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Rabbinical Eras

Tosafists were medieval rabbis known in Talmudical scholarship as Rishonim who created critical and explanatory glosses (questions, notes, rulings and sources) on the Talmud. These were collectively called Tosafot ("additions").

Alphabetical list of Tosafists

Of the great number of tosafists only forty-four are known by name. The following is an alphabetical list of them; many, however, are known only through citations:

  • A (HaRA)
    Quoted in the edited tosafot to M. Ḳ. 14b, 19a, 20b, 21a et seq.
  • Abigdor ben Elijah ha-Kohen
    Flourished in the middle of the thirteenth century; his tosafot are mentioned in the edited tosafot to Ket. 63b.
  • Elhanan b. Isaac
    Flourished at the end of the twelfth century; his tosafot are mentioned by Abraham b. David in his "Temim De'im" and in the edited tosafot to B. M. 11b and Sheb. 28a. His tosafot to Nedarim are referred to by Joseph Colon (Responsa, No. 52); those to Megillah, in Isaiah di Trani's "Ha-Makria'" (No. 31, p. 19d); those to 'Abodah Zarah, in "Mordekai" (No. 1364).
  • Eliezer b. Joel ha-Levi
    Flourished in the beginning of the thirteenth century; author of tosafot to several treatises (comp. Michael, "Or ha-Ḥayyim," No. 427).
  • Eliezer of Toul
    French tosafist of the beginning of the thirteenth century, whose tosafot are mentioned by Zedekiah Anaw in his "Shibbole ha-Leḳeṭ."
  • Elijah ben Menahem
    His tosafot are mentioned in "Haggahot Maimuniyyot," Ḳinnim, No. 20.
  • I (RI, probably R. Isaac, but not to be confused with Isaac b. Samuel ha-Zaḳen, who occurs most often as RI)
    His tosafot, in which the older RI is quoted, are mentioned by Samson b. Zadok ("Tashbeẓ," § 336).
  • Isaac ben Abraham (RIBA or RIẒBA), surnamed ha-Baḥur ("the younger," in distinction from his teacher Isaac ben Samuel ha-Zaḳen)
    Brother of Samson ben Abraham of Sens. Like his brother, Isaac lived as a youth at Troyes, where he attended the lectures of Jacob Tam ("Temim De'im," No. 87), and afterward at Sens (ib.; "Haggahot Maimuniyyot," Ishut, No. 6). After the death of Isaac ben Samuel, Isaac ben Abraham succeeded him as head of the school of Dampierre, after which place he is often called ("Or Zarua'," i. 225a). Isaac ben Abraham was one of the French rabbis to whom Meïr ben Todros Abulafia addressed his letter against Maimonides' theory of resurrection. He died at Dampierre prior to 1210, not long before his brother Samson emigrated to Palestine ("Semaḳ," No. 31; "Mordekai" on Ketubot, No. 357). As he is mentioned often in the edited tosafot (Shab. 3a, passim; Yoma 20a; et al.) and by many other authorities ("Or Zarua'," i. 26b; "Shibbole ha-Leḳeṭ," i., No. 231), it may be concluded that he wrote tosafot to several Talmudic treatises. Those to Bekorot were in the possession of Ḥayyim Michael of Hamburg. Isaac ben Abraham is frequently mentioned as a Biblical commentator ("Da'at Zeḳenim," 3a, 48b, 49b, Leghorn, 1783; "Minḥat Yehudah," 3a, 13a), and his ritual decisions and responsa are often quoted ("Or Zarua'," i. 13b et passim; Meïr of Rothenburg, Responsa, No. 176; et al.).
  • Isaac ben Abraham ha-Baḥur
    may be identical with the liturgical poet Isaac b. Abraham who wrote a hymn beginning "Yeshabbeḥuneka be-ḳol miflal," for Simḥat Torah or for the Sabbath after it, and a seliḥah for Yom Kippur beginning "Hen yom ba la-Adonai" (comp. Zunz, "Literaturgesch." p. 335).
  • Isaac ben Jacob ha-Laban
    Pupil of Jacob Tam and one of the earlier tosafists ("ba'ale tosafot yeshanim"). He was the author of a commentary on Ketubot quoted by Isaac Or Zarua' (see Judah Minz, Responsa, No. 10). He is quoted very often in the edited tosafot (Yeb. 5b; B. Ḳ. 72a; et al.).
  • Isaac ben Meïr (Rivam) of Ramerupt
    Grandson of Rashi, and brother of Samuel b. Meïr (RaSHBaM) and Jacob Tam; died before his father, leaving four children (Jacob Tam, "Sefer ha-Yashar," No. 616, p. 72b, Vienna, 1811). Although he died young, Isaac wrote tosafot, mentioned by Eliezer b. Joel ha-Levi ("Abi ha-'Ezri," § 417), to severaltreatises of the Talmud. Isaac himself is often quoted in the edited tosafot (Shab. 138a; Ket. 29b et passim).
  • Isaac ben Mordecai of Regensburg (RIBaM)
    Flourished in the twelfth century; pupil of Isaac b. Asher ha-Levi. He corresponded with Jacob Tam and was a fellow pupil of Moses b. Joel and Ephraim b. Isaac. His tosafot are quoted by Eliezer b. Joel ha-Levi (l.c. § 420) and Meïr of Rothenburg ("Semaḥot," § 73; "Haggahot Maimuniyyot," Abelot, p. 294a). He is often quoted also in the edited tosafot (Ket. 55a; B. Ḳ. 22b et passim).
  • Isaac ben Reuben
    His tosafot are mentioned in the "Shiṭṭah Meḳubbeẓet," Ketubot, 43a. He may be identical with the Isaac b. Reuben who made a comment on Rashi to B. Ḳ. 32d.
  • Isaiah di Trani (RID)
    Italian tosafist of the first half of the thirteenth century. The greater part of his tosafot were published under the title "Tosefot R. Yesha'yahu" (Lemberg, 1861-69); and many were inserted by Bezaleel Ashkenazi in his "Shiṭṭah Meḳubbeẓet."
  • Israel of Bamberg
    Lived in the middle of the thirteenth century; mentioned as an author of tosafot in "Mordekai" (to 'Ab. Zarah, Nos. 1244, 1279, 1295, 1356) and "Haggahot Mordekai" (to Shab. xiv.). Extracts from the tosafot of Israel's pupils were reproduced by Bezaleel Ashkenazi (l.c.).
  • J. Cohen
    Supposedly a contemporary of Meïr b. Baruch of Rothenburg, and perhaps identical with Judah ha-Kohen, Meïr's relative. In the extracts from his tosafot to Baba Ḳamma, inserted in the "Shiṭṭah Meḳubbeẓet," he quotes, among many other authorities, his still living teacher, the Kohen whom Zunz ("Z. G." p. 42) supposes to be identical with Abigdor b. Elijah ha-Kohen. From the "Shiṭṭah Meḳubbeẓet" to Baba Meẓi'a it is seen that J. Cohen wrote tosafot to the same treatise.
  • Jacob of Chinon
    Lived in the thirteenth century; pupil of Isaac ben Abraham, author of a "Shiṭṭah" ("Mordekai," on Sanh., No. 928). He himself is quoted in the edited tosafot (Ber. 12a; Nazir 53a; et al.).
  • Jacob ben Isaac ha-Levi (Jabez)
    Flourished at Speyer about 1130; a pupil of Kalonymus b. Isaac the Elder (Eliezer b. Nathan, "Eben ha-'Ezer," p. 13c, Prague, 1610). He was the author of tosafot ("Haggahot Maimuniyyot," Ḳinnim, No. 16) and of decisions ("pesaḳim"; "Mordekai," Ḥul., No. 1183). He is quoted also in the edited tosafot (to Ḳin. 23a).
  • Jehiel ben Joseph of Paris (d. 1286)
    His tosafot are quoted as authoritative by Perez ben Elijah (glosses to "'Ammude Golah," p. 50a, Cremona, 1556), in "Kol Bo" (No. 114), and in "Mordekai" (Ḥul., No. 924). He is frequently quoted also in the edited tosafot.
  • Joseph (or Yehosef)
    Flourished, according to Zunz ("Z. G." p. 33), about 1150. Zunz identifies this Joseph with the pupil of Samuel b. Meïr whose glosses are quoted in the edited tosafot (to Ket. 70a), and thinks he may be identical with the Joseph of Orleans often cited in the edited tosafot (Shab. 12a et passim). If so, he must be identified, according to Henri Gross (Gallia Judaica, p. 34), with Joseph ben Isaac Bekor Shor. Weiss, however, suggests that this Joseph might have been either Joseph Bonfils, Jacob Tam's teacher, or Joseph b. Isaac of Troyes, one of Rashi's pupils. Thus it seems that in any case the tosafist mentioned in the "Sefer ha-Yashar" must be distinguished from the one mentioned in Tos. Ket. 70a, as the latter was a pupil of R. Samuel.
  • Joseph Porat
    Many fragments of his tosafot to Shabbat are included in the edited tosafot.
  • Judah ben Nathan (RIBaN)
    Son-in-law and pupil of Rashi, and to a great extent his continuator. It was Judah who completed Rashi's commentary on Makkot (from 19b to the end) and who wrote the commentary on Nazir which is erroneously attributed to Rashi. He wrote, besides, independent commentaries on 'Erubin, Shabbat, Yebamot (Eliezer b. Joel ha-Levi, "Abi ha-'Ezri," §§ 183, 385, 397, 408), and Pesaḥim ("Semag," prohibition No. 79). Finally, Halberstam manuscript No. 323 contains a fragment of Judah's commentary on Nedarim. It is generally considered that Judah b. Nathan wrote tosafot to several treatises of the Talmud, and he is mentioned as a tosafist in "Haggahot Mordekai" (Sanh., No. 696). He is often quoted in the edited tosafot.
  • Levi
    His tosafot are quoted in the "Mordekai" (B. M. iv., end).
  • Meïr ben Samuel of Ramerupt
    His tosafot are mentioned by his son Jacob Tam ("Sefer ha-Yashar," No. 252) and often in the edited tosafot.
  • Moses ben Jacob of Coucy
    Author of Old Tosafot to Yoma and of some published in the collection "Sugyot ha-Shas" (Berlin, 1736).
  • Moses b. Meïr of Ferrara
    Flourished in the thirteenth century; probably a pupil of Judah b. Isaac of Paris. His tosafot were used by the compiler of the "Haggahot Maimuniyyot" (see Jew. Encyc. ix. 86).
  • Samson b. Isaac of Chinon
    Flourished in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries; author of the "Sefer Keritut." In this work (i. 7, § 1; v. 3, §§ 120, 148) Samson refers to his glosses on 'Erubin and 'Abodah Zarah; he appears to have written glosses on other Talmudic treatises also.
  • Samuel of Évreux
    Author of tosafot to several treatises; those to Soṭah are among the edited tosafot (see Jew. Encyc. xi. 16).
  • Samuel ben Meïr (RaSHBaM)
    Author of tosafot to Alfasi; under his supervision his pupils prepared tosafot to several treatises ("Sefer ha-Yashar," p. 85d).
  • Samuel b. Naṭronai (RaShBaṬ)
    German Talmudist of the end of the twelfth century; authorof tosafot to 'Abodah Zarah (see "Kerem Ḥemed," vii. 50).

See also

External links

  • Tosafot note by Prof. Eliezer Segal

This article incorporates text from the 1901–1906 Jewish Encyclopedia article "Tosafot" by Joseph Jacobs and M. Seligsohn, a publication now in the public domain.

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