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Totonacs of Papantla, Veracruz performing the "voladores" ritual

The Totonac people resided in the eastern coastal and mountainous regions of Mexico at the time of the Spanish arrival in 1519. Today they reside in the states of Veracruz, Puebla, and Hidalgo. They are one of the possible builders of the Pre-Columbian city of El Tajín, and further maintained quarters in Teotihuacán (a city which they claim to have built). Until the mid-19th century they were the world's main producers of vanilla.

Contents

Geography and Lifestyle

In the 15th century, the Aztecs labeled the region of the Totonac "Totonacapan"; which then extended roughly from Papantla in the north to Cempoala in the south. Totonacapan was largely hot and humid. Along with the normal agricultural crops of maize, manioc, squash, beans, pumpkin and chili peppers, the region was noted for its production of liquid amber and cotton. Even during the disastrous central Mexican famine of 1450-1454, the region remained a reliable agricultural center. At that time, many Aztecs were forced to sell themselves or their family members as slaves to the Totonac in exchange for subsistence maize.

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Diet

There is a total absence of comals, metates and manos meaning the Totonacs did not eat tortillas, however even though corn was grown it didn't form a large part of their diet. The Totonacs ate fruit most notably zapotes, guavas, papayas, plantains and avocados. Men hunted and fished shark, turtle, deer, armadillo, possums and frogs. Women raised turkeys and dogs. Peasants as well as nobles ate corn porridge in the morning. Lunch was the main meal of the day and consisted of manioc, bean stew or even a rich meat sauce for the nobles. Fish and seafood as well as game was eaten by both nobles and farmers. The agave provided liquor.

Clothing

Totonac women were expert weavers and embroiderers; they dressed grandly and braided their hair with feathers. The Franciscan friar Bernardino de Sahagún stated that, in all aspects of their appearance, the women were "quite elegant", women wore skirts (embroidered for the nobles) and a small triangular poncho covering the breasts. Noble women wore shell and jade necklaces and earrings and often tattooed their faces with red ink. Married women wore their hair in the Nahuatl fashion while peasant women wore their hair long. Likewise, the noble men dressed well, adorning themselves with multicolored cloaks, loin cloths, necklaces, arm bands, lip plugs and devices made of the prized quetzal feathers. Hair was kept long with a thick tuft of hair on the top tied up with a ribbon.

Housing

Houses were generally thatched and had an overhang. They were rectangular in shape.

History

The region of Totonacapan was subject to Aztec military incursions from the mid-15th century until the Spanish arrival. Despite the establishment of Aztec fortifications throughout the region, rebellion was endemic. Major Totonac centers were Papantla, with an estimated population of 60,000 in 1519, Xalapa (around 120,000), and Cempoala (around 80,000). Cempoala was the first Indigenous city state visited by Hernán Cortés in his march to the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán. The Totonacs of Cempoala joined forces with Cortés and, along with the Tlaxcalan Indians, contributed significantly to the Spanish conquest. Totonacapan became incorporated into the Spanish regime with comparatively little violence, but the region was ravaged by epidemic diseases during the 16th century. Today, approximately 90,000 Totonac speakers reside in the region.

Language

The languages known as Totonac and Tepehua form a language family isolate; that is, they are not known to be related to any other languages or language families. The first grammatical and lexical descriptions of Totonac accessible to Europeans (unfortunately now lost) were by Fray Andrés de Olmos, who also wrote the first such descriptions of Nahuatl and Huastec (Teenek).

Religion

Traditional Totonac religion and its amazing richness has been described in the early 1960's by the French ethnographer, Alain Ichon.[1] Unfortunately, no other major essays on Totonac religion have since emerged. Mother goddesses play a very important role in Totonac belief, since each person's soul is made by them.[2] If a newly born child dies, its soul "does not go to the west, the place of the dead, but to the east with the Mothers".[3] Ichon has also preserved for posterity an important myth regarding a maize deity, a culture hero with counterparts among most other cultures of the Gulf Coast and, possibly, among the Classic Mayas. As to traditional curers, it is believed that they "are born during a storm, under the protection of thunder. They think that a lightning bolt strikes the house of a new-born baby ..., and makes it ... under its possession".[4]

Notes

  1. ^ Ichon 1973
  2. ^ Alfredo López Austin (transl. by Ortiz de Montellano) : Tamoanchan, Tlalocan. University Press of Colorado, 1997. p. 161, citing Inchon, p. 46
  3. ^ Alfredo López Austin (transl. by Ortiz de Montellano) : Tamoanchan, Tlalocan. University Press of Colorado, 1997. p. 162, citing Ichon, p. 209
  4. ^ Alfredo López Austin (transl. by Ortiz de Montellano) : Tamoanchan, Tlalocan. University Press of Colorado, 1997. p. 169, citing Ichon, p. 287

References

  • James Olson, ed. Historical Dictionary of the Spanish Empire, 1402-1975, 1992.
  • I. Bernal and E. Dávalos, Huastecos y Totonacos, 1953.
  • H.R. Harvey and Isabel Kelly, "The Totonac," in Handbook of Middle American Indians, 1969.
  • Isabel Kelly and Ángel Palerm, The Tajín Totonac, 1952.
  • Ichon, A. : La religión de los totonacas de la sierra. México : Instituto Nacional Indigenista, 1973.

See also

External links


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