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Vince Young of the Texas Longhorns (ball carrier in top center) rushing for a touchdown. A portion of the end zone is seen as the dark strip at the bottom. The vertical yellow bar is part of the goal post.

A touchdown is a means of scoring in American and Canadian football.

Contents

Description

To score a touchdown, one team must take the football into the opposite end zone. This can be done by rushing, in which the ball carrier carries the football forward into the end zone. It can also be done by passing, where an eligible receiver catches a forward pass in the end zone. The receiver can also catch the ball prior to reaching the end zone and carry it across the plane of the end zone. This would still be considered a "passing" touchdown as opposed to a "rushing" touchdown.

Touchdowns are usually scored by the offense. However, the defense can also score a touchdown if they have recovered a fumble or an interception and return it to the opposing end zone. Special teams can score a touchdown on a kickoff or punt return, or on a return after a missed or blocked field goal attempt or blocked punt. In the NFL, a touchdown may be awarded by the referee as a penalty for a "Palpably Unfair Act" such as a player coming off the bench during a play and tackling the runner who would otherwise have scored.[1]

A touchdown is worth six points. The scoring team is also awarded the opportunity for an extra point or a two-point conversion.[2]

Unlike a try scored in rugby union or rugby league, the ball does not need to touch the ground when the player and the ball is inside the end zone.

History

When the touchdown was introduced into American football in 1876, it did not award a score; instead, it only allowed the offense the chance to kick for goal by placekick from a spot along a line perpendicular to the goal line and passing through the point where the ball was touched down, or through a process known as a "punt-out", where the attacking team would kick the ball from the point where it was touched down to a teammate. If the teammate could fair catch the ball, he could follow with a try for goal from the spot of the catch, or resume play as normal (in an attempt to touchdown the ball in a spot more advantageous for kicking).[3]

In 1881, the rules were modified so that a goal kicked from a touchdown took precedence over a goal kicked from the field in breaking ties.[3]

In 1882, four touchdowns were determined to take precedence over a goal kicked from the field. Two safeties were equivalent to a touchdown.[3]

In 1883, points were introduced to football, and a touchdown counted as 4 points. A goal after a touchdown also counted as 4 points.[3]

In 1889, the provision requiring the ball to actually be touched to the ground was removed. A touchdown was now scored by possessing the ball beyond the goal line.[3]

In 1897, the touchdown scored 5 points, and the goal after touchdown added an additional point.[3]

In 1900, the definition of touchdown was changed to include situations where the ball becomes dead on or above the goal line.[3]

In 1912, the value of a touchdown was increased to 6 points. The end zone was also added. Before the addition of the end zone, forward passes caught beyond the goal line resulted in a loss of possession and a touchback.[3] (The increase from 5 points to 6 did not come until much later in Canada, and the touchdown remained only 5 points there until 1956.)

The ability to score a touchdown on the point-after attempt (two-point conversion) was added to NCAA football in 1958, high school football in 1969, and the NFL in 1994.[3][4]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.nfl.com/rulebook/penaltysummaries
  2. ^ "2006 NCAA Football Rules and Interpretations" (PDF). National Collegiate Athletics Association. 2006. http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2006/2006_football_rules.pdf. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Nelson, David M. (1994). The Anatomy of A Game. Newark, NJ: University of Delaware Press. ISBN 0-87413-455-2. 
  4. ^ "NFL History 1991-2000". NFL.com. http://www.nfl.com/history/chronology/1991-2000#1994. 
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