The Full Wiki

Trade union: Wikis

  
  

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Demonstrators surrounded by soldiers during the Lawrence textile strike in 1912.
.A trade union (British English) or labor union (American English) is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals such as better working conditions.^ What are the characteristics of this type of trade union organization?
  • The World’s Trade Union Movement 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Can’t we too have such an independent trade union center?
  • Peasant activist turned trade union Leader 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC jvpsrilanka.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Unions organise to get better conditions for members.
  • Modern Western Civ. 20: Socialism, Marxism, and Trade Unionism 25 September 2009 10:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file[1] members) and negotiates labor contracts (collective bargaining) with employers.^ Rights of trade union members .
  • Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (c. 52) 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.opsi.gov.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Employers give the unions legitimacy by engaging with them in collective bargaining.
  • Trade Unions and Revolutionary Change 19 September 2009 23:023 UTC flag.blackened.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Overseas members of trade union.
  • Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (c. 52) 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.opsi.gov.uk [Source type: Original source]

.This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies.^ The rest illegally fired workers mentioned in the recommendations must be reinstated at their workplaces.
  • Trade Union Association "Belarusian Congress Of Democratic Trade Unions" (BKDP) - News / News / BKDP IS READY TO FACE NEW CHALLENGES OF TIME 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.bkdp.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Trade Union Association "Belarusian Congress Of Democratic Trade Unions" (BKDP) - News / News / BKDP IS READY TO FACE NEW CHALLENGES OF TIME 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.bkdp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Labor unions consistently champion the causes of health care for all, living wages, unemployment benefits and workers compensation, investment in training, and other family friendly policies.

^ Hundreds of workers at Argyle and Bute council are to embark on a programme of working to rule.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.The agreements negotiated by the union leaders are binding on the rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on other non-member workers.^ It's time the unions begin to listen to their rank and file and not their monolithic leaders.
  • Organized labor likes what it sees politically: The Swamp 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ The workers are members of the Unison union.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Will the rank and file workers be able to stop this happening.
  • Workplace struggles and the unions 19 September 2009 23:023 UTC flag.blackened.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Originating in Europe, Labour unions became popular in many countries during the Industrial Revolution, when the lack of skill necessary to perform the jobs shifted employment bargaining power almost completely to the employers' side, causing many workers to be mistreated and underpaid.^ The poison is the employers' power over labour.
  • In the Cause of Labour - Chapter 8 25 September 2009 10:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fire Brigades Union (FBU) Industrial unions To represent skilled workers e.g.
  • trade union in indian context 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Europe, Hitler and Mussolini formed union-busting gangs for hire to industrialists and land owners following the decline in war-related industrial production.
  • Trade Unions’ Decline Around the World - Economix Blog - NYTimes.com 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC economix.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Trade union organisations may be composed of individual workers, professionals, past workers, or the unemployed.^ Trade union organising & labour history .
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Trade union organising & labour history - 21 January 2003 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Features of trade unions: I. It is an organisation formed by employees or workers.
  • trade union in indian context 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Trade Union Law bans workers from organising independently.

The most common, but by no means only, purpose of these organizations is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment".[2]
Over the last three hundred years, many trade unions have developed into a number of forms, influenced by differing political abjectives and activities of trade unions vary, but may include:
.
  • Provision of benefits to members: Early trade unions, like Friendly Societies, often provided a range of benefits to insure members against unemployment, ill health, old age and funeral expenses.^ Rights of trade union members .
    • Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (c. 52) 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.opsi.gov.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Nominations by members of trade unions.
    • Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (c. 52) 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.opsi.gov.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Campbell pitches to trade union members.
    • The Tyee — James, Campbell Make Their Pitches to Trade Union Members 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC thetyee.ca [Source type: News]

    .In many developed countries, these functions have been assumed by the state; however, the provision of professional training, legal advice and representation for members is still an important benefit of trade union membership.
  • Collective bargaining: Where trade unions are able to operate openly and are recognized by employers, they may negotiate with employers over wages and working conditions.
  • Industrial action: Trade unions may enforce strikes or resistance to lockouts in furtherance of particular goals.
  • Political activity: Trade unions may promote legislation favorable to the interests of their members or workers as a whole.^ Enforcing trade union rights .
    • Trade Union Common Platform Memorandum 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.mtucmauritius.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Political strikes – Political issues are beyond the scope of collective bargaining.
    • Trade Union Law » nambufwc.org 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC nambufwc.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Trade unions in this country are still very powerful.
    • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

    To this end they may pursue campaigns, undertake lobbying, or financially support individual candidates or parties (such as the Labour Party in Britain) for public office.

Contents

History

.The origins of unions' existence can be traced from the eighteenth century, where the rapid expansion of industrial society drew women, children, rural workers, and immigrants to the work force in numbers and in new roles.^ Additionally, the rapid expansion of the industrial society was to draw women, children, workers from the rural community, and immigrants to the work force in larger numbers and new roles.
  • Trade union at AllExperts 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A substantial majority of workers in the unorganized areas of precarious work are women: in the urban and rural informal sector, among immigrant workers in certain regions and occupations (Arab/Persian Gulf, domestic workers, service workers, garment workers), among home workers (of whom there are 6.9m.
  • Organized Labor as a Global Social Force - Dan Gallin (1999) (Global Labour Institute - English) 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.globallabour.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Contrary to the trust in the big funds of the old unions, the Industrial Workers put their confidence in the living solidarity and the force of endurance, upheld by a burning enthusiasm.
  • Trade Unionism 25 September 2009 10:10 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This pool of unskilled and semi-skilled labor spontaneously organized in fits and starts throughout its beginnings,[2] and would later be an important arena for the development of trade unions.^ What are the characteristics of this type of trade union organization?
  • The World’s Trade Union Movement 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This pool of labour was to spontaneously organise in fits and starts throughout its beginnings , and would later prove to be an important arena for change.
  • Trade union at AllExperts 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What then are the prospects of the development of, the party and the trade unions?
  • Lenin and the Trade Union Movement 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Trade unions as such were endorsed by the Catholic Church towards the end of the 19th Century.^ Can’t we too have such an independent trade union center?
  • Peasant activist turned trade union Leader 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC jvpsrilanka.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such victories contribute to confidence building in people, rank-and-file members and trade union activists.
  • Trade Union Association "Belarusian Congress Of Democratic Trade Unions" (BKDP) - News / News / BKDP IS READY TO FACE NEW CHALLENGES OF TIME 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.bkdp.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Trade Union Association "Belarusian Congress Of Democratic Trade Unions" (BKDP) - News / News / BKDP IS READY TO FACE NEW CHALLENGES OF TIME 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.bkdp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At least two such persons are well known to our delegation and they are always ready and willing to speak to Canadian trade union functions.
  • Canadian Trade Union Delegation to Colombia - Report 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.colombiasupport.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pope Leo XIII in his 'Magna Carta': Rerum Novarum, spoke against the atrocities workers faced and demanded that workers should be granted certain rights and safety regulations.^ Third, the Telegraph reports that "fewer than one in four bosses support the immediate granting of full employment rights for migrant workers from Bulgaria or Romania".
  • New Economist: Trade unions 19 September 2009 23:023 UTC neweconomist.blogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Workers should retain their fundamental rights to adhere or not to a collective agreement.
  • Trade Union Common Platform Memorandum 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.mtucmauritius.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rather it is a statement that all criticisms of control, all demands put against controls, should be on the basis of opposition to restrictions in principle – on the basis that No One Is Illegal!
  • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

[3]

Origins and early history

.Trade Unions have sometimes been seen as successors to the guilds of medieval Europe, though the relationship between the two is disputed.^ European Union - The pork trade in Europe .

^ The two souls of the trade unions [1995] .
  • Workplace struggles and the unions 19 September 2009 23:023 UTC flag.blackened.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trade unions across Europe .
  • Trade unions across Europe 19 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.fedee.com [Source type: Original source]

[4] .Medieval guilds existed to protect and enhance their members' livelihoods through controlling the instructional capital of artisanship and the progression of members from apprentice to craftsman, journeyman, and eventually to master and grandmaster of their craft.^ The NMC exists as a regulatory body to protect patients and clients first and foremost, and not the alleged failings of members of the nursing profession in caring for the elderly.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ The master in effect owns and controls the slave through what he can force the slave to do by means of the laws of the land (like the Code Noire) and by force of economic necessity.
  • Trade Union Common Platform Memorandum 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.mtucmauritius.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The way to provide protection and prevent super exploitation caused by vulnerability through lack of immigration status is to get rid of the cause of the vulnerability – immigration controls and the whole concept of immigration status.
  • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.A labor union might include workers from only one trade or craft, or might combine several or all the workers in one company or industry.^ Includes several independent trade unions.
  • Trade unions across Europe 19 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.fedee.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In a trade union—only workers.
  • The World’s Trade Union Movement 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Only one "workers'" organisation is recognised in law, the All China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU).

Since the publication of the History of Trade Unionism (1894) by Sidney and Beatrice Webb, the predominant historical view is that a trade union "is a continuous association of wage earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment."[2] A modern definition by the Australian Bureau of Statistics states that a trade union is "an organization consisting predominantly of employees, the principal activities of which include the negotiation of rates of pay and conditions of employment for its members."[5]
Yet historian R.A. Leeson, in United we Stand (1971), said:
.
Two conflicting views of the trade-union movement strove for ascendancy in the nineteenth century: one the defensive-restrictive guild-craft tradition passed down through journeymen's clubs and friendly societies, ...^ The two souls of the trade unions [1995] .
  • Workplace struggles and the unions 19 September 2009 23:023 UTC flag.blackened.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This vulnerability could be broken down through trade union organisation.
  • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The trade union movement has two souls.
  • Workplace struggles and the unions 19 September 2009 23:023 UTC flag.blackened.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

the other the aggressive-expansionist drive to unite all 'laboring men and women' for a 'different order of things'.
.Recent historical research by Bob James in Craft, Trade or Mystery (2001) puts forward the view that trade unions are part of a broader movement of benefit societies, which includes medieval guilds, Freemasons, Oddfellows, friendly societies, and other fraternal organizations.^ For Lenin the trade unions were a part of a mechanism.
  • Lenin and the Trade Union Movement 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Includes several independent trade unions.
  • Trade unions across Europe 19 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.fedee.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What are the characteristics of this type of trade union organization?
  • The World’s Trade Union Movement 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The 18th century economist Adam Smith noted the imbalance in the rights of workers in regards to owners (or "masters").^ The right to join a union is clearly founded on justice because of the need to redress the power imbalance between individual workers and the employer.
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Declining trade union membership - 31 May 2004 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Original source]

In The Wealth of Nations, Book I, chapter 8, Smith wrote:
We rarely hear, it has been said, of the combination of masters, though frequently of those of workmen. But whoever imagines, upon this account, that masters rarely combine, is as ignorant of the world as of the subject. Masters are always and everywhere in a sort of tacit, but constant and uniform combination, not to raise the wages of labor above their actual rate[.]
When workers combine, masters ... never cease to call aloud for the assistance of the civil magistrate, and the rigorous execution of those laws which have been enacted with so much severity against the combination of servants, laborers, and journeymen.
.As Smith noted, unions were illegal for many years in most countries (and Smith argued that schemes to fix wages or prices, by employees or employers, should be).^ Over the last twenty years there has been a widespread decline in trade union membership throughout most of western Europe.
  • Trade unions across Europe 19 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.fedee.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mark Hearn and Greg Patmore noted that the NSW Lang Labor government in March 1932 issued instructions that all railway employees should become and remain members of a 'bona fide' union.
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Trade union organising & labour history - 21 January 2003 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Currently, employees aged 16 or over are entitled to SRP after a two year qualifying period working for the same employer, so the youngest age at which an employee can benefit from redundancy pay is 18.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.There were severe penalties for attempting to organize unions, up to and including execution.^ In May 1912, they managed to turn the tide when a new battle flared up on the docks over the attempted use of non-union labour.
  • In the Cause of Labour - Chapter 8 25 September 2009 10:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The strict test of a craft union seems to be that each member of the organization performs or may perform all the tasks included in the occupation.
  • Hoxie, Trade Unionism in the United States | Library of Economics and Liberty 25 September 2009 10:10 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The union wanted to lobby the council meeting, to show its opposition to pay cuts of up to £6,000 a year included in the council’s single status deal.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.Despite this, unions were formed and began to acquire political power, eventually resulting in a body of labor law that not only legalized organizing efforts, but codified the relationship between employers and those employees organized into unions.^ The body of law that restricts trade union power is known as the Penal Powers.
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Declining trade union membership - 31 May 2004 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Not that the hundreds of millions of dollars organized labor has raised for the Democrats hasn't entitled unions to some meaningful reciprocation.
  • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ Labor unions recognized the need to bring everyone into the struggle regardless of color or gender, because the struggle was about everyone.
  • Jim Goodman: Why Honor Organized Labor? 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

.Even after the legitimization of trade unions there was opposition, as the case of the Tolpuddle Martyrs shows.^ Even in the UK, where a clear formal procedure for trade union recognition was introduced through the 1999 Employment Relations Act, the unionisation of employees has remained stable.
  • Trade unions across Europe 19 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.fedee.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Over the last twenty years there has been a widespread decline in trade union membership throughout most of western Europe.
  • Trade unions across Europe 19 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.fedee.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The struggle of the Tolpuddle Martyrs for the right of combination under the Reform Ministry of 1832 marks the beginnings of British Trade Unionism.
  • Trade Unionism and TheClass War - Guy Aldred 25 September 2009 10:10 UTC geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

.The right to join a trade union is mentioned in article 23, subsection 4 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), which also states in article 20, subsection 2 that "No one may be compelled to belong to an association". Prohibiting a person from joining or forming a union, as well as forcing a person to do the same (e.g.^ Defend the right to form a Trade Union!
  • Defend the right to form a Trade Union! - Indymedia Ireland 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ No trade union and no person acting on behalf of a trade union shall .
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Trade union rights in practice .

."closed shops" or "union shops", see below), whether by a government or by a business, is generally considered a human rights abuse.^ The Colombian government itself has acknowledged the basic truth that there is 97% immunity (non-prosecution) for those responsible for the violence generally, and virtually 100% immunity for those responsible for political/human rights-related violence.
  • Canadian Trade Union Delegation to Colombia - Report 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.colombiasupport.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The UCWU declined into a small East London union of a few hundred dedicated adherents until, in 1935, it closed up shop completely.

^ The struggle for trade union rights is part of the struggle for political rights in general.
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Declining trade union membership - 31 May 2004 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Original source]

.Similar allegations can be leveled if an employer discriminates based on trade union membership.^ Action to enforce trade union membership.
  • Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (c. 52) 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.opsi.gov.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Declining trade union membership .
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Declining trade union membership - 31 May 2004 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ It will also provide solid ground for enlisting European and other foreign trade union and NGO support in disuptes involving EU-based MNCs.
  • Concurring Opinions » Organized Labor’s International Law Project 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.concurringopinions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Attempts by an employer, often with the help of outside agencies, to prevent union membership amongst their staff is known as union busting.^ Once a complaint was put in writing, the union was required to help the employee resolve it any way it could, so complaints often did not reach the written stage.
  • Resistance from the Trade Union 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The union avoidance and 'union busting' activities of employers designed to remove union influence from workplaces and thwart efforts to build membership have been well documented in international studies during the past two decades.
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Trade union organising & labour history - 21 January 2003 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Academic]

^ The Unison result, which showed that 93 per cent of its 1,000-strong membership rejected the proposal, was announced on Wednesday by union staff in Aberdeen.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

19th Century American Unionism

.In the early 1800s many men from large cities put together the organization which we now call the Trade Union Movement.^ What are the characteristics of this type of trade union organization?
  • The World’s Trade Union Movement 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The trade union movement has two souls.
  • Workplace struggles and the unions 19 September 2009 23:023 UTC flag.blackened.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "A great many of the trade union leaders seemed to think they existed to apologise for capitalism, to try and stop strikes and smooth difficulties over, to put a healing salve in the wounds and bandages with a salve", stated Larkin.
  • In the Cause of Labour - Chapter 8 25 September 2009 10:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.Individuals who were members of unions at this time were skilled, experienced, and knew how to get the job done.^ It is a labor union and its sole job is to get more money into the education system, and more pay for its members.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In an application for certification by a council of trade unions, a person who is a member of any constituent trade union shall be deemed by the Panel to be a member of the council.
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Trade Unions COMMUNIQUE NUMBER 23 How the Argentine Generals attempted to use football to appease the masses, whilst at the same time indulging in mass muder.

Their main reasoning for starting this movement was to put on strikes. .However, they did not have enough men to fulfill their needs and the unions which began this trendy movement, collapsed quickly.^ We win white men if they're union members, Democrats lose them.
  • Organized labor likes what it sees politically: The Swamp 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ However the need for trade union involvement goes well beyond this and extends into the heart of the employment relationship itself.
  • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The union movement needs to put legislative reform at the top of its' agenda.
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Declining trade union membership - 31 May 2004 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Original source]

.The Mechanics’ Union Trade Association was the next approach to bring workers together.^ For Lenin the trade unions were a part of a mechanism.
  • Lenin and the Trade Union Movement 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In a trade union—only workers.
  • The World’s Trade Union Movement 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a narrower and closer association than the trades union and is vitally unlike it in the scope and character of its activities.
  • Hoxie, Trade Unionism in the United States | Library of Economics and Liberty 25 September 2009 10:10 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1827, this union was the first U.S. labor organization which brought together workers of divergent occupations.^ Not that the hundreds of millions of dollars organized labor has raised for the Democrats hasn't entitled unions to some meaningful reciprocation.
  • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ But another labor movement organization, the International Federation of Workers’ Education Associations (IFWEA), is about to solve this problem, at least in part.
  • Organized Labor as a Global Social Force - Dan Gallin (1999) (Global Labour Institute - English) 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.globallabour.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Hundreds of social care workers took part in the first day of an "indefinite strike" yesterday, union bosses said.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.This was “the first city-wide federation of American workers, which recognized that all labor, regardless of trades, had common problems that could be solved only by united effort as a class.”[6] This organization took off when carpentry workers from Philadelphia went on strike to protest their pay wages and working hours.^ Organized labor is a unit for compulsory education, is .
  • W. E. Faison. The Dignity, Power and Responsibility of Organized Labor: Labor Day Address, Greensboro, N.C., September 4, 1905 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Coventry Library workers pay protest .
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Labor unions recognized the need to bring everyone into the struggle regardless of color or gender, because the struggle was about everyone.
  • Jim Goodman: Why Honor Organized Labor? 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

.This union strike was only a premonition of what was to come in the future.^ The state of strike (tat de grve) comes to an end when there has been an agreement that satisfies unions and workers.
  • Trade Union Common Platform Memorandum 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.mtucmauritius.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If by miracle a union obtains a certificate of good faith it is only then that the union can start strike procedures; .
  • Trade Union Common Platform Memorandum 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.mtucmauritius.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They never gained the prestige over the workers nor the practical skill in leadership which can come only from such participation in the great strikes and other movements of the workers against their exploiters.
  • Lenin and the Trade Union Movement 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]


According to history.com:[7]
.Besides acting to raise wages and improve working conditions, the federations espoused certain social reforms, such as the institution of free public education, the abolition of imprisonment for debt, and the adoption of universal manhood suffrage.^ The IRA denied the right the strike but included mechanism to establish minimal sectoral wages and work conditions.
  • Trade Union Common Platform Memorandum 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.mtucmauritius.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The council plans to use Single Status to attack wages and working conditions.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Massachusetts governor Deval Patrick, politically in debt to the teachers' unions, is attempting to eviscerate his state's successful school reforms and its independent board of education.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

.Perhaps the most important effect of these early unions was their introduction of political action.^ Personal attacks, however, are not protected by law (even if these are true), and the union would run the risk of legal action.
  • Fukuoka General Union - Trade Union Law 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC fukuoka.generalunion.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Trade Union Law » nambufwc.org 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC nambufwc.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Trade Union Law Q&A 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.generalunion.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These exchanges can also include additional Canadian union participation in Colombian trade union activities in the south as the political situation permits.
  • Canadian Trade Union Delegation to Colombia - Report 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.colombiasupport.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tragically, the political battles have resulted in the death of hundreds of militants of the UP, the Communist Party as well as the EPL. These battles have also profoundly marked the SINTRAINAGRO union.
  • Canadian Trade Union Delegation to Colombia - Report 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.colombiasupport.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Workers realized what unionism was all about through the configuration of mechanics association and many people followed in their footsteps.^ The growth of trade unionism resulted in a growth in the real standard of British workers.

^ All this combined ensured that the managers slowed down the development of a real workers representation in the workplace.
  • Defend the right to form a Trade Union! - Indymedia Ireland 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Irish readers might not realize, but workers in Poland are not expected to speak about their salaries or working conditions with other workers or - god forbid - the press.
  • Defend the right to form a Trade Union! - Indymedia Ireland 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

.The strike gave others hope that they.could get their concerns out by word of mouth.^ If a person dined at a different restaurant in Manhattan every night, they could eat out for 50 years and never go to the same place twice.
  • Union College - Schenectady New York hotels 20 September 2009 3:19 UTC www.culinarymenus.com [Source type: General]

^ Now they face an indefinite strike by these workers from Monday and social workers and other frontline workers will also be balloted.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ They never gained the prestige over the workers nor the practical skill in leadership which can come only from such participation in the great strikes and other movements of the workers against their exploiters.
  • Lenin and the Trade Union Movement 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Before this time many people did not speak about their concerns because of the lack of bodies.^ Commenting on the findings, Raman Sankaran from Simplyhealth said: 'Today's competitive and pressured working environment means that some people find it difficult to speak up about an illness or take time off.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ When I finally did get a job with them, it was a long time before I got paid for it.
  • Defend the right to form a Trade Union! - Indymedia Ireland 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ In the reality, the bosses here very many times fire the union leaders and initiators, but never it is officially because they started union.
  • Defend the right to form a Trade Union! - Indymedia Ireland 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

However, with more people comes more confidence. .Strikes were a new way of speaking your mind and getting things accomplished.^ The code words were: "We can't win strikes anymore; we need new strategies—the old ways don't work," etc..
  • The Fall of the Trade Union Movement - C. L. Writers' Forum 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC clnews.org [Source type: Original source]


.The next established union which made an impact on the trade movement was the Grand National Consolidated Trade Union.^ First National workshop on women workers & Trade Union Movement .
  • GEFONT - General Federation of Nepalese Trade Unions - Abpit GEFONT 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.gefont.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The trade union movement has two souls.
  • Workplace struggles and the unions 19 September 2009 23:023 UTC flag.blackened.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trade unions and FNCCI made a toughest wage negotiation; Minimum wage increased by 28.89 per cent in monthly wage and 39.9 per cent in daily wage across the board .
  • GEFONT - General Federation of Nepalese Trade Unions - Abpit GEFONT 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.gefont.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This union was founded in 1834 as the first domestic association. .However, this union was short lived due to the panic of 1837. “[Andrew] Jackson thought the Bank of the United States hurt ordinary citizens by exercising too much control over credit and economic opportunity, and he succeeded in shutting it down.^ The United States is one of the few countries in the world where the leadership of the unions openly belongs to and has allegiance to a political party of the ruling class.
  • The Fall of the Trade Union Movement - C. L. Writers' Forum 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC clnews.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They open up the possibility of democratic workers control over production and all economic decisions facing their lives, and the necessity for the construction of a socialist society.
  • The Fall of the Trade Union Movement - C. L. Writers' Forum 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC clnews.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It means organizational connections between the unions and the party, which, however, will secure the labor movement against opportunism only if the party is sufficiently powerful to direct the unions.
  • Lenin and the Trade Union Movement 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.But the state banks' reckless credit policies led to massive speculation in Western lands.^ The document states that "[t]he severance policy" is designed "to provide financial compensation to any bank employee who is terminated involuntarily, other than for cause, from their position.
  • PAUL DOUGOVITO vs. FIRST TRADE UNION BANK 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.socialaw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first draft has been very publicly criticised by European and American business associations which in turn has led to major debate over the stated commitment of western businesses to Chinese law.

By 1837, after Van Buren had become president, banks were clearly in trouble. .Some began to close, businesses began to fail, and thousands of people lost their land.” [8] This collapse of financial support and businesses left workers unemployed.^ After the strike began some 70 police officers entered the park and stopped workers from arranging protest signs.

^ UP to 1,200 council workers were left stunned and angry after being told their wages will be cut in some cases by as much as 7,500k.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Workers throughout the land supported the Teamster strike.
  • The Fall of the Trade Union Movement - C. L. Writers' Forum 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC clnews.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many of these workers, who became affected by the 1837 disaster, were members of a union.^ The workers are members of the Unison union.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Many of these are members of GMB union.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ The leaderships see themselves as a protected elite, and many union members feel powerless to do anything about it.
  • Workplace struggles and the unions 19 September 2009 23:023 UTC flag.blackened.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was very hard for them to stay together in an economic hardship and the trade union movement came to a bump in the road.^ On the other hand the very existence of this legislation served to intimidate some Jewish workers from trade union activity.
  • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Mergers have often appealed in declining industries, not least the trade union movement.
  • New Economist: Trade unions 19 September 2009 23:023 UTC neweconomist.blogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If Linamar are allowed to get away with this, no convenor or shop steward, either in the already weakened car industry or in the wider trade union movement is safe.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.But the economy was restored by the early 1840s and trade unions started doing better.^ Tuesday, September 12, 2006 at 06:44 PM in Economy - Britain , Employment relations , Labour markets , Politics - Britain , Trade unions .
  • New Economist: Trade unions 19 September 2009 23:023 UTC neweconomist.blogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Monday, January 01, 2007 at 08:10 AM in Economy - Britain , Labour markets , Offshoring and outsourcing , Politics - Britain , Trade unions .
  • New Economist: Trade unions 19 September 2009 23:023 UTC neweconomist.blogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For Lenin the governmentalization of the trade unions was a long process of practical activity, of direct work in the organization of the national economy.
  • Lenin and the Trade Union Movement 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.National labor unions were forming, different than ones in the past, consisting now of members of the same occupation.^ Case in point: a first-time-ever summit meeting this past December 10-11 at the AFL-CIO's National Labor College in Silver Spring, Md., where the labor federation hosted more than 200 union officials from over 60 countries.
  • Carl Horowitz : American Organized Labor Goes Global - Townhall.com 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: General]

^ When unions in America and elsewhere work together, they can coax collective-bargaining agreements from a multinational firm at all plants rather than one plant at a time.
  • Carl Horowitz : American Organized Labor Goes Global - Townhall.com 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: General]

^ In the same month of August, the leadership of the rail unions were forced to call a national all-out strike over the failure of the bosses to honour their 1907 agreement.
  • In the Cause of Labour - Chapter 8 25 September 2009 10:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]


The work force was drastically impacted by the Civil War and the economy was thriving. .Many workers gained employment because of this economic boom and unions increased greatly.^ The demise of Chartism, the greater economic power and concentration of capitalism and the consequent growth of stable employment for the skilled sections of workers gave rise to financially viable trade unions along craft lines.

^ But, according to polls, as many as 60% of America's workers say they would consider joining a union if only ".
  • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ Workers are being put at risk because the Health and Safety Executive is haemorrhaging experienced staff, unions have warned.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

“More than .30 national craft unions were established during the 1860s and early '70s.”[7] One of the significant national craft unions to be formed during this time was the National Labor Union (NLU).^ When unions in America and elsewhere work together, they can coax collective-bargaining agreements from a multinational firm at all plants rather than one plant at a time.
  • Carl Horowitz : American Organized Labor Goes Global - Townhall.com 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: General]

^ We would be mistaken to think that Lenin’s views on trade union questions underwent no changes during the 25-30 years of his activity.
  • Lenin and the Trade Union Movement 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The State of Today's Trade Union Movement "Ten thousand times has the labor movement stumbled and bruised itself.
  • The Fall of the Trade Union Movement - C. L. Writers' Forum 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC clnews.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was created in 1866 and included many types of workers.^ It seeks to clarify the nature of a labour relationship between workers and employers – including those many instances where workers have no formal contract.

[9] .Although relatively short-lived, the NLU paved the way for future American unions.^ In this sense, the old dream of American revolutionary syndicalism, “One Big Union”, may be the pattern of the future.
  • Organized Labor as a Global Social Force - Dan Gallin (1999) (Global Labour Institute - English) 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.globallabour.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The result of such repressive measures is that examples of independent unions are rare and short lived.

^ The move paves the way for the council to impose the contract on about 3,200 staff if agreement cannot be reached with the unions and employees.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.Following the decline of the NLU, the Knights of Labor became the leading countrywide union in the 1860s.^ The union membership sharply declined from 1900 workers to only 630 following the implementation of Law 50.
  • Canadian Trade Union Delegation to Colombia - Report 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.colombiasupport.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following its lead, the business community is more willing to negotiate outside the formal legal structure* of the government and labor courts lha!
  • ORGANIZED LABOR IN BRAZIL - CIA document 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (BSCP) organized in 1925 became the first African-American union to join the American Federation of Labor.
  • Jim Goodman: Why Honor Organized Labor? 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

.This union did not include Chinese, and partially included black people and women.^ We did not disclose the full membership of the union, which at first was over 15% of the 300 people employed in the Warsaw office.
  • Defend the right to form a Trade Union! - Indymedia Ireland 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ For instance would any union tolerate its members being made to impose quotas for job opportunities or housing opportunities or health treatment or welfare support on black people?
  • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ It is his belief that although affiliated to political parties, trade unions should be able to act independently when it comes to the wider interests of the people.
  • Peasant activist turned trade union Leader 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC jvpsrilanka.com [Source type: Original source]

[10]

Knights of Labor

The Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor (KOL) was founded in Philadelphia in 1869 by Uriah Stephens and six other men. .The union was formed for the purpose of organizing, educating and directing the power of the industrial masses, according to their Constitution of 1878.[11] The Knights gathered people to join the Order who believed in creating “the greatest good to the greatest amount of people”.^ Q3: Who can join a union?
  • Trade Union Law » nambufwc.org 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC nambufwc.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Trade Union Law Q&A 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.generalunion.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We are here for the purpose of forming a labor organization."

^ Who can join a union?

The Knights took their set goals very seriously. Some of which consisted of “productive work, civic responsibility, education, a wholesome family life, temperance, and self-improvement.”[12]
.The Knights of Labor worked as a secret fraternal society until 1881. The union grew slowly until the economic depression of the 1870s, when large numbers of workers joined the organization.^ But, according to polls, as many as 60% of America's workers say they would consider joining a union if only ".
  • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ But another labor movement organization, the International Federation of Workers’ Education Associations (IFWEA), is about to solve this problem, at least in part.
  • Organized Labor as a Global Social Force - Dan Gallin (1999) (Global Labour Institute - English) 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.globallabour.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The Workplace Relations Act guarantees the right of workers to join or not to join a union.
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Declining trade union membership - 31 May 2004 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Original source]

[13] .The Knights only permitted certain groups of individuals into their Order which promoted social division amongst the people around them.^ Rousseau argued that the purpose of the State is to protect the freedom of the individual and that the State was only justified in inhibiting individual freedom in order to protect the freedom of another individual.
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Declining trade union membership - 31 May 2004 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Workers have the right to organize themselves into groups in order to better their economic standing.
  • Fukuoka General Union - Trade Union Law 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC fukuoka.generalunion.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Trade Union Law » nambufwc.org 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC nambufwc.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Trade Union Law Q&A 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.generalunion.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Union Network International (UNI): A grouping of 900 trade unions representing a total of 15 million individual union members around the world.
  • Trade unions across Europe 19 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.fedee.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bankers, speculators, lawyers, liquor dealers, gamblers, and teachers were all excluded from the union.^ Activists in all three unions - INTO, TUI and ASTI - have united in "Teachers Against Partnership" .
  • Workplace struggles and the unions 19 September 2009 23:023 UTC flag.blackened.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is realistic to assume that the leaders and many, though not all, members of the teachers' unions are liberal Democrat Obama supporters.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Union leaders are generally unwilling to admit that not all teachers are great at what they do.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

.These workers were known as the “non-producers” because their jobs did not entail physical labor.^ Related to the literature examining worker demographics and job type is that which assesses the impact of worker attitudes toward unions and the influence these have upon the chances of their joining.
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Trade union organising & labour history - 21 January 2003 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Academic]

^ In the 1930s, the labor upsurge did not begin until workers started to go back to work.
  • The Fall of the Trade Union Movement - C. L. Writers' Forum 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC clnews.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These are the undocumented workers of popular imagination and the laws are known as employer sanctions.
  • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Factory workers and business men were known as the “producers” because their job constructed a physical product.^ They open up the possibility of democratic workers control over production and all economic decisions facing their lives, and the necessity for the construction of a socialist society.
  • The Fall of the Trade Union Movement - C. L. Writers' Forum 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC clnews.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is the other side of the equation, because they are the ones who have tremendous economic capabilities for subsidizing their products, the products produced in their countryside and their agricultural sector, and they do so with millions of dollars.
  • LaRouche to Ibero-American Trade Union Leaders: Globalization Equals Fascism (Jun. 14, 2007) 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.larouchepub.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When NUTGW members applied for jobs in the factory they were informed they would have to transfer to the United Clothing Workers.

The working force producers were welcomed into the Order. .Women were also welcome to join the Knights, as well as black workers by the year 1883.[14] However, Asians were excluded.^ Up to 20,000 workers joined the biggest strike in the city in 30 years.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Women workers have been underpaid for years, and they should have their pay increased, but not at the expense of their fellow workers.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ The Guardian newspaper began the New Year by publishing two January 2 articles and an editorial on women workers employed by local authorities fighting for equal pay.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

In November 1885, the Knights of a Washington city pushed to get rid of their Asian population. The knights were strongly for the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 because it greatly helped them deteriorate the Asian community. “The .Act required the few non-laborers who sought entry to obtain certification from the Chinese government that they were qualified to immigrate.^ Or they can revisit 1978, when the Democrats had control of all three political arms of the government (the White House, Senate and House of Representatives), when, despite enormous pressure from the labor lobby, the Party refused to overhaul the Taft-Hartley Act.
  • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ I know a couple of people who possess both the Lionbridge certification and the federal one and they have said that this is because the former is much easier.
  • Defend the right to form a Trade Union! - Indymedia Ireland 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ They weaken trade union organisation by creating a pariah class of workers without immigration status who have to conceal their identity.
  • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

But this group found it increasingly difficult to prove that they were not laborers because the 1882 act defined excludables as ‘skilled and unskilled laborers and Chinese employed in mining.’ Thus very few Chinese could enter the country under the 1882 law.” [15]
.The act also stated that if an Asian left the country, they needed a certificate to re-enter.^ The other states aren't much better, granting certification to teachers so long as they score above the bottom third of all test takers.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "It's how they're moving the Employee Free Choice Act when they're not talking to union audiences.
  • Organized labor likes what it sees politically: The Swamp 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ If the Certificate of the Commission states that the Union has acted in bad faith then the employer can refer the dispute for compulsory arbitration.
  • Trade Union Common Platform Memorandum 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.mtucmauritius.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although Asians were not welcomed in the union, black workers who joined the union brought a large number of blacks into the white labor movement.^ The reason is simple: as long as there will be workers, there will be unions and there will be a labor movement.
  • Organized Labor as a Global Social Force - Dan Gallin (1999) (Global Labour Institute - English) 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.globallabour.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Q3: Who can join a union?
  • Trade Union Law » nambufwc.org 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC nambufwc.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Trade Union Law Q&A 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.generalunion.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Who can join a union?

.In 1886, the Union exceeded 700,000 members, 60,000 of them black.^ The Unite union said 28,000 of its members voted overwhelmingly in support of the action which would bring all of London's operators in line.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Political Parties The Colored National Labor Union - One of America's First Black Workers Unions It was more aggressive than the American Federation of Labor and had more radical members.

^ The Nipsa union's 3,000 members will be out on picket lines two days a week until Christmas, and many special schools will be affected.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.The Knights were told that they “broke the walls of prejudice”; the “color line had been broken and black and white were found working in the same cause.^ They will be told that if they turn up to work on April 1 they will be deemed to have accepted their new terms and conditions.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Two groups of workers on the picket lines told Penny Howard about what they do, and why they are on strike .
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.The American Federation of Labor (AFL),founded by Samuel Gompers, was established due to the vexation of many Knights who parted from the KOL. Many Knights joined the AFL because they set themselves apart from the KOL. They “tried to teach the American wage-earner that he was a wage-earner first and a bricklayer, carpenter, miner [...] after.^ I know a couple of people who possess both the Lionbridge certification and the federal one and they have said that this is because the former is much easier.
  • Defend the right to form a Trade Union! - Indymedia Ireland 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ But, according to polls, as many as 60% of America's workers say they would consider joining a union if only ".
  • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ The political and industrial quietism of the Gompers-led AFL, together with a failure to effectively support the miners in the Leadville strike, were the causes of the split.

.This meant that the Order was teaching something that was not so in the hope that sometime it would be.’ But the AFL affiliates organized carpenters as carpenters, bricklayers as bricklayers, and so forth, teaching them all to place their own craft interests before those of other workers.” [16] The AFL also differed from the KOL because it only allowed associations to be formed from workers and workers were the only people permitted to join them.^ Yes, demonstrations are planned in Poland, Slovakia, Spain, Denmark, Germany and the USA. We are trying to work with different networks and organizations concerned about workers rights and social justice, such as the International Workers' Association, Workers Solidarity Movement, Industrial Workers of the World and others...
  • Defend the right to form a Trade Union! - Indymedia Ireland 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ The Communist Party has no interest other than those of the working class.
  • Lenin and the Trade Union Movement 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These disappointments (and many others) aside, there is currently a piece of legislation pending before congress that could be of great benefit to organized labor.
  • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

Unlike the AFL, the knights also allowed small businesses to join. .A small business is “An independently owned and operated business that is not dominant in its field of operation and conforms to standards set by the Small Business Administration or by state law regarding number of employees and yearly income called also small business concern.”[17] Since the knights allowed an array of members into their association, they ended up getting rid of many because they did not fit the title.^ An increasing number of labour disputes end up in the law courts.

^ I'd tell union members that it is very much in their self-interest to work hard and make a quality product unless they'd like to see their job end up in the non-union south, Mexico or China, or in the case of public employees - outsourced.
  • Organized labor likes what it sees politically: The Swamp 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ And because so many inaugural contract negotiations entered into by a newly formed membership wind up getting stalled and jammed up by a management team looking to sabotage the collective bargaining process (even after the employees voted, fair and square, to form a union), the EFCA's 120-day provision would prove extraordinarily useful.
  • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

However, the AFL was right behind them picking up their pieces. This was another way in which the AFL helped to destroy the Knights. .Once an associate was no longer a knight, and they fit the description of an AFL member, they hunted them down and offered them a spot.^ If Charities do they loose their "charitable" status and can no longer issue tax deductible receipts for donations.
  • small dead animals: Scratch A Leftist Labour Union 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.smalldeadanimals.com [Source type: General]

^ GMB will now refer this offer to GMB members in school across Northern Ireland for their consideration and they will decide what the next step will be in this matter.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ If a Union has a political agenda the member's dues should no longer be deductible from income for tax purposes.
  • small dead animals: Scratch A Leftist Labour Union 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.smalldeadanimals.com [Source type: General]

.Many times spots were offered to men who were still Knights.^ During this time plaintiff was regarded as honest and technically competent, and recognized as someone who had served for many years at the Bank, but who from time to time had had difficulties dealing with staff and others.
  • PAUL DOUGOVITO vs. FIRST TRADE UNION BANK 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.socialaw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are still many Democrats who want Bush and Cheney impeached for their crimes.
  • The Democratic Party | PartyBuilder | Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.democrats.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet employer organisations are still getting away with peddling a series of myths about working time, and the UK Government has fallen for many of these.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

This allowed the AFL to grow very strong with a diverse set of members.
The diversity in the AFL faltered when many of the black members were excluded. .Gompers only wanted skilled workers representing his union and many black people were not considered skilled.^ THE UNION representing many council workers in Tayside who are waiting for settlement of their equal pay claims voiced optimism last night that the issue could be determined by year’s end.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ The only people with the right to make a political stance is the individual, and the union has no right to take away that right from the individual member of that union.
  • small dead animals: Scratch A Leftist Labour Union 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.smalldeadanimals.com [Source type: General]

^ Any workers associations have these rights, but only registered trade unions are entitled to the protections contained in the Trade Union Law.
  • Trade Union Law » nambufwc.org 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC nambufwc.org [Source type: Original source]

.The AFL claimed to not exclude the black members because of their race but because they were not qualified for the part.^ GMB members have voted emphatically to return to work because they recognise the victory that their solidarity over 12 weeks has delivered ," he said.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

“So as long as wages rose, and they did, hours fell, and they did, security increased, and it appeared to, the .AFL could grow fat while neglecting millions of laborers doomed to lives of misery and want.”[18] Even black workers considered skilled enough to fit the part were generally excluded from the Union.^ Not that the hundreds of millions of dollars organized labor has raised for the Democrats hasn't entitled unions to some meaningful reciprocation.
  • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ Tapes may provide clear evidence of bad faith on the company’s part, slander of the union, or general “control and interference”.
  • Trade Union Law » nambufwc.org 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC nambufwc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But, according to polls, as many as 60% of America's workers say they would consider joining a union if only ".
  • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

The AFL conducted literacy tests which had the effect of excluding immigrants and blacks. .Regardless of black members being excluded, the AFL was the most prevalent union federation in America before the mid 1940s.^ On the other hand, many enterprises are characterized by multiple unions (independent unions and company unions being the most common combination).
  • Canadian Trade Union Delegation to Colombia - Report 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.colombiasupport.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Political Parties The Colored National Labor Union - One of America's First Black Workers Unions It was more aggressive than the American Federation of Labor and had more radical members.

^ (Source: Brother Luis Garcon, CUT President) In 1997, members of the teachers unions were being killed at the highest rate of any trade union sector.
  • Canadian Trade Union Delegation to Colombia - Report 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.colombiasupport.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The union was composed of over 10 million members before it combined with the Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO).^ (Incidentally, direct national elections in a union with over 1.5 million members are not democratic.
  • The Fall of the Trade Union Movement - C. L. Writers' Forum 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC clnews.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The following procedures apply where a properly completed certification application has been received by the Board, and a second properly completed application is received from a different union within 10 days of the first application and before the certification hearing on the first application.
  • Labour Relations Board - British Columbia - Trade Union Certification Process 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.lrb.bc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My personal favorite urban lore on this is the notion that union members get three passes before they can be fired.
  • Organized labor likes what it sees politically: The Swamp 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

Congress of Industrial Organizations

.The CIO was put forth by John L. Lewis when troubles with the AFL persisted, after the death of Gompers in 1924. Many members of the union requested that they switch the rules which were laid out by Gompers.^ Many of these are members of GMB union.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ "A great many of the trade union leaders seemed to think they existed to apologise for capitalism, to try and stop strikes and smooth difficulties over, to put a healing salve in the wounds and bandages with a salve", stated Larkin.
  • In the Cause of Labour - Chapter 8 25 September 2009 10:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Buker and Kronish responded that they would put in writing what plaintiff had requested, and that they wanted to rebuild his "trust."
  • PAUL DOUGOVITO vs. FIRST TRADE UNION BANK 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.socialaw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They wanted to support inexperienced workmen rather than only focusing on experienced workers of one occupation.^ But, according to polls, as many as 60% of America's workers say they would consider joining a union if only ".
  • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ In the previous year only one boss was successfully prosecuted – but 1779 workers arrested, removed from the workplace and presumably deported.
  • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Leeds City Council is to sack 1,100 workers and tell them they can have their jobs back only if they accept pay cuts.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.John L. Lewis was the first member of the AFL to act upon this issue in 1935. He was the founder of the Committee for the Industrial Organization which was an original union branched from the AFL. The Committee for the Industrial Organization transformed into the Congress of Industrial Organization.^ To some extent, we have to accept that if we make a union branch and end up fighting the company, it can be stressful for union members.
  • Trade Union Law » nambufwc.org 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC nambufwc.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Trade Union Law Q&A 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.generalunion.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nothing in this Act prohibits the parties to a collective agreement from inserting in the agreement a provision requiring, as a condition of employment, membership in a specified trade union or granting a preference of employment to members in a specified trade union.
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Our delegation was informed that on the first day of the strike, 115 labour contracts were cancelled for the most active union members.
  • Canadian Trade Union Delegation to Colombia - Report 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.colombiasupport.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

“The .Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) encompassed the largest sustained surge of worker organization in American history.”[19] In the 1930s, the CIO grabbed many of their member’s attention through victorious strikes.^ Workers at the UK's largest local authority went on strike in February over proposals which unions said would have cut some staff's earnings by half.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ These disappointments (and many others) aside, there is currently a piece of legislation pending before congress that could be of great benefit to organized labor.
  • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ Hundreds of workers at Scotland's largest local authority may take part in strike action next week, according to a trade union.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.In the 1935, employees of Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company formed their own union called the United Rubber Workers.^ On the 7th March 1929 the United Clothing Workers Union (UCWU) came into existence.

^ There were no grounds for a grievance if there were two employees involved and the union could not find that the company was guilty.
  • Resistance from the Trade Union 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where a trade union is certified as the bargaining agent of employees in a unit and no collective agreement with their employer binding on or entered into on behalf of employees in the unit is in force, .
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The Rubber Workers went on strike in 1936 to protest an increase in product with lower pay wages.^ On 27 July 2005, some 500 workers at Toshiba’s Dalian plant went on strike to protest against a sudden increase in work intensity: after the local labour department had forced the company to respect legal limits on overtime, workers were ordered to increase productivity by 40 per cent.

^ After six years of protest, negotiations and threatened strike action, the cleaners have won an equal-pay increase and six years back pay.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Council workers in Lancashire have gone on strike again in an ongoing dispute over single status pay cuts which will cost some staff up to £3,000 a year in lost wages.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

“There were forty-eight strikes in .1936 in which the strikers remained at their jobs for at least one day; in twenty-two of these work stoppages, involving 34,565 workers, the strikers stayed inside the plants for more than twenty-four hours.”[20] This tactic was called a “sit-down” strike which entailed workers to stop doing their job and sit in their place of employment.^ One worker said he will lose more than 7,000 a year.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ More than 20,000 Birmingham Council workers were on 24-hour strike on 5 February 2008 over a new Single Status pay and grading system and employment contract which will see many lose basic pay.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Social care staff in Glasgow have called for a strike action as soon "as legally possible" in their dispute with the city council over job grading.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.During these strikes, business owners were unable to bring in new workers to replace the ones who were on strike because they were still in their seats at the factory.^ I know a couple of people who possess both the Lionbridge certification and the federal one and they have said that this is because the former is much easier.
  • Defend the right to form a Trade Union! - Indymedia Ireland 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Now they face an indefinite strike by these workers from Monday and social workers and other frontline workers will also be balloted.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ These are refugees whose claim has been rejected by the Home Office but are unable to return home because of circumstances beyond their control – because they are stateless or ill or (paradoxically in the case of a rejected asylum application) the country of return is too dangerous.
  • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

This was unlike any strikes in the past. Before this time, workers showed their fury by leaving their factory and standing in picket lines.Walter Reuther was in control of the union at this time and moved forward to higher roles during 1955.

AFL-CIO

.On May 5, 1955, labor delegates gathered in NY on behalf of 16 million workers, to witness and support the merger of The American Federation of Labor and The Congress of Industrial Organization.^ Not that the hundreds of millions of dollars organized labor has raised for the Democrats hasn't entitled unions to some meaningful reciprocation.
  • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ These disappointments (and many others) aside, there is currently a piece of legislation pending before congress that could be of great benefit to organized labor.
  • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ Any development of labor law since 1950 has worked to grant U.S. workers greater employment and organizing protection .
  • Concurring Opinions » Organized Labor’s International Law Project 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.concurringopinions.com [Source type: Original source]

.The merger is a result of 20 years of effort put forth by both the AFL and CIO presidents, George Meany and Walter Reuther.^ This is AFL-CIO President John Sweeney's stated program for the trade unions.
  • The Fall of the Trade Union Movement - C. L. Writers' Forum 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC clnews.org [Source type: Original source]

.The gathered delegates applauded loudly when the time came to nominate officers for the new AFL-CIO. Reuther who was named one of the 37 vice presidents of the union, nominated Meany for President.^ One Catholic school teaching assistant, who asked not to be named, said: We will be going on strike, theres no doubt about it.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Every officer of a trade union who fails to comply with Section 76 is liable to a penalty not exceeding one hundred dollars.
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Captive Democrats : About 28 percent of the delegates and alternates to the Democratic convention were members of the AFL-CIO or the National Education Association.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

After Meany’s retirement in 1979, Lane Kirkland took over his position. .President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who was elected in 1952, was the first to publicly address and congratulate the new union, which was now the largest in the world.^ In his entire lifetime, he voted for ONE Republican for ONE office....Dwight D. Eisenhower for president in 1952, and out of loyalty after serving under him in Europe.
  • The Democratic Party | PartyBuilder | Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.democrats.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the last election, unions spent $450 million to elect candidates who favor their agenda.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only those cling to it now who are still unacquainted with the principles of Leninism as applied to trade unions.
  • Lenin and the Trade Union Movement 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In Eisenhower’s telephone broadcast to the United States he acknowledged the impact union members had made to better the nation and one of these impacts was “the development of the American philosophy of labor.”[21] Eisenhower states three principles which he feels apply to the philosophy of labor.^ Many of these are members of GMB union.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Unless and until the United States owns up to its serious breaches of international labor commitments, it can hardly expect other nations, which often enjoy serious trading advantages through systemic labor abuses, to do so.
  • Concurring Opinions » Organized Labor’s International Law Project 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.concurringopinions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States is one of the few countries in the world where the leadership of the unions openly belongs to and has allegiance to a political party of the ruling class.
  • The Fall of the Trade Union Movement - C. L. Writers' Forum 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC clnews.org [Source type: Original source]

.The first principles states that: “the ultimate values of mankind are spiritual; these values include liberty, human dignity, opportunity and equal rights and justice.”[21] Eisenhower was stating that every individual deserves a job with decent compensation, practical hours, and good working conditions that leave them feeling fulfilled.^ Are these things good for working people?
  • Defend the right to form a Trade Union! - Indymedia Ireland 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ In testimony after testimony given to our delegation by the victims of human rights abuses, one disturbing conclusion is inescapable: Colombians have absolutely no confidence in seeking justice from any institution of the Colombian state.
  • Canadian Trade Union Delegation to Colombia - Report 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.colombiasupport.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rudge is the Tory 'cabinet minister' for Human Resources and 'Equal Opportunities' .
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.His second principle speaks of the economic interest of the employer and employee being a mutual prosperity.^ This is neither in the employee's or the employer's interest.'
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

[21] .The employers and employees must work together in order for there to be the greatest amount of wealth for all.^ An Employment Appeal Tribunal has, for the first time, provided clarification onwho isan 'affected employee' that must be informed and consulted when there is a TUPE transfer .
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Currently, employees aged 16 or over are entitled to SRP after a two year qualifying period working for the same employer, so the youngest age at which an employee can benefit from redundancy pay is 18.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Where the employees of an employer are certified in accordance with this Section, the employer pursuant to subsection (5) of Section 98 is not bound by any accreditation order made pursuant to this Act.
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Workers have a right to strike when they feel their boundaries are being crossed and the best way for the employer to fix the employees unhappiness is to come to a mutual agreement.^ Rights of employee and employer .
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Now they face an indefinite strike by these workers from Monday and social workers and other frontline workers will also be balloted.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ THOUSANDS of council workers in Glasgow are being balloted on strike action in a row over equal pay.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.His last principle which he preached stated: “labor relations will be managed best when worked out in honest negotiation between employers and unions, without Government’s unwarranted interference.”[21] Eisenhower was saying that when both parties cooperate and act in mature fashion, it will be easier to work out situations and a better outcome will result because of it.^ Can I hand out union information at work?

^ A critical difference between this enterprise bargaining regime and that which went before is that under the Reform Act the parties were allowed to negotiate away award conditions so long as they met a 'no disadvantage test', prior to this award conditions were not negotiable.
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Declining trade union membership - 31 May 2004 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Or they can revisit 1978, when the Democrats had control of all three political arms of the government (the White House, Senate and House of Representatives), when, despite enormous pressure from the labor lobby, the Party refused to overhaul the Taft-Hartley Act.
  • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

.Once he was done delivering the speech, everyone across the U.S. knew of the new AFL-CIO whose “mission was to bring social and economic justice to our nation by enabling working people to have a voice on the job, in government, in a changing global economy and in their communities.” [22]
This new alliance is made up of 56 nationwide and intercontinental labor unions.
^ Labor unions recognized the need to bring everyone into the struggle regardless of color or gender, because the struggle was about everyone.
  • Jim Goodman: Why Honor Organized Labor? 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ It is a labor union and its sole job is to get more money into the education system, and more pay for its members.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ TENS OF thousands of local government workers are up in arms as the results of the single status new pay and grading scheme are rolled out by their employers .
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.The unions which are a part of this alliance are composed of 2.5 million working Americans and 8.5 million other affiliated members.^ This feature of the WFM and other dissident American trade unions indicates one reason for the difficulty in implanting the forms of the IWW into the conditions of Europe.

^ The second area includes research addressing union responses to declining membership and the implications of this for other aspects of union activities such as member involvement and union structure.
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Trade union organising & labour history - 21 January 2003 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Academic]

^ On the other hand, if you're the only union member in your workplace, and it's difficult to recruit, it may sometimes be wiser to keep your membership quiet.

.These members do not fall under one job title but they are very diversely spread out among the working area.^ In his entire lifetime, he voted for ONE Republican for ONE office....Dwight D. Eisenhower for president in 1952, and out of loyalty after serving under him in Europe.
  • The Democratic Party | PartyBuilder | Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.democrats.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the start of August, refuse collectors have been taking longer to do the same work after fears were raised they could lose an £80 weekly bonus under job evaluations.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ These areas of work and recommendations are not specifically tied to any particular Canadian unions or organizations, although some obviously are better suited to certain organizations than others.
  • Canadian Trade Union Delegation to Colombia - Report 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.colombiasupport.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Their jobs go from doctors to truck drivers and painters to bankers. .The mission of these workers and the AFL-CIO “is to improve the lives of working families—to bring economic justice to the workplace and social justice to our nation.^ The justice is with the workers of whatever nationality.
  • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Now they face an indefinite strike by these workers from Monday and social workers and other frontline workers will also be balloted.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ In his pamphlet Agrarian Justice Paine argues in a pre-industrial society for the provision of work for all families and government assistance to those in need.
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Declining trade union membership - 31 May 2004 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Original source]

To accomplish this mission we will build and change the American labor movement.”[23] The AFL-CIO also has many goals which coincide with their mission:
“We will build a broad movement of .American workers by organizing workers into unions.^ In short order, these uneducated workers, without the benefit of precedent or kindly middle-class tutelage, combined into trade unions.

^ Workers have the right to organize themselves into groups in order to better their economic standing.

^ The first is the principle that the terms and conditions of employment should be fair and just and properly safeguarded and the organisation of the workers into trade unions is an essential weapon for this purpose.
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Declining trade union membership - 31 May 2004 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Original source]

.We will build a strong political voice for workers in our nation.^ Political Parties The Colored National Labor Union - One of America's First Black Workers Unions It was more aggressive than the American Federation of Labor and had more radical members.

.We will change our unions to provide a new voice to workers in a changing economy.^ The industrial unrest is due to the council's proposals to change workers' pay conditions to a new 'single status' system whereby pay is standardised.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ FIFE Council workers are being balloted by trade unions over the next few weeks on proposals for new terms and conditions.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Its (the Transport and General Worker’s Union) most recent successful campaign involved Chinese workers at the New Diamond restaurant in London’s Soho.
  • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

We will change our labor movement by creating a new voice for workers in our communities.”[23]
.The association was willing to go to any extent to help out their employers which is why the membership was so high.^ That's why the Center for Union Facts is going to pay the ten worst union-protected teachers in America $10,000 apiece to get out of the classroom — for good.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

.Members started to slowly disappear after 25 successful years of a steady membership.^ During my three years in office we doubled our working membership and the majority of the new members were Black or members of other minorities.
  • The Fall of the Trade Union Movement - C. L. Writers' Forum 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC clnews.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Trade Union Movement has lost 200,000 members in the four years since the ACTU released its' blueprint for increased membership, unions@work 19 .
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Declining trade union membership - 31 May 2004 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Original source]

.Starting out with 16 million members in 1955 and dropping down to 13 million by 1984 is a significant loss.^ Some long-serving workers face being on wages lower than they started out on years ago, with a drop in salary of nearly 7k a year.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.This loss of members is in large part due to the 1957 removal of the Teamsters’ Union who were long time members of the AFL. The Teamsters’ were involved in organized crime and manipulating employers with strong force.^ The IRS is auditing the nation's largest teachers union, scrutinizing an organization that works energetically to elect candidates but files tax returns reporting zero political expenditures from member dues.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The union appointed four full-time organisers by 1928, who travelled throughout the state enrolling non-unionists and members of the 'loyalist' unions that arose out of the 1917 General Strike.
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Trade union organising & labour history - 21 January 2003 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Academic]

^ If a Union has a political agenda the member's dues should no longer be deductible from income for tax purposes.
  • small dead animals: Scratch A Leftist Labour Union 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.smalldeadanimals.com [Source type: General]

The Teamsters’ philosophy was to
“Let each member do his duty as he sees fit. .Let each put his shoulder to the wheel and work together to bring about better results.^ It's any agreement which comes about as a result of collective bargaining between a Trade Union and an employer concerning conditions of work or other matters, put into writing and signed by both parties (Article 14).

.Let no member sow seeds of discord within our ranks, and let our enemies see that the Teamsters of this country are determined to get their just rewards and to make their organization as it should be -- one of the largest and strongest trade unions in the country now and beyond."^ Rights of trade union members .
  • Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (c. 52) 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.opsi.gov.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Overseas members of trade union.
  • Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (c. 52) 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.opsi.gov.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Nominations by members of trade unions.
  • Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (c. 52) 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.opsi.gov.uk [Source type: Original source]

[24]
.This philosophy did not work well for Teamster presidents Beck, Hoffa, and Williams who were all accused of criminal acts and sent to prison.^ The inhabitants are all New York City schoolteachers who have been sent to what is officially called a Temporary Reassignment Center but which everyone calls the Rubber Room.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1987 the AFL-CIO membership grew to 14 million members when the Teamsters Union was restored to the association.^ But the AFL-CIO's unions aren’t ready to endorse for the most part.
  • Organized labor likes what it sees politically: The Swamp 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ For instance, John Hill argued that the Bank Officials Association in the 1920s recognised the 'manager-member effect' where the willingness of a bank employee to join the union was influenced by whether the bank manager was a member or not.
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Trade union organising & labour history - 21 January 2003 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Captive Democrats : About 28 percent of the delegates and alternates to the Democratic convention were members of the AFL-CIO or the National Education Association.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

.The AFL-CIO also lost many members due to financial struggles in the United States.^ Captive Democrats : About 28 percent of the delegates and alternates to the Democratic convention were members of the AFL-CIO or the National Education Association.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fun Facts from AFL-CIO's Disclosure Report : AFL-CIO took in $189.9 million in total receipts in 2004-05, mostly from per capita taxes, or dues, from member unions.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

During the late 1900’s the U.S. dollar began to oscillate due to rivalry with foreign countries and their coinage. .This affects global trafficking and results in job loss for American citizens.^ You should include those whose jobs are affected or may be at risk of redundancy as a result of the transfer, and those who have applied for jobs in the part being transferred.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.The issues between the United States and foreign countries cannot be resolved by Eisenhower’s third principle, which entailed honest negotiations.^ Local authorities and public sector bodies throughout the country have to resolve the issue by this April as part of the 1970 Equal Pay Act.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.Consequently, the association has been dynamically supportive in administration policies which deal with global trafficking, the production of goods, and many other issues, which are optimistic policies that will add to an established financial system.^ A healthy employee is a more productive employee, and it's important that companies do everything they can to help support employees to good health .
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ This issue of the Irish Translators' & Interpreters' Association Bulletin details Lionbridge's substandard service in the Irish courts and their policy of driving down wages.
  • Defend the right to form a Trade Union! - Indymedia Ireland 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Bill Howard developed the 'dependency thesis' of Australian unions, arguing that they were in many ways a product of the system of compulsory arbitration.
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Trade union organising & labour history - 21 January 2003 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Academic]

.The AFL-CIO is now governed by a gathering of delegates who are present on behalf of association members who meet every four years.^ Members of other unions – for example UNISON, the local government union - are at present continually collusive with controls.
  • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Governor in Council may appoint other persons, who may be members of the Panel, as alternate members for each member of the Board and the Chairman of the Board may request an alternate member to attend a meeting of the Board when a member appointed pursuant to subsection (1) is unable to attend.
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The government's Health and Safety Executive estimate that 4,000 people die from asbestos related disease every year.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.The delegates who are the spokespeople of the federation members are chosen by union members.^ In an application for certification by a council of trade unions, a person who is a member of any constituent trade union shall be deemed by the Panel to be a member of the council.
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Individuals can take whatever position they want but the union disrespects many of its members who do not share the opinion of the useful idiot known as Sid Ryan.
  • small dead animals: Scratch A Leftist Labour Union 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.smalldeadanimals.com [Source type: General]

^ Negotiations between properly delegated representatives of a union and the employer or his representatives who are given authority to conclude agreements with the union (Article 6).

.While the delegates vote for new representatives every four years, they also lay down the goals and policies for the union.^ Two of the three main unions representing the Shetland Islands Council's workforce have now voted overwhelmingly in favour of accepting the proposed new pay structure.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Negotiations between properly delegated representatives of a union and the employer or his representatives who are given authority to conclude agreements with the union (Article 6).

^ They mentioned to plaintiff particular projects they wanted him to work on in that period, including the year-end audit and a regulatory exam early in the new year.
  • PAUL DOUGOVITO vs. FIRST TRADE UNION BANK 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.socialaw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The most recent representatives for the organization along with 45 vice presidents are President John J. Sweeny, Secretary-treasurer Richard Trumka, and executive vice president Arlene Holt Baker
.In the United States there are a total of 15.4 million union members, “11 million of whom belong to unions affiliated with the AFL-CIO.”[25] This number has grown rapidly since the beginning of the union movement because today, all individuals with different occupations are welcomed to join unions.^ Representing 35000 members among 25 unions .
  • XPDNC - Denmark National Organization Labour Links 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.xpdnc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Currently, union membership in the United States hovers at about 12%.
  • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ Captive Democrats : About 28 percent of the delegates and alternates to the Democratic convention were members of the AFL-CIO or the National Education Association.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

“Today's unions include manufacturing and construction workers, teachers, technicians and doctors—and every type of worker in between. .No matter what you do for a living, there's a union that has members who do the same thing.”[25] Educating union members about issues that shape lives of functioning families on a daily basis is one of the AFL-CIO’s policies.^ Establishing contact with the massive group of young people, who know nothing or very little about the union .
  • XPDNC - Trade Union Training Links 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.xpdnc.com [Source type: Reference]

^ You might also be reminded there is a significant contingent of conservative-minded individuals in Ontario who are frankly unimpressed by the juvenile anti-Ontario rants from the cheap seats.
  • small dead animals: Scratch A Leftist Labour Union 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.smalldeadanimals.com [Source type: General]

^ Called to the Principal's Office : The nation's largest teachers' union may soon come to regret the educational-policy buzzwords "accountability" and "testing."
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

They give them confidence to have their voices heard for political purposes. They also prioritize in
“creating family-supporting jobs by investing tax dollars in schools, roads, bridges and airports; improving the lives of workers through education, job training and raising the minimum wage; keeping good jobs at home by reforming trade rules, reindustrializing the U.S. economy and redoubling efforts at worker protections in the global economy; strengthening Social Security and private pensions; making high-quality, affordable health care available to everyone; and holding corporations more accountable for their actions.”[25]
.The AFL-CIO is very supportive of political issues and they show their concern by giving out information about existing political issues to families.^ Concerned about online privacy issues?
  • PAUL DOUGOVITO vs. FIRST TRADE UNION BANK 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.socialaw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is up to Lionbridge to support its interpreters and ensure they are respected by legal professionals, who due to the lack of respect for them do not provide them with the information they need to do their work properly.
  • Defend the right to form a Trade Union! - Indymedia Ireland 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ The political and industrial quietism of the Gompers-led AFL, together with a failure to effectively support the miners in the Leadville strike, were the causes of the split.

This information is spread by volunteers and activists and includes where all the candidates stand on the issues.

Europe

.In France, Germany, and other European countries, socialist parties and democrats played a prominent role in forming and building up trade unions, especially from the 1870s onwards.^ It will also provide solid ground for enlisting European and other foreign trade union and NGO support in disuptes involving EU-based MNCs.
  • Concurring Opinions » Organized Labor’s International Law Project 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.concurringopinions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Trade Unions were expecting up to 1,000 council employees to pack Victoria Square in the city at lunchtime in a protest over swingeing pay cuts.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ No official of a trade union was eligible for membership of the party.

.This stood in contrast to the British experience, where moderate New Model Unions dominated the union movement from the mid-nineteenth century and where trade unionism was stronger than the political labor movement until the formation and growth of the Labour Party in the early years of the twentieth century.^ Labour News, Trade Union News, Political news, features and opinion .
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Trade union organising & labour history .
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Trade union organising & labour history - 21 January 2003 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion .
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

Australia

A 1919 strike leader addressing a crowd in Gary, Indiana.
.Supporters of Unions, such as the ACTU or Australian Labor Party, often credit trade unions with leading the labor movement in the early 20th century, which generally sought to end child labor practices, improve worker safety, increase wages for both union workers and non union workers, raise the entire society's standard of living, reduce the hours in a work week, provide public education for children, and bring other benefits to working class families.^ Trade union rights in practice .

^ The trade union cannot lead the illegal existence that the party can.

^ Unless and until the United States owns up to its serious breaches of international labor commitments, it can hardly expect other nations, which often enjoy serious trading advantages through systemic labor abuses, to do so.
  • Concurring Opinions » Organized Labor’s International Law Project 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.concurringopinions.com [Source type: Original source]

[26]

Structure and politics

.Union structures, politics, and legal status vary greatly from country to country.^ The authority has been locked in negotiations with the GMB, Unison and T &G unions since January, as it looks to implement its single status pay structure for male and female workers.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Union branches in the West Midlands region are at various stages in the implementation of single status.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ UNION leaders have urged staff at a local authority to reject plans for a new single status pay structure.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

For specific country details see List of trade unions.
A rally of the trade union UNISON in Oxford during a strike on 2006-03-28.
.Unions may organize a particular section of skilled workers (craft unionism), a cross-section of workers from various trades (general unionism), or attempt to organize all workers within a particular industry (industrial unionism).^ Subject to subsection (2) of Section 98 and subsection (3) of this Section, a collective agreement entered into between an employers' organization and a trade union, trade unions or council of trade unions is binding upon the employers' organization, employers whose bargaining rights have passed to the employers' organization engaged in the construction industry in the sector and area covered by the accreditation order, the trade union, trade unions, council of trade unions and upon every employee within the scope of the collective agreement.
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Labour historians in broader studies of trade unionism have shown that there are limitations on union organising.
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Trade union organising & labour history - 21 January 2003 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Academic]

^ To win the unions from the bureaucracy is not the main question, except that an honest administration is better in pure trade union terms and gives greater access to greater numbers of workers.

.These unions are often divided into "locals", and united in national federations.^ The two most powerful of these are the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is because of something often ignored – namely immigration controls come into conflict with union organisation on a daily basis at the workplace.
  • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Where a trade union is certified as the bargaining agent of employees in a unit and no collective agreement with their employer binding on or entered into on behalf of employees in the unit is in force, .
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

.These federations themselves will affiliate with Internationals, such as the International Trade Union Confederation.^ This included meetings with tribal elders and special pamphlets relating trade unions to local interests such as football.
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Trade union organising & labour history - 21 January 2003 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Academic]

^ The Board shall take such steps as it deems appropriate to determine the trade union membership of employees in the unit determined to be appropriate for collective bargaining.
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In short order, these uneducated workers, without the benefit of precedent or kindly middle-class tutelage, combined into trade unions.

.A union may acquire the status of a "juristic person" (an artificial legal entity), with a mandate to negotiate with employers for the workers it represents.^ Employers seek to bypass Trade Unions and impose Single Status deal in Dumfries and Galloway .
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Unions representing council workers have said there could be more strikes next month if a dispute over wage restructuring is not resolved.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Hundreds of workers at Scotland's largest local authority may take part in strike action next week, according to a trade union.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.In such cases, unions have certain legal rights, most importantly the right to engage in collective bargaining with the employer (or employers) over wages, working hours, and other terms and conditions of employment.^ The right to bargain collectively 3.

^ The right to engage in union activities.

^ Can an employer refuse to bargain with the union?

.The inability of the parties to reach an agreement may lead to industrial action, culminating in either strike action or management lockout, or binding arbitration.^ The GMB union said its members at Leeds City Council will walk out on April 23 and again on May 1 after voting heavily in favour of industrial action.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ At the end of the first day of a three day strike, relationships between the unions and management appeared at an all time low and all out strike action appeared likely.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ A massive 95 per cent of GMB members voted in favour of strike, while 96 per cent backed industrial action up to but excluding strike.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

In extreme cases, violent or illegal activities may develop around these events.
.In other circumstances, unions may not have the legal right to represent workers, or the right may be in question.^ Unions representing council workers have said there could be more strikes next month if a dispute over wage restructuring is not resolved.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Hundreds of workers at Scotland's largest local authority may take part in strike action next week, according to a trade union.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ On the other hand, if you're the only union member in your workplace, and it's difficult to recruit, it may sometimes be wiser to keep your membership quiet.

.This lack of status can range from non-recognition of a union to political or criminal prosecution of union activists and members, with many cases of violence and deaths having been recorded both historically and contemporarily.^ Can a union negotiate for non-members?

^ Q21: Can a union negotiate for non-members?

^ Many of these are members of GMB union.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

[27][28]
.Unions may also engage in broader political or social struggle.^ Labor Union Socialism from Over the Pond The history of England provided a different background to the formation of the two party struggle that is UK politics.

^ In political and social terms the trade union bureaucracy was a conservative layer, enjoying special privileges and dedicated to maximising those privileges within the context of capitalism.

^ For the Lassalleans the "iron law of wages" made it futile to engage in the economic struggle of trade unions.

.Social Unionism encompasses many unions that use their organizational strength to advocate for social policies and legislation favorable to their members or to workers in general.^ The workers are members of the Unison union.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Many of these are members of GMB union.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Trade Unions COMMUNIQUE NUMBER 23 How the Argentine Generals attempted to use football to appease the masses, whilst at the same time indulging in mass muder.

.As well, unions in some countries are closely aligned with political parties.^ The unions also gained political leverage through the Labor Party to achieve their objectives.
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Trade union organising & labour history - 21 January 2003 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Academic]

^ The Taff Vale judgement, which cost the railwaymen’s union some £200,000 in 1901, drove the trade union leadership into the political expression of reformism in the Labour Representation Committee and subsequently the Labour Party.

^ It has emerged that many of these companies practice exemplary industrial relations policies in some countries, while undertaking entirely unethical practices in others , the union says.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.Unions are also delineated by the service model and the organizing model.^ All this is modelled on the vibrant Justice For Janitors campaign in the USA where the Service Employees International Union is fighting for the rights of janitors without immigration status..
  • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Within the servicing model, union tactics are held to be bureaucratic, remote from members, and legalistic in nature.
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Trade union organising & labour history - 21 January 2003 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Its opposite number, the 'servicing model', on the other hand represents all that is bad in unions.
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Trade union organising & labour history - 21 January 2003 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Academic]

.The service model union focuses more on maintaining worker rights, providing services, and resolving disputes.^ Public services could be badly affected next week after council workers threatened to strike over the single status pay dispute.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Unions representing council workers have said there could be more strikes next month if a dispute over wage restructuring is not resolved.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ All this is modelled on the vibrant Justice For Janitors campaign in the USA where the Service Employees International Union is fighting for the rights of janitors without immigration status..
  • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Alternately, the organizing model typically involves full-time union organizers, who work by building up confidence, strong networks, and leaders within the workforce; and confrontational campaigns involving large numbers of union members.^ Likewise it expresses support for campaigns against deportations – and it provides examples of the attempt to deport people who happen to be trade unionists and examples of trade union support against their deportation.
  • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ This has been the result of the self-organisation of those threatened by controls – organising either within the unions or through anti-deportation campaigns.
  • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The IRS is auditing the nation's largest teachers union, scrutinizing an organization that works energetically to elect candidates but files tax returns reporting zero political expenditures from member dues.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many unions are a blend of these two philosophies, and the definitions of the models themselves are still debated.^ Many of these are members of GMB union.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Nor is it representative of union members themselves, many of whom have been forced to join unions against their will to hold a job.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Nipsa union's 3,000 members will be out on picket lines two days a week until Christmas, and many special schools will be affected.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.Although their political structure and autonomy varies widely, union leaderships are usually formed through democratic elections.^ The existing leadership is trying to strengthen its grip on the union through witch-hunts and other bureaucratic means.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ It's good for just about everyone involved: the teachers' unions get taxpayers' money, the Democratic party through the teachers' unions gets taxpayers' money.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While the labor leadership is almost unanimously Democratic, 40 percent of union voters supported the GOP in 1994.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some research, such as that conducted by the ACIRRT,[29] argues that unionized workers enjoy better conditions and wages than those who are not unionized.^ The men, who were working in jobs such as care assistants, caretakers, drivers and leisure attendants, had lodged discrimination claims about bonuses paid to male workers in better paid jobs such as gardeners and refuse collectors.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ They are fought by unionising all workers to fight together for better conditions irrespective of their immigration status.
  • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Last week those workers who did not sign their contracts were issued with dismissal notices from the council.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.In Britain, the perceived left-leaning nature of trade unions has resulted in the formation of a reactionary right-wing trade union called Solidarity which is supported by the far-right BNP.^ Rights of trade union members .
  • Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (c. 52) 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.opsi.gov.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ This right is the teeth in the Trade Union Law.

^ A favorable ruling from the ILO Committee on Freedom of Association will boost support for trade union goals in the U.S. human rights community, an important ally in a movement for a legislative fix to Oakwood.
  • Concurring Opinions » Organized Labor’s International Law Project 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.concurringopinions.com [Source type: Original source]

Shop types

Companies that employ workers with a union generally operate on one of several models:
.
  • A closed shop (US) or a "pre-entry closed shop" (UK) employs only people who are already union members.^ Establishing contact with the massive group of young people, who know nothing or very little about the union .
    • XPDNC - Trade Union Training Links 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.xpdnc.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Likewise it expresses support for campaigns against deportations – and it provides examples of the attempt to deport people who happen to be trade unionists and examples of trade union support against their deportation.
    • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The UCWU declined into a small East London union of a few hundred dedicated adherents until, in 1935, it closed up shop completely.

    .The compulsory hiring hall is an example of a closed shop — in this case the employer must recruit directly from the union, as well as the employee working strictly for unionized employers.
  • A union shop (US) or a "post-entry closed shop" (UK) employs non-union workers as well, but sets a time limit within which new employees must join a union.
  • An agency shop requires non-union workers to pay a fee to the union for its services in negotiating their contract.^ Failure to report within time limit .
    • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Union membership requirement in contract for goods or services void.
    • Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (c. 52) 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.opsi.gov.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Can a union negotiate for non-members?

    This is sometimes called the Rand formula. .In certain situations involving state public employees in the United States, such as California, "fair share laws" make it easy to require these sorts of payments.
  • An open shop does not require union membership in employing or keeping workers.^ Currently, union membership in the United States hovers at about 12%.
    • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Does the Trade Union Law cover foreign workers in Japan, too?

    ^ If a majority signs such cards, the NLRB would be authorized to recognize the union as the employees' exclusive representative in the collective bargaining process.
    • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

    .Where a union is active, workers who do not contribute to a union still benefit from the collective bargaining process.^ Does the union have to have a majority in the workplace in order to hold collective bargaining?

    ^ The TUC pamphlet, Migrant Workers a TUC Guide makes it clear that “trade unions have a role to play in assisting migrant workers who have been subject to negative decisions by the immigration authorities”.
    • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In short order, these uneducated workers, without the benefit of precedent or kindly middle-class tutelage, combined into trade unions.

    In the United States, state level right-to-work laws mandate the open shop in some states.

Diversity of international unions

.Labor law varies from country to country, as does the function of unions.^ Does the Trade Union Law cover foreign workers in Japan, too?

^ Q6: Does the Trade Union Law cover foreign workers in Japan, too?

^ In 1902 Debs persuaded the WFM to change the name of the Western Labor Union to the American Labor Union (ALU) and to extend their sphere of activity to the whole country.

.For example, in Germany only open shops are legal; that is, all discrimination based on union membership is forbidden.^ On the other hand, if you're the only union member in your workplace, and it's difficult to recruit, it may sometimes be wiser to keep your membership quiet.

^ Dual unionism, then as now, could only get a toehold in firms, like Singer’s, where the open shop principle applied.

^ The National Education Association (NEA) wants the state to control most or all preschool programs as a boon to public education and to the union's membership.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

This affects the function and services of the union. .In addition, German unions have played a greater role in management decisions through participation in corporate boards and co-determination than have unions in the United States.^ The TUC pamphlet, Migrant Workers a TUC Guide makes it clear that “trade unions have a role to play in assisting migrant workers who have been subject to negative decisions by the immigration authorities”.
  • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Board has determined that a unit of employees is appropriate for collective bargaining, if the Board is satisfied that at the date of the filing of the application for certification the applicant trade union had as members in good standing .
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The Trade Union Law itself states no standards for the determination of the 'propriety' of dispute acts.

(newsletter/files/BTS012EN_12-15.pdf).
.In Britain, a series of laws introduced during the 1980s by Margaret Thatcher's government restricted closed and union shops.^ The UCWU declined into a small East London union of a few hundred dedicated adherents until, in 1935, it closed up shop completely.

.All agreements requiring a worker to join a union are now illegal.^ Talks between the council and union Unite have reached an outline agreement which will be put to workers.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ But, according to polls, as many as 60% of America's workers say they would consider joining a union if only ".
  • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ Workers in the Unison, Unite, Ucatt and GMB unions are all being balloted.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.In the United States, the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 outlawed the closed shop, but permitted the union shop unless the state government chose to prohibit it.^ Or they can revisit 1978, when the Democrats had control of all three political arms of the government (the White House, Senate and House of Representatives), when, despite enormous pressure from the labor lobby, the Party refused to overhaul the Taft-Hartley Act.
  • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ Currently, union membership in the United States hovers at about 12%.
  • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ For openers, they can go back to 1947, when the crippling, anti-labor Taft-Hartley Act was passed, with the help of congressional Democrats, over President Truman's veto.
  • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

In addition, unions' relations with political parties vary. .In many countries unions are tightly bonded, or even share leadership, with a political party intended to represent the interests of working people.^ Nor is it representative of union members themselves, many of whom have been forced to join unions against their will to hold a job.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No special interest group within the Democratic party has as much influence — domination might be a better word — as the teachers' unions.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is, probably, unlikely that many revolutionaries today will be foolhardy enough to see in dual unionism any viable alternative to hard patient work in the mass reformist unions.

.Typically this is a left-wing, socialist, or social democratic party, but many exceptions exist.^ But the Reclaim the Union campaign , initiated by the Socialist Party, is putting forward a list of left candidates for the national executive.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.In the United States, by contrast, although it is historically aligned with the Democratic Party, the labor movement is by no means monolithic on that point; this is especially true among the individual "rank and file" members.^ The educators, at two city charter schools, have filed for permission from the state to cut their ties with the United Federation of Teachers.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No special interest group within the Democratic party has as much influence — domination might be a better word — as the teachers' unions.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Political Parties The Colored National Labor Union - One of America's First Black Workers Unions It was more aggressive than the American Federation of Labor and had more radical members.

.For example, the International Brotherhood of Teamsters has supported Republican Party candidates on a number of occasions and the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (PATCO) endorsed Ronald Reagan in 1980. (However, when PATCO went on strike in violation of their "no strike" contract, President Reagan ordered them back to work.^ Tom Jones, head of policy at Thompsons, said supporting people in getting back to work was a sound principle, 'however many people remain on sick leave because employers fail to make the necessary adjustments to enable them to work again.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ So, although some of the new voters that came aboard during the last 7 months or so may be more supporters of a particular candidate......I believe that our system of democratic participation can ONLY work within the party system.
  • The Democratic Party | PartyBuilder | Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.democrats.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since then, although a few politicians — notably former President Ronald Reagan — have paid sporadic lip service to abolishing this useless organization, most have pushed for additions to its budget in order to curry favor with NEA members at election time.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

.Those who didn't return to the job were fired and replaced, effectively destroying PATCO.) In Britain the labor movement's relationship with the Labour Party is fraying as party leadership embarks on privatization plans at odds with what unions see as the worker's interests.^ There is more money on the table and those members who will see their pay improved will welcome that.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ The unions also gained political leverage through the Labor Party to achieve their objectives.
  • Evatt Foundation: Publication: Trade union organising & labour history - 21 January 2003 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC evatt.labor.net.au [Source type: Academic]

^ The TUC pamphlet, Migrant Workers a TUC Guide makes it clear that “trade unions have a role to play in assisting migrant workers who have been subject to negative decisions by the immigration authorities”.
  • Trade Union Programme : No One Is Illegal 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.noii.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.On top of this in the past there as been a group known as the Conservative Trade Unionists or CTU. A group formed of people who sympathized with right wing Tory policy but were Trade Unionists.^ Establishing contact with the massive group of young people, who know nothing or very little about the union .
  • XPDNC - Trade Union Training Links 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.xpdnc.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Anti-Neocon Agenda It's time for the voting public to know that they don't have to accept candidates who placate right wing extremists.
  • The Democratic Party | PartyBuilder | Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.democrats.org [Source type: Original source]

^ John Dewey, who traveled to Russia in the 1930s to help organize and implement the Marxist educational system there, today is known in America as the "Father of Progressive Education."
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

.In Western Europe, professional associations often carry out the functions of a trade union.^ The trade union for professional artists .
  • XPDNC - Denmark National Organization Labour Links 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.xpdnc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Communists out of the trade unions, oust them by every means, make their work in trade unions as unpleasant as possible, and insult, bait and persecute them.

^ This feature of the WFM and other dissident American trade unions indicates one reason for the difficulty in implanting the forms of the IWW into the conditions of Europe.

.In these cases, they may be negotiating for white-collar workers, such as physicians, engineers, or teachers.^ Now they face an indefinite strike by these workers from Monday and social workers and other frontline workers will also be balloted.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ That's all very nice, but these days you may find that unionized teachers teach more than academics.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The case was brought by Middlesbrough Council workers, who said the GMB focused on protecting men's pay in its Single Status equality negotiations.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.Typically such trade unions refrain from politics or pursue a more ordoliberal politics than their blue-collar counterparts[citation needed].^ Labour News, Trade Union News, Political news, features and opinion .
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ As capitalism became more prosperous, so the chance of suborning wider sections of the trade union bureaucracy became possible.

^ Political Parties The Colored National Labor Union - One of America's First Black Workers Unions It was more aggressive than the American Federation of Labor and had more radical members.

In Germany the relation between individual employees and employers is considered to be asymmetrical. .In consequence, many working conditions are not negotiable due to a strong legal protection of individuals.^ Although "bullying" is not a legal term, cases of bullying at work have arisen through employment law, health and safety and protection from harassment legislation.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.However, the German flavor or works legislation has as its main objective to create a balance of power between employees organized in unions and employers organized in employers associations.^ Subject to subsection (2) of Section 98 and subsection (3) of this Section, a collective agreement entered into between an employers' organization and a trade union, trade unions or council of trade unions is binding upon the employers' organization, employers whose bargaining rights have passed to the employers' organization engaged in the construction industry in the sector and area covered by the accreditation order, the trade union, trade unions, council of trade unions and upon every employee within the scope of the collective agreement.
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ A collective agreement entered into by an employer or an employers' organization and a trade union as bargaining agent is, subject to and for the purposes of this Act, binding upon .
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ No person shall seek by intimidation or coercion to compel a person to become or refrain from becoming or to cease to be a member of a trade union or an employers' organization.
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

.This allows much wider legal boundaries for collective bargaining, compared to the narrow boundaries for individual negotiations.^ No collective agreement shall be individually negotiated between an employer in the accredited sector and area and a trade union or council of trade unions, and if such a collective agreement is entered, it shall not be binding on any person.
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

.As a condition to obtain the legal status of a trade union, employee associations need to prove that their leverage is strong enough to serve as a counterforce in negotiations with employers.^ But trade union Unison said it was not enough.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Status and property of trade unions .
  • Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (c. 52) 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.opsi.gov.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Quasi-corporate status of trade unions.
  • Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (c. 52) 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.opsi.gov.uk [Source type: Original source]

.If such an employees association is competing against another union, its leverage may be questioned by unions and then evaluated in a court trial.^ If a majority signs such cards, the NLRB would be authorized to recognize the union as the employees' exclusive representative in the collective bargaining process.
  • David Macaray: A Ray of Hope for Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ Trade Unions say Welsh councils may face legal action unless their female employees are paid the same as men.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Council officials and union leaders have cleared their diaries this week to start tough negotiations, which will see around 17,000 employees undergo job evaluations.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.In Germany only very few professional associations obtained the right to negotiate salaries and working conditions for their members, notably the medical doctors association Marburger Bund and the pilots association Vereinigung Cockpit.^ Members of Unison, the GMB and the Transport and General Workers' Union have been asked to vote on the terms and conditions package and influence their future working arrangements.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Unite members working for Birmingham City Council have agreed to suspend strike action for two weeks to enter into negotiations with the Council.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ The teacher union has been so successful in downplaying its identity as a labor union that a survey of members of the Alabama Education Association in 2000 showed only 19 percent regarded the NEA as a union, with an overwhelming 77 percent saying it was "a professional association."
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

.The engineers association Verein Deutscher Ingenieure does not strive to act as a union, as it also represents the interests of engineering businesses.^ After the Hawaii State Teachers' Association convention in March, when internal election irregularities were revealed, one teacher asked, "What does the union do for us anyway?"
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The order, signed by attorneys from the WEA and an American Arbitration Association arbitrator, attempts to prohibit teachers and their representatives from ever talking about what took place at the union's hearing.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Taxpayers' Alliance, a campaign group that calls for tax and spending cuts and claims to represent the interests of taxpayers, has admitted one of its directors does not pay British tax.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.Finally, the structure of employment laws affects unions' roles and how they carry out their business.^ The Ten Worst Union-Protected Teachers : Thanks to outmoded, union-defended employment laws and policies, it can be impossible to fire a bad union-protected teacher.
  • The Organized Labor Page : The Teachers' Unions 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After a 10th year passed without any movement, trade unionists at the council finally snapped and started to complain vociferously about how they were being treated.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Time off for carrying out trade union duties.
  • Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (c. 52) 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.opsi.gov.uk [Source type: Original source]

.In many western European countries wages and benefits are largely set by governmental action.^ The move is part of a nationwide restructuring of local authority wage structures which will see many benefit through new equal pay rules.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Devastated council workers in Wolverhampton have set up their own website to vent their fury over wage cuts which will leave many thousands of pounds out of pocket.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.The United States takes a more laissez-faire approach, setting some minimum standards but leaving most workers' wages and benefits to collective bargaining and market forces.^ Unison members have been out since July 24 after their jobs were regraded in a move that will leave some of them on lower wages.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Unions representing council workers have said there could be more strikes next month if a dispute over wage restructuring is not resolved.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ UP to 1,200 council workers were left stunned and angry after being told their wages will be cut in some cases by as much as 7,500k.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.Historically, the Republic of Korea has regulated collective bargaining by requiring employers to participate but collective bargaining has been legal only if held in sessions before the lunar new year.^ Act to require the employer to commence collective bargaining; and .
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Act to require the employer to commence collective bargaining; .
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Where an employers' organization makes application for accreditation as sole collective bargaining agent for all unionized employers in a geographic area and sector of the construction industry, the Panel .
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

.In totalitarian regimes such as Nazi Germany, Trade Unions were outlawed.^ The Board shall take such steps as it deems appropriate to determine the trade union membership of employees in the unit determined to be appropriate for collective bargaining.
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Every member of such trade union shall, on application to the secretary or treasurer of such trade union, be entitled to a copy of such statements free of charge.
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The nature of the bureaucracy and the extent of the harshness of the internal regime will determine the tactics but not the strategy of working in the mass trade unions.

In the Soviet Union and China, unions have typically been de facto government agencies devoted to smooth and efficient operation of government enterprises.

Criticism

.Trade unions have been accused of benefiting insider workers, those having secure jobs, at the cost of outsider workers, consumers of the goods or services produced, and the shareholders of the unionized business.^ FIFE Council workers are being balloted by trade unions over the next few weeks on proposals for new terms and conditions.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Hundreds of workers at Scotland's largest local authority may take part in strike action next week, according to a trade union.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ In short order, these uneducated workers, without the benefit of precedent or kindly middle-class tutelage, combined into trade unions.

.Those who are likely to be disadvantaged most from unionization are the unemployed, those at risk of unemployment, or workers who are unable to get the job they want in a particular line of work.^ People often find themselves in a no man's land: not wanting to stay off work, but unable to return.'
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ 'I want to warn those not paying that they should do so immediately to avoid the penalties that go with non-payment.'
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ However, employees should not be made to feel that they have to put their health at risk to save their job.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

[30]
.In the United States, the outsourcing of labor to Asia, Latin America, and Africa has been partially driven by increasing costs of union partnership, which gives other countries a comparative advantage in labor, making it more efficient to perform labor-intensive work there.^ For more than half a century, large U.S. labor unions, alone or in concert with other labor organization federations, have regularly filed complaints with the International Labour Organization (ILO) against the U.S. Government.
  • Concurring Opinions » Organized Labor’s International Law Project 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.concurringopinions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Economic History Two Powerful Unions in Nigeria Call Nationwide Strike Over Fuel-price Hike With this strike, gas price may increase back in the United States, if the government and the union leaders do not quickly resolve the situation By TOMBARI BONKOO   |  Published 6/18/2007 More topics: Lagos .

^ Unless and until the United States owns up to its serious breaches of international labor commitments, it can hardly expect other nations, which often enjoy serious trading advantages through systemic labor abuses, to do so.
  • Concurring Opinions » Organized Labor’s International Law Project 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.concurringopinions.com [Source type: Original source]

[31] .Milton Friedman, Nobel economist an advocate of laissez-faire capitalism sought to show that unionization produces higher wages (for the union members) at the expense of fewer jobs, and that, if some industries are unionized while others are not, wages will tend to decline in non-unionized industries.^ Unison members have been out since July 24 after their jobs were regraded in a move that will leave some of them on lower wages.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ It must take its members, whether by trade or industry, as they are, not as some idealised image of the class conscious militant.

^ Last month council workers were issued with new contracts, but Unison and other trade unions recommended their members did not sign them.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

[32]
.Trade unions have been said to have ineffective policies on racism and sexism, such that a union is justified in not supporting a member taking action against another member.^ But trade union Unison said it was not enough.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ In an application for certification by a council of trade unions, a person who is a member of any constituent trade union shall be deemed by the Panel to be a member of the council.
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ No provision in a collective agreement requiring an employer to discharge an employee because such employee is or continues to be a member of, or engages in activities on behalf of a union other than a specified trade union, is valid.
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

.This was demonstrated by the 1987 judgment in the Weaver v NATFEH case in the UK — in which a black Muslim woman brought a complaint of workplace racist harassment against a co-trade unionist.^ In 1998, the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) settled a case it had brought against Mitsubishi Motor Manufacturing of America for an alleged pattern or practice of sexual harassment, sex-based harassment, and retaliation against a class of female employees.
  • Resistance from the Trade Union 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other options to consider are filing a claim with an enforcement agency, taking the case to court, and/or organizing women against sexual harassment.
  • Using the Trade Union 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, in some of the cases in which the women prevailed, the cases resulted in newly drafted sexual harassment policies and procedures and educational programs on sexual harassment in the workplace.
  • Resistance from the Trade Union 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The finding was that in the event of the union offering assistance to the plaintiff it would be in violation of the union’s duty to protect the tenure of the accused member and the judgment still sets the precedent for cases of this kind that union members who make complaints to the employer of racist or sexist harassment against member(s) of the same union cannot obtain union advice or assistance; this applies irrespective of the merit of the complaint.^ In an application for certification by a council of trade unions, a person who is a member of any constituent trade union shall be deemed by the Panel to be a member of the council.
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Unison, which has threatened to withdraw financial backing from Labour MPs who do not promote its values at the next election, said its members would react with "fury" to the announcement.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Arthur said the new regulations proposed by the government will not offer adequate protection , adding 'it will still be difficult to pursue blacklisting discrimination cases.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

[33]
.Unions are sometimes accused of holding society to ransom by taking strike actions that result in the disruption of public services.^ Union members are to be balloted on the move, which could result in strikes hitting council services.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ The Unison, Unite, Ucatt and GMB unions began balloting for strike action on 2 January.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Public services could be badly affected next week after council workers threatened to strike over the single status pay dispute.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

[34][35]

Worldwide Union and by Region and Country

Worldwide and International Cooperation

Unionization in the world[citation needed]
.The largest organization in the world is the Brussels-based International Trade Union Confederation, which today has approximately 309 affiliated organizations in 156 countries and territories, with a combined membership of 166 million.^ The employer or the employers' organization and the trade union that are parties to the arbitration shall each pay one half of the fees of, and the expenses incurred by, an arbitrator referred to in subsection (1).
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Trade Unions Africa: A Changing Leadership Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia.

^ Nothing in this Act prohibits the parties to a collective agreement from inserting in the agreement a provision requiring, as a condition of employment, membership in a specified trade union or granting a preference of employment to members in a specified trade union.
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Other global trade union organizations include the World Federation of Trade Unions.^ Federated trade unions.
  • Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (c. 52) 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.opsi.gov.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The employer or the employers' organization and the trade union that are parties to the arbitration shall each pay one half of the fees of, and the expenses incurred by, an arbitrator referred to in subsection (1).
  • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ This feature of the WFM and other dissident American trade unions indicates one reason for the difficulty in implanting the forms of the IWW into the conditions of Europe.

.National and regional trade unions organizing in specific industry sectors or occupational groups also form global union federations, such as Union Network International, the International Federation of Journalists or the International Arts and Entertainment Alliance.^ Federated trade unions.
  • Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (c. 52) 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.opsi.gov.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Exemption of newly-formed trade unions, &c.
  • Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (c. 52) 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.opsi.gov.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Newly-formed trade unions.
  • Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (c. 52) 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.opsi.gov.uk [Source type: Original source]

Union publications

.Several sources of current news exist about the trade union movement in the world.^ Labour News, Trade Union News, Political news, features and opinion .
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Negotiations between the council and trade unions about the new system are still raging, despite a March 31 deadline to implement changes discussed 10 years ago.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ FIFE Council workers are being balloted by trade unions over the next few weeks on proposals for new terms and conditions.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.These include LabourStart and the official website of the international trade union movement Global Unions.^ Trade unions will have a further meeting with Aberdeenshire Council officials following "productive" equal pay talks.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ If Linamar are allowed to get away with this, no convenor or shop steward, either in the already weakened car industry or in the wider trade union movement is safe.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ The decision was taken last week by the Building and Wood Workers International (BWI), the global federation of construction unions, at its conference in Lille, France.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.Another source of labor news is the Workers Independent News, a news organization providing radio articles to independent and syndicated radio shows.^ The Guardian newspaper began the New Year by publishing two January 2 articles and an editorial on women workers employed by local authorities fighting for equal pay.
  • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

.Labor Notes is the largest circulation cross-union publication remaining in the United States.^ In the 1960's & 70's when the United States was at its economic nadir and labor unions represented a larger percentage of workers there were periods of inflation and one brief instance of stagflation.
  • The Democratic Party | PartyBuilder | Organized Labor 12 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.democrats.org [Source type: Original source]

.It reports news and analysis about labor activity or problems facing the labor movement.^ Nothing new has been added to the debate about pleural plaques by the (IIAC) report.
  • Labour Union Digest, Labour, Trade Union, Political news, features and opinion 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Rebuild the Labor Movement.Train in New York City to be a seasoned Union Organizer .
  • XPDNC - Trade Union Training Links 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC www.xpdnc.com [Source type: Reference]

See also

General
Types of unions
Union federation

References

  1. ^ Definition of "rank and file"
  2. ^ a b c Webb, Sidney; Webb, Beatrice (1920). History of Trade Unionism. Longmans and Co. London.  ch. I
  3. ^ Rerum Novarum
  4. ^ Trade Unions and Socialism International Socialist Review, Vol.1 No.10, April 1901.
  5. ^ "Trade Union Census". Australian Bureau of Statistics. http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/0/9FCBBF538897395ACA2570EC001A6CED?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2006-08-05. 
  6. ^ Foner, Phillip Sheldon. History of the Labor Movement in the United States. International Publishers Co., 1972.
  7. ^ a b TRADE UNIONS IN THE UNITED STATES. 2008. http://www.history.com/encyclopedia.do?articleId=224387 (accessed April 1, 2009).
  8. ^ America's Story from America's Library. http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/aa/presidents/buren/panic_2 (accessed April 6, 2009).
  9. ^ Ayers, Edward L. et al.. American Passages: A History of the United States. Vol. 1. Harcourt. pp. 288. ISBN 978-0-4950-5015-5. 
  10. ^ Kennedy, David; Lizabeth Cohen, Thomas Bailey (2006). The American Pageant (Thirteenth Edition ed.). New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. 
  11. ^ 1997. "Knights of Labor constitution of 1878." Knights of Labor Constitution of 1878 1, no. 1: 1. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed February 24, 2009).
  12. ^ Fink, Leon. Workingmen's Democracy: The Knights of Labor and America Politics. United States of America: the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois, 1983.
  13. ^ "KNIGHTS OF LABOR,," The History Channel website, http://www.history.com/encyclopedia.do?articleId=213962 (accessed Feb 24, 2009).
  14. ^ "Knights of Labor." Columbia Encyclopedia . Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed February 24, 2009).
  15. ^ Chinese Exclusion Act (1882). 1989. http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=47 (accessed March 31, 2009).
  16. ^ Dubofsky, Melvyn. We Shall Be All: A History of the Industrial Workers of the World. 2000.(accessed April 6, 2009).
  17. ^ Dictionary.com. 2009. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/small%20business?qsrc=2888 (accessed April 6, 2009).
  18. ^ Dubofsky, Melvyn. We Shall Be All: A History of the Industrial Workers of the World. 2000. http://books.google.com/books?id=DmAer6Nz75kC&pg=PA5&lpg=PA5&dq=Knights+of+Labor+competition+with+AFL&source=bl&ots=-k3A0t8rN6&sig=Xt1W6THNjgswcbTwsHoWszrlqa4&hl=en&ei=rrHbSfXBFJvqlQfFrfiUCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7#PPP1,M1 (accessed April 6, 2009).
  19. ^ Zeger, Robert H. The CIO:1935-1955. 1997. http://books.google.com/books?id=ghy45fyXYyoC (accessed April 7, 2009).
  20. ^ Fine, Sidney. Sit-down: the General Motors Strike of 1936-1937 . 1936. http://books.google.com/books?id=0TkupxD2njcC&pg=PA123&dq=Rubber+Strike+of+1936 (accessed April 6, 2009).
  21. ^ a b c d Peters, Gerhard. Dwight D. Eisenhower. 1999-2009. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=10394 (accessed April 16, 2009).
  22. ^ Union Facts. 2009. http://www.aflcio.org/aboutus/faq/ (accessed April 7, 2009).
  23. ^ a b What We Stand for: Mission and Goals of the AFL-CIO . 2009. http://www.aflcio.org/aboutus/thisistheaflcio/mission/ (accessed April 20, 2009).
  24. ^ The Teamster History. http://www.teamster.org/history/teamster-history/overview (accessed April 20, 2009).
  25. ^ a b c Union Facts. 2009. http://www.aflcio.org/aboutus/faq/ (accessed April 200, 2009).
  26. ^ ACTU, History of the ACTU (website), http://actu.com.au/AboutACTU/HistoryoftheACTU/default.aspx
  27. ^ ICFTU press release - regarding Cambodia.
  28. ^ Amnesty International report 23 September 2005 - fear for safety of SINALTRAINAL member José Onofre Esquivel Luna
  29. ^ Australian Centre for Industrial Relations Research and Training report.
  30. ^ Card David, Krueger Alan. (1995). Myth and measurement: The new economics of the minimum wage. Princeton, NJ. Princeton University Press.
  31. ^ Kramarz, Francis (2006-10-19). "Outsourcing, Unions, and Wages: Evidence from data matching imports, firms, and workers". http://www.eco.uc3m.es/temp/agenda/wage102006.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  32. ^ Friedman, Milton. Price Theory
  33. ^ "The Legal Ferret.net" http://www.legalferret.net retrieved on 22-Dec-2008
  34. ^ http://journals.sfu.ca/archivar/index.php/archivaria/article/viewFile/10489/11328
  35. ^ http://www.indiatogether.org/combatlaw/vol2/issue6/strike.htm

Further materials

Books

.
  • The Government of British Trade Unions: A study of Apathy and the Democratic Process in the Transport and General Worker Union by Joseph Goldstein[1]
  • The Early English Trade Unions: Documents from Home Office Papers in the Public Record Office by A Aspinall[2]
  • Magnificent Journey: The Rise of the Trade Unions, by Francis Williams[3]
  • Trade Unions by Allan Flanders[4]
  • Trade Union Government and Administration in Great Britain by B C Roberts[5]
  • Union Power: The Growth and Challenge in Perspective by Claud Cockburn[6]
  • Directory of Employer's Associations, Trade Unions, Joint Organisations &c — No author and produced in paperback[7]
  • The History of the TUC (Trades Union Congress) 1868-1968: A pictorial Survey of a Social Revolution — Illustrated with Contemporary Prints, Documents and Photographs, edited by Lionel Birch[8]
  • Clarke, T.; Clements, L. (1978).^ FIFE Council workers are being balloted by trade unions over the next few weeks on proposals for new terms and conditions.
    • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ Hundreds of workers at Scotland's largest local authority may take part in strike action next week, according to a trade union.
    • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ Hundreds of social care workers took part in the first day of an "indefinite strike" yesterday, union bosses said.
    • Single Status, Job Evaluation and Equal Pay news from Labour Union Digest 15 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.labouruniondigest.org.uk [Source type: News]

    .Trade Unions under Capitalism.^ Where a trade union is certified under this Act as the bargaining agent of the employees in a unit, .
    • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Board is satisfied that the trade union might be certified by it under this Section as the bargaining agent of the employees in the unit of each employer if separate applications for the purpose were made by the trade union.
    • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Where a trade union is certified under this Act, an application may be made to the Board to amend the certification to .
    • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

    Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press. ISBN 0-391-00728-9. 
  • Panitch, Leo & Swartz, Donald (2003). .From consent to coercion: The assault on trade union freedoms, third edition.^ No person shall seek by intimidation or coercion to compel a person to become or refrain from becoming or to cease to be a member of a trade union or an employers' organization.
    • Trade Union Act 15 January 2010 3:35 UTC gov.ns.ca [Source type: Original source]

    Ontario: Garamound Press.
  • Phil Dine (2007). State of the Unions: How Labor Can Strengthen the Middle Class, Improve Our Economy, and Regain Political Influence, McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-148844-0

Articles

Films

  • The 2000 film Bread and Roses by British director Ken Loach depicted the struggle of cleaners in Los Angeles to fight for better pay, and working conditions, and the right to join a union.
  • "Hoffa" A Danny DeVito film (1992): The man who was willing to pay the price for power."Jack Nicholson gives a gigantic powerhouse performance" - The New York Times
  • The 1985 documentary film Final Offer by Sturla Gunnarsson and Robert Collision shows the 1984 union contract negotiations with General Motors.
  • The 1979 film Norma Rae, directed by Martin Ritt, is based on the true story of Crystal Lee Jordan's successful attempt to unionize her textile factory.
  • Other documentaries: Made in L.A. (2007); American Standoff (2002); The Fight in the Fields (1997); With Babies and Banners: Story of the Women's Emergency Brigade (1979); Harlan County USA (1976); The Inheritance (1964)
  • Other dramatizations: 10,000 Black Men Named George (2002); Matewan (1987); American Playhouse--"The Killing Floor"(1985); Salt of the Earth (1954); The Grapes of Wrath (1940); Black Fury (1935)

External links

International
Australia
Europe
United States

References

  1. ^ First published by George Allen and Unwin Ltd (London) in 1952, and subject of reprints — Foreword by Arthur Deakin
  2. ^ Published by Batchworth Press (London) in 1949
  3. ^ First published by Odhams Press (London) in 1954
  4. ^ First published by Hutchinson (London) in 1952 and reprinted several times
  5. ^ First published by The School of Economics/Bell and Sons (London) in 1956 and reprinted
  6. ^ First published by William Kimber in 1976 (London) ISBN 0718301137
  7. ^ published by HMSO (Her Majesty's Stationery Office) on 1986 ISBN 11 361250 8
  8. ^ Published in large paperback by Hamlyn/General Council of Trade Union Congress in 1968 with a foreword by George Woodcock

Simple English

A trade union is an organisation or group of workers who join together to get better pay, hours, benefits, and working conditions. They are necessary because the people that run companies want to pay as little as possible.

Contents

Activities

Unions do many things for their members. This includes:

  • Collective Bargaining: The leaders of a union work with management (the people who run the business) in order to get a contract that gives workers what they want. This is because union leaders can threaten to strike.
  • Benefits: Early unions would give their members unemployment pay in case they were hurt on the job, unfairly fired, or sick. This is usually done by the government today. Unions may also give their members a lawyer to represent them if they are ever sued in court or charged with a crime.
  • Politics: Unions often work to get laws passed which help their cause. Some raise money for politicians who are friendly to unions. They also lobby for laws which help out unions. Some political parties are very close to unions, like the Labour Party in the United Kingdom.

Strikes

If collective bargaining does not work, unions often use strikes to get their demands. However, the threat of a strike is usually enough: over 98% of union contracts are renewed without a strike.[1]

History

Trade unions are close to trade guilds in Medieval times. These guilds were made up of independent skilled workers (or artisans) who joined together.

Criticism

Unions have been criticized for increasing the cost of workers. Because of this, it is said that fewer people will be hired.

References


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 21, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Trade union, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message