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Toyota Motor Corporation
Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki-gaisha
トヨタ自動車株式会社
Type Public (TYO: 7203) & (NYSETM)
Founded 1937
Founder(s) Kiichiro Toyoda
Headquarters Toyota City, Aichi, Japan;
Key people
Industry
Products
Revenue US$208.995 billion (2009)[2]
Operating income US$-4.69 billion (2009)[2]
Net income US$-4.45 billion (2009)[2]
Total assets US$295.86 billion (2009)[2]
Total equity US$102.425 billion (2009)[2]
Employees 316,121[3]
Subsidiaries 522
Website www.toyota.co.jp/en/

Toyota Motor Corporation (Japanese: トヨタ自動車株式会社 Toyota Jidōsha Kabushiki-gaisha?, TYO: 7203), commonly known simply as Toyota, is a multinational corporation headquartered in Japan. At its peak, Toyota employed approximately 320,000 people worldwide. It is the world's largest automaker by sales.[4][5]

The company was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937 as a spinoff from his father's company Toyota Industries to create automobiles. Three years earlier, in 1934, while still a department of Toyota Industries, it created its first product, the Type A engine, and, in 1936, its first passenger car, the Toyota AA. Toyota also owns and operates Lexus and Scion brands and has a majority shareholding stake in Daihatsu and Hino Motors, and minority shareholdings in Fuji Heavy Industries, Isuzu Motors, Yamaha Motors, and Mitsubishi Aircraft Corporation. The company includes 522 subsidiaries.[6]

Toyota is headquartered in Toyota City, Aichi and in Tokyo.[7] In addition to manufacturing automobiles, Toyota provides financial services through its division Toyota Financial Services and also builds robots. Toyota Motor Corporation (including Toyota Financial Services) and Toyota Industries form the bulk of the Toyota Group, one of the largest conglomerates in the world.

Contents

History

Toyota started in 1933 as a division of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works devoted to the production of automobiles under the direction of the founder's son, Kiichiro Toyoda.[8] Its first vehicles were the A1 passenger car and the G1 in 1935. Toyota Motor Co. was established as an independent company in 1937.

Recent company developments

2007–2010 financial crisis

On May 8, 2009, Toyota reported a record annual net loss of US$4.4 billion, making it the latest automobile maker to be severely affected by the 2007-2010 financial crisis.

2009–2010 vehicle recalls

In January 2010, Toyota announced recalling up to 1.8 million cars across Europe, including about 220,000 in the UK, following an accelerator problem.[9] The US Transportation Department has opened an investigation into brake problems in Toyota vehicles. This is after the department received 124 reports from drivers about the issue, including four involving crashes.[10]

The company said its recall could cost the company up to US$2 billion (GB£1.25 billion) in lost output and sales.[11] Toyota later recalled the Prius model after problems were found in the ABS system. Many Toyota models were involved, covering 2007-2010 model years. The U.S. Sales Chief, James Lentz, was questioned by the United States Congress committees on Oversight and Investigations on February 23, 2010, as a result of recent recalls.[12]

Name

Toyota headquarters in Toyota City, Japan

Vehicles were originally sold under the name "Toyoda" (トヨダ), from the family name of the company's founder, Kiichirō Toyoda. In September 1936, the company ran a public competition to design a new logo. Out of 27,000 entries the winning entry was the three Japanese katakana letters for "Toyoda" in a circle. But Risaburō Toyoda, who had married into the family and was not born with that name, preferred "Toyota" (トヨタ) because it took eight brush strokes (a fortuitous number) to write in Japanese, was visually simpler (leaving off the diacritic at the end) and with a voiceless consonant instead of a voiced one (voiced consonants are considered to have a "murky" or "muddy" sound compared to voiceless consonants, which are "clear"). Since "Toyoda" literally means "fertile rice paddies", changing the name also helped to distance the company from associations with old-fashioned farming. The newly formed word was trademarked and the company was registered in August 1937 as the "Toyota Motor Company".[13][14][15]

In predominantly Chinese-speaking countries or regions using traditional Chinese characters, e.g. Hong Kong and Taiwan, Toyota is known as "豊田".[16] In predominantly Chinese speaking countries using simplified Chinese characters (e.g. China), Toyota is known as "丰田"[17] (pronounced as "Fēngtián" in the Mandarin Chinese dialect). These are the same characters as the founding family's name "Toyoda" in Japanese, which translate to "fertile rice paddies" in the Chinese language as well.

From September 1947, Toyota's small-sized vehicles were sold under the name "Toyopet" (トヨペット).[18] The first vehicle sold under this name was the Toyopet SA[19] but it also included vehicles such as the Toyopet SB light truck, Toyopet Stout light truck,[20] Toyopet Crown and the Toyopet Corona. However, when Toyota eventually entered the American market in 1957 with the Crown, the name was not well received due to connotations of toys and pets.[21] The name was soon dropped for the American market but continued in other markets until the mid 1960s.

Company overview

With over 30 million sold, the Corolla is one of the most popular and best selling cars in the world.

The Toyota Motor Company received its first Japanese Quality Control Award at the start of the 1980s and began participating in a wide variety of motorsports. Due to the 1973 oil crisis, consumers in the lucrative U.S. market began turning to small cars with better fuel economy. American car manufacturers had considered small economy cars to be an "entry level" product, and their small vehicles employed a low level of quality in order to keep the price low.

By the early sixties, the US had begun placing stiff import tariffs on certain vehicles. The Chicken tax of 1964 placed a 25% tax on imported commercials vans.[22] In response to the tariff, Toyota, Nissan Motor Co. and Honda Motor Co. began building plants in the U.S. by the early eighties.[22]

In 1982, the Toyota Motor Company and Toyota Motor Sales merged into one company, the Toyota Motor Corporation. Two years later, Toyota entered into a joint venture with GM called NUMMI, the New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc, operating an automobile-manufacturing plant in Fremont, California. The factory was an old General Motors plant that had been closed for two years. Toyota then started to establish new brands at the end of the 1980s, with the launch of their luxury division Lexus in 1989.

In the 1990s, Toyota began to branch out from producing mostly compact cars by adding many larger and more luxurious vehicles to its lineup, including a full-sized pickup, the T100 (and later the Tundra); several lines of SUVs; a sport version of the Camry, known as the Camry Solara; and the Scion brand, a group of several affordable, yet sporty, automobiles targeted specifically to young adults. Toyota also began production of the world's best-selling hybrid car, the Prius, in 1997.

With a major presence in Europe, due to the success of Toyota Team Europe, the corporation decided to set up TMME, Toyota Motor Europe Marketing & Engineering, to help market vehicles in the continent. Two years later, Toyota set up a base in the United Kingdom, TMUK, as the company's cars had become very popular among British drivers. Bases in Indiana, Virginia and Tianjin were also set up. In 1999, the company decided to list itself on the New York and London Stock Exchanges.

Toyota Deutschland's headquarters in Cologne

In 2001, Toyota's Toyo Trust and Banking merged to form the UFJ, United Financials of Japan, which was accused of corruption by the Japan's government for making bad loans to alleged Yakuza crime syndicates with executives accused of blocking Financial Service Agency inspections.[23] The UFJ was listed among Fortune Magazine's largest money-losing corporations in the world, with Toyota's chairman serving as a director.[24] At the time, the UFJ was one of the largest shareholders of Toyota. As a result of Japan's banking crisis, the UFJ was merged again to become Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group.

In 2002, Toyota managed to enter a Formula One works team and establish joint ventures with French motoring companies Citroën and Peugeot a year after Toyota started producing cars in France.

Toyota ranked eighth on Forbes 2000 list of the world's leading companies for the year 2005.[25] The company was number one in global automobile sales for the first quarter of 2008.[26]

On December 7, 2004, a U.S. press release was issued stating that Toyota would be offering Sirius Satellite Radios. However, as late as January 27, 2007, Sirius Satellite Radio and XM Satellite radio kits were not available for Toyota factory radios.[citation needed] While the press release enumerated nine models, only limited availability existed at the dealer level in the U.S. As of 2008, all Toyota and Scion models have either standard or available XM radio kits. Major Lexus dealerships have been offering satellite radio kits for Lexus vehicles since 2005, in addition to factory-equipped satellite radio models.

In 2007, Toyota released an update of its full size truck, the Tundra, produced in two American factories, one in Texas and one in Indiana. "Motor Trend" named the Tundra "Truck of the Year," and the 2007 Toyota Camry "Car of the Year" for 2007. It also began the construction of two new factories, one to build the RAV4 in Woodstock, Ontario, Canada and the other to build the Toyota Prius in Blue Springs, Mississippi, USA. This plant was originally intended to build the Toyota Highlander, but Toyota decided to use the plant in Princeton, Indiana, USA, instead. The company has also found recent success with its smaller models—the Corolla and Yaris—as gas prices have risen rapidly in the last few years.

In 2009-2010, the company was heavily in debt and had to request a loan of more than $3 billion from a bank backed by the Japanese government.[27]

Logo and branding

The 1936 Toyota Model AA, with the original Toyoda logo

In 1936, Toyota entered the passenger car market with its Model AA and held a competition to establish a new logo emphasizing speed for its new product line. After receiving 27,000 entries, one was selected that additionally resulted in a change of its monikor to "Toyota" from the family name "Toyoda." It was believed that the new name sounded better and its eight-stroke count in the Japanese language was associated with wealth and good fortune. The original logo no longer is found on its vehicles but remains the corporate emblem used in Japan.

Still, there were no guidelines for the use of the brand name, "TOYOTA", which was used throughout most of the world, which led to inconsistencies in its worldwide marketing campaigns.

MEGAWEB, Toyota's permanent exhibition showroom and museum in Odaiba, Tokyo

To remedy this, Toyota introduced a new worldwide logo in 1989 in conjunction with and to differentiate it from the newly released luxury Lexus brand. There are three ovals in the new logo that combine to for the letter "T", which stands for Toyota. The overlapping of the two perpendicular ovals inside the larger oval represent the mutually beneficial relationship and trust that is placed between the customer and the company while the larger oval that surrounds both of these inner ovals represent the "global expansion of Toyota's technology and unlimited potential for the future."[28]

The logo started appearing on all printed material, advertisements, and dealer signage starting in 1990 and on the cars themselves in 1991.

Toyota Trademarks

Early Toyota trademark, filed June 09, 1967
The stylized Toyota logo word in stylized form, trademarked at the USPTO, and filed by Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha

1957 is the year the first Toyota vehicles were exported to the United States by the Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc.[29] However, it wasn't until Friday, June 9, 1967 that the first trademark application with the USPTO for TOYOTA was filed by Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Gaisha. The trademark application was filed for Automobiles and motor trucks in Class 19, Non-metallic Building Materials. It also indicates the first use of the trademark name was on March 29, 1958. The application also includes a reference that, "Toyota" translates in English to, "Richfield." This is likely a variation of the Toyoda family name translation of "fertile rice paddies." U.S. trademark registration was on January 30, 1968.

Original Toyota "T" logo trademark, filed September 15, 1989
The stylized depiction of the letter "T" logo, trademarked at the USPTO, and filed by Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha

Toyota also submitted trademark application at the same time on June 9, 1967 for the first auto models imported to the United States Corona[30], and Crown[31]. Registration was granted on January 30, 1968 and February 6, 1968 respectively.

Regarding Toyota's current "T" logo, a trademark was filed on Friday, September 15, 1989 with registration to Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha granted on October 12, 1993. The "T" design code is described by the USPTO with multiple descriptions for the geometric designed logo. Code 26032 for, "Plain single line ovals;" 260316 for, "Ovals touching or intersecting;" 260317 for, "Concentric ovals and ovals within ovals;" and 270301 for, "Geometric figures forming letter or numerals, including punctuation." The "T" trademark is filed in the Vehicles and Products for locomotion by land, air or water category for automobiles and structural parts thereof.[32]

Toyota, Corona, Crown, and the "T" logo trademarks are all registered and renewed and owned by Toyota Motor Company, Ltd., Toyota-shi, Aichi-ken, Japan.

Marketing

Toyota's marketing efforts have focused on emphasizing the positive experiences of ownership and vehicle quality.[33] The ownership experience has been targeted in slogans such as "Oh, what a feeling!" (1978-1985, in the U.S.),[33] "Who could ask for anything more" (1986-1989), "I love what you do for me, Toyota!" (1990-1997), "Everyday" (1997-2000)", "Get the feeling!" (2001-2004), and "Moving Forward" (2004-present).[34]

Toyota philosophy

Toyota's management philosophy has evolved from the company's origins and has been reflected in the terms "Lean Manufacturing" and Just In Time Production, which it was instrumental in developing.[35] Toyota's managerial values and business methods are known collectively as the Toyota Way.

In April 2001 the Toyota Motor Corporation adopted the "Toyota Way 2001," an expression of values and conduct guidelines that all Toyota employees should embrace. Under the two headings of Respect for People and Continuous Improvement, Toyota summarizes its values and conduct guidelines with the following five principles:[36]

  • Challenge
  • Kaizen (improvement)
  • Genchi Genbutsu (go and see)
  • Respect
  • Teamwork

According to external observers, the Toyota Way has four components:[37]

  1. Long-term thinking as a basis for management decisions.
  2. A process for problem-solving.
  3. Adding value to the organization by developing its people.
  4. Recognizing that continuously solving root problems drives organizational learning.

The Toyota Way incorporates the Toyota Production System.

Toyota Production System

Toyota has long been recognized as an industry leader in manufacturing and production. Three stories of its origin have been found, one that they studied Piggly-Wiggly's just-in-time distribution system, one that they followed the writings of W. Edwards Deming, and one that they were given the principles from a U.S. Army training program (Training Within Industry). It is possible that all these, and more, are true. Regardless of the origin, the principles described by Toyota in its management philosophy, The Toyota Way, are: Challenge, Kaizen (improvement), Genchi Genbutsu (go and see), Respect, and Teamwork.[36]

As described by external observers of Toyota, the principles of the Toyota Way are:[37]

  1. Base your management decisions on a long-term philosophy, even at the expense of short-term goals
  2. Create continuous process flow to bring problems to the surface
  3. Use "pull" systems to avoid overproduction
  4. Level out the workload
  5. Build a culture of stopping to fix problems, to get quality right the first time
  6. Standardized tasks are the foundation for continuous improvement and employee empowerment
  7. Use visual control so no problems are hidden
  8. Use only reliable, thoroughly tested technology that serves your people and processes
  9. Grow leaders who thoroughly understand the work, live the philosophy, and teach it to others
  10. Develop exceptional people and teams who follow your company’s philosophy
  11. Respect your extended network of partners and suppliers by challenging them and helping them improve
  12. Go and see for yourself to thoroughly understand the situation (genchi genbutsu)
  13. Make decisions slowly by consensus, thoroughly considering all options; implement decisions rapidly
  14. Become a learning organization through relentless reflection and continuous improvement

Operations

Toyota Pavilion at the Expo in Aichi

Toyota has grown to a large multinational corporation from where it started and expanded to different worldwide markets and countries. It displaced GM and became the world's largest automaker for the year 2008. It held the title of the most profitable automaker ($11 billion in 2006) along with increasing sales in, among other countries, the United States. The world headquarters of Toyota are located in its home country in Toyota, Aichi, Japan. Its subsidiary, Toyota Financial Services sells financing and participates in other lines of business. Toyota brands include Scion and Lexus and the corporation is part of the Toyota Group. Toyota also owns majority stakes in Daihatsu, and 16.7% of Fuji Heavy Industries, which manufactures Subaru vehicles. They also acquired 5.9% of Isuzu Motors Ltd. on November 7, 2006 and will be introducing Isuzu diesel technology into their products.

Toyota has introduced new technologies including one of the first mass-produced hybrid gas-electric vehicles, of which it says it has sold 1 million globally (2007-06-07),[38] Advanced Parking Guidance System (automatic parking), a four-speed electronically controlled automatic with buttons for power and economy shifting, and an eight-speed automatic transmission. Toyota, and Toyota-produced Lexus and Scion automobiles, consistently rank near the top in certain quality and reliability surveys, primarily J.D. Power and Consumer Reports[39] although they led in automobile recalls for the first time in 2009.[40]

In 2005, Toyota, combined with its half-owned subsidiary Daihatsu Motor Company, produced 8.54 million vehicles, about 500,000 fewer than the number produced by GM that year. Toyota has a large market share in the United States, but a small market share in Europe. Its also sells vehicles in Africa and is a market leader in Australia. Due to its Daihatsu subsidiary it has significant market shares in several fast-growing Southeast Asian countries.[41]


According to the 2008 Fortune Global 500, Toyota Motor is the fifth largest company in the world. Since the recession of 2001, it has gained market share in the United States. Toyota's market share struggles in Europe where its Lexus brand has three tenths of one percent market share, compared to nearly two percent market share as the U.S. luxury segment leader.

In the first three months of 2007, Toyota together with its half-owned subsidiary Daihatsu reported number one sales of 2.348 million units. Toyota's brand sales had risen 9.2% largely on demand for Corolla and Camry sedans. The difference in performance was largely attributed to surging demand for fuel-efficient vehicles. In November 2006, Toyota Motor Manufacturing Texas added a facility in San Antonio.[42] Toyota has experienced quality problems and was reprimanded by the government in Japan for its recall practices.[43] Toyota currently maintains over 16% of the US market share and is listed second only to GM in terms of volume.[44] Toyota Century Royal is the official state car of the Japanese imperial family, namely for the current Emperor of Japan.

Toyota was hit by the global financial crisis of 2008 as it was forced in December 2008 to forecast its first annual loss in 70 years.[45] In January 2009 it announced the closure of all of its Japanese plants for 11 days to reduce output and stocks of unsold vehicles.[46]

Early in 2009, media sources reported that Akio Toyoda, grandson of the founder, will be promoted in June from vice-president to the position of President, replacing Katsuaki Watanabe.[47] Akio Toyoda became the new president and CEO of the company on June 23, 2009 by replacing Katsuaki Watanabe who became the new vice chairman by replacing Katsuhiro Nakagawa.[48][49]

Worldwide presence

The Camry is assembled in several facilities around the world including Australia, China ,Taiwan, UAE, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Russia, Thailand, India, Vietnam and the United States.

Toyota has factories in most parts of the world, manufacturing or assembling vehicles for local markets. Toyota has manufacturing or assembly plants in Japan, Australia, India, Sri Lanka, Canada, Indonesia, Poland, South Africa, Turkey, Colombia, the United Kingdom, the United States, UAE, France, Brazil, Portugal, and more recently, Argentina, Czech Republic, Mexico, Malaysia, Thailand, Pakistan, Egypt, China, Vietnam, Venezuela, the Philippines, and Russia.

In 2002, Toyota initiated the "Innovative International Multi-purpose vehicle" project (IMV) to optimize global manufacturing and supply systems for pickup trucks and multipurpose vehicles, and to satisfy market demand in more than 140 countries worldwide. IMV called for diesel engines to be made in Thailand, gasoline engines in Indonesia and manual transmissions in the Philippines, for supply to the countries charged with vehicle production. For vehicle assembly, Toyota would use plants in Thailand, Indonesia, Argentina, South Africa and Pakistan. These four main IMV production and export bases supply Asia, Europe, Africa, Oceania, Latin America and the Middle East with three IMV vehicles: The Toyota Hilux (Vigo), the Fortuner, and the Toyota Innova.[50]

Toyota North America

Toyota Motor North America headquarters is located in New York City and operates at a holding company level in North America. Its manufacturing headquarters is located in Hebron, Kentucky, and is known as Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, or TEMA.

A Toyota dealership in Fremont, California.

Toyota Canada Inc. has been in production in Canada since 1983 with an aluminium wheel plant in Delta, British Columbia which currently employs a workforce of roughly 260. Its first vehicle assembly plant, in Cambridge, Ontario since 1988, now produces Corolla compact cars, Matrix crossover vehicles and Lexus RX 350 luxury SUVs, with a workforce of 4,300 workers. Its second assembly operation in Woodstock, Ontario began manufacturing the RAV4 late in 2008.[51] In 2006, Toyota's subsidiary Hino Motors opened a heavy duty truck plant, also in Woodstock, employing 45 people and producing 2000 trucks annually.[52]

Toyota has a large presence in the United States with five major assembly plants in Huntsville, Alabama; Georgetown, Kentucky; Princeton, Indiana; San Antonio, Texas; Buffalo, West Virginia. A new plant slated to be built in Blue Springs, Mississippi has been put on hold owing to the financial crisis that erupted in late 2008. Toyota had a joint-venture operation with General Motors at New United Motor Manufacturing Inc. (NUMMI), in Fremont, California, which began in 1984 and ended in 2009.[53] It still has a joint-venture with Subaru at Subaru of Indiana Automotive, Inc. (SIA), in Lafayette, Indiana, which started in 2006. Production on a new manufacturing plant in Tupelo, Mississippi was scheduled for completion in 2010 but is currently on indefinite hold. North America is a major automobile market for Toyota. In these assembly plants, the Camry and the Tundra are manufactured, among others.

Toyota marketing, sales, and distribution in the U.S. are conducted through a separate subsidiary, Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. Toyota uses a number of slogans in its American TV commercials such as It's time to move forward, Smart way to keep moving forward, or Moving forward. It has started producing larger trucks, such as the new Tundra, to go after the large truck market in the United States. Toyota is also pushing hybrid vehicles in the US such as the Prius, Camry Hybrid, Highlander Hybrid, and various Lexus products.

Toyota has sold more hybrid vehicles in the country than any other manufacturer. Toyota is a public corporation and the company's shares are traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, New York Stock Exchange and the London Stock Exchange. Toyota also sponsors Club Deportivo Guadalajara.

Electric technology

Toyota Prius, flagship of Toyota's hybrid technology

Toyota is one of the largest companies to push hybrid vehicles in the market and the first to commercially mass-produce and sell such vehicles, an example being the Toyota Prius. The company eventually began providing this option on the main smaller cars such as Camry and later with the Lexus divisions, producing some hybrid luxury vehicles. It labeled such technology in Toyota cars as "Hybrid Synergy Drive" and in Lexus versions as "Lexus Hybrid Drive."

The Prius has become the top selling hybrid car in America. Toyota, as a brand, now has three hybrid vehicles in its lineup: the Prius, Highlander, and Camry. The popular minivan Toyota Sienna is scheduled to join the hybrid lineup by 2010, and by 2030 Toyota plans to offer its entire lineup of cars, trucks, and SUVs with a Hybrid Synergy Drive option.[citation needed]

Worldwide sales of hybrid vehicles produced by Toyota reached 1.0 million vehicles by May 31, 2007, and the 2.0 million mark was reached by August 31, 2009, with hybrids sold in 50 countries.[54][55] Toyota's hybrid sales are led by the Prius, with worldwide cumulative sales of 1.43 million by August 2009.[54] Toyota's CEO has committed to eventually making every car of the company a hybrid vehicle.[56][57]

Lexus LS 600h hybrid sedan.

Lexus also has their own hybrid lineup, consisting of the GS 450h, RX 400h, and launched in 2007, the LS 600h/LS 600h L.

Toyota has said it plans to make a hybrid-electric system available on every vehicle it sells worldwide sometime in the 2010s.[58]

Toyota and Honda have already said they've halved the incremental cost of electric hybrids and see cost parity in the future (even without incentives).[59]

Hybrids are viewed by some automakers as a core segment of the future vehicle market.[60]

Plug-in hybrids

Plug-in Prius concept

After General Motors announced it would produce the Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid, Toyota announced that it, too, would make one.[61] Toyota is currently testing its "Toyota Plug-in HV" in Japan, the United States, and Europe. Like GM's Volt, it uses a lithium-ion battery pack. The PHEV (plug-in hybrid electric vehicle) could have a lower environmental impact than existing hybrids.[62][63]

On June 5, 2008, A123Systems announced that its Hymotion plug-in hybrid conversion kits for the Prius would be installed by six dealers, including four Toyota dealerships: Westboro Toyota in Boston, Fitzgerald Toyota in Washington D.C., Toyota of Hollywood in Los Angeles, and Madison Wisconsin-based Smart Motors.[64]

All-electric vehicles

Toyota is speeding up the development of vehicles that run only on electricity with the aim of mass-producing them in the early part of the next decade. Road tests for the current prototype, called "e-com", had ended in 2006.[65]

Pickup trucks

2007 Tundra Double Cab

The Tundra is a full-size pickup truck sold by Toyota that originally went into production in 1999 for the 2000 US model year. As of early 2010, the Tundra has captured 16 percent of the full-size half-ton market in the US.[citation needed]

The all new Tundra is assembled in San Antonio, Texas, US, while the Crew Max is assembled in Mooreland, Indiana, US. Toyota Motor Corporation assembled around 150,000 Standard and Double Cabs, and only 70,000 Crew Max's in 2007.

In addition to the Tundra, Toyota also produces the Tacoma, with a smaller body and smaller engine than its bigger brother. The Tacoma is also produced at the company's San Antonio facility.

Outside the United States, Toyota produces the Hilux in Standard and double cab, gasoline and diesel engine, 2WD and 4WD versions. The BBC's Top Gear TV show featured 2 episodes of a Hilux that was virtually indestructible.[66]

Motorsport

Toyota has been involved in many global motorsports series. They also represent their Lexus brand in other sports car racing categories. Toyota also makes engines and other auto parts for other Japanese motorsports including formula Nippon,Super GT, formula 3 and formula Toyota series. Toyota also runs a driver development programme known as TDP (Toyota Young Drivers Program) which they made for funding and educating future Japanese motorsports talent.[67] Toyota Motorsport GmbH, with and headquarters in Cologne, Germany) was previously responsible for Toyota's major motorsports development including Formula One. Toyota Motorsport GmbH also developed cars for World Rally Championship and Le Mans Series. Toyota enjoyed success in all these motorsports categories. In 2002, Toyota entered Formula One as a constructor and engine supplier, however despite having experienced drivers and a larger budget than many other teams, they failed to match their success in other categories, with five second places their best results. On 4 November 2009 Toyota announced they were pulling out of the sport due to the global economic situation.

TRD

Toyota Racing Development was brought about to help develop true high performance racing parts for many Toyota vehicles. TRD has often had much success with their after market tuning parts, as well as designing technology for vehicles used in all forms of racing.TRD is also responsible for Toyota's involvement in NASCAR motorsports.

Non-automotive activities

Aerospace

Toyota is a minority shareholder in Mitsubishi Aircraft Corporation, having invested US$67.2 million in the new venture which will produce the Mitsubishi Regional Jet, slated for first deliveries in 2013.[68] Toyota has also studied participation in the general aviation market and contracted with Scaled Composites to produce a proof-of-concept aircraft, the TAA-1 in 2002.[69]

Philanthropy

The Toyota Municipal Museum of Art in Aichi, sponsored by the manufacturer

Toyota is supporter of the Toyota Family Literacy Programme along with National Center for Family Literacy, helping low-income community members for education, United Negro College Fund (40 annual scholarships), National Underground Railroad Freedom Center ($1 million) among others.[70] Toyota created the Toyota USA Foundation.

Higher education

Toyota established the Toyota Technological Institute in 1981, as Sakichi Toyoda had planned to establish a university as soon as he and Toyota became successful. Toyota Technological Institute founded the Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago in 2003. Toyota is supporter of the "Toyota Driving Expectations Program," "Toyota Youth for Understanding Summer Exchange Scholarship Program," "Toyota International Teacher Program," "Toyota TAPESTRY," "Toyota Community Scholars" (scholarship for high school students), "United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce Internship Program," and "Toyota Funded Scholarship."[71] It has contributed to a number of local education and scholarship programs for the University of Kentucky, Indiana, and others.[71]

Robotics

Toyota trumpet-playing robot

In 2004, Toyota showcased its trumpet-playing robot.[72] Toyota has been developing multitask robots destined for elderly care, manufacturing, and entertainment. A specific example of Toyota's involvement in robotics for the elderly is the Brain Machine Interface. Designed for use with wheelchairs, it "allows a person to control an electric wheelchair accurately, almost in real-time", with his mind.[73] The thought controls allow the wheelchair to go left, right and forward with a delay between thought and movement of just 125 milliseconds.[73]

Finance

Toyota Financial Services Corporation provides financing to Toyota customers.

Agricultural biotechnology

Toyota invests in several small start-up businesses and partnerships in biotechnology, including:

Financial information

Toyota is publicly traded on the Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Fukuoka, and Sapporo exchanges under company code TYO: 7203. In addition, Toyota is foreign-listed on the New York Stock Exchange under NYSETM and on the London Stock Exchange under LSE: TYT. Toyota has been publicly traded in Japan since 1949 and internationally since 1999.[74]

As reported on its consolidated financial statements, Toyota has 540 consolidated subsidiaries and 226 affiliates.

Government bailouts

Toyota's financial unit has asked for an emergency loan from a state-backed lender on March 16, 2009, with reports putting the figure at more than $3 billion. It says the international financial situation is squeezing its business, forcing it to ask for an emergency loan from the Japan Bank for International Cooperation. It is the first time the state-backed bank has been asked to lend to a Japanese car manufacturer.[75]

Production and sales numbers

Typical breakdown of sales by region
Calendar Year Total Japan United States
Production Sales Production Sales Sales
1935 20
1936 1,142
1937 4,013
1938 4,615
1939 11,981
1940 14,787
1941 14,611
1942 16,302
1943 9,827
1944 12,720
1945 3,275
1946 5,821
1947 3,922
1948 6,703
1949 10,824
1950 11,706
1951 14,228
1952 42,106
1953 16,496
1954 22,713
1955 22,786
1956 46,716
1957 79,527
1958 78,856
1959 101,194
1960 154,770
1961 210,937
1962 230,350
1963 318,495
1964 425,764
1965 477,643
1966 587,539
1967 832,130
1968 1,097,405
1969 1,471,211
1970 1,609,190
1971 1,955,033
1972 2,087,133
1973 2,308,098
1974 2,114,980
1975 2,336,053
1976 2,487,851
1977 2,720,758
1978 2,929,157
1979 2,996,225
1980 3,293,344
1981 3,220,418
1982 3,144,557
1983 3,272,335
1984 3,429,249
1985 3,665,622
1986 3,660,167
1987 3,638,279
1988 3,956,697[76] 2,120,273[76]
1989 3,975,902[76] 2,308,863[76]
1990 4,212,373[76] 2,504,291[76]
1991 4,085,071[76] 2,355,356[76]
1992 3,931,341[76] 2,228,941[76]
1993 3,561,750[76] 2,057,848[76]
1994 3,508,456[76] 2,031,064[76]
1995 3,171,277[76] 2,060,125[76]
1996 3,410,060[76] 2,135,276[76]
1997 3,502,046[76] 2,005,949[76]
1998
1999
2000 1,619,206[77]
2001 1,741,254
2002 1,756,127[78]
2003 1,866,314
2004 2,060,049[79]
2005 2,260,296
2006 2,542,524[80]
2007 8,180,000[81] 8,524,000[81] 5,100,000[81] 2,273,000[81] 2,620,825
2008 8,547,000[81] 8,913,000[81] 5,160,000[81] 2,188,000[81] 2,217,662[82]
2009 2,470,149[citation needed]

Japan production numbers 1937 to 1987.[83]

Environmental record

The Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) implemented its Fourth Environmental Action Plan in 2005. The plan contains four major themes involving the environment and the corporation's development, design, production, and sales. The five-year plan is directed at the, "arrival of a revitalized recycling-based society."[84] Toyota had previously released its Eco-Vehicle Assessment System (Eco-VAS) which is a systematic life cycle assessment of the effect a vehicle will have on the environment including production, usage, and disposal. The assessment includes, "... fuel efficiency, emissions and noise during vehicle use, the disposal recovery rate, the reduction of substances of environmental concern, and CO2 emissions throughout the life cycle of the vehicle from production to disposal."[85] 2008 marks the ninth year for Toyota's Environmental Activities Grant Program which has been implemented every year since 2000. Themes of the 2008 program consist of "Global Warming Countermeasures" and "Biodiversity Conservation."[86]

Since October 2006, Toyota's new Japanese-market vehicle models with automatic transmissions are equipped with an Eco Drive Indicator. The system takes into consideration rate of acceleration, engine and transmission efficiency, and speed. When the vehicle is operated in a fuel-efficient manner, the Eco Drive Indicator on the instrument panel lights up. Individual results vary depending on traffic issues, starting and stopping the vehicle, and total distance traveled, but the Eco Drive Indicator may improve fuel efficiency by as much as 4%.[87] Along with Toyota's eco-friendly objectives on production and use, the company plans to donate $1 million and five vehicles to the Everglades National Park. The money will be used to fund environmental programs at the park. This donation is part of a program which provides $5 million and 23 vehicles for five national parks and the National Parks Foundation.[88] However new figures from the United States National Research Council show that the continuing hidden health costs of the auto industry to the US economy in 2005 amounted to 56 million US dollars.[89]

The United States EPA has awarded Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc (TEMA) with a ENERGY STAR Sustained Excellence Award in 2007, 2008 and 2009 [90][91][92]

In 2007, Toyota's Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) fleet average of 26.69 mpg-US (8.813 L/100 km; 32.05 mpg-imp) exceeded all other major manufactures selling cars within the United States. Only Lotus Cars which sold the Elise and Exige powered by Toyota's 2ZZ-GE engine did better with an average of 30.2 mpg-US (7.79 L/100 km; 36.3 mpg-imp).[93] In recent years, there has been some competition between Toyota, General Motors and Volkswagen for the unofficial title of 'worlds largest automaker' by sales volume.

See also

References

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External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Asia : East Asia : Japan : Honshu : Chubu : Aichi : Toyota

Toyota is a city in Aichi in Japan, close to Nagoya. Toyota is - unsurprisingly - the seat of the headquarter of the namesake car company and several car factories.

It was in fact named after the car company (and not the other way round).

Get in

Toyota is rather difficult to reach by public transport. Despite being close to the Tokaido-Shinkansen, it has no Shinkansen station, and it does not even have direct connections to nearby Shinkansen stations. The closest Shinkansen stations are Toyohashi, Mikawa-Anjo and Nagoya, with Nagoya having the fastest connections to Tokyo, Kyoto and Osaka. Toyota's main train station is called Toyota-shi, and approximately one hour from any of the Shinkansen stations, requiring changing trains at least once.

By train

The most direct route to Toyota city is to take the JR Chuo Line from Nagoya city to Kozoji. Change to the Aichi Loop Line and take that to Toyota. Be warned that the Aichi Line only runs about once or twice an hour.

Get around

Toyota is, untypical for Japan, a car city with a very good road network and very sparse public transportation.

See

There is a really nice bridge that looks like it is constructed out of dinosaur bones. It makes for some interesting pictures and a nice stroll in the afternoon.

Drink

Rickey's (on the 1st floor of the multi-purpose Vits building [1] 100 m south of Toyotashi station, open until 2AM) is the only Western pub in town, and as such usually well-frequented by locals and Toyota expats from all over the world.

This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA: /tɔɪˈəʊtə/

Proper noun

Singular
Toyota

Plural
-

Toyota

  1. (uncountable) The Toyota Motor Corporation, a Japanese manufacturer of cars.
  2. (countable) A brand of car manufactured by Toyota.

Descendants

See also


Japanese

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /tojota/

Proper noun

Toyota (hiragana とよた)

  1. トヨタ: Toyota Motor Corporation, a Japanese manufacturer of cars.
  2. 豊田: A Japanese Surname

Simple English

Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) (In Japanese: トヨタ自動車株式会社; Toyota Jidōsha Kabushikigaisha) (TYO: 7203.T), (NYSE: TM), (LSE: TYT), is an automobile maker in Japan. It is based in Toyota, Aichi. Toyota provides financial services and works with many other kinds of business as well. It makes cars and trucks under the brand names Toyota, Hino Truck, Scion and Lexus. The company owns most of Daihatsu. Toyota automobiles are well-known for lasting a very long time. Their North American offices are in Torrance, California. The Calty Design Center, a place where Toyota cars are designed is in Newport Beach, California and there is a factory in Georgetown, Kentucky. Another factory that is run by both Toyota and General Motors is in Fremont, California. It is called "NUMMI," or New United Motor Manufacturing Incorporated.

Toyota was started in 1933 as "Toyoda," a maker of textile-weaving machines. Toyota's premier US dealer for Toyota automobiles was established in San Diego, CA as Rose Toyota, later named Toyota San Diego. Their telephone number is 619-280-4100. It is one of the most successful dealers on the west coast.








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