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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for more than twenty-four (24) hours and not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited".[1] Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. In 2008, there were over 922 million international tourist arrivals, with a growth of 1.9% as compared to 2007. International tourism receipts grew to US$944 billion (euro 642 billion) in 2008, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 1.8%.[2]

As a result of the late-2000s recession, international travel demand suffered a strong slowdown beginning in June 2008, with growth in international tourism arrivals worldwide falling to 2% during the boreal summer months,[3] and this negative trend intensified in 2009 and it was exacerbated in some regions due to the outbreak of the influenza AH1N1 virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, and an estimated 6% decline in international tourism receipts.[4]

Tourism is vital for many countries, such as Australia, Egypt, Greece and Thailand, and many island nations, such as The Bahamas, Fiji, Maldives and the Seychelles, due to the large intake of money for businesses with their goods and services and the opportunity for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. These service industries include transportation services, such as airlines, cruise ships and taxis, hospitality services, such as accommodations, including hotels and resorts, and entertainment venues, such as amusement parks, casinos, shopping malls, various music venues and the theatre.

Contents

Definition

Theobald (1994) suggested that etymologically, the word "tour" is derived from the Latin 'tornare' and the Greek 'tornos,' meaning 'a lathe or circle; the movement around a central point or axis.' This meaning changed in modern English to represent 'one's turn.' The suffix -ism is defined as 'an action or process; typical behavior or quality' whereas the suffix -ist denotes one that performs a given action. When the word tour and the suffixes -ism and -ist are combined, they suggest the action of movement around a circle. One can argue that a circle represents a starting point, which ultimately returns back to its beginning. Therefore, like a circle, a tour represents a journey that is a round trip, i.e., the act of leaving and then returning to the original starting point, and therefore, one who takes such a journey can be called a tourist.[5]

Hunziker and Krapf, in 1941, defined tourism as people who travel "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity."[6] In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes."[7] In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home.[8]

The United Nations classified three forms of tourism in 1994, in its "Recommendations on Tourism Statistics:[9]

  • Domestic tourism, which involves residents of the given country traveling only within this country.
  • Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country.
  • Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another country.

Terminology

Vacation, in English-speaking North America, describes recreational travel, such as a short pleasure trip, or a journey abroad. Most of the rest of the English-speaking whose of recent British or European descent, rarely say going on holiday. People in Commonwealth countries also use the phrase, going on leave.

Canadians often use vacation and holiday interchangeably referring to a trip away from home or time off work. In Australia, the term can refer to a vacation or a public holiday.

World tourism statistics and rankings

Most visited countries by international tourist arrivals

In 2008, there were over 922 million international tourist arrivals, with a growth of 1.9% as compared to 2007. In 2009 international tourists arrivals fell to 880 million, representing a worldwide decline of 4% as compared to 2008. The region most affected was Europe with a 6% decline.[4]

The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten countries as the most visited in between 2006 and 2008 by number of international travelers. When compared to 2006, Ukraine entered the top ten list, surpassing Russia, Austria and Mexico,[3] and in 2008 surpassed Germany.[10] In 2008 the U.S. displaced Spain from the second place. Most of the top visited countries continue to be on the European continent.

Rank Country UNWTO
Regional
Market
International
tourist
arrivals
(2008)[10]
International
tourist
arrivals
(2007)[3][10]
International
tourist
arrivals
(2006)[11]
1  France Europe 79.3 million 81.9 million 78.9 million
2  United States North America 58.0 million 56.0 million 51.0 million
3  Spain Europe 57.3 million 58.7 million 58.2 million
4  China Asia 53.0 million 54.7 million 49.9 million
5  Italy Europe 42.7 million 43.7 million 41.1 million
6  United Kingdom Europe 30.2 million 30.9 million 30.7 million
7  Ukraine Europe 25.4 million 23.1 million 18.9 million
8  Turkey Europe 25.0 million 22.2 million 18.9 million
9  Germany Europe 24.9 million 24.4 million 23.5 million
10  Mexico North America 22.6 million 21.4 million 21.4 million

International tourism receipts

International tourism receipts grew to US$944 billion (euro 642 billion) in 2008, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 1.8% on 2007.[2] When the export value of international passenger transport receipts is accounted for, total receipts in 2008 reached a record of US$1.1 trillion, or over US$3 billion a day.[2]

The World Tourism Organization reports the following countries as the top ten tourism earners for the year 2008. It is noticeable that most of them are on the European continent, but the United States continues to be the top earner.

Rank Country UNWTO
Regional
Market
International
Tourism
Receipts
(2008)[10]
International
Tourism
Receipts
(2007)[3][10]
International
Tourism
Receipts
(2006)[11]
1  United States North America $110.1 billion $96.7 billion $85.7 billion
2  Spain Europe $61.6 billion $57.6 billion $51.1 billion
3  France Europe $55.6 billion $54.3 billion $46.3 billion
4  Italy Europe $45.7 billion $42.7 billion $38.1 billion
5  China Asia $40.8 billion $37.2 billion $33.9 billion
6  Germany Europe $40.0 billion $36.0 billion $32.8 billion
7  United Kingdom Europe $36.0 billion $38.6 billion $33.7 billion
8  Australia Oceania $24.7 billion $22.3 billion $17.8 billion
9  Turkey Europe $22.0 billion $18.5 billion $16.9 billion
10  Austria Europe $21.8 billion $18.9 billion $16.6 billion

International tourism expenditures

The World Tourism Organization reports the following countries as the top ten biggest spenders on international tourism for the year 2008. For the fifth year in a row, German tourists continue as the top spenders.[10][12]

Rank Country UNWTO
Regional
Market
International
Tourism
Expenditures
(2008)[10]
International
Tourism
Expenditures
(2007)[10]
International
Tourism
Expenditures
(2006)[12]
1  Germany Europe $91.0 billion $83.1 billion $73.9 billion
2  United States North America $79.7 billion $76.4 billion $72.1 billion
3  United Kingdom Europe $68.5 billion $71.4 billion $63.1 billion
4  France Europe $43.1 billion $36.7 billion $31.2 billion
5  China Asia $36.2 billion $29.8 billion $24.3 billion
6  Italy Europe $30.8 billion $27.3 billion $23.1 billion
7  Japan Asia $27.9 billion $26.5 billion $26.9 billion
8  Canada North America $26.9 billion $24.7 billion $20.5 billion
9  Russia Europe $24.9 billion $22.3 billion $18.2 billion
10  Netherlands Europe $21.7 billion $19.1 billion $17.0 billion

Most visited cities

Top 10 most visited cities by estimated number of international visitors by selected year
City Country International
visitors
(millions)
Year/Notes
Paris  France 15.6 2007 (Excluding extra-muros visitors)[13]
London  United Kingdom 14.8 2008[14]
Bangkok  Thailand 10.84 2007 (External study estimation)[15]
Singapore  Singapore 10.1 2008[16]
New York City  United States 9.5 2008[17]
Hong Kong  China 7.94 2008 (excluding Mainland China)[18]
Istanbul  Turkey 7.05 2008[19]
Dubai  United Arab Emirates 6.9 2007[20]
Shanghai  China 6.66 2007[21]
Rome  Italy 6.12 2007 (External study estimation)[15]

History

Wealthy people have always travelled to distant parts of the world, to see great buildings, works of art, learn new languages, experience new cultures and to taste different cuisines. Long ago, at the time of the Roman Republic, places such as Baiae were popular coastal resorts for the rich. The word tourism was used by 1811 and tourist by 1840.[22] In 1936, the League of Nations defined foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours". Its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months.[5]

Leisure travel

Leisure travel was associated with the Industrial Revolution in the United Kingdom – the first European country to promote leisure time to the increasing industrial population.[citation needed] Initially, this applied to the owners of the machinery of production, the economic oligarchy, the factory owners and the traders. These comprised the new middle class. Cox & Kings was the first official travel company to be formed in 1758.[23]

The British origin of this new industry is reflected in many place names. In Nice, France, one of the first and best-established holiday resorts on the French Riviera, the long esplanade along the seafront is known to this day as the Promenade des Anglais; in many other historic resorts in continental Europe, old, well-established palace hotels have names like the Hotel Bristol, the Hotel Carlton or the Hotel Majestic – reflecting the dominance of English customers.

Many leisure-oriented tourists travel to the tropics, both in the summer and winter. Places often visited are: Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Thailand, North Queensland in Australia and Florida in the United States.

Winter tourism

Major ski resorts are located in the various European countries (e.g. Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Slovakia, Spain, Switzerland), Canada, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, Chile and Argentina.

Mass tourism

Mass tourism could only have developed with the improvements in technology, allowing the transport of large numbers of people in a short space of time to places of leisure interest, so that greater numbers of people could begin to enjoy the benefits of leisure time.

In the United States, the first seaside resorts in the European style were at Atlantic City, New Jersey and Long Island, New York.

In Continental Europe, early resorts included: Ostend, popularized by the people of Brussels; Boulogne-sur-Mer (Pas-de-Calais) and Deauville (Calvados) for the Parisians; and Heiligendamm, founded in 1797, as the first seaside resort on the Baltic Sea.

Adjectival tourism

Adjectival tourism refers to the numerous niche or specialty travel forms of tourism that have emerged over the years, each with its own adjective. Many of these have come into common use by the tourism industry and academics.[citation needed] Others are emerging concepts that may or may not gain popular usage. Examples of the more common niche tourism markets include:

Recent developments

There has been an upmarket trend in the tourism over the last few decades, especially in Europe, where international travel for short breaks is common.[citation needed] Tourists have high levels of disposable income, considerable leisure time, are well educated, and have sophisticated tastes.[citation needed] There is now a demand for a better quality products, which has resulted in a fragmenting of the mass market for beach vacations; people want more specialised versions, quieter resorts, family-oriented holidays or niche market-targeted destination hotels.

The developments in technology and transport infrastructure, such as jumbo jets, low-cost airlines and more accessible airports have made many types of tourism more affordable. WHO estimates that up to 500,000 people are on planes at any time.[24] There have also been changes in lifestyle, such as retiree-age people who sustain year round tourism. This is facilitated by internet sales of tourism products. Some sites have now started to offer dynamic packaging, in which an inclusive price is quoted for a tailor-made package requested by the customer upon impulse.

There have been a few setbacks in tourism, such as the September 11 attacks and terrorist threats to tourist destinations, such as in Bali and several European cities. Also, on December 26, 2004, a tsunami, caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, hit the Asian countries on the Indian Ocean, including the Maldives. Thousands of lives were lost and many tourists died. This, together with the vast clean-up operation in place, has stopped or severely hampered tourism to the area.

The terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel has a similar definition to tourism, but implies a more purposeful journey. The terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited by tourists.

Sustainable tourism

"Sustainable tourism is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems." (World Tourism Organization)

Sustainable development implies "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987)[25]

Ecotourism

Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is responsible travel to fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas that strives to be low impact and (often) small scale. It helps educate the traveler; provides funds for conservation; directly benefits the economic development and political empowerment of local communities; and fosters respect for different cultures and for human rights.

Recession tourism

Recession tourism is a travel trend, which evolved by way of the world economic crisis. Identified by American entrepreneur Matt Landau (2007), recession tourism is defined by low-cost, high-value experiences taking place of once-popular generic retreats. Various recession tourism hotspots have seen business boom during the recession thanks to comparatively low costs of living and a slow world job market suggesting travelers are elongating trips where the dollar travels further.

Medical tourism

When there is a significant price difference between countries for a given medical procedure, particularly in Southeast Asia, India, Eastern Europe and where there are different regulatory regimes, in relation to particular medical procedures (e.g. dentistry), traveling to take advantage of the price or regulatory differences is often referred to as "medical tourism".

Educational tourism

Educational tourism developed, because of the growing popularity of teaching and learning of knowledge and the enhancing of technical competency outside of the classroom environment.[citation needed] In educational tourism, the main focus of the tour or leisure activity includes visiting another country to learn about the culture, such as in Student Exchange Programs and Study Tours, or to work and apply skills learned inside the classroom in a different environment, such as in the International Practicum Training Program.

Creative tourism

Creative tourism has existed as a form of cultural tourism, since the early beginnings of tourism itself. Its European roots date back to the time of the Grand Tour, which saw the sons of aristocratic families traveling for the purpose of mostly interactive, educational experiences. More recently, creative tourism has been given its own name by Crispin Raymond and Greg Richards[citation needed], who as members of the Association for Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS), have directed a number of projects for the European Commission, including cultural and crafts tourism, known as sustainable tourism. They have defined "creative tourism" as tourism related to the active participation of travellers in the culture of the host community, through interactive workshops and informal learning experiences.[citation needed]

Meanwhile, the concept of creative tourism has been picked up by high-profile organizations such as UNESCO, who through the Creative Cities Network, have endorsed creative tourism as an engaged, authentic experience that promotes an active understanding of the specific cultural features of a place.[citation needed]

More recently, creative tourism has gained popularity as a form of cultural tourism, drawing on active participation by travelers in the culture of the host communities they visit. Several countries offer examples of this type of tourism development, including the United Kingdom, the Bahamas, Jamaica, Spain, Italy and New Zealand.

Dark tourism

One emerging area of special interest tourism has been identified by Lennon and Foley (2000)[26] as "dark" tourism. This type of tourism involves visits to "dark" sites, such as battlegrounds, scenes of horrific crimes or acts of genocide, for example: concentration camps. Dark tourism poses severe ethical and moral dilemmas: should these sites be available for visitation and, if so, what should the nature of the publicity involved be. Dark tourism remains a small niche market, driven by varied motivations, such as mourning, remembrance, macabre curiosity or even entertainment. Its early origins are rooted in fairgrounds and medieval fairs.[27]

Growth

The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) forecasts that international tourism will continue growing at the average annual rate of 4 %.[28] With the advent of e-commerce, tourism products have become one of the most traded items on the internet.[citation needed] Tourism products and services have been made available through intermediaries, although tourism providers (hotels, airlines, etc.) can sell their services directly. This has put pressure on intermediaries from both on-line and traditional shops.

It has been suggested there is a strong correlation between tourism expenditure per capita and the degree to which countries play in the global context.[29] Not only as a result of the important economic contribution of the tourism industry, but also as an indicator of the degree of confidence with which global citizens leverage the resources of the globe for the benefit of their local economies. This is why any projections of growth in tourism may serve as an indication of the relative influence that each country will exercise in the future.

Space tourism is expected to "take off" in the first quarter of the 21st century, although compared with traditional destinations the number of tourists in orbit will remain low until technologies such as a space elevator make space travel cheap.[citation needed]

Technological improvement is likely to make possible air-ship hotels, based either on solar-powered airplanes or large dirigibles.[citation needed] Underwater hotels, such as Hydropolis, expected to open in Dubai in 2009, will be built. On the ocean, tourists will be welcomed by ever larger cruise ships and perhaps floating cities.[citation needed]

Latest trends

As a result of the Late-2000s recession, international arrivals suffered a strong slowdown beginning in June 2008. Growth from 2007 to 2008 was only 3.7% during the first eight months of 2008. The Asian and Pacific markets were affected and Europe stagnated during the boreal summer months, while the Americas performed better, reducing their expansion rate but keeping a 6% growth from January to August 2008. Only the Middle East continued its rapid growth during the same period, reaching a 17% growth as compared to the same period in 2007.[30] This slowdown on international tourism demand was also reflected in the air transport industry, with a negative growth in September 2008 and a 3.3% growth in passenger traffic through September. The hotel industry also reports a slowdown, as room occupancy continues to decline.[30] As the global economic situation deteriorated dramatically during September and October as a result of the global financial crisis, growth of international tourism is expected to slow even further for the remaining of 2008, and this slowdown in demand growth is forecasted to continue into 2009 as recession has already hit most of the top spender countries, with long-haul travel expected to be the most affected by the economic crisis.[30] This negative trend intensified as international tourist arrivals fell by 8% during the first four months of 2009, and the decline was exacerbated in some regions due to the outbreak of the influenza AH1N1 virus.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ "UNWTO technical manual: Collection of Tourism Expenditure Statistics" (PDF). World Tourism Organization. 1995. p. 14. http://pub.unwto.org/WebRoot/Store/Shops/Infoshop/Products/1034/1034-1.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-26. 
  2. ^ a b c d "UNWTO World Tourism Barometer June 2009". UNWTO World Tourism Barometer (World Tourism Organization) 7 (2). June 2009. http://unwto.org/facts/eng/pdf/barometer/UNWTO_Barom09_2_en_excerpt.pdf. Retrieved 3 August 2009. 
  3. ^ a b c d "UNWTO World Tourism Barometer June 2008" (PDF). World Tourism Organization. June 2008. http://www.tourismroi.com/Content_Attachments/27670/File_633513750035785076.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-01. Volume 6 No. 2
  4. ^ a b "UNWTO World Tourism Barometer January 2010". World Tourism Organization. January 2010. http://unwto.org/facts/eng/pdf/barometer/UNWTO_Barom10_1_en_excerpt.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-18. Volume 8 No. 1
  5. ^ a b Theobald, William F. (1998). Global Tourism (2nd ed.). Oxford [England]: Butterworth–Heinemann. pp. 10. ISBN 0750640227. OCLC 40330075. http://books.google.com/books?id=9dvK2ajv7zIC&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10&dq=league+of+nations+tourism+1936&source=web&ots=CnKfwbh5-5&sig=ejVyw3fgxy5kUwuksgiQTe_8aQU&hl=en#v=onepage&q=league%20of%20nations%20tourism%201936&f=false. 
  6. ^ Werner Hunziker and Kurt (1942). Grundriss der allgemeinen Fremdenverkehrslehre. OCLC 69064371. ; cf. Hasso Spode in Günther Haehling (ed.): Tourismus-Management, Berlin 1998
  7. ^ Beaver, Allan. A dictionary of travel and tourism terminology, pg. 313.
  8. ^ International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism. "The AIEST, its character and aims". http://www.aiest.org/org/idt/idt_aiest.nsf/en/index.html. Retrieved 2008-03-29. 
  9. ^ Recommendations on Tourism Statistics
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h "UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2009 Edition". World Tourism Organization. 2009. http://www.unwto.org/facts/menu.html. Retrieved 2009-10-04.  Click on the link "UNWTO Tourism Highlights" to access the pdf report.
  11. ^ a b "UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2008 Edition". World Tourism Organization. 2008. http://unwto.org/facts/eng/pdf/highlights/UNWTO_Highlights08_en_HR.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-18. 
  12. ^ a b "International Tourism Expenditure". UNWTO World Tourism Barometer (World Tourism Organization) 7 (1): 11. January 2009. http://www.unwto.org/facts/eng/pdf/barometer/UNWTO_Barom09_1_en.pdf. 
  13. ^ Awaiting for more precise statistics France 24 / Paris's tourism office : Key figures
  14. ^ "Key Visitor Statistics - 2008". Official website. Visit London. 2009. http://www.visitlondonmediacentre.com/images/uploads/London_-_Key_Visitor_Statistics_2008_-_Media_Factsheet.pdf. Retrieved 27 September 2009. 
  15. ^ a b Caroline Bremner (2009-01-07). "Trend Watch: Euromonitor International’s Top City Destinations Ranking". Euromonitor International. http://www.euromonitor.com/Trend_Watch_Euromonitor_Internationals_Top_City_Destinations_Ranking. Retrieved 2009-01-16. 
  16. ^ "Record Year For Tourism Receipts In 2008". Singapore Tourism Board. 10 January 2009. http://app.stb.gov.sg/asp/new/new03a.asp?id=9603. Retrieved 11 October 2009. 
  17. ^ "International Visitors to NYC 2008". Official website. NYC & Company. 2009. http://www.nycgo.com/?event=view.article&id=78912. Retrieved 30 September 2009. 
  18. ^ "Cumulative Sameday and Overnight Visitor Arrivals Summary by Country/Territory of Residence - Jan - Dec 2008". Official website. Hong Kong Tourism Board. 22 January 2009. p. 3. http://partnernet.hktb.com/pnweb/primg/Tourism%20Stat%2012%202008.pdf. Retrieved 30 September 2009. 
  19. ^ "Istanbul Hotel Market". Colliers International. 2009. p. 4. http://www.colliers.com/Content/Repositories/Base/Markets/Istanbul/English/Market_Report/PDFs/Colliers_Turkey_Review_2009_1_ENG.pdf. Retrieved 11 October 2009. 
  20. ^ Source : Dubai Tourism and Commerce Marketing (DTCM)
  21. ^ Source: Shanghai Municipal Tourism Administration Commission. Travelmole.com
  22. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary: tour". http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?l=t&p=16. Retrieved 2008-03-01. 
  23. ^ "Cox & Kings Website". http://www.coxandkings.co.uk/aboutus-history.aspx. 
  24. ^ Swine flu prompts EU warning on travel to US. The Guardian. April 28, 2009.
  25. ^ "Sustainable Tourism". Ecotourism.org. http://www.ecotourism.org/webmodules/webarticlesnet/templates/eco_template.aspx?articleid=95&zoneid=2. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  26. ^ http://www.worldwidewords.org/turnsofphrase/tp-dar2.htm
  27. ^ Tourism Principles and Practice, C. Cooper, J. Fletcher, A. Fyall, D. Gilbert, S. Wanhill, Pearson Education, Third edition, Madrid 2005
  28. ^ "Long-term Prospects: Tourism 2020 Vision". World Tourism. 2004. http://www.world-tourism.org/market_research/facts/market_trends.htm. 
  29. ^ "airports & tourists". Global Culture. 2007. http://global-culture.org/blog/2007/01/27/airports-tourists/. 
  30. ^ a b c World Tourism Organization (October 2008). "UNWTO World Tourism Barometer October 2008" (PDF). UNWTO. http://unwto.org/facts/eng/pdf/barometer/UNWTO_Barom08_3_en_Excerpt.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-17.  Volume 6, Issue 3

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

This is a new learning resource. Please feel welcome to edit any of this boilerplate to suit your needs.

Contents

Tourism for A2 Geography

Tourism at A2 geography is one of the most awful geography topics I have ever done, but here's some case studies. They wont be wholey suffecient, but they love numbers and all that jazz, so remember some of them. Enjoy

Kenya

Kenya has passed through the entirety of the Butler model of toursim (exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation and rejuvenation/decline).

Due to the expansion of the pleasure periphery (an ever expanding wave of tourism to encompass more destinations and new experiences), Kenya became popular in the 1960's. It was attractive due to resources, such as the beaches in Mombasa, and the abundant wildlife in the savanna. Many tourists spent one week at one resource, and one week at the other. It was also a good year round destination, as there is no seasonality with ~26'C all year round.

In the 1980's package holiday deals became available, which due to economy of sales, were cheaper. During the 80's tourism overtook cofee as Kenya's main export with 43% of the countries gross nation product (GNP), and many western style hotels were built to attact more tourists. This lead to a transistion from resource to demand based tourism. The hotels and services became trans-national corporations (TNCs) so they were not owned by the locals. This lead to leakage (the loss of money through foreign ownership) at a rate of 40%, and loss of culture as the innately friendly Kenyans, such as the Massai tribe) were restricted from shaking hands when employed by large hotels, as western people were not comfortable with the contact.

This lead to the decline of Kenyan tourism in the late 80's and early 90's. Crime and general debauchery from the western culture meant the area was no longer attractive to tourists, so charter flights were cut, and some travel agents no longer supplied holidays there. In 1992 Kenya lost 70% of there British market.

Spain

The Costa del Sole became a popular resource for British tourism in the 1970's with package holidays made cheaper though economy of sales.

In the 60's there were only 0.4 million tourists to the Costa del Sol, visiting for the beach holidays, but in the 70's this rose to 3 million. Farmland was built on and through the multiplier effect, the infrastructure was improved. There was again a transistion from resource based to demand based, as demonstated by the Butler model product cycle showing tourism as exploiting a resource. Clubs, bars, restaurants and more hotels were built, leading to environmental degradation.

During the 80's tourism in the region had risen to 7 million, and the carrying capacity had been reached. The area began to stagnate, and was no longer fashionable. The attractive mountainous area was blocked by large hotel developments, and the beaches were dirty from litter left by tourists, and polluted form excessive sewage. There was also strain on the resources such as water, as it takes 60 000 gallons to run a luxury hotel for a day.

Similar efects were seen in the Baleric islands, were 5 out of 7 aquifers were contaiminated.

In the 1990s Costa del Sol began rejuvenation. The beaches were tidied, and achieved Blue Flag status from the EU, confirming they are safe and unpolluted. VAT was cut to 6% to encourage tourists and businesses alike.

Spain began to diversify its' tourism market to eco tourism and heritage tourism. The proposed development of Coto Donana national park to 'Costa Donana' was abandoned as it was a wetland area popular with rare birds, and development had already seen a drop in the water table and the death of 30 000 wild birds form pesticide contamination, so Coto Donana developed a Spainish Ornothological Society visitors centre, to use the environment as an economic asset. This is an example of eco tourism.

Tourism spread more inland in Spain to Madrid and Barcelona, for attractions such as 'The Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Família', or in English the church of the sacred family.

Overall Spain has not seen a decline in tourism, but aspatial change moving inland.

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe is an example of both top down and bottom up approach to tourism, currently in the involvement stage of the Butler model.

Tourim provides 60 000 jobs in Zimbabwe and is worth £53 million a year.

Top Down approach:

The government have proposed that in order to keep the resource that attracts tourism (safari) they have set national parks, however this has meant settling nomads and making different social groups live together on communal land. However in a country with a quickly growing population this is not plausible, and areas are needed for more food production. This does not give much benefit for the local people.

Bottom up approach:

The CAMPFIRE project is a project whereby the communities are in charge. They take 80% of the profit, and 90% of the income is from selling hunting concessions to tourists. They have set quotas of animals that can be hunted in order to keep the tourism sustainable.

TBC for Goa, Gambia, Blackpool, Australia

charter flights to goa 1987!!


Simple English

[[File:|thumb|150px|right|A tourist symbol]] Tourism can mean when people travel for fun, and also the industry that helps these people.

Contents

Travel for fun

People who travel for fun are called "tourists". Places that a lot of people visit are called "resorts".

There are a lot of reasons why people travel for fun:

  • Some people travel to learn about the history of a city or country, or learn about the people who live there, or their ancestors.
  • People from cold places might want to relax in the sun. Many people from the north of Europe travel to Spain, Italy, Greece and Turkey for the sun.
  • Some people travel to do an activity which they cannot do at home. There are lots of skiing resorts in Switzerland and Austria, where people who do not have mountains at home can ski.
  • People sometimes visit friends and family in another city or country.
  • Finally, some people enjoy a change in scenery.

The tourism industry

The tourism industry has many different parts. Some of these are:

Damage tourism can bring

Tourism can bring damage to the local area. Litter, scuba-diving, deforestation are a real problem for popular places such as St. Lucia, Hawaii and other exotic places. Scuba-diving can cause damage to coral reefs which are home to 100s of species of sea animals.

Tourism can damage the local culture, certain local traditions are being put aside for tourists.

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