Tourism in the United States: Wikis

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The Grand Canyon of Arizona attracts approximately 4.41 million visitors each year.

Tourism in the United States is a large industry that serves millions of international and domestic tourists yearly. Tourists visit the US to see natural wonders, cities, historic landmarks and entertainment venues. Americans seek similar attractions, as well as recreation and vacation areas. Tourism in the United States grew rapidly in the form of urban tourism during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. By the 1850s, tourism in the United States was well-established both as a cultural activity and as an industry. New York, Chicago, Washington, D.C. and San Francisco, all major US cities, attracted a large number of tourists by the 1890s. By 1915, city touring had marked significant shifts in the way Americans perceived, organized and moved around in urban environments. Democratization of travel occurred during the early twentieth century when the automobile revolutionized travel. Similarly air travel revolutionized travel during 1945–1969, contributing greatly to tourism in the United States. By 2007 the number of international tourists had climbed to over 56 million people who spent $122.7 billion dollars, setting an all time record.[1]

The travel and tourism industry in the United States was among the first commercial casualties of the September 11, 2001 attacks, a series of terrorist attacks on the US. Terrorists used four commercial airliners as weapons of destruction, all of which were destroyed in the attacks with 3,000 casualties. In the US, tourism is either the first, second or third largest employer in 29 states, employing 7.3 million in 2004, to take care of 1.19 billion trips tourists took in the US in 2005. As of 2007, there are 2,462 registered National Historic Landmarks (NHL) recognized by the United States government. As of 2008, the most visited tourist attraction in the US is Times Square in Manhattan, New York City which attracts approximately 35 million visitors yearly.

Contents

History

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19th century

The rise of urban tourism in the United States during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries represented a major cultural transformation concerning urban space, leisure antural activity and as an industry.[2] Although travel agents and package tours did not exist until the 1870s and 1880s, entrepreneurs of various sorts from hotel keepers and agents for railroad lines to artists and writers recognized the profit to be gained from the prospering tourism industry.[2] The rise of locomotive steam-powered trains during the 1800s enabled tourists to travel more easily and quickly.[3] In the United States 2,800 miles (4,500 km) of track had been completed by 1840, by 1860 all major eastern US cities were linked by rail, and by 1869 the first trans-American railroad link was completed.[4] Yosemite Park was developed as a tourist attraction in the late 1850s and early 1860s for an audience who wanted a national icon and place to symbolize exotic wonder of its region.[2] Photography played an important role for the first time in the development of tourist attractions, making it possible to distribute hundreds of images showing various places of interest.[2]

New York, Chicago, Washington, D.C. and San Francisco, all major US cities, attracted a large number of tourists by the 1890s.[5] New York's population grew from 300,000 in 1840 to 800,000 in 1850.[6] Chicago experienced a dramatic increase from 4,000 residents in 1840 to 300,000 by 1870. Dictionaries first published the word 'tourist' sometime in 1800, when it referred to those going to Europe or making a round trip of natural wonders in New York and New England. The absence of urban tourism during the nineteenth century was in part because American cities lacked the architecture and art which attracted thousands to Europe. American cities tended to offend the sensitive with ugliness and commercialism rather than inspire awe or aesthetic pleasure.[7] Some tourists were fascinated by the rapid growth of the new urban areas: "It is an absorbing thing to watch the process of world-making; both the formation of the natural and the conventional world," wrote English writer Harriet Martineau in 1837.[8]

The Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts was one of many similar institutions classed as tourist attractions in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

As American cities developed, new institutions to accommodate and care for the insane, disabled and criminal were constructed. The Hatford, Connecticut American School for the Deaf opened in 1817, Ossining, New York state prison in 1825, the Connecticut State Penitentiary at Wethersfield in 1827, Mount Auburn Cemetery in 1831, the Perkins School for the Blind in 1832, and the Worcester State Hospital in 1833.[9] These institutions attracted the curiosity of American and foreign visitors. The English writer and actress Fanny Kemble was an admirer of the American prison system who was also concerned that nature was being destroyed in favor of new developments. Guidebooks published in the 1830s, 40s and 50s described new prisons, asylums and institutions for the deaf and blind, and urged tourists to visit these sights.[10] Accounts of these visits written by Charles Dickens, Harriet Martineau, Lydia Sigourney and Caroline Gilman were published in magazines and travel books.[10] Sigourney's Scenes in My Native Land (1845) included descriptions of her tour of Niagara Falls and other places of scenic interest with accounts of her visits to prisons and asylums.[10] Many visited these institutions because nothing like them had existed before.[11] The buildings which housed them were themselves monumental, often placed on hilltops as a symbol of accomplishment.[11]

Early Tourism

By 1915, city touring had marked significant shifts in the way Americans perceived, organized and moved around in urban environments.[5] Urban tourism became a profitable industry in 1915 as the number of tour agencies, railroad passenger departments, guidebook publishers and travel writers grew at a fast pace.[5] The expense of pleasure tours meant that only the minority of Americans between 1850 and 1915 could experience the luxury of tourism.[5] Many Americans traveled to find work, but few found time for enjoyment of the urban environment. As transportation networks improved, the length of commuting decreased, and income rose.[5] A growing number of Americans were able to afford short vacations by 1915. Still, mass tourism was not possible until after World War II.[5]

During the nineteenth century, tourism of any form had been available only to the upper and middle classes. This changed during the early twentieth century through the democratization of travel. In 1895, popular publications printed articles showing the car was cheaper to operate than the horse.[12] The development of automobiles in the early 1900s included the introduction of the Ford Model T in 1908. In 1900, 8,000 cars were registered in the US, which increased to 619,000 by 1911.[13] By the time of the Model T's introduction in 1908, there were 44 US households per car.[13] Early cars were a luxury for the wealthy, but after Ford began to dramatically drop prices after 1913, more were able to afford one.[14]

The development of hotels with leisure complexes had become a popular development during the 1930s in the United States.[15] The range of "club" type holidays available appealed to a broad segment of the holiday market.[15] As more families traveled independently by car, hotels failed to cater to their needs.[15] Kemmons Wilson opened the first motel as a new form of accommodation in Memphis, Tennessee in 1952.[15]

The Art Deco district of South Beach in Miami, Florida was developed during the 1930s.

Although thousands of tourists visited Florida during the early 1900s, it was not until after World War II that the tourist industry quickly became Florida's largest source of income.[16] Florida's white sandy beaches, hot summer temperatures and wide range of activities such as swimming, fishing, boating and hiking all attracted tourists to the state. During the 1930s, architects designed Art Deco style buildings in Miami Beach.[17] Visitors are still attracted to the Art Deco district of Miami, Florida.[17] Theme parks were soon built across Florida. One of the largest resorts in the world, the Walt Disney World Resort, was opened in Orlando, Florida in 1971.[18] In its first year, the 28,000-acre (110 km2) park added $14 billion to Orlando's economy.

Late 20th century

The Douglas DC-4 was one of the first airliners in the United States used for commercial flights.

The revolution of air travel between 1945 and 1969 contributed greatly to tourism in the United States. In that quarter century, commercial aviation evolved from 28-passenger airliners flying at less than 200 mph (320 km/h) to 150-passenger jetliners cruising continents at 600 mph (970 km/h).[19] During this time, air travel in the US evolved from a novelty into a routine for business travelers and vacationers alike. Rapid developments in aviation technology, economic prosperity in the United States and the demand for air travel all contributed to the early beginnings of commercial aviation in the US.[19] During the first four decades of the twentieth century, long-haul journeys between large American cities were accomplished using trains. By the 1950s, air travel was part of every-day life for many Americans.[19] The tourism industry in the US experienced exponential growth as tourists could travel almost anywhere with a fast, reliable and routine system.[19] For some, a vacation in Hawaii was now a more frequent pleasure. Air travel changed everything from family vacations to Major League Baseball, as had steam-powered trains in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.[19]

By the end of the twentieth century, tourism had significantly grown throughout the world. The World Tourism Organisation (WTO, 1998) recorded that, in 1950, arrivals of tourists from abroad, excluding same-day visits, numbered about 25.2 million.[20] By 1997, the figure was 612.8 million. In 1950 receipts from international movements were US$2.1 billion, in 1997 they were $443.7 billion.[20]

21st century

The travel and tourism industry in the United States was among the first commercial casualties of the September 11, 2001 attacks, a series of terrorist attacks on the US. Terrorists used four commercial airliners as weapons of destruction, all of which were destroyed in the attacks with 3,000 casualties.[21] In the first full week after flights resumed, passenger numbers fell by nearly 45 percent, from 9 million in the week before September 11 to 5 million.[21] Hotels and travel agencies received cancellations across the world. The hotel industry suffered an estimated $700 million loss in revenue during the four days following the attacks.[21] The situation recovered over the following months as the Federal Reserve kept the financial system afloat. The U.S. Congress issued a $5 billion grant to the nation's airlines and $10 billion in loan guarantees to keep them flying.[21]

In the US, tourism is either the first, second or third largest employer in 29 states, employing 7.3 million in 2004, to take care of 1.19 billion trips tourists took in the US in 2005.[22] The US outbound holiday market is sensitive in the short term, but possibly one of the most surprising results from the September 11, 2001 attacks was that by February 2002 it had bounced back for overseas travel, especially to destinations like New Zealand. This quick revival was generally quicker than many commentators had predicted only five months earlier.[23]

The United States economy began to slow significantly in 2007, mostly because of a real-estate slump, gas prices and related financial problems.[24] Many economists believe that the economy entered a recession at the end of 2007 or early in 2008.[24] Some state budgets for tourism marketing have decreased, such as Connecticut which is facing soaring gas prices.[25]

Attractions

Times Square is the most visited tourist site in the United States.

Today, a wide range of tourist attractions exist in the United States such as amusement parks, festivals, gambling, golf courses, historical buildings and landmarks, hotels, museums, galleries, outdoor recreation, spas, restaurants and sports. In 2008, the most visited tourist sites in the US were:

Place Location Visitors (millions)[26]
Times Square New York, New York 35
Las Vegas Strip Las Vegas, Nevada 31
National Mall and Memorial Parks Washington, D.C. 24
Faneuil Hall Marketplace Boston, Massachusetts 20
Magic Kingdom Orlando, Florida 17.1
Disneyland Park Anaheim, California 14.9
Fisherman's Wharf/Golden Gate Area San Francisco, California 14
Niagara Falls New York 12
Great Smoky Mountains National Park North Carolina and Tennessee 9.4
Navy Pier Chicago, Illinois 8.6
Lake Mead National Recreation Area Las Vegas, Nevada 7.6
Universal Orlando Resort Orlando, Florida 6.2
SeaWorld Orlando Orlando, Florida 6
San Antonio River Walk San Antonio, Texas 5.1
Salt Lake Temple Salt Lake City, Utah 5
Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area New Jersey and Pennsylvania 4.8
Universal Studios Hollywood Universal City, California 4.7
Metropolitan Museum of Art New York City, N.Y 4.5
Waikiki Beach Oahu, Hawaii 4.5
Grand Canyon Arizona 4.41
Busch Gardens Africa Tampa, Florida 4.4
Cape Cod National Seashore Barnstable County, Massachusetts 4.35
SeaWorld San Diego San Diego, California 4.26
American Museum of Natural History Manhattan, New York City 4
Atlantic City Boardwalk Atlantic City, New Jersey 4

Landmarks

As of 2007, there are 2,462 registered National Historic Landmarks (NHL) recognized by the United States government.[27] The majority of these are located in New York, California, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania.[27] Each major US city has thousands of landmarks. For example, New York City has 23,000 landmarks designated by the Landmarks Preservation Commission. These landmarks include various individual buildings, interiors, historic districts, and scenic sites which define the culture and character of New York City.[28]

Natural wonders

The Grand Canyon is one of the most well known landmarks in the US. Other landmarks include Mount Rushmore, the Apalachians, the Rocky Mountains, and Stone Mountain.

Sport

Since the 1960s, sport has become an international affair, attracting a considerable amount of media attention, revenue, participants and political interest. Estimates of the US sports industry's size vary from $213 billion[29] to $410 billion.[30] In 1997, 25% of tourism receipts in the United States were related to sports tourism; this would have valued the market at approximately $350 billion annually.[31] The nature of the sport's media relationship has been distinctly shaped by the emergence of American capitalism since the 1830s.[32] Sports in the United States have attracted tourists for many decades. The 1997 New York City Marathon attracted 12,000 visitors from outside the US of 28,000 participants.[33]

Statistics

Arrivals

Chart of international arrivals to the United States, 1997-2007.

Expenditure

Forecast

The U.S. Department of Commerce forecasts: (in thousands)

Origin 2007[34] 2008[34] 2009[34] 2010[34] 2011[34]
Canada 16,691 17,274 17,847 18,409 18,960
Mexico 13,717 14,127 14,529 14,921 15,304
Europe 10,951 11,407 11,822 12,230 12,632
Asia 6,348 6,710 7,050 7,390 7,730
South America 2,166 2,267 2,367 2,466 2,564
Caribbean 1,277 1,316 1,355 1,394 1,431
Central America 737 768 798 829 860
Oceania 804 838 872 905 937
Middle East 600 622 644 666 688
Africa 270 282 294 306 317

See also

References

  1. ^ 2007 Sets All Time International Tourism Record for U.S., March 10, 2008, http://www.commerce.gov/NewsRoom/PressReleases_FactSheets/PROD01_005355, retrieved 2008-06-28 
  2. ^ a b c d Sears, John F. (1998), Sacred Places: American Tourist Attractions in the Nineteenth Century, University of Massachusetts Press, p. 123, ISBN 1558491627 
  3. ^ "Summer Travel", New York Times, July 19, 1868, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9C02E1D71230EE34BC4152DFB1668383679FDE, retrieved 2008-05-18 
  4. ^ Standeven, Joy; de Knop, Paul (1999), Sport Tourism, Human Kinetics, p. 20, ISBN 0873228537 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Cocks, Catherine (2001), Doing the Town: The Rise of Urban Tourism in the United States, 1850-1915, University of California Press, pp. 6–7, ISBN 0520227468 
  6. ^ Cocks, Catherine, pp. 6–7 
  7. ^ Cocks, Catherine, p. 11 
  8. ^ Sears, John F. (Jan 2002), "Effects of treatment history and centralized intake on drug treatment outcomes.", Journal of psychoactive drugs 34 (1): 87–95, ISSN 0279-1072, PMID 12003118 
  9. ^ Sears, John F., p. 11 
  10. ^ a b c Sears, John F., p. 89 
  11. ^ a b Sears, John F., p. 90 
  12. ^ Lay, M. G.; Vance, James E. (1992), Ways of the World: A History of the World's Roads and of the Vehicles That Used Them, Rutgers University Press, p. 174, ISBN 0813526914 
  13. ^ a b Lay, M. G.; Vance, James E., p. 170 
  14. ^ Lay, M. G.; Vance, James E., p. 180 
  15. ^ a b c d Standeven, Joy; de Knop, Paul, p. 31 
  16. ^ Viele, John (1996), The Florida Keys: A History of the Pioneers, Pineapple Press, p. 135, ISBN 1561641014 
  17. ^ a b Cerwinske, Laura; Kaminsky, David (1981), Tropical Deco: The Architecture and Design of Old Miami Beach, Rizzoli, ISBN 0847803457 
  18. ^ Grant, Kim; Penland, Paige R. (January 2003), Florida (3rd ed.), Lonely Planet Publications, p. 27, ISBN 1740591364 
  19. ^ a b c d e Yenne, Bill (2005), Classic American Airliners, Zenith Imprint, p. 8, ISBN 0760319316 
  20. ^ a b Ryan, Chris (2003), Recreational tourism: Demand and Impacts, Channel View Publications, p. 18, ISBN 1873150563 
  21. ^ a b c d Mak, James (2003), Tourism and the Economy: understanding the economics of tourism, University of Hawaii Press, p. 193, ISBN 0824827899 
  22. ^ Parks, Janet B.; Jerome, Quaterman; Lucie, Thibault (2007), Contemporary sport management, Human Kinetics, p. 142, ISBN 073606365X 
  23. ^ Ryan, Chris, p. 28 
  24. ^ a b "United States Economy", New York Times, 2008, http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/u/united_states_economy/index.html, retrieved May 19, 2008 
  25. ^ "Trying to Sell Europeans stuff", New York Times, May 18, 2008, http://travel.nytimes.com/2008/05/18/nyregion/nyregionspecial2/18tourismct.html, retrieved May 19, 2008 
  26. ^ Baedeker, Rob (May 5, 2008), "America's 25 Most Visited Tourist Sites", ForbesTraveler (Forbes), http://www.forbestraveler.com/best-lists/most-visited-us-tourist-attractions-story.html, retrieved May 19, 2008 
  27. ^ a b List of National Historical Landmarks by State, U.S. Department of the Interior, March 6, 2008 (published November 2007), http://www.nps.gov/nhl/designations/Lists/LIST07.pdf, retrieved May 19, 2008 
  28. ^ Guide to New York City Landmarks, John Wiley & Sons, 2003, ISBN 0471369004 
  29. ^ "The Sports Industry", SportsBusiness Journal (Street & Smith's), 2008, http://www.sportsbusinessjournal.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=page.feature&featureId=1492, retrieved May 19, 2008 
  30. ^ "Sports Statistics", Plunkett's Sports Industry Almanac (Plunkett Research), 2007, http://www.plunkettresearch.com/Industries/Sports/SportsStatistics/tabid/273/Default.aspx, retrieved May 19, 2008 
  31. ^ Standeven, Joy; de Knop, Paul, p. 176 
  32. ^ Wenner, Lawrence A. (1989), Media, Sports, and Society: Foundations for the Communication of Sport, SAGE, p. 49, ISBN 0803932448 
  33. ^ Standeven, Joy; de Knop, Paul, p. vii 
  34. ^ a b c d e Forecast of International Travel to the United States (Estimates in Thousands), October 2007, http://tinet.ita.doc.gov/view/f-2000-99-001/forecast/Forecast_World_Regions_to_web.pdf, retrieved May 18, 2008 

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