the mouth. This method would lead to slow, painful, death. Often, the victim was hoisted into the air after partial impalement. Gravity and the victim's own struggles would cause him to slide down the pole. Death could take many days. Impalement was frequently practiced in Asia and Europe throughout the Middle Ages. Vlad III Dracula, who learned the method of killing by impalement while staying in Constantinople, the capital of the Ottoman Empire, as a prisoner, and Ivan the Terrible have passed into legend as major users of the method.[82]
The breaking wheel was a torturous capital punishment device used in the Middle Ages and early modern times for public execution by cudgeling to death, especially in France and Germany. In France the condemned were placed on a cart-wheel with their limbs stretched out along the spokes over two sturdy wooden beams. The wheel was made to slowly revolve. Through the openings between the spokes, the executioner hit the victim with an iron hammer that could easily break the victim's bones. This process was repeated several times per limb. Once his bones were broken, he was left on the wheel to die. It could take hours, even days, before shock and dehydration caused death. The punishment was abolished in Germany as late as 1827.[83]

See also

Organizations

Notes

Footnotes
  1. ^ When ratifying the treaty the United States added a reservation that the definition of "cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment" meant "the cruel, unusual and inhumane treatment or punishment prohibited by the Fifth, Eighth, and/or Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution of the United States".(Yee, Sienho (2004). International crime and punishment: selected issues, University Press of America, ISBN 0761828877, 9780761828877 p. 208, Footnote 18. cites Convention Against Torture, Annex I,I.). See also Torture and the United States.
  2. ^ The unanimous Law Lords judgment on December 8, 2005 ruled that, under English law tradition, "torture and its fruits" could not be used in court (Torture evidence inadmissible in UK courts, Lords rules by Staff and agencies in The Guardian December 8, 2005). But the information thus obtained could be used by the British police and security services as "it would be ludicrous for them to disregard information about a ticking bomb if it had been procured by torture."(Torture ruling's international impact by Jon Silverman BBC 8 December 2005)
  3. ^ "Every person in enemy hands must have some status under international law: he is either a prisoner of war and, as such, covered by the Third Convention, a civilian covered by the Fourth Convention, or again, a member of the medical personnel of the armed forces who is covered by the First Convention. There is no intermediate status; nobody in enemy hands can be outside the law. We feel that this is a satisfactory solution – not only satisfying to the mind, but also, and above all, satisfactory from the humanitarian point of view.", because in the opinion of the ICRC "If civilians directly engage in hostilities, they are considered 'unlawful' or 'unprivileged' combatants or belligerents (the treaties of humanitarian law do not expressly contain these terms). They may be prosecuted under the domestic law of the detaining state for such action" (Jean Pictet (ed.) – Commentary: IV Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (1958) – 1994 reprint edition). Geneva Conventions Protocol I Article 51.3 also covers this interpretation "Civilians shall enjoy the protection afforded by this section, unless and for such time as they take a direct part in hostilities".
Citations
  1. ^ Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, United Nations, 10 December 1984.
  2. ^ "Report 08: At a Glance". Amnesty International. 2008. http://thereport.amnesty.org/eng/report-08-at-a-glance. Retrieved 2008-10-22. 
  3. ^ "Torture and Ill-Treatment in the ‘War on Terror’". Amnesty International. 2005-11-01. http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ACT40/014/2005/en. Retrieved 2008-10-22. 
  4. ^ Amnesty International Report 2005 Report 2006
  5. ^ Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary, 10th Edition. Springfield, Mass: Merriam-Webster. 1999. pp. 1246. ISBN 0877797137. 
  6. ^ Universal Declaration of Human Rights, United Nations, 10 December 1948
  7. ^ ECHR Ireland v. United Kingdom judgment) pp. 40,42, ¶ 167 "Although the five techniques, as applied in combination, undoubtedly amounted to inhuman and degrading treatment, although their object was the extraction of confessions, the naming of others and/or information and although they were used systematically, they did not occasion suffering of the particular intensity and cruelty implied by the word torture as so understood."
  8. ^ PDF file of United Nations Committee Against Torture second report on United States of America (CAT/C/48/Add.3/Rev.1) 18 May 2006, Paragraph 14
  9. ^ United Nations. Multilateral treaties deposited with the Secretary-General: Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Accessed 11 June 2008.
  10. ^ Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture, United Nations, 18 December 2002.
  11. ^ Article 7 of the Rome Statute. Accessed 11 June 2008.
  12. ^ Article 8 of the Rome Statute. Accessed 11 June 2008.
  13. ^ Amnesty International, 11 April 2002. The International Criminal Court — a historic development in the fight for justice. Accessed 11 June 2008.
  14. ^ Article 11 of the Rome Statute. Accessed 11 June 2008.
  15. ^ Articles 12 and 13 of the Rome Statute. Accessed 11 June 2008.
  16. ^ Articles 17 and 20 of the Rome Statute. Accessed 11 June 2008.
  17. ^ International Criminal Court. Office of the Prosecutor. Accessed 11 June 2008.
  18. ^ Fourth Geneva Convention, Article 15.
  19. ^ Third Geneva Convention, Article 4
  20. ^ Third Geneva Convention, 12 August 1949.
  21. ^ Fourth Geneva Convention, 12 August 1949.
  22. ^ Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol 1), Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law applicable in Armed Conflicts, 8 June 1977.
  23. ^ Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law applicable in Armed Conflicts, 8 June 1977.
  24. ^ Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, United Nations, Geneva, 1955.
  25. ^ International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights United Nations, 16 December 1966.
  26. ^ European Convention on Human Rights,4 November 1950(with later protocols).
  27. ^ Ireland v. United Kingdom, 1977. (Case No. 5310/71)
  28. ^ Michael John Garcia (Legislative Attorney American Law Division) U.N. Convention Against Torture (CAT):Overview and Application to Interrogation Techniques CRS Report for Congress November 7, 2005. pp. 13-15
  29. ^ Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture, Organization of American States, 9 December 1985.
  30. ^ European Committee for the Prevention of Torture (CPT)
  31. ^ Association for the Prevention of Torture
  32. ^ History of the Christian Church, Volume IV: Mediaeval Christianity. A.D. 590-1073. Chapter VI. Morals And Religion: Page 80:The Torture by Schaff, Philip (1819-1893)
  33. ^ Hutchinson's Encyclopaedia: Torture
  34. ^ Torture - LoveToKnow 1911
  35. ^ US CODE: Title 18,CHAPTER 113C—TORTURE
  36. ^ ["http://homepage.ntlworld.com/jksonc/docs/filartiga-577FSupp860.html" ""Decision in Filártiga v. Peña-Irala""]. "http://homepage.ntlworld.com/jksonc/docs/filartiga-577FSupp860.html". 
  37. ^ Peters, Edward. Torture. New York: Basil Blackwell Inc., 1985.
  38. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1033, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, ISBN 0-89243-565-8,1994
  39. ^ J. Franklin, The Science of Conjecture: Evidence and Probability Before Pascal. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001, 26-30.
  40. ^ Brizendine, Louann The Female Brain Broadway Books. New York. 2006 pg 36
  41. ^ Captives in American Indian Wars
  42. ^ Napoleon Bonaparte, Letters and Documents of Napoleon, Volume I: The Rise to Power, selected and translated by John Eldred Howard (London: The Cresset Press, 1961), 274.
  43. ^ Elihu Lauterpacht, C. J. Greenwood International Law Reports, Cambridge University Press, 2002 ISBN 0521661226, 9780521661225 p. 139 section 189
  44. ^ Hochschild, A (2004-05-23). "What's in a word? Torture". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/23/opinion/23HOCH.html?ex=1086315207&ei=1&en=dd8a4b003ac8f504. Retrieved 2009-01-09. 
  45. ^ The envoy silenced after telling undiplomatic truths, The Daily Telegraph 23 October 2004
  46. ^ "Foreign Office faces probe into 'manipulation'" by Robert Winnett, The Sunday Times 20 March 2005
  47. ^ Q & A: Torture by Proxy Jane Mayer answers question asked by Amy Davidson The New Yorker on 14 February 2005
  48. ^ "Consequentialist reasons why torture is wrong". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/ethics/torture/ethics/wrong_2.shtml. 
  49. ^ Amnesty International. "Torture and ill-treatment: the arguments: 1. What is torture? What is ill-treatment? What’s the difference?". http://web.amnesty.org/pages/stoptorture-arguments-eng#question1. 
  50. ^ Yasmin Alibhai-Brown: People matter more than holy books Editorial and Opinion (Page 31) in The Independent Monday 23 May 2005. Includes commentary on how some Americans have changed their attitudes to torture.
  51. ^ Bagaric, Mirko & Clarke Julie;Not Enough Official Torture in the World? The Circumstances in Which Torture Is Morally Justifiable University of San Francisco Law Review, Volume 39, Spring 2005, Number 3, pp. 581-616.
  52. ^ "General Says Less Coercion of Captives Yields Better Data" NY Times September 7, 2004
  53. ^ Did torture Work? Washington Post December 11, 2007
  54. ^ David Rose (December 16, 2008) "Reckoning" Vanity Fair. Retrieved on June 7, 2009.
  55. ^ Hess, Pamela (June 19, 2009) "Gov't delays release of report on interrogations." Associated Press. Retrieved on June 20, 2009.
  56. ^ Seibel, Mark and Strobel, Warren (April 24, 2009). "CIA official: No proof harsh techniques stopped terror attacks." McClatchy's. Retrieved on June 20, 2009.
  57. ^ Landay, Jonathan and Strobel, Warren (May 21, 2009) "Cheney's speech ignored some inconvenient truths." McClatchy's. Retrieved on June 20, 2009.
  58. ^ "One third support some torture". BBC News. 19 October 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/6063386.stm. 
  59. ^ Ibid: "Israel has the largest percentage of those polled endorsing the use of a degree of torture on prisoners, with 43% saying they agreed that some degree of torture should be allowed."
  60. ^ "Support for torture is linked to attitudes on spanking"
  61. ^ "Majority of Catholics would support torture."
  62. ^ Pitts, Leonard (May 7, 2009). "Commentary: Why do we tolerate torture?" McClatchy's. Retrieved on June 19, 2009.
  63. ^ Locy, Toni (2005-01-13). "Poll: Most object to extreme interrogation tactics" (in eng). USA TODAY (USA TODAY). http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2005-01-12-poll-interrogation_x.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-20. "sizable majorities of Americans disagree with tactics" 
  64. ^ David Morris and Gary Langer Terror Suspect Treatment: Most Americans Oppose Torture Techniques ABCNEWS.com May 27, 2004 "Americans by nearly 2-to-1 oppose torturing terrorism suspects — but half believe the U.S. government, as a matter of policy, is doing it anyway. And even more think the government is employing physical abuse that falls short of torture in some cases."
  65. ^ Landay, Jonathan (April 21, 2009). "Report: Abusive tactics used to seek Iraq-al Qaida link." McClatchy's. Retrieved on June 20, 2009.
  66. ^ (September 8, 2006) "Senate report: No Saddam, al-Qaida link." Associated Press. Retrieved on June 20, 2009]
  67. ^ Windrem, Robert (May 13, 2009). "Cheney's Role Deepens." Daily Beast. Retrieved on June 20, 2009.
  68. ^ Conason, Joe (May 14, 2009). [We tortured to justify war." Salon. Retrieved on June 20, 2009.
  69. ^ http://www.springerlink.com/content/h4q565424126068h/
  70. ^ "Educing Information: Interrogation: Science and Art—Foundations for the Future". National Defense Intelligence College. December 2006. http://www.fas.org/irp/dni/educing.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-15. 
  71. ^ "J. Franklin, Evidence gained from torture: wishful thinking, checkability and extreme circumstances". Cardozo Journal of International and Comparative Law 17 (2). 2009. http://www.maths.unsw.edu.au/~jim/torturecardozo.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-28, 281-90. 
  72. ^ Report of Conadep (National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons): Prologue - 1984
  73. ^ Abu Ghraib and the ISA: What's the difference?
  74. ^ The National Archives. "Confession of Guy Fawkes." Accessed 22 April 2007.
  75. ^ Ireland v. United Kingdom — ECHR Grand Chamber judgment
  76. ^ Nooria Mehraby. Refugee Women: The Authentic Heroines
  77. ^ "Autopsy reports reveal homicides of detainees in U.S. custody". ACLU. http://action.aclu.org/torturefoia/released/102405/. 
  78. ^ a b Nguyen L. (2007). "The question of survival: the death of desire and the weight of life". Am J Psychoanal 67 (1): 53–67. doi:10.1057/palgrave.ajp.3350007. PMID 17510619. 
  79. ^ APA Rules on Interrogation Abuse
  80. ^ Revenge Is the Mother of Invention
  81. ^ Death by a Thousand Cuts at Chinese Arts Centre 18th January to 23rd March
  82. ^ Dracula - Britannica Concise
  83. ^ Breaking on the wheel - LoveToKnow 1911

Further reading

Notable publications

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Torture is any act by which severe pain, whether physical or psychological, is intentionally inflicted on a person as a means of intimidation, a deterrent, revenge, a punishment, or as a method for the extraction of information or confessions.
  • The strong will resist and the weak will say anything to end the pain.
    • Ulpian
  • Torture is senseless violence, born in fear... torture costs human lives but does not save them. We would almost be too lucky if these crimes were the work of savages: the truth is that torture makes torturers.
  • Know that there are five degrees of torture, videlicit, first, the torture of being threatened to be tortured; secondly, the torture of being conveyed to the place of torture; thirdly, the torture of being, and bound for torture; fourthly, the torture of being hoisted on the torturing rack; and fifthly, and lastly, the torture of squassation.
    • Julius Clarus, quoted by Philip Limborch, a preacher and annotator, in his History of the Inquisition
  • [It] has never been a reliable means of extracting information. It is ultimately self-defeating as a means of control. One wonders why it is still practiced. .
    • Captain Jean-Luc Picard, Star Trek: The Next Generation; Episode #137 "Chain of Command, Part II" 1992. Picard has been captured and tortured for information by the Cardassians.
  • I mentioned to one of the gaolers my sense of this hardship, as an obstinate guilty person might deny the truth, whilst an innocent one, less courageous, might very readily, to relieve himself from such a state of misery, make a false confession.^ I, for one, would like the occasional reminder of where I need to direct my ire for the next 3 election cycles.
    • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    His answer was laconic: "Lago confess" ... "They soon confess." .
  • I want to make sure that if my government ever does this horrible, terrible, extraordinary thing, that somebody takes responsibility for it and that it be out there in the open and subject to accountability.^ Recommended by: Cecrops Tangaroa , Fabian , deepintheheartoftx And this sure does make it clearer in my mind: .
    • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ... Though I understand the danger of legitimating something that should not be legitimated, on balance in a democracy, I prefer accountability. .
  • The one thing we know about torture is that it was never designed in the first place to get at the actual truth of anything; it was designed in the darkest days of human history to produce false confessions in order to annihilate political and religious dissidents.^ At this time of year, I know only one thing.
    • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A learning experience is one of those things that says, 'You know that thing you just did?
    • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ SEN. PATRICK LEAHY: For one thing, we would have been asking the questions about what’s been going on for six years.
    • Daily Kos: The REAL List Of Congressmen Responsible for Torture 8 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    And that is how it always works: it gets confessions regardless of their accuracy.

External links

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Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Simple English

[[File:|thumb|Volunteers try waterboarding, a modern form of torture]] Torture is when someone puts another person in pain. This pain may be physical or psychological. People who have been tortured often suffer from long term physical problems or mental health issues.

The person who is tortured, is usually tortured because he or she has some information the other people want. Torture has in the past also served as a punishment. In 1600 Anton Praetorius fought against torture and against the hunting of witches.

Almost all countries agree that torture is a violation of human rights. This has been stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It is more difficult for people to agree what things are torture and what things are okay to do to prisoners.

Torture is a crime in many countries and it was made against the law on December 10th, 1948.



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 28, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Torture, which are similar to those in the above article.








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