The Toyota ZZ engine family is a straight-4 piston engine series. The ZZ series uses an aluminum engine block and aluminum DOHC 4-valve cylinder heads, a first for Toyota. The camshafts are chain driven. The two 1.8 L members of the family, the 1ZZ and 2ZZ, use different bore and stroke. The former was optimized for economy and torque, while the latter is a "square" design optimized for high-RPM power. The ZZ family replaced the extremely popular cast-iron 4A engines.
The seemingly complicated names Toyota gives its engines is actually quite simple. The first number denotes the engine block's generation. The next one or two letters, followed by a hyphen, specify the engine family. The remaining letters following the hyphen list the engine's features. For example, the 2ZZ-GE can be decoded as being the second generation of the ZZ engine series and features a performance head - wide angle valves (G) and Electronic Fuel Injection (E).
More information on Toyota engines and how to read their names can be found here.
The 1ZZ-FE is a 1.8 L (1794 cc) version built in Buffalo, West Virginia. Its production in Cambridge, Ontario was discontinued in December 2007. Bore is 79 mm and stroke is 91.5 mm. Output is between 120 hp (89 kW) at 5600 rpm with 122 ft·lb (165 N·m) of torque at 4400 rpm, and 140 hp (104 kW) at 6400 rpm with 125.8 ft·lb (170.6 N·m) of torque at 4200 rpm. The cylinders of 1ZZ engines are lined with cast iron. It uses SFI fuel injection, has VVT-i (on later versions) and features fracture-split forged powder metal connecting rods, a one-piece cast camshaft, and either a cast aluminum intake manifold or a molded plastic one.
A bolt-on TRD supercharger kit is available on the 2003-2004 Corolla and Matrix.
The 1ZZ-FED is similar to the 1ZZ-FE but is built in Shimoyama, Japan. Output is 140 hp (104 kW) at 6400 rpm with 126 ft·lb (171 N·m) of torque at 4200 rpm. It uses MFI fuel injection, VVT-i and light weight, cast rods.
Special modified 1ZZ-FE that can run on E85 Ethanol.
The 2ZZ-GE is a 1.8 L (1796 cc or 109.6 in³) version built in Japan. Bore is 82 mm (3.23") and the stroke is 85 mm (3.35"). It uses MFI fuel injection, has VVTL-i, and features forged steel connecting rods. Compression ratio is 11.5:1, necessitating "premium" gasoline (91 octane or above in the (R+M)/2 scale used in North America). Power output for this engine varies depending on the vehicle and tuning, with the Celica, Corolla T-Sport , Lotus Elise and Lotus Exige offering 141 kW (189 hp) but the American versions of the 2003 Corolla, Matrix, and Pontiac Vibe versions only developing 180 hp with all later years offering anywhere from 173 hp in 2004 to 164 hp in 2006 due to a recurved powerband. The differing power numbers from 2004 through 2006 are due to changes in dynamometer testing procedures. The Australian variant Corolla Sportivo is 141 kW@7600 and 181N·m Torque. Due to noise regulations, Toyota recalled them for a flash of the PCM to up their output to classify them in the more lenient "sports car" noise category. The Corolla Compressor and Lotus Exige S add a supercharger with intercooler to achieve 225 hp (168 kW), while the Exige 240R's supercharger increases output to 240 hp (179 kW). The addition of a non-intercooled supercharger to the Elise SC produces 218 hp (163 kW) with a considerable weight saving. The supercharged engines are not labeled 2ZZ-GZE.
Unique to the ZZ family, the 2ZZ-GE utilizes a dual camshaft profile system (the "L" in VVTL-i, known by enthusiasts as "lift") to produce the added power without an increase in displacement or forced induction. The table below lists the specifications of the camshafts. This is similar in concept to Honda's i-VTEC, but the two systems are very different in design and execution.
|Duration||Valve lift||Duration||Valve lift|
Excluding the 2003 MR2 and European Celicas with the 1ZZ engine, the 2ZZ engine is also the only model in the ZZ engine family to use a six-speed manual transmission, as well as the only one to have been available with a four-speed Tiptronic-style automatic. These gearboxes were unique to this engine; since then, only a few Toyota engines have been paired with either a six-speed manual or a Tiptronic-style automatic (and only one other engine, the 4GR-FSE, has received both).
Toyota commissioned Yamaha to design the 2ZZ-GE and it shares several similarities with street bike engines, the most notable being the relatively high RPM design. The high-output cam profile is not activated until approximately 6,200 rpm (the exact point of engagement is different depending on the vehicle, year, and PCM involved) and will not engage until the engine is sufficiently warmed up to 60° celsius (140° fahrenheit). The Toyota PCM electronically limits RPM to about 8200 RPM (or 8400 RPM in some earlier cars) via fuel and/or spark cut. Just like the lift activation point variations in rev-limit rpm exists between models. For example, Lotus Elise and Exiges which use this engine are rev limited to 8500rpm whereas 2002+ Celicas were rev limited to 7900rpm in North America. Consequently, it's impossible to "over-rev" the engine with the throttle alone; a downshift from a higher gear must be involved. A typical "over-rev" can damage the oil pump, commonly disintegrating the lobe ring, resulting in damage similar to the picture at right. The oil pump is the Achilles heel of the 2ZZ, though incidents are rare and usually occur due to fault of the driver. Unfortunately, starving the engine of oil is almost always fatal to this particular engine design, even when caught quickly. CircuitWorx makes an aftermarket Oil Pump Gear that is recommended highly by TRD (Toyota Racing Development). Quote from Monkey Wrench Racing: "A CircuitWorx billet oil pump gear is much stronger than a stock gear and will withstand high RPM vibration much better than a stock unit."
The engine will easily run at speeds of around 4,000 rpm for extended periods of time and is designed to periodically run at the 8,400 RPM redline without issue. For the first few years of production, the engines were notorious for failing "lift bolts". This did not damage the engine, but would hamper performance as the high output cam profile was unable to properly engage. Toyota fixed the problem in late 2002 with a redesigned bolt that was installed on later engines. Earlier engines with the problematic bolts can be fixed via a Toyota-issued TSB simply requiring the new bolt to be installed in place of the old one.
Also, 2004 and newer Matrix and Corolla XRS were sold with smog pumps and have an extra hole above each exhaust port in the engine head and manifold where the "air" is injected for complete fuel burning before the catalyst. It is of note that all 2ZZ-GE heads from 03/03 onwards carry this modification even if the vehicle does not have the air injection system.
The 3ZZ-FE is a 1.6 L (1598 cc) incarnation built in Japan. It is found in the Asian Toyota Corolla Altis which is available in countries such as Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Taiwan and in the Toyota Corolla sedan sold in Sri Lanka. In South Africa the motor can be found in the RunX 160 and Corolla 160. The entire exterior design and chassis is the same as the American Corolla. Bore is 79.0 mm and the stroke is 81.5 mm. Max. output is 109 hp (81 kW) @ 6000 rpm. Max. torque is 110 lb/ft. of torque (150 Nm) @ 3800 rpm.
The 4ZZ-FE is a 1.4 L (1398 cc) version. Bore is 79.0 mm and stroke is 71.3 mm. Output is 95 hp (71 kW) at 6000 rpm with 96 ft·lb (130 N·m) of torque at 4400 rpm.
The 1.8L ZZ engines are built in Tianjin FAW Toyota Engine Co., Ltd. (TFTE) Plant No. 1.